Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Optic Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Optic Nerve Glioma: Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Optic Atrophies, Hereditary: Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).Optic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber: A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.MinnesotaHospitals, Group Practice: Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
1993). "Reduction in incidence of optic nerve disease with annual ivermectin to control onchocerciasis". The Lancet. 341 (8838 ... CLINICAL AND OTHER FINDINGS PRELIMINARY REPORT". British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 40 (1): 33-42. doi:10.1136/sti.40.1.33. ... He was a prime mover in a large clinical trial in Nigeria that demonstrated the safely and efficacy of ivermectin in the ... In 1963 he became a professor of clinical ophthalmology of the University of London at Moorfields' Institute of Ophthalmology, ...
... devoted to the clinical and physiological methods of vision correction of retina and optic nerve diseases, became widely known ... Since 2001 till 2011 she was a head of the Eye Disease Department of Pediatrics at Russian State Medical University (now ... Since 1998 till 2001 Nisan was a Head Lecturer of Optometry and Contact Vision correction Course of Vision disease Department ...
Sadun, A (1998). "Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease". Transactions of the American ... Toxic/Nutritional Optic Neuropathy~clinical at eMedicine Sadun, Alfredo A. (February 13, 2012). Mitochondrial Optic ... optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. These disturbances are multifactorial, their etiology consisting of metabolic and/ ... Optic nerve damage in most inherited optic neuropathies is permanent and progressive. LHON, as the name suggests, is an ...
... of Science in Medicine for his seminal published work in the field of ocular circulation in health and disease and optic nerve ... He decided to stay in England and pursued a career in research, clinical ophthalmology and teaching. After spending one year as ... Hayreh, S S (1969). "Blood supply of the optic nerve head and its role in optic atrophy, glaucoma, and oedema of the optic disc ... the optic disc and the optic nerve, retinal and choroidal vascular disorders, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, fundus changes in ...
"Optic Nerve Enlargement in Krabbe Disease: A Pathophysiologic and Clinical Perspective". Journal of Child Neurology. 26 (5): ... Other symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, deafness, optic atrophy, optic nerve enlargement, blindness, paralysis, and ... The disease may be diagnosed by its characteristic grouping of certain cells (multinucleated globoid cells), nerve ... Krabbe disease may also be found in cats and in dogs, particularly Westies and Cairn Terriers. The disease may also be found in ...
... thus halting progression of the disease. However, if the leaking blood vessels are clustered around the optic nerve, this ... Clinical-histopathological correlation in a case of Coats' disease. Diagn Pathol 2006; 1: 24. synd/2146 at Who Named It? G. ... Coats's disease. I. Review of the literature, diagnostic criteria, clinical findings, and plasma lipid studies. Br J Ophthalmol ... Pediatric Orbit Tumors and Turmorlike Lesions: Neuroepthelial Lesions of the Ocular Globe and Optic Nerve. Radiographics. 2007 ...
Clinical significance[edit]. Disease[edit]. Main article: List of eye diseases and disorders ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is commonly known as "stroke of the optic nerve" and affects the optic nerve head (where the ... some optic nerve diseases but neuro-ophthalmologists are often best suited to diagnose and treat diseases of the optic nerve. ...
"Optic Nerve Enlargement in Krabbe Disease: A Pathophysiologic and Clinical Perspective". Journal of Child Neurology. 26 (5): ... Other symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, deafness, optic atrophy, optic nerve enlargement,[8] blindness, paralysis, ... "Krabbe disease". National Institutes of Health.. *^ Kohlschütter, A (2013). Lysosomal leukodystrophies: Krabbe disease and ... The disease may be diagnosed by its characteristic grouping of certain cells (multinucleated globoid cells), nerve ...
... as well as evaluating optic nerve sheath diameters as a potential indicator of other diseases in the central nervous system. ... It is now used for a variety of exams in various clinical settings at the person's bedside. In the emergency setting, it is ... Correlation of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter with Direct Measurement of Intracranial Pressure. Acad Emerg Med. 2008: 15(2):201- ... Emergency department sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect findings of increased intracranial ...
... loss may occur due to disease or disorders of the eye, optic nerve, or brain. Classically, there are four types of ... Traquair, Harry Moss (1938). An Introduction to Clinical Perimetry, Chpt. 1. London: Henry Kimpton. pp. 4-5. Robert H. Spector ... a visual field test is used to determine whether the visual field is affected by diseases that cause local scotoma or a more ... 1990). Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Similar limits were already reported ...
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) includes diseases that affect the optic nerve head and cause swelling of the optic ... Several causes and clinical courses are possible for the optic neuritis. It can be classified in: Single isolated optic ... In ischemic optic neuropathies, there is insufficient blood flow (ischemia) to the optic nerve. The anterior optic nerve is ... Medical examination of the optic nerve with an ophthalmoscope may reveal a swollen optic nerve, but the nerve may also appear ...
... while diseases of the inner retina, optic nerve, visual pathway, and visual cortex will result in red-green defects. This is ... Schwartz S. Visual Perception: A Clinical Orientation. New York, New York; 2004. Acquired colour vision defects in glaucoma. ... There are exceptions to Köllner's rule, notably glaucoma, which is an optic nerve disorder, and is usually associated with blue ... This rule states that outer retinal diseases and media changes result in blue-yellow color defects, ...
Ocular Behçet's disease with involvement of the optic nerve is rarely reported. Among patients with ocular Behçet's disease ... involving clinical criteria and a pathergy test. Behçet's disease has a high degree of resemblance to diseases that cause ... Optic nerve involvement in Behçet's disease is rare, typically presenting as progressive optic atrophy and visual loss. However ... Posterior involvement, particularly optic nerve involvement, is a poor prognostic indicator. Secondary optic nerve atrophy is ...
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis may also cause inflammation of the optic nerve, ophthalmoplegia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ... Clinical Observations in 103 Patients". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179 (Supplement_1): S1-S7. doi:10.1086/514308. ISSN ... Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Alcoholism Crohn's disease Liver disease Malnutrition Peptic ulcer disease Pancreatic disease ... Carotid artery disease Arterial spasm (TIA) Diabetes mellitus Collagen diseases Venous occlusive disease Thrombosis Use of ...
Acute optic neuritis (AON) is a disease which involves damage within the nerve fibers and loss of myelin within the optic nerve ... One clinical trial studying the effects on BIIB033 on acute optic neuritis. Throughout the study, optic nerve conduction ... Glaucoma is a group neurodegenerative diseases characterized by features including morphological changes in the optic nerve ... Parkinson's disease, essential tremor (ET), Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy and glaucoma (central nervous system diseases); as ...
Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss, as well. Prolonged untreated ... Brent, Gregory A. (Jun 12, 2008). "Clinical practice. Graves' disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (24): 2594- ... Begbie's disease, Flajani's disease, Flajani-Basedow syndrome, and Marsh's disease.[37] These names for the disease were ... a b c d e f g Basedow's syndrome or disease at Who Named It? - the history and naming of the disease ...
... (ION) is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of ... "Chapter 7: Ischemic Optic Neuropathy." Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology. Ed. Neil R. Miller, Frank Burton Walsh, ... Such as juvenile diabetes mellitus, antiphospholipid antibody-associated clotting disorders, collagen-vascular disease, and ... as either anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or posterior ischemic optic neuropathy according to the part of the optic nerve ...
Alzheimer's Disease, Amnesia Fugue, Macular degeneration, and optic nerve damage. Another illness that reflects signs of ... Some clinical symptoms present in patients with damage to the central nervous system include: fever, altered mental status, and ... Diseases and illnesses that harm the brain and the hippocampus can also damage spatial view cells, which are located in the ... Patients with damage to spatial view cells will often show similar symptoms from other diseases such as: Vascular Dementia, ...
eye disorder characterized by progressive loss of central vision due to degeneration of the optic nerves and retina ... Although mitochondrial diseases vary greatly in presentation from person to person, several major clinical categories of these ... As a rule, mitochondrial diseases are worse when the defective mitochondria are present in the muscles, cerebrum, or nerves,[7] ... Defects in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes are associated with hundreds of clinical disease phenotypes including anemia, ...
They also found changes in the color of the myelin of the optic nerves, decreases in Purkinje cells, increase in Bergman glia, ... Nalini, A; Thennarasu, K; Yamini, BK; Shivashankar, D; Krishna, N (15 June 2008). "Madras motor neuron disease (MMND): clinical ... facial nerve) and 9th to the 12th cranial nerves (in order: glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, spinal ... Madras motor neuron disease (MMND) is a rare motor neuron disease originating in South India. Two other forms of the disease ...
Most notable was the finding that retinal and optic nerve disease was the main cause of blindness, rather than corneal scarring ... From July 1968 to August 1969 he held a clinical fellowship in neuro-ophthalmology at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, working with ... He has also worked in Jamaica recording the retinal changes in sickle cell disease over a 20-year period in a well-studied ... famous for his work on degenerative and hereditary diseases of the retina. Bird was educated from 1949 to 1956 at Bromley ...
... of the kidney and colobomas of the optic nerve. Ocular disc dysplasia is the most notable ocular defect of the disease. An ... There is a great deal of clinical variability. The most common malformation in patients with the syndrome is kidney ... Additionally, there can be an optic nerve cyst, which is dilation of the optic nerve posterior to the globe; which most likely ... Milder forms of dysplasia exhibit missing portions of the optic disc located in the optic nerve pit. The least severe form of ...
Optic nerve involvement in Behçet's disease is rare, typically presenting as progressive optic atrophy and visual loss. However ... involving clinical criteria and a pathergy test.[4][21] Behçet's disease has a high degree of resemblance to diseases that ... Posterior involvement, particularly optic nerve involvement, is a poor prognostic indicator. Secondary optic nerve atrophy is ... vessels supplying the optic nerve may be the cause of acute optic neuropathy and progressive optic atrophy in Behçet's disease ...
Riordan-Eva, P. (1 January 2004). "Clinical assessment of optic nerve disorders". Eye. 18 (11): 1161-1168. doi:10.1038/sj.eye. ... Lyme disease, herpes zoster), autoimmune disorders (e.g. lupus, neurosarcoidosis, neuromyelitis optica), Pinch in Optic Nerve, ... Optic neuritis is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve. It is also known as optic papillitis (when the head of the ... The most common cause is multiple sclerosis or ischemic optic neuropathy (Blood Clot). Blood Clot that supplies the optic nerve ...
... especially for treatment of the optic nerve, is oral. In a clinical study, long-term lomerizine usage was shown to be both safe ... These effects show that lomerizine may prove to be a useful treatment for ischemic retinal diseases, such as glaucoma. ... By blocking these channels and preventing Ca2+ release, lomerizine increases circulation in the optic nerve head. ... on retinal and optic nerve head circulation in rabbits and humans". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 44 (11): 4864 ...
Computational clinical neuroscience[edit]. Computational Clinical Neuroscience is a field that brings together experts in ... Adaszewski S1, Dukart J, Kherif F, Frackowiak R, Draganski B; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2013). "How early ... "A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ... The brain's large-scale organizational principles are illuminated by many fields, including biology, psychology, and clinical ...
MRI showed white matter lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis (MS), but no optic nerve enhancement. Eight months later, ... This is especially important as new treatments for LHON (including gene therapy) are currently undergoing clinical trials. ... Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy misdiagnosed as optic neuritis and Lyme disease in a patient with multiple sclerosis ... Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy misdiagnosed as optic neuritis and Lyme disease in a patient with multiple sclerosis ...
Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system ... Subsequently, numerous clinical trials have evaluated different modalities of management of optic neuritis and MS. The ... inflammatory disease and ischemic vascular disease, the most... ... Optic neuritis is an inflammatory condition of the optic nerve ... Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve. Gala, Foram // Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging;Nov2015, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p421 ...
The optic nerve sheath diameter has been verified by various clinical studies as a non-invasive indicator of intracranial ... Imaging in Neurovascular Disease A Case-Based Approach September 15, 2019 * XIV National Congress of the Spanish Skull Base ... Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography. Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography is strongly correlated with invasive ... optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), is the best estimator of ICP. The novel combination of optic nerve sheath diameter ...
Optic neuritis is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve.. It is also known as optic papillitis and retrobulbar ... Optic Neuritis in the Era of Biomarkers. Recurring optic neuritis in the absence of other clinical or laboratory manifestations ... Optic neuritis. Differential Diagnosis: Optic neuritis Secondary to demyelination Secondary to infectious causes: Lyme disease ... Optic neuritis is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve, which can be anterior, in which optic disc swelling is visible, ...
Clinical examination will show an abnormal optic disc, either swollen or atrophic. Optociliary shunt vessels may be seen; the ... Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) are rare benign tumors of the optic nerve. 60-70% of cases occur in middle age females, ... The tumors grow from cells that surround the optic nerve, and as the tumor grows, it compresses the optic nerve. This causes ... 1.0 1.1 1.2 Dutton JJ (1992). "Optic nerve sheath meningiomas". Surv Ophthalmol 37 (3): 167-83. PMID 1475751. doi:10.1016/0039- ...
... "inherited optic atrophies" or "hereditary optic neuropathies." It refers to an optic nerve dysfunction due to point mutations ... Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Treatment. The mainstay of clinical treatment for Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON ... It will not only help in a better understanding of the disease but also help in exploring and evaluating different treatment ... Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Report Scope. *The report covers the descriptive overview of Lebers Hereditary Optic ...
... and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new ... diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument and therapy updates, as well as clinical trials and research findings. ... Clinical Applications of the Photopic Negative Response to Optic Nerve and Retinal Diseases. Shigeki Machida ... Y. Gotoh, S. Machida, and Y. Tazawa, "Selective loss of the photopic negative response in patients with optic nerve atrophy," ...
... optic nerve, and nerve fiber layer (NFL) differently from other instruments.1Newer... ... Optic Nerve Optical Coherence Tomography Optic Disc Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Optic Nerve Head These keywords were added by ... Karam E.Z., Hedges T.R., Mendoza C.E. (2009) Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Optic Nerve Disease. In: ... because some optic nerve pathologies have macular complications, but also because many retinal conditions may mimic optic nerve ...
Clinical significance[edit]. Disease[edit]. Main article: List of eye diseases and disorders ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ... Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is commonly known as "stroke of the optic nerve" and affects the optic nerve head (where the ... some optic nerve diseases but neuro-ophthalmologists are often best suited to diagnose and treat diseases of the optic nerve. ...
Clinical trials for retinal disease, cornea transplant, strabismus, glaucoma and Fuchs dystrophy. ... Evaluating Optic Nerve Disease with OCT Angiography. Rochester, Minn.. The purpose of this study is to determine if optical ... Clinical Trials. Below are current clinical trials.. 78 studies in Department of Ophthalmology-Research. (all studies, either ... Research and Clinical TrialsSee how Mayo Clinic research and clinical trials advance the science of medicine and improve ...
This paper reviews the latest progress of MSCs in human clinical trials for retinal and optic nerve diseases. ... Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in retinal and optic nerve diseases: An update of clinical trials. ... Retinal and optic nerve diseases are degenerative ocular pathologies which lead to irreversible visual loss. Since the advanced ... have been taken regarding the use of cell therapy in patients with neurodegenerative pathologies of optic nerve and retina. ...
Learn about optic nerve disorders and how they affect your vision. ... Your optic nerves carries visual images from the back of your eye to your brain. ... Clinical Trials * ClinicalTrials.gov: Optic Nerve Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Optic Nerve ... Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. Causes include poor blood flow to the eye, disease, trauma, or exposure to ...
Optic neuropathy was present in ten orbits prior to decompression surgery. Thirty orbits with no clinical evidence of optic ... B. D. Lima, J. D. Perry, C. Lewis; CT Scan Evidence of Optic Nerve Dysfunction in Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease. Invest. ... CT Scan Evidence of Optic Nerve Dysfunction in Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease ... CT Scan Evidence of Optic Nerve Dysfunction in Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease ...
Clinical Neurosciences Seminars. Crossing over OMICS in mitochondrial diseases affecting the optic nerve. ... The clinical effectiveness of sertraline in primary care and the role of depression severity and duration: The PANDA pragmatic ... Professor Clive Ballard, Professor of Age-related Diseases, College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter. ...
Clinical Neurosciences Seminars. Crossing over OMICS in mitochondrial diseases affecting the optic nerve. ... Clinical Neurosciences Seminars. Direct neuronal reprogramming of patient skin fibroblasts: a new approach to study idiopathic ... Professor Clive Ballard, Professor of Age-related Diseases, College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter. ... Dr Derek Tracy, Consultant Psychiatrist & Clinical Director Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust, London; Senior Lecturer, Kings ...
Aims and Scope Key BenefitsConcise rapid reporting Very fast peer review and decisions upon manuscriptsAll areas of eye disease ... The clinical focus will make the journal of interest to all eye care practitioners . The presence of patient safety and quality ... Physicians working outside of eye care will also be encouraged to submit relevant workSubmit a manuscript to Clinical ... and Secondary eye care Patient Safety and Quality of Care Improvements These areas will be addressed throughOriginal clinical ...
63 BDNF was also found to be immunogenic during clinical trials in neurodegenerative disease. 64,65 Thus, there has been recent ... Genetic Intervention for Optic Nerve Regeneration and Protection. *Prospects of Optic Nerve Regeneration and Protection by Stem ... It was agreed that a much better understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in optic nerve diseases such as glaucoma would ... Similarly, lymphocyte-mediated responses may be beneficial or harmful in the context of optic nerve disease. As an example, ...
... and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new ... diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument and therapy updates, as well as clinical trials and research findings. ... a) Expert performance for any disease, retinal disease, and optic nerve disease. (b-d) Comparison of all reviewers, including ... all disease; Figure 5(c), retinal disease; Figure 5(d), optic nerve disease). For ease of comparison, the two-dimensional ROC ...
The clinical characteristics of the subjects are summarised in Table 1. None of these subjects had suffered from any diseases ... While direct mechanical damage to the optic nerve and/or microangiopathy in the optic nerve head is a possible contributing ... connective tissues in optic nerve, and around vessels in optic nerve and pia mater (Fig 1A and B). Immunoreactivity for ... optic nerve samples were embedded in paraffin. At least, 10 longitudinal sections 4 μm thick were obtained in each optic nerve ...
... retina and the optic nerve; eye movement disorders, and systemic disease of the eye. The new edition remains grounded in a ... Each chapter emphasizes the clinical aspects of disease, tying them to the underlying molecular mechanisms and outlining ... A new section on cancer genetics and the eye - New chapters on ocular imaging and gene therapy for inherited eye diseases. ... sound clinical approach to the patient with a genetic disease that affects the eye. ...
 Subject areasAll subspecialties within ophthalmology Optometry Visual science Pharmacology and drug therapy in eye diseases ... The clinical focus will make the journal of interest to all eye care practitioners . The presence of patient safety and quality ... Physicians working outside of eye care will also be encouraged to submit relevant workSubmit a manuscript to Clinical ...  These areas will be addressed throughOriginal clinical research Reviews of important areas and perspectives Protocols for ...
Acute ischemic optic nerve disease: Pathophysiology, clinical features and management.. Authors: Augstburger E, Héron E, Abanou ... Fecal microbiota transplantation in disease therapy. Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Clinica Chimica ... Most often, such therapy is used the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases caused by the activity of pathogenic or ... AIWG can increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Meta-analyses mostly ...
A wide variety of cranial nerve abnormalities may occur in addition to optic nerve disease. ... Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, State University of ... A small number of cases manifest loss of reflexes as a sign of associated peripheral nerve disease with ADEM, a condition ... optic nerves, and spinal cord are particularly commonly involved. ... No new clinical and MRI findings emerge 3 months or more after ...
Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. An increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is ... Even if IOP remains high normal, it can lead to further optic nerve damage, VF progression, and legal blindness due to IOP ... Ha, S. (2018) Efficacy and Safety of Low Target Pressure Trabeculectomy: 2-Year Clinical Results. Open Journal of Ophthalmology ... The clinical features of the LTT and the CT groups are presented in Table 1. ...
"Optic Nerve Enlargement in Krabbe Disease: A Pathophysiologic and Clinical Perspective". Journal of Child Neurology. 26 (5): ... Other symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, deafness, optic atrophy, optic nerve enlargement,[8] blindness, paralysis, ... "Krabbe disease". National Institutes of Health.. *^ Kohlschütter, A (2013). Lysosomal leukodystrophies: Krabbe disease and ... The disease may be diagnosed by its characteristic grouping of certain cells (multinucleated globoid cells), nerve ...
  • LHON may occur in association with MS, and should be considered in patients with MS with vision loss atypical for optic neuritis. (bmj.com)
  • This is especially important as new treatments for LHON (including gene therapy) are currently undergoing clinical trials. (bmj.com)
  • Former Buffalo Bills quarterback Jim Kelly has been a leader in gaining recognition and research funding for Krabbe disease, following the diagnosis of his son, Hunter, in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help establish an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. (prohealth.com)
  • Clinical and laboratory diagnosis are briefly alluded to when appropriate in the context of therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • These courses form the foundation for the more advanced study of clinical medicine, systemic and ocular pathological processes, and the diagnosis, treatment, and management of ocular disease. (neco.edu)
  • the presence of CNS symptoms outside the optic nerves and spinal cord has until recently excluded the diagnosis. (medicalcriteria.com)
  • If the diagnosis of Graves' ophthalmopathy isn't clear from a clinical assessment, your doctor may order an imaging test, such as CT scan, a specialized X-ray technology that produces thin cross-sectional images. (mayoclinic.org)
  • An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. (spie.org)
  • If disease causing alleles in the carrier parents have been identified, prenatal diagnosis by DNA testing can be performed as well as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. (orpha.net)
  • White matter disease: imaging findings and differential diagnosis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, the presence of WMD on an imaging study may initiate additional imaging and clinical investigation so that a working diagnosis can be established and appropriate medical treatment initiated. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Due to the unrelenting efforts of people who are seeking a cure to this epidemic, many research efforts are underway today to improve testing and diagnosis as well as treatments for Lyme and associated diseases. (natcaplyme.org)
  • RESULTS: Our search of the literature demonstrated that the electrophysiological examination, mainly by means of electroretinogram, multifocal electroretinogram, and visual evoked potentials, is performed in several cases of uveitis for many purposes, including diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression and treatment efficacy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diagnosis of Canavan disease can be made through demonstration of NAA on urine organic acid analysis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Purpose : Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of adult retinal and optic nerve disease. (octnews.org)
  • Paraclinical diagnostic tools, mainly MRI, have been integrated into these criteria in order to facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS. In these patients with one attack and objective clinical evidence of one lesion, the demonstration of dissemination of lesions both in space and time is necessary to make a diagnosis of MS. The existing criteria by Poser et al. (neurology.org)
  • Krabbe disease is caused by mutations in the GALC gene located on chromosome 14 (14q31), which is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pitz, Susanne 2018-06-01 00:00:00 Background: α-mannosidosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficient activity of α-mannosidase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Canavan disease is a severe, progressive,irreversible neurological disorder and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal-recessive disease due to mutations of the 27α-hydroxylase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in chemical burns, severe infections, and certain immune system diseases such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, these limbal stem cells are depleted and the corneal epithelium degenerates, leading to significant visual impairment. (stanford.edu)
  • Specifically, it could repair the damaged inner layer of the cornea, called the endothelium, as seen in diseases like Fuchs' dystrophy, which causes corneal damage due to swelling. (sott.net)
  • Advances in the knowledge of neuroprotection, immunomodulation and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained by several preclinical studies of various neurodegenerative diseases. (uva.es)
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that enables a quantitative study of the changes that the optic nerve and the macula undergo in several neurodegenerative diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although vitreous hemorrhage (VH) from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) can cause acute and dramatic vision loss for patients with diabetes, there is no current, evidence-based clinical guidance as to what treatment method is most likely to provide the best visual outcomes once intervention is desired. (mayo.edu)
  • A longstanding notion is that two-thirds of adult patients and one-third of pediatric patients will have a normal-appearing optic nerve at the time of an acute optic neuritis event. (aao.org)
  • Our objective was to identify the presence of NMOSD in patients with acute myelitis and suspected connective tissue disease (CTD), and to discuss the utility of this distinction in establishing a diagnostic and therapeutic plan. (wiley.com)
  • These features distinguish NMO from other demyelinating diseases such as MS and acute demyelinating encephalomyelopathy. (scielo.br)
  • The electrophysiological examination is more useful in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, Adamantiades-Behçet disease, ocular syphilis, and Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gail Solomon, M.D. '62 is Professor of Clinical Neurology in Pediatrics as well as Professor of Clinical Neurology and of Clinical Neurology in Psychiatry. (yu.edu)
  • At Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Dr. Solomon has held fellowships in neurology, pediatric neurology, and clinical neurophysiology. (yu.edu)
  • She is certified by The American Board of Pediatrics, The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (with special competence in child neurology and clinical neurophysiology), and The American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology. (yu.edu)
  • In the pivotal N-MOmentum trial, UPLIZNA TM -a humanized CD19-directed monoclonal antibody-significantly reduced the risk of attacks and also reduced hospitalizations when given as a monotherapy," said Bruce Cree, M.D., Ph.D., MAS, the lead investigator for the N-MOmentum trial and Professor of Clinical Neurology at the University of California San Francisco Weill Institute for Neurosciences. (yahoo.com)
  • NMO-IgG predicts the outcome of recurrent optic neuritis, Neurology, 2008. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in combination with systemic treatment of sickle cell disease presenting as central retinal artery occlusion: a case report. (ebscohost.com)
  • This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular manifestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. (prohealth.com)
  • It has provided the opportunity to perform the translation of this knowledge to prospective treatment approaches for clinical practice. (uva.es)
  • In addition to his clinical practice and research program, Dr. Cestari also supervises and mentors medical students, residents, and fellows. (masseyeandear.org)
  • In clinical practice the measurement of CS is relevant for disease monitoring, expert opinions, roadworthiness assessment, and recruitment screening. (springer.com)
  • How highly do you value OCT in your clinical practice today? (aao.org)
  • He is the founder and managing partner of a busy vitreoretinal surgical practice with over 20 years of clinical experience. (hgexperts.com)
  • A Study of Practice Behavior for Endotracheal Intubation Site for Children With Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Surgery: Impact of Endotracheal Intubation Site on Perioperative Outcomes-An Analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society Database. (duke.edu)
  • Individuals at risk and those over the age of 40 should have regular, comprehensive eye examinations that included careful evaluation of the optic nerve and measurement of the eye pressure. (who.int)
  • LHON is a mitochondrial disease that is caused by well characterized mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), with a prevalence of carriers of about 1 in 300 [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Following on from our work to characterise the disease phenotype and clone the disease gene, my group has analysed the spectrum of mutations in the OPA1 gene and genotype/ phenotype correlations. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • For example, when an optic nerve coloboma occurs as part of renal coloboma syndrome , it is caused by mutations in the PAX2 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Del Brutto points out that the 'Teaching NeuroImages: Giant neurocysticercosis with unusual imaging manifestations' is actually a cystic hydatid disease, caused by infection with Echinococcus spp. (medworm.com)
  • The clinical spectrum of disease manifestations are now understood to include sites outside the spinal cord and optic nerve. (nih.gov)
  • This chapter describes the characteristic clinical features and manifestations of some common ocular infections and the differentiation between them and inflammations and other diseases even without using new imaging modalities such as confocal electron microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and laboratory tests including polymeraze chain reaction. (intechopen.com)
  • Although these are the main clinical manifestations of the disease, other areas of the CNS can be affected, including the brain stem, diencephalon, area postrema on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata, and cerebrum ( 6 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)