Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Patient Care Management: Generating, planning, organizing, and administering medical and nursing care and services for patients.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.United StatesDisease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.EnglandTumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Great BritainBiopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.BrazilReoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Adrenal Cortex HormonesPreoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.ItalyQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.ScotlandDiagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Critical Pathways: Schedules of medical and nursing procedures, including diagnostic tests, medications, and consultations designed to effect an efficient, coordinated program of treatment. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.EuropeTertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.IndiaThyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.SwitzerlandPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
  • This pilot study supports the hypothesis that a greater burden of pathology centres on the temporal lobes in AD compared with DLB, except in DLB cases with concurrent Alzheimer pathology. (cambridge.org)
  • Population: All 184 patients hospitalized for suspected EP during the period 1.1.2008-31.12.2011. (scirp.org)
  • Members of three different health plans in Michigan (1993-1999), Missouri (1996-1998), and Tennessee (1998) were included in the study population. (cdc.gov)
  • reported that 1% of COVID-19 patients had a history of cancer, higher than that of the overall Chinese population (0.29%), with lung cancer being the most frequently found. (nature.com)
  • The prevalence of gallbladder polyps is reported in the range of 0.3-9.5%, depending on the population studied and on the study design. (highbeam.com)
  • As part of this study, the population was also examined for gallbladder polyps [22, (highbeam.com)
  • Design Retrospective, national population based study using multilevel modelling and simulation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 ] in 1990, is a distinct clinical entity characterized by persistent, recurrent serous leakage and hemorrhage in the macula, and is seen in the elderly population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study emphasizes EGFR mutation as an important predictive marker for response to oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the Indian population. (jove.com)
  • This form includes items such as clarity of goals, appropriateness of study design, adequacy of patient population, and relevance to the University of Vermont Cancer Center's goals and importance of study. (uvm.edu)
  • Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is rapidly becoming a major concern worldwide in patients with stroke because Asian, Hispanic, and African populations, which are prone to ICAS, constitute an overwhelming majority of the population of the world. (ajnr.org)
  • While the potential clinical utility of AlloMap score variability to predict clinical events has been noted in previous publications, this is the first study to generate negative and positive predictive values in a patient population," said Dr. Johan Vanhaecke, Professor of Cardiology at the University of Leuven, senior author of the publication. (cnbc.com)
  • The first study found that diabetes control, as measured by levels of hemoglobin A1C, worsened among the studied patient population between 2008 and 2011, and the second study suggested that modest improvements in A1C control may lead to substantial cost savings. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to compare the genomic changes between HCL-C and HCL-V by high-resolution studies, especially in Chinese population, the genomic alterations of HCL have rarely be reported. (medsci.org)
  • Iatrogenic perforation usually occurs after therapeutic endoscopic procedures such as dilatation, and is the predominant cause of perforation reported in many studies. (hkmj.org)
  • 9 11 Endoscopic treatment, including stenting, is becoming an increasingly popular means of treating oesophageal perforation in selected patients, and reportedly has a high technical success rate. (hkmj.org)
  • This retrospective study found that the endoscopic transcaruncular approach (ETA) is effective for large medial orbital wall fractures near the orbital apex. (aao.org)
  • National nursing and nursing education taskforce position statement: Nurse practitioners and clinical practice guidelines [Internet]. (acorn.org.au)
  • As such, it brought together clinical pharmacy scholars, pharmacy practitioners, policy makers and stakeholders from all areas of pharmacy society and all regions of the world to share their research, knowledge, experiences, concepts, examples of good practice, and critical analysis with their international peers. (crcpress.com)
  • C.S. Landry, G. Brock, C.R. Scoggins, K.M. McMasters, R.C. Martin 2nd, A proposed staging system for gastric carcinoid tumors based on an analysis of 1,543 patients. (springer.com)
  • This research is waivered from trial registration because it is a retrospective analysis of medical records. (springer.com)
  • Pessler et al, in an analysis of the synovium in patients with chronic pyogenic arthritis, identified extensive neovascularization and cell proliferation, persistent bacterial colonization, and heterogeneous inflammatory infiltrates rich in CD15+ neutrophils. (medscape.com)
  • The study is a retrospective analysis of the patients diagnosed histopathologically with stromal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. (ispub.com)
  • Twenty-one patients were lost to follow-up and excluded from analysis. (ovid.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective analysis of Indian lung cancer patients who were managed with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • A recent meta-analysis evaluating the effect of IV ascorbic acid in critically ill patients without Covid-19, demonstrated vasopressor-sparing effects, in addition to a reduced need for mechanical ventilation. (dsm.com)
  • Statistically analysis showed a correlation between kyphosis changes following surgery and clinical outcomes trend. (omicsonline.org)
  • Few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of NTM in the context of bronchiectasis. (bmj.com)
  • Sample size 1000 patients afford a power of 0.83 (α=0.05) to detect an absolute difference of 10% in the treatment failure rate between MDR bacteria and other pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • Desmoid-type fibromatosis: a front-line conservative approach to select patients for surgical treatment," Annals of Surgical Oncology , vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2587-2593, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Minimum clinical follow-up after treatment was 20 months. (medscimonit.com)
  • Following radiotherapy treatment, 65.0% of patients (13/20) were symptom-free, without recurrence or malignant transformation at the time of last clinical follow-up (average, 75.2 months). (medscimonit.com)
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has, for a long time, been used as the standard surgical procedure for the treatment of patients with malignant or benign diseases of the pancreatic head or the periampullary region. (springer.com)
  • Prescriptions written by veterinarians or oncologists were excluded to avoid including prescriptions for animals or for human patients undergoing active cancer treatment, as were records for which age or sex was unknown (approximately 2.0% each). (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the rareness of the publications on the treatment of choledochal lithiasis in Mali, we conducted a study on the management of choledochal lithiasis in Surgery A at the Point G UHC. (scirp.org)
  • We aimed to develop sequential decision rules for managing fluid intake in patients with sepsis by using the dynamic treatment regimen (DTR) model. (nature.com)
  • Among multiple aspects for saving the life of patients with sepsis, we believe that fluid management strategy remains essential to the successful treatment because the cardiac and renal functions, which play important roles in the physiological regulation of fluid balance, are usually impaired in sepsis. (nature.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have published guidelines for the clinical management of COVID-19 external icon prepared by the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel. (cdc.gov)
  • No medical treatment has been really effective in our patients and diversion above this level stopped the process. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies on its pathogenesis and treatment strategies are necessary. (nih.gov)
  • Patients will receive intratumoral (IT) NKTR-262 in 3-week treatment cycles. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To examine the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients by opioid class received. (bioportfolio.com)
  • clinical and treatment regimens for the two types differ. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term safety of statin-fibrate combination treatment in the management of hypercholesterolaemia in patients with coronary artery disease. (bmj.com)
  • 7 8 9 Some surgeons advocate primary repair only for those patients presented within 24 hours of perforation, 10 while others would try primary repair as the initial treatment regardless of the timing of presentation. (hkmj.org)
  • Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. (eur.nl)
  • Although anti-TB chemotherapy is now the mainstay treatment for spinal TB, it may not be applicable to all situations, especially in patients with risk of deformity, instability, and progression of neurologic deficit. (ovid.com)
  • Treatment was advised for patients with macular involvement and progressive loss of visual acuity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 5 , 6 , 8 , 9 ] Many different treatment modalities have been used to preserve vision in patients with symptomatic PCV. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Behavioral and nutritional studies that are cancer-related, such as those studies that increase behaviors (e.g., cancer screening, food intake), eliminate or reduce behaviors (e.g., smoking, sun exposure), and/or improve coping and quality of life/reduce the negative effects of treatment. (uvm.edu)
  • Patients received medical or surgical treatment with appropriate clinical follow-up. (sages.org)
  • Conclusion: The clinical guidelines are still the main reference for guiding clinical practice, and the main thrombolytic standards and contraindications for treatment still need to be conformed. (medworm.com)
  • Information was also recorded concerning the type of trauma sustained (if known), the patient's clinical course, and treatment. (ajnr.org)
  • Castle Biosciences is a molecular diagnostics company dedicated to helping patients and their physicians make the best possible treatment and follow-up care decisions based on the individual molecular signature of their tumor. (azbio.org)
  • The first study presented at the ISPOR meeting examined medical and pharmacy claims of nearly a quarter of a million individuals for the years 2008 through 2011 who had continuous health plan enrollment for at least one year, and were taking medications for the treatment of diabetes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (JVECC) is a peer-reviewed publication that seeks basic, applied and clinical research articles that address the emergency treatment and critical management of veterinary patients. (wiley.com)
  • Treatment of Serpiginous Choroiditis with Chlorambucil: a report of 17 patients. (uveitis.org)
  • Variability also exists between treatment and non-treatment groups in the use of radio-iodine and post-treatment thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression and treatment techniques between and within retrospective studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ultimate responsibility for making treatment decisions and interpretation of these diagnoses lies with the oncologist in consultation with the patient and their family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium supplementation during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent junctional ectopic tachycardia after pediatric cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled study. (upenn.edu)
  • At this institution, of rheumatic carditis and valvular heart the workup for patients with suspected IE disease remains limited due to the lack of includes 3 to 5 sets of blood cultures, haemot nationwide epidemiological studies. (who.int)
  • Management of critically ill patients with sepsis is imperative as sepsis can attack all human organs leading to a fatal consequence in a short period of time. (nature.com)
  • 10 No significant adverse effects from high-dose IV ascorbic acid have been reported 22 and doses of 200 mg/kg/day were generally well-tolerated in critically ill patients with sepsis. (dsm.com)
  • Using a computer-assisted search of medical records, we identified 20 patients who were diagnosed with DAB at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2014 (a period of more than 16 years). (scielo.br)
  • The medical records of patients who visited Orbit and Oculoplasty clinic, Tertiary Eye Hospital, India from 01 July 2011 to 31 June 2012 were analyzed. (mendeley.com)
  • The publication, "Performance of gene-expression profiling test score variability to predict future clinical events in heart transplant recipients," was released earlier this month by the journal BMC Cardiovascular Disorders and is now available online. (cnbc.com)
  • The concept of AMV was developed over the course of five years and began as an observation of low score variability among stable patients who did not experience rejection episodes 1 . (cnbc.com)
  • 9 of 12 patients treated with TNFi experienced loss of efficacy requiring an alternate TNF inhibitor or switch to IL 17 or 23 blockade. (acrabstracts.org)
  • The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of a newly developed technique, namely mesh-reinforced pancreaticojejunostomy, in comparison with the conventional use of pancreaticojejunostomy after undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy. (springer.com)
  • POCE were evaluated at a twelve-month clinical follow-up comparing safety and efficacy of clopidogrel monotherapy versus new P2Y12 inhibitors. (minervamedica.it)
  • Efficacy and safety of naloxegol, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist that significantly reduces opioid-induced constipation (OIC), were assessed for patient subgroups defined post hoc. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Efficacy of the anterior ultrasound-guided superior hypogastric plexus neurolysis in pelvic cancer pain in advanced gynecological cancer patients. (aiims.edu)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of Biologics + Methotrexate with Biologics + Tacrolimus measured by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) erythrocyte sedimentation rat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 40 cases of stones in the main bile duct were collected during the study period. (scirp.org)
  • The procedure performed was cholecystectomy associated with choledochotomy with calculation extraction in all patients (100% of cases). (scirp.org)
  • A Massachusetts study found that persons with TB who were identified through pharmacy dispensing records and who had not been previously reported to the state health department represented 16% of all new cases ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In that study, receipt of two or more anti-TB drugs identified most cases of active TB. (cdc.gov)
  • Cutaneous lymphomas appearing under biologics: 44 cases from the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas and French Pharmacovigilance Database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Retrospective study of 30 cases]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eighteen cases of GIST were studied over a period of four years (2004 to 2009). (ispub.com)
  • Covid-19 precipitates endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation - in critically ill patients, this may precipitate a 'cytokine storm' and, in the most severe cases, result in multi-organ failure or death. (dsm.com)
  • Cases for this retrospective study were all fogger exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2009. (cdc.gov)
  • kyphosis changed in 10 patients, by an average increase of 11.33° in 6 patients and by an average reduction of 12.7° in 4 cases. (omicsonline.org)