Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The voluntary portion of Medicare, known as the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, that includes physician's services, home health care, medical services, outpatient hospital services, and laboratory, pathology, and radiology services. All persons entitled to Medicare Part A may enroll in Medicare Part B on a monthly premium basis.
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The upkeep of property or equipment.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)

Laboratory assay reproducibility of serum estrogens in umbilical cord blood samples. (1/1942)

We evaluated the reproducibility of laboratory assays for umbilical cord blood estrogen levels and its implications on sample size estimation. Specifically, we examined correlation between duplicate measurements of the same blood samples and estimated the relative contribution of variability due to study subject and assay batch to the overall variation in measured hormone levels. Cord blood was collected from a total of 25 female babies (15 Caucasian and 10 Chinese-American) from full-term deliveries at two study sites between March and December 1997. Two serum aliquots per blood sample were assayed, either at the same time or 4 months apart, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) between duplicate measurements were calculated. We also estimated the components of variance for each hormone or protein associated with variation among subjects and variation between assay batches. Pearson's correlation coefficients were >0.90 for all of the compounds except for total estradiol when all of the subjects were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient, defined as a proportion of the total variance due to between-subject variation, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and SHBG were 92, 80, 85, and 97%, respectively. The magnitude of measurement error found in this study would increase the sample size required for detecting a difference between two populations for total estradiol and SHBG by 25 and 3%, respectively.  (+info)

Comparison of European and North American malignant hyperthermia diagnostic protocol outcomes for use in genetic studies. (2/1942)

BACKGROUND: Halothane and caffeine diagnostic protocols and an experimental ryanodine test from the North American Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) Group (NAMHG) and the European MH Group (EMHG) have not been compared in the same persons until now. METHODS: The outcomes of the NAMHG and EMHG halothane and caffeine contracture tests were compared in 84 persons referred for diagnostic testing. In addition, the authors assessed the experimental ryanodine protocol in 50 of these persons. RESULTS: Although the NAMHG and EMHG halothane protocols are slightly different methodologically, each yielded outcomes in close (84-100%) agreement with diagnoses made by the other protocol. Excluding 23 persons judged to be equivocal (marginally positive responders) by the EMHG protocol resulted in fewer persons classified as normal and MH susceptible (42 and 19, respectively) than those classified by the NAMHG protocol (48 and 34, respectively). For the 61 persons not excluded as equivocal, the diagnoses were identical by both protocols, with the exception of one person who was diagnosed as MH susceptible by the NAMHG protocol and as "normal" by the EMHG protocol. The NAMHG protocol produced only two equivocal diagnoses. Therefore, a normal or MH diagnosis by the NAMHG protocol was frequently associated with an equivocal diagnosis by the EMHG protocol. The time to 0.2-g contracture after the addition of 1 microM ryanodine completely separated populations, which was in agreement with the EMHG protocol and, except for one person, with the NAMHG protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the NAMHG and EMHG protocols and the experimental ryanodine test yielded similar diagnoses. The EMHG protocol reduced the number of marginal responders in the final analysis, which may make the remaining diagnoses slightly more accurate for use in genetic studies.  (+info)

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (3/1942)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

Effects of a computerised protocol management system on ordering of clinical tests. (4/1942)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a computerised protocol management system on the number, cost, and appropriateness of laboratory investigations requested. DESIGN: A before and after intervention. SETTING: A supraregional liver unit in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 1487 consecutive patients admitted during 1990 and 1991 (one year before and one year after introduction of the system). INTERVENTION: Introduction of a computerised protocol management system on 1 January 1991. MAIN MEASURES: The number and cost of clinical chemistry tests requested per patient day. RESULTS: The total number of clinical chemistry tests requested per patient day by the unit declined 17% (p < 0.001, Student's t test) and of out of hours tests requested per patient day from 0.31 to 0.16, 48% (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test), resulting in a 28% reduction (p < 0.001) in direct laboratory expenditure per patient-day. Overall, the number of tests per admission decreased by 24% (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test). CONCLUSION: Use of the computerised protocol management system resulted in closer compliance with the protocols and a significant reduction in the overall level of requesting. IMPLICATIONS: Although similar systems need to be tested in other clinical settings, computerised protocol management systems may be important in providing appropriate and cost effective health care.  (+info)

The diagnosis, classification, and management of asthma according to severity. (5/1942)

This activity is designed for primary care and specialist physicians. GOAL: To provide prompt and appropriate treatment for asthma of all levels of severity resulting in improved level of activity and decreased need for urgent care and hospitalization with a possible reduction in the annual decline of lung function, degree of permanent airway damage, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide a framework on the basis of history, physical findings, and laboratory results for the diagnosis of asthma. 2. To improve the ability to classify asthma by degree of severity. 3. To describe an incremental therapeutic approach to asthma by degree of severity. 4. To provide a systematic approach with regard to periodic reevaluation of asthma severity and modification of the treatment plan.  (+info)

A cost/efficacy analysis of oral antifungals indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine. (6/1942)

This analysis was conducted at HIP Health plan of New Jersey (a Northeastern group model health maintenance organization) to determine the most cost-effective therapy among the three currently available oral antifungal drugs that are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Costs of an appropriate and complete treatment regimen were calculated for each of the three drugs based on average wholesale price. Efficacy was determined by meta-analysis of the published literature for those studies where appropriate treatment regimens for onychomycosis were put to use. Efficacy outcome measures were limited to mycologic cure rates in the more recalcitrant cases of toenail onychomycosis. From these measures of cost and efficacy, a cost/efficacy ratio was calculated for each drug by dividing the cost per treatment by the weighted average mycological cure rate. This ratio represents the cost per mycologically cured infection. The final outcome measure (the cost per mycologically cured infection) was $2,721.28, $1,845.05, and $648.96, for griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine continuous therapies, respectively. For itraconazole and terbinafine pulse therapy, the costs were $855.88 and $388.50, respectively. For both continuous and pulse therapy, terbinafine is apparently the most cost-effective drug, followed by itraconazole and then by griseofulvin. Terbinafine has the fewest drug interactions and the highest treatment success rate.  (+info)

Affinity chromatography: a review of clinical applications. (7/1942)

Affinity chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that makes use of biological-like interactions for the separation and specific analysis of sample components. This review describes the basic principles of affinity chromatography and examines its use in the testing of clinical samples, with an emphasis on HPLC-based methods. Some traditional applications of this approach include the use of boronate, lectin, protein A or protein G, and immunoaffinity supports for the direct quantification of solutes. Newer techniques that use antibody-based columns for on- or off-line sample extraction are examined in detail, as are methods that use affinity chromatography in combination with other analytical methods, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Indirect analyte detection methods are also described in which immunoaffinity chromatography is used to perform flow-based immunoassays. Other applications that are reviewed include affinity-based chiral separations and the use of affinity chromatography for the study of drug or hormone interactions with binding proteins. Some areas of possible future developments are then considered, such as tandem affinity methods and the use of synthetic dyes, immobilized metal ions, molecular imprints, or aptamers as affinity ligands for clinical analytes.  (+info)

Genetic testing and the clinical laboratory improvement amendments of 1988: present and future. (8/1942)

CLIA '88 superseded CLIA '67. CLIA '88 set standards designed to improve quality and expanded federal oversight to virtually all clinical laboratories in the United States. Presumably because genetics testing was then in its infancy, CLIA '88 did not devote a special section to genetics testing. Biochemical and immunochemical tests used to evaluate inborn errors of metabolism and other genetic entities were categorized as analytes in the Clinical Chemistry section, and DNA probes used primarily in infectious disease were included in Microbiology. The legal, social, economic, and ethical implications of genetic testing and the rapid commercialization of these tests led to recommendations that genetic testing be defined as a laboratory specialty with a subsection in CLIA. The advisory committee created under CLIA was assigned to review these recommendations. The committee agreed that genetics testing was sufficiently different from other areas already included in CLIA to warrant a separate section. Two definitions were adopted. The more clear-cut one is for molecular genetic and cytogenic tests. This includes the analysis of human DNA/RNA in evaluating genetic diseases. The second definition is not as clear-cut and is for the analysis of proteins and metabolites used predominantly to detect inborn errors of metabolism. Many of these analytes already are categorized according to their uses for other purposes. The recommendations for genetic testing include detailed and specific proposals concerning personnel, confidentiality and informed consent, quality control, contamination, proficiency testing, validation of tests, special reporting, retention of records, and reuse of tested specimens.  (+info)

Clinical laboratory techniques are methods and procedures used in medical laboratories to perform various tests and examinations on patient samples. These techniques help in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases by analyzing body fluids, tissues, and other specimens. Some common clinical laboratory techniques include:

1. Clinical chemistry: It involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid to measure the levels of chemicals, hormones, enzymes, and other substances in the body. These measurements can help diagnose various medical conditions, monitor treatment progress, and assess overall health.

2. Hematology: This technique focuses on the study of blood and its components, including red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. Hematological tests are used to diagnose anemia, infections, bleeding disorders, and other hematologic conditions.

3. Microbiology: It deals with the identification and culture of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Microbiological techniques are essential for detecting infectious diseases, determining appropriate antibiotic therapy, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

4. Immunology: This technique involves studying the immune system and its response to various antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and allergens. Immunological tests are used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and allergies.

5. Histopathology: It is the microscopic examination of tissue samples to identify any abnormalities or diseases. Histopathological techniques are crucial for diagnosing cancer, inflammatory conditions, and other tissue-related disorders.

6. Molecular biology: This technique deals with the study of DNA, RNA, and proteins at the molecular level. Molecular biology tests can be used to detect genetic mutations, identify infectious agents, and monitor disease progression.

7. Cytogenetics: It involves analyzing chromosomes and genes in cells to diagnose genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Cytogenetic techniques include karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

8. Flow cytometry: This technique measures physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles as they flow through a laser beam. Flow cytometry is used to analyze cell populations, identify specific cell types, and detect abnormalities in cells.

9. Diagnostic radiology: It uses imaging technologies such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to diagnose various medical conditions.

10. Clinical chemistry: This technique involves analyzing body fluids, such as blood and urine, to measure the concentration of various chemicals and substances. Clinical chemistry tests are used to diagnose metabolic disorders, electrolyte imbalances, and other health conditions.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

A hospital laboratory is a specialized facility within a healthcare institution that provides diagnostic and research services. It is responsible for performing various tests and examinations on patient samples, such as blood, tissues, and bodily fluids, to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Hospital laboratories may offer a wide range of services, including clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and blood banking/transfusion medicine. These labs are typically staffed by trained medical professionals, such as laboratory technologists, technicians, and pathologists, who work together to ensure accurate and timely test results, which ultimately contribute to improved patient care.

Clinical chemistry is a branch of medical laboratory science that deals with the chemical analysis of biological specimens such as blood, urine, and tissue samples to provide information about the health status of a patient. It involves the use of various analytical techniques and instruments to measure different chemicals, enzymes, hormones, and other substances in the body. The results of these tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor diseases, evaluate therapy effectiveness, and make informed decisions about patient care. Clinical chemists work closely with physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers to ensure accurate and timely test results, which are crucial for proper medical diagnosis and treatment.

A Clinical Laboratory Information System (CLIS) is a type of healthcare information system that is designed to automate and manage the workflow, data management, and reporting capabilities of a clinical laboratory. It serves as a centralized repository for all laboratory data and test results, allowing for efficient communication between healthcare providers, laboratorians, and patients.

The CLIS typically includes modules for specimen tracking, order entry, result reporting, data analysis, and quality control. It interfaces with other hospital information systems such as the electronic health record (EHR), radiology information system (RIS), and pharmacy information system (PIS) to provide a comprehensive view of the patient's medical history and test results.

The CLIS is used to manage a wide range of laboratory tests, including clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, molecular diagnostics, and toxicology. It helps laboratories to streamline their operations, reduce errors, improve turnaround times, and enhance the overall quality of patient care.

In summary, a Clinical Laboratory Information System is an essential tool for modern clinical laboratories that enables them to manage large volumes of data, improve efficiency, and provide accurate and timely test results to healthcare providers and patients.

"Quality control" is a term that is used in many industries, including healthcare and medicine, to describe the systematic process of ensuring that products or services meet certain standards and regulations. In the context of healthcare, quality control often refers to the measures taken to ensure that the care provided to patients is safe, effective, and consistent. This can include processes such as:

1. Implementing standardized protocols and guidelines for care
2. Training and educating staff to follow these protocols
3. Regularly monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of care
4. Making improvements to processes and systems based on data and feedback
5. Ensuring that equipment and supplies are maintained and functioning properly
6. Implementing systems for reporting and addressing safety concerns or errors.

The goal of quality control in healthcare is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the needs and expectations of patients, while also protecting their safety and well-being.

A Laboratory Infection, also known as a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI), is an infection that occurs in individuals who are exposed to pathogens or other harmful microorganisms while working in a laboratory setting. These infections can occur through various routes of exposure, including inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion of contaminated materials.

Laboratory infections pose significant risks to laboratory workers, researchers, and even visitors who may come into contact with infectious agents during their work or visit. To minimize these risks, laboratories follow strict biosafety protocols, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), proper handling and disposal of contaminated materials, and adherence to established safety guidelines.

Examples of laboratory infections include tuberculosis, salmonella, hepatitis B and C, and various other bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Prompt diagnosis, treatment, and implementation of appropriate infection control measures are crucial to prevent the spread of these infections within the laboratory setting and beyond.

Medical Laboratory Personnel are professionals who perform and interpret various laboratory tests to assist physicians in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating diseases and other medical conditions. They work in different areas of the clinical laboratory such as chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, and transfusion medicine.

Their responsibilities may include collecting and processing specimens, operating and maintaining laboratory equipment, performing tests and procedures, analyzing results, conducting quality control, maintaining records, and reporting findings to healthcare providers. Medical Laboratory Personnel play a critical role in ensuring the accuracy and timeliness of diagnostic information, which is essential for providing effective medical care.

Medical Laboratory Personnel may hold various job titles, including Medical Laboratory Technologist (MLT), Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS), Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS), Medical Technologist (MT), Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT), and Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT). The specific duties and educational requirements for these positions may vary depending on the laboratory setting, state regulations, and professional certification.

Medical Laboratory Science, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is a healthcare profession that involves the performance and interpretation of laboratory tests to detect, diagnose, monitor, and treat diseases. Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) work in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, research institutions, and diagnostic laboratories. They analyze body fluids, tissues, and cells using sophisticated instruments and techniques to provide accurate and timely results that aid in the clinical decision-making process.

MLS professionals perform a range of laboratory tests including hematology, clinical chemistry, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, urinalysis, and blood banking. They follow standardized procedures and quality control measures to ensure the accuracy and reliability of test results. MLS professionals also evaluate complex data, correlate test findings with clinical symptoms, and communicate their findings to healthcare providers.

MLS education typically requires a bachelor's degree in Medical Laboratory Science or a related field, followed by a clinical internship or residency program. Many MLS professionals are certified or licensed by professional organizations such as the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS).

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis of diseases through the examination of organs, tissues, and bodily fluids, such as blood and urine. It involves the use of laboratory tests to identify abnormalities in the body's cells, chemicals, and functions that may indicate the presence of a specific disease or condition. Clinical pathologists work closely with other healthcare professionals to help manage patient care, provide treatment recommendations, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments. They are responsible for supervising the laboratory testing process, ensuring accurate results, and interpreting the findings in the context of each patient's medical history and symptoms. Overall, clinical pathology plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many different types of diseases and conditions.

Laboratory proficiency testing (PT) is a systematic process used to evaluate the performance of a laboratory in accurately and consistently performing specific tests or procedures. It involves the analysis of blinded samples with known or expected values, which are distributed by an independent proficiency testing provider to participating laboratories. The results from each laboratory are then compared to the target value or the range of acceptable values, allowing for the assessment of a laboratory's accuracy, precision, and consistency over time.

Proficiency testing is an essential component of quality assurance programs in clinical, research, and industrial laboratories. It helps laboratories identify and address sources of error, improve their analytical methods, and maintain compliance with regulatory requirements and accreditation standards. Regular participation in proficiency testing programs also promotes confidence in the accuracy and reliability of laboratory test results, ultimately benefiting patient care, research outcomes, and public health.

Clinical chemistry tests are a type of laboratory test that measure the levels of various chemicals or substances in the body. These tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including diabetes, liver disease, heart disease, and kidney disease. Some common clinical chemistry tests include:

1. Blood glucose test: Measures the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.
2. Electrolyte panel: Measures the levels of important electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood. Imbalances in these electrolytes can indicate a variety of medical conditions.
3. Liver function tests (LFTs): Measure the levels of various enzymes and proteins produced by the liver. Abnormal results can indicate liver damage or disease.
4. Kidney function tests: Measure the levels of various substances such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood. Elevated levels of these substances can indicate kidney dysfunction or disease.
5. Lipid panel: Measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Abnormal results can indicate an increased risk of heart disease.
6. Thyroid function tests: Measure the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Abnormal results can indicate thyroid dysfunction or disease.

Clinical chemistry tests are usually performed on a sample of blood, urine, or other bodily fluid. The results of these tests can provide important information to help doctors diagnose and manage medical conditions.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

"Autoanalysis" is not a term that is widely used in the medical field. However, in psychology and psychotherapy, "autoanalysis" refers to the process of self-analysis or self-examination, where an individual analyzes their own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences to gain insight into their unconscious mind and understand their motivations, conflicts, and emotional patterns.

Self-analysis can involve various techniques such as introspection, journaling, meditation, dream analysis, and reflection on past experiences. While autoanalysis can be a useful tool for personal growth and self-awareness, it is generally considered less reliable and comprehensive than professional psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, which involves a trained therapist or analyst who can provide objective feedback, interpretation, and guidance.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

"Physicians' Offices" is a general term that refers to the physical location where medical doctors or physicians practice their profession and provide healthcare services to patients. These offices can vary in size and setting, ranging from a single physician's small private practice to large, multi-specialty clinics.

In a physicians' office, medical professionals typically deliver outpatient care, which means that patients visit the office for appointments rather than staying overnight. The services provided may include routine check-ups, diagnosing and treating illnesses or injuries, prescribing medications, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, providing preventive care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers for specialist referrals or additional treatments.

The facilities in a physicians' office usually consist of examination rooms, a waiting area, nursing stations, and administrative support spaces. Some may also have on-site laboratory or diagnostic equipment, such as X-ray machines or ultrasound devices. The specific layout and amenities will depend on the size, specialty, and patient population of the practice.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Blood chemical analysis, also known as clinical chemistry or chemistry panel, is a series of tests that measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These tests can help evaluate the function of organs such as the kidneys and liver, and can also detect conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

The tests typically include:

* Glucose: to check for diabetes
* Electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate): to check the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
* Calcium: to check for problems with bones, nerves, or kidneys
* Creatinine: to check for kidney function
* Urea Nitrogen (BUN): to check for kidney function
* Albumin: to check for liver function and nutrition status
* ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase): to check for liver function
* Alkaline Phosphatase: to check for liver or bone disease
* Total Bilirubin: to check for liver function and gallbladder function
* Cholesterol: to check for heart disease risk
* Triglycerides: to check for heart disease risk

These tests are usually ordered by a doctor as part of a routine check-up, or to help diagnose and monitor specific medical conditions. The results of the blood chemical analysis are compared to reference ranges provided by the laboratory performing the test, which take into account factors such as age, sex, and race.

Hematology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study of blood, its physiology, and pathophysiology. It involves the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to the blood and blood-forming organs such as the bone marrow, spleen, and lymphatic system. This includes disorders of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, blood vessels, and coagulation (blood clotting). Some common hematological diseases include anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell disease, and bleeding disorders like hemophilia.

Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of microorganisms, which are tiny living organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, algae, and some types of yeasts and molds. These organisms are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye and require the use of a microscope for observation.

Microbiology encompasses various subdisciplines, including bacteriology (the study of bacteria), virology (the study of viruses), mycology (the study of fungi), parasitology (the study of parasites), and protozoology (the study of protozoa).

Microbiologists study the structure, function, ecology, evolution, and classification of microorganisms. They also investigate their role in human health and disease, as well as their impact on the environment, agriculture, and industry. Microbiology has numerous applications in medicine, including the development of vaccines, antibiotics, and other therapeutic agents, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Laboratory personnel are individuals who work in a laboratory setting and are responsible for conducting various types of tests, experiments, and research activities. They may include, but are not limited to, the following roles:

1. Medical Technologists/Clinical Scientists: These professionals typically have a bachelor's or master's degree in medical technology or a related field and are responsible for performing complex laboratory tests, analyzing specimens, and reporting results. They may specialize in areas such as hematology, microbiology, chemistry, immunology, or molecular biology.

2. Laboratory Technicians: These individuals typically have an associate's degree or a certificate in medical laboratory technology and assist medical technologists in performing routine tests and maintaining laboratory equipment. They may prepare specimens, operate automated instruments, and perform quality control checks.

3. Research Assistants/Associates: These professionals work under the supervision of principal investigators or research scientists and are responsible for conducting experiments, collecting data, and analyzing samples in support of scientific research.

4. Laboratory Managers/Supervisors: These individuals oversee the day-to-day operations of the laboratory, ensuring that all procedures are followed correctly, maintaining quality control, managing staff, and handling administrative tasks such as ordering supplies and maintaining records.

5. Pathologists' Assistants: They work under the direction of pathologists to provide support in autopsy and surgical specimen examination, preparation, and histology.

6. Histotechnicians/Histology Technicians: These professionals prepare tissue samples for microscopic examination by cutting thin sections, staining them with dyes, and mounting them on slides. They work closely with pathologists and laboratory technologists to ensure accurate results.

7. Phlebotomists: Although not strictly laboratory personnel, phlebotomists are essential members of the healthcare team who draw blood samples from patients for laboratory testing. They must follow strict protocols to ensure proper specimen collection and handling.

8. Other Specialist Roles: Depending on the specific laboratory setting, there may be additional specialist roles such as cytogenetic technologists, virologists, or toxicologists who have specialized knowledge and skills in their respective fields.

Clinical laboratory services refer to the tests and examinations performed on samples of patient’s bodily fluids, tissues, and other substances to assist in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating medical conditions. These services are typically provided by specialized laboratories that use various analytical methods and technologies to examine clinical specimens.

The tests conducted by clinical laboratory services can include hematology, chemistry, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and urinalysis, among others. The results of these tests provide critical information to healthcare providers for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various medical conditions, including infections, genetic disorders, hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, and cancer.

Clinical laboratory services play a vital role in modern healthcare systems, providing accurate and timely diagnostic information that helps improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the quality of care.

Molecular diagnostic techniques are a group of laboratory methods used to analyze biological markers in DNA, RNA, and proteins to identify specific health conditions or diseases at the molecular level. These techniques include various methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mass spectrometry.

Molecular diagnostic techniques are used to detect genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, viral and bacterial infections, and other molecular changes associated with various diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. These techniques provide valuable information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of treatment response.

Compared to traditional diagnostic methods, molecular diagnostic techniques offer several advantages, such as higher sensitivity, specificity, and speed. They can detect small amounts of genetic material or proteins, even in early stages of the disease, and provide accurate results with a lower risk of false positives or negatives. Additionally, molecular diagnostic techniques can be automated, standardized, and performed in high-throughput formats, making them suitable for large-scale screening and research applications.

Colorimetry is the scientific measurement and quantification of color, typically using a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. In the medical field, colorimetry may be used in various applications such as:

1. Diagnosis and monitoring of skin conditions: Colorimeters can measure changes in skin color to help diagnose or monitor conditions like jaundice, cyanosis, or vitiligo. They can also assess the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions.
2. Vision assessment: Colorimetry is used in vision testing to determine the presence and severity of visual impairments such as color blindness or deficiencies. Special tests called anomaloscopes or color vision charts are used to measure an individual's ability to distinguish between different colors.
3. Environmental monitoring: In healthcare settings, colorimetry can be employed to monitor the cleanliness and sterility of surfaces or equipment by measuring the amount of contamination present. This is often done using ATP (adenosine triphosphate) bioluminescence assays, which emit light when they come into contact with microorganisms.
4. Medical research: Colorimetry has applications in medical research, such as studying the optical properties of tissues or developing new diagnostic tools and techniques based on color measurements.

In summary, colorimetry is a valuable tool in various medical fields for diagnosis, monitoring, and research purposes. It allows healthcare professionals to make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and classification, their role in diseases and decomposition processes, and their potential uses in industry, agriculture, and medicine. It involves the examination and identification of various types of fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, and the investigation of their ecological relationships with other organisms and their environments. Mycologists may also study the medical and veterinary importance of fungi, including the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections, as well as the development of antifungal drugs and vaccines.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Facility regulation and control in a medical context refers to the laws, rules, and guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure that healthcare facilities are operating safely, effectively, and in compliance with standards set forth to protect patients and healthcare providers. This can include regulations related to building design and construction, infection control, staffing ratios, medication management, quality improvement, and patient rights.

Regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States or the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in the United Kingdom establish these regulations and conduct regular inspections to ensure compliance. Non-compliance with facility regulations can result in fines, sanctions, or loss of licensure for the facility.

Facility control, on the other hand, refers to the internal processes and procedures that a healthcare facility implements to ensure ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements. This may include policies and procedures related to staff training, quality improvement, infection control, medication management, and patient safety. Effective facility regulation and control are critical for ensuring high-quality care and maintaining the trust of patients and the wider community.

Bacteriology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of bacteria, including their classification, physiology, genetics, and ecology. It is a subset of microbiology, which is the broader field that includes the study of all microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Bacteriologists use various techniques to isolate, culture, and identify different species of bacteria. They also study the interactions between bacteria and their hosts, as well as the role that bacteria play in disease processes. In addition, bacteriology involves research into the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial infections.

Overall, bacteriology is an important field of study that has contributed significantly to our understanding of infectious diseases and their prevention and treatment.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Diagnostic errors refer to inaccurate or delayed diagnoses of a patient's medical condition, which can lead to improper or unnecessary treatment and potentially serious harm to the patient. These errors can occur due to various factors such as lack of clinical knowledge, failure to consider all possible diagnoses, inadequate communication between healthcare providers and patients, and problems with testing or interpretation of test results. Diagnostic errors are a significant cause of preventable harm in medical care and have been identified as a priority area for quality improvement efforts.

Oxacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other types of penicillins. Oxacillin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, soft tissue, and bone.

Here is the medical definition of oxacillin:

Oxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from penicillin that is resistant to staphylococcal penicillinases. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of staphylococci and some streptococci, including penicillinase-producing staphylococci. Oxacillin is available as a sterile powder for injection or as a oral capsule.

It is important to note that the overuse or misuse of antibiotics like oxacillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which makes infections harder to treat. It's essential to use antibiotics only when necessary and as directed by a healthcare professional.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Medicare Part B is the component of Medicare, a federal health insurance program in the United States, that covers medically necessary outpatient services and preventive services. These services include doctor visits, laboratory tests, diagnostic imaging, durable medical equipment, mental health services, ambulance services, and some home health care services.

Medicare Part B also covers certain preventive services such as cancer screenings, vaccinations, and wellness visits to help maintain an individual's health and prevent illnesses or diseases from getting worse. It is financed through a combination of monthly premiums paid by enrollees and funds from the federal government's general revenue. Enrollment in Medicare Part B is voluntary, but there are penalties for not enrolling when first eligible, unless an individual has creditable coverage from another source.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

Blood specimen collection is the process of obtaining a sample of blood from a patient for laboratory testing and analysis. This procedure is performed by trained healthcare professionals, such as nurses or phlebotomists, using sterile equipment to minimize the risk of infection and ensure accurate test results. The collected blood sample may be used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, assess overall health and organ function, and check for the presence of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of the specimen are crucial to maintain its integrity and prevent contamination.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Hematologic tests, also known as hematology tests, are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the health and function of different components of blood, such as red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. These tests can detect various disorders, including anemia, infection, bleeding problems, and several types of cancer. Common hematologic tests include complete blood count (CBC), coagulation studies, peripheral smear examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The specific test or combination of tests ordered will depend on the patient's symptoms, medical history, and physical examination findings.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

In the context of medicine, "maintenance" generally refers to the ongoing care or support required to maintain or prevent the deterioration of a person's health, particularly in chronic conditions or disabilities. This may include:

1. Medical treatment: Regular administration of medications, therapies, or procedures to manage a medical condition and prevent complications.
2. Rehabilitation: Continuous support and guidance to help individuals with disabilities or injuries regain their functional abilities and maintain their independence.
3. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, and immunizations to detect potential health issues early and prevent them from becoming more severe.
4. Lifestyle modifications: Encouragement and support for maintaining healthy habits such as regular exercise, balanced diet, stress management, and smoking cessation.
5. Psychological support: Counseling, therapy, or support groups to help patients cope with their medical conditions and maintain their emotional well-being.
6. Case management: Coordination of various healthcare services and resources to ensure that the patient receives comprehensive and continuous care.
7. Home care or residential care: Provision of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in the patient's home or a specialized care facility to support their independence and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents or toxins with the intent to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. These agents can be spread through the air, water, or food and can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxic substances produced by living organisms. The purpose of using these agents is typically to cause widespread illness, fear, and disruption. Biological warfare is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is illegal under international law.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Cefmetazole is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Cefmetazole has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Common side effects of cefmetazole include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and headache. More serious side effects can include allergic reactions, seizures, and changes in blood cell counts or liver function. As with all antibiotics, it is important to take cefmetazole exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve.

'Diagnostic tests, routine' is a medical term that refers to standard or commonly used tests that are performed to help diagnose, monitor, or manage a patient's health condition. These tests are typically simple, non-invasive, and safe, and they may be ordered as part of a regular check-up or when a patient presents with specific symptoms.

Routine diagnostic tests may include:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): A test that measures the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin in the blood. It can help diagnose conditions such as anemia, infection, and inflammation.
2. Urinalysis: A test that examines a urine sample for signs of infection, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
3. Blood Chemistry Tests: Also known as a chemistry panel or comprehensive metabolic panel, this test measures various chemicals in the blood such as glucose, electrolytes, and enzymes to evaluate organ function and overall health.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, which can help diagnose heart conditions such as arrhythmias or heart attacks.
5. Chest X-ray: An imaging test that creates pictures of the structures inside the chest, including the heart, lungs, and bones, to help diagnose conditions such as pneumonia or lung cancer.
6. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal conditions.
7. Pap Smear: A test that collects cells from the cervix to check for abnormalities that may indicate cervical cancer or other gynecological conditions.

These are just a few examples of routine diagnostic tests that healthcare providers may order. The specific tests ordered will depend on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and current symptoms.

A Pathology Department in a hospital is a division that is responsible for the examination and diagnosis of diseases through the laboratory analysis of tissue, fluid, and other samples. It plays a crucial role in providing accurate diagnoses, treatment planning, and monitoring of patients' health statuses. The department is typically staffed by pathologists (physicians who specialize in interpreting medical tests and diagnosing diseases), as well as laboratory technologists, technicians, and assistants.

The Pathology Department provides various services, including:

1. Anatomical Pathology - Examination of tissue specimens to identify abnormalities, such as cancerous growths or other diseases. This includes surgical pathology, cytopathology (examining individual cells), and autopsy pathology.
2. Clinical Pathology - Analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, to assess chemical, hematological, immunological, and microbiological aspects. This includes hematology (study of blood cells), clinical chemistry (analysis of body chemicals), immunopathology (study of immune system disorders), and microbiology (identification and classification of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites).
3. Molecular Pathology - Analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins to identify genetic mutations or abnormalities that contribute to diseases, particularly cancer. This information can help guide targeted therapies and personalized treatment plans.
4. Forensic Pathology - Examination of bodies to determine the cause and manner of death in cases of suspected criminal activity, accidents, or other suspicious circumstances.

The Pathology Department's work is essential for providing accurate diagnoses, determining appropriate treatments, monitoring disease progression, and conducting medical research.

Point-of-care (POC) systems refer to medical diagnostic tests or tools that are performed at or near the site where a patient receives care, such as in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital room. These systems provide rapid and convenient results, allowing healthcare professionals to make immediate decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of a patient's condition.

POC systems can include various types of diagnostic tests, such as:

1. Lateral flow assays (LFAs): These are paper-based devices that use capillary action to detect the presence or absence of a target analyte in a sample. Examples include pregnancy tests and rapid strep throat tests.
2. Portable analyzers: These are compact devices used for measuring various parameters, such as blood glucose levels, coagulation status, or electrolytes, using small volumes of samples.
3. Imaging systems: Handheld ultrasound machines and portable X-ray devices fall under this category, providing real-time imaging at the point of care.
4. Monitoring devices: These include continuous glucose monitors, pulse oximeters, and blood pressure cuffs that provide real-time data to help manage patient conditions.

POC systems offer several advantages, such as reduced turnaround time for test results, decreased need for sample transportation, and increased patient satisfaction due to faster decision-making and treatment initiation. However, it is essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of these tests by following proper testing procedures and interpreting results correctly.

Enterococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the normal gut microbiota but can also cause a variety of infections, particularly in hospital settings. Enterococci are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments and can be resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat. Some species, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are more commonly associated with human infections.

In medical terms, an "Enterococcus infection" refers to an infection caused by any species of the Enterococcus genus. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, bloodstream, and abdominal cavity. They can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and pain, depending on the location of the infection. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Enterococcus species, although resistance to multiple antibiotics is a growing concern.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

"Competitive bidding" is not a medical term, but rather a business or procurement concept that can be applied in various industries, including healthcare. In the context of healthcare, competitive bidding typically refers to a process where healthcare providers or suppliers submit bids to provide goods or services to a payer, such as a government agency or insurance company, at the lowest possible price.

The goal of competitive bidding is to promote cost savings and efficiency in the delivery of healthcare services. For example, Medicare uses a competitive bidding program for certain medical equipment and supplies, such as wheelchairs and oxygen equipment, where suppliers submit bids and are awarded contracts based on their ability to provide high-quality items at the lowest price.

However, it's important to note that while competitive bidding can lead to cost savings, it may also have unintended consequences, such as reducing provider participation or limiting access to certain services in some areas. Therefore, it is essential to balance cost savings with quality and access considerations when implementing competitive bidding programs in healthcare.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Automation in a laboratory refers to the use of technology and machinery to automatically perform tasks that were previously done manually by lab technicians or scientists. This can include tasks such as mixing and dispensing liquids, tracking and monitoring experiments, and analyzing samples. Automation can help increase efficiency, reduce human error, and allow lab personnel to focus on more complex tasks.

There are various types of automation systems used in laboratory settings, including:

1. Liquid handling systems: These machines automatically dispense precise volumes of liquids into containers or well plates, reducing the potential for human error and increasing throughput.
2. Robotic systems: Robots can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks, such as pipetting, centrifugation, and incubation, freeing up lab personnel for other duties.
3. Tracking and monitoring systems: These systems automatically track and monitor experiments, allowing scientists to remotely monitor their progress and receive alerts when an experiment is complete or if there are any issues.
4. Analysis systems: Automated analysis systems can quickly and accurately analyze samples, such as by measuring the concentration of a particular molecule or identifying specific genetic sequences.

Overall, automation in the laboratory can help improve accuracy, increase efficiency, and reduce costs, making it an essential tool for many scientific research and diagnostic applications.

Credentialing is a process used in the healthcare industry to verify and assess the qualifications, training, licensure, and background of healthcare practitioners, such as doctors, nurses, and allied health professionals. The purpose of credentialing is to ensure that healthcare providers meet the necessary standards and requirements to provide safe and competent patient care within a specific healthcare organization or facility.

The credentialing process typically includes primary source verification of the following:

1. Education: Verification of the healthcare provider's completion of an accredited educational program leading to their degree or diploma.
2. Training: Confirmation of any required internships, residencies, fellowships, or other clinical training experiences.
3. Licensure: Validation of current, active, and unrestricted licensure or registration to practice in the healthcare provider's state or jurisdiction.
4. Certification: Verification of any relevant board certifications or specialty credentials held by the healthcare provider.
5. Work history: A review of the healthcare provider's professional work experience, including any gaps in employment or practice.
6. Malpractice and disciplinary history: Investigation of any malpractice claims, lawsuits, or disciplinary actions taken against the healthcare provider by a licensing board, professional organization, or court.
7. References: Solicitation and evaluation of professional references from colleagues and supervisors who can attest to the healthcare provider's clinical skills, character, and ability to provide quality patient care.
8. Clinical privileges: Granting specific clinical privileges based on the healthcare provider's qualifications, training, and experience, allowing them to perform certain procedures or treatments within the organization.
9. Background check: A criminal background check to ensure the healthcare provider has no disqualifying convictions or pending legal issues.
10. Immunization status: Verification of the healthcare provider's immunization status to protect patients and staff from infectious diseases.

Credentialing is usually performed by a dedicated committee within a healthcare organization, often called the Medical Staff Office or Credentials Committee. The process must be repeated periodically (usually every three years) to maintain the healthcare provider's privileges and ensure their continued compliance with the organization's standards and requirements.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Mycobacterium" is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their complex cell walls containing large amounts of lipids. This genus includes several species that are significant in human and animal health, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy. Other species of Mycobacterium can cause various diseases in humans, including skin and soft tissue infections, lung infections, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. These bacteria are often resistant to common disinfectants and antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Nephelometry and turbidimetry are methods used in clinical laboratories to measure the amount of particles, such as proteins or cells, present in a liquid sample. The main difference between these two techniques lies in how they detect and quantify the particles.

1. Nephelometry: This is a laboratory method that measures the amount of light scattered by suspended particles in a liquid medium at a 90-degree angle to the path of the incident light. When light passes through a sample containing particles, some of the light is absorbed, while some is scattered in various directions. In nephelometry, a light beam is shone into the sample, and a detector measures the intensity of the scattered light at a right angle to the light source. The more particles present in the sample, the higher the intensity of scattered light, which correlates with the concentration of particles in the sample. Nephelometry is often used to measure the levels of immunoglobulins, complement components, and other proteins in serum or plasma.

2. Turbidimetry: This is another laboratory method that measures the amount of light blocked or absorbed by suspended particles in a liquid medium. In turbidimetry, a light beam is shone through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted light is measured. The more particles present in the sample, the more light is absorbed or scattered, resulting in lower transmitted light intensity. Turbidimetric measurements are typically reported as percent transmittance, which is the ratio of the intensity of transmitted light to that of the incident light expressed as a percentage. Turbidimetry can be used to measure various substances, such as proteins, cells, and crystals, in body fluids like urine, serum, or plasma.

In summary, nephelometry measures the amount of scattered light at a 90-degree angle, while turbidimetry quantifies the reduction in transmitted light intensity due to particle presence. Both methods are useful for determining the concentration of particles in liquid samples and are commonly used in clinical laboratories for diagnostic purposes.

Coagulase is a type of enzyme produced by some bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. This enzyme helps the bacteria to clot blood plasma by converting an inactive precursor (prothrombin) into thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen into fibrin to form a clot. The ability of S. aureus to produce coagulase is often used as a diagnostic criterion for this bacterium, and it also plays a role in the virulence of the organism by helping it to evade the host's immune system.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Mycological typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify fungi at the species or strain level, based on their unique biological characteristics. These techniques are often used in clinical laboratories to help diagnose fungal infections and determine the most effective treatment approaches.

There are several different mycological typing techniques that may be used, depending on the specific type of fungus being identified and the resources available in the laboratory. Some common methods include:

1. Phenotypic methods: These methods involve observing and measuring the physical characteristics of fungi, such as their growth patterns, colonial morphology, and microscopic features. Examples include macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as biochemical tests to identify specific metabolic properties.

2. Genotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the DNA or RNA of fungi to identify unique genetic sequences that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include PCR-based methods, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, as well as sequencing-based methods, such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

3. Proteotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the proteins expressed by fungi to identify unique protein profiles that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Mycological typing techniques are important tools for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections, tracking outbreaks, and developing effective treatment strategies. By accurately identifying the specific fungi causing an infection, healthcare providers can tailor their treatments to target the most vulnerable aspects of the pathogen, improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of drug resistance.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests, also known as Kirby-Bauer tests, are laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics against a specific bacterial strain. This test provides a simple and standardized way to estimate the susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to various antibiotics.

In this method, a standardized inoculum of the bacterial suspension is spread evenly on the surface of an agar plate. Antibiotic-impregnated paper disks are then placed on the agar surface, allowing the diffusion of the antibiotic into the agar. After incubation, the zone of inhibition surrounding each disk is measured. The size of the zone of inhibition correlates with the susceptibility or resistance of the bacterial strain to that specific antibiotic.

The results are interpreted based on predefined criteria established by organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These interpretive criteria help categorize the susceptibility of the bacterial strain into one of three categories: susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.

It is important to note that disk diffusion tests have limitations and may not always accurately predict clinical outcomes. However, they remain a valuable tool in guiding empirical antibiotic therapy and monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends.

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

"Gram-Positive Cocci" is a term used in microbiology, which refers to a specific type of bacteria that appear round (cocci) in shape and stain purple when subjected to the Gram staining method. The Gram staining technique is a fundamental laboratory method used to differentiate bacterial species based on their cell wall composition.

Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process, resulting in a purple color. Some common examples of Gram-Positive Cocci include Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. These bacteria can cause various infections, ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe systemic illnesses. It is essential to identify the type and nature of bacterial pathogens accurately for appropriate antimicrobial therapy and effective patient management.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a definition and overview of it in the context of public health and healthcare.

The USPHS is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is responsible for promoting and protecting the health of the nation, particularly focusing on preventing and controlling infectious diseases and other health threats. The USPHS is composed of eight uniformed service components: the Surgeon General's Office, the Commissioned Corps, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Indian Health Service (IHS), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

The Commissioned Corps of the USPHS is a group of uniformed healthcare professionals who are appointed by the President and commissioned as officers. They serve in various capacities within the federal government, including research, clinical care, health policy, and emergency response. The Surgeon General serves as the head of the USPHS and is responsible for providing advice to the President and HHS Secretary on matters related to public health.

The USPHS plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as natural disasters, infectious disease outbreaks, and bioterrorism attacks. They also work to address health disparities and promote health equity by providing healthcare services to underserved populations, including American Indians and Alaska Natives through the IHS. Additionally, the USPHS supports research and surveillance efforts aimed at understanding and addressing various public health issues, such as tobacco use, substance abuse, and mental health.

Oral candidiasis is a medical condition characterized by an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by the Candida fungus species, most commonly Candida albicans. It is also known as thrush or oral thrush. The infection typically appears as white, creamy, or yellowish patches or plaques on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and sometimes on the tonsils or back of the throat. These lesions can be painful, causing soreness, burning sensations, and difficulty swallowing. Oral candidiasis can affect people of all ages; however, it is more commonly seen in infants, elderly individuals, and those with weakened immune systems due to illness or medication use. Various factors such as poor oral hygiene, dentures, smoking, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of developing oral candidiasis. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications in the form of topical creams, lozenges, or oral solutions, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection.

Clinical medicine is a branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in patients. It is based on the direct examination and evaluation of patients, including taking medical histories, performing physical examinations, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, and formulating treatment plans. Clinical medicine encompasses various specialties such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology, among others. The goal of clinical medicine is to provide evidence-based, compassionate care to patients to improve their health outcomes and quality of life.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Gram-positive bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that turn purple when stained using the Gram stain method. This staining technique is used in microbiology to differentiate between two main types of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

Gram-positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Some common examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can range from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The symptoms of these infections depend on the type of bacteria involved and the location of the infection in the body. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as penicillin, vancomycin, or clindamycin. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria is a growing concern and can complicate treatment in some cases.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Accreditation is a process in which a healthcare organization, facility, or program is evaluated and certified as meeting certain standards and criteria established by a recognized accrediting body. The purpose of accreditation is to ensure that the organization, facility, or program provides safe, high-quality care and services to its patients or clients.

Accreditation typically involves a thorough review of an organization's policies, procedures, practices, and outcomes, as well as an on-site survey by a team of experts from the accrediting body. The evaluation focuses on various aspects of the organization's operations, such as leadership and management, patient safety, infection control, clinical services, quality improvement, and staff competence.

Accreditation is voluntary, but many healthcare organizations seek it as a way to demonstrate their commitment to excellence and continuous improvement. Accreditation can also be a requirement for licensure, reimbursement, or participation in certain programs or initiatives.

Examples of accrediting bodies in the healthcare field include The Joint Commission, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF), and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA).

Ceftizoxime is a type of antibiotic known as a third-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Ceftizoxime is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics.

It is commonly used to treat various types of infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and intra-abdominal infections. Ceftizoxime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms, although the IV form is more commonly used in clinical practice.

Like all antibiotics, ceftizoxime should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat infections in the future.

It is important to note that ceftizoxime should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and duration of treatment based on the patient's individual needs and medical history.

Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is primarily used to treat various fungal infections, including those caused by dermatophytes, Candida, and pityrosporum. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a crucial component of fungal cell membranes, which leads to increased permeability and ultimately results in fungal cell death.

Ketoconazole is available as an oral tablet for systemic use and as a topical cream or shampoo for localized applications. The oral formulation is used to treat severe or invasive fungal infections, while the topical preparations are primarily indicated for skin and scalp infections, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, candidiasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Common side effects of oral ketoconazole include nausea, vomiting, headache, and altered liver function tests. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include hepatotoxicity, adrenal insufficiency, and interactions with other medications that can affect the metabolism and elimination of drugs. Topical ketoconazole is generally well-tolerated, with local irritation being the most common side effect.

It's important to note that due to its potential for serious liver toxicity and drug-drug interactions, oral ketoconazole has been largely replaced by other antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, which have more favorable safety profiles. Topical ketoconazole remains a valuable option for treating localized fungal infections due to its effectiveness and lower risk of systemic side effects.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) in the context of management refer to computerized systems that help managers and decision-makers make informed decisions by providing data, models, and analytical tools. DSSs are designed to augment human judgment and expertise by providing access to relevant information, identifying patterns and trends, and simulating different scenarios.

DSSs in management can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Data analysis: DSSs can analyze large datasets to identify trends, correlations, and other insights that can inform decision-making. This can include data visualization tools, statistical models, and machine learning algorithms.
2. Modeling and simulation: DSSs can help managers simulate different scenarios and model the potential outcomes of various decisions. This can include financial modeling, risk analysis, and what-if scenario planning.
3. Collaboration and communication: DSSs can facilitate collaboration and communication among team members, stakeholders, and other decision-makers. This can include features like shared workspaces, discussion forums, and document management systems.
4. Knowledge management: DSSs can help managers capture, organize, and share knowledge and expertise across the organization. This can include features like expert systems, ontologies, and semantic networks.

DSSs in management are typically used to support semi-structured and unstructured decision-making processes, where there is no clear-cut solution or where the problem requires a high degree of expertise and judgment. They are designed to be flexible, adaptable, and user-friendly, allowing managers to customize their use to fit their specific needs and preferences.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Donna, Larson (2017). Clinical Chemistry: Fundamentals And Laboratory Techniques. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. p. 226. ISBN ...
Clinical pathology. Laboratory technique 57...........................................Post-mortem examination. Autopsies 127- ... Clinical endocrinology 666-701.........................................Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system 705- ... Technique of surgical operations 49-52.......................................Surgical therapeutics. Preoperative and ... Preventive medicine 428-428.5......................................Public health laboratories, institutes, etc. 440-440.87 ...
Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: Laboratory and Clinical Perspectives. p. 12. "Celebration of 25 years of IVF". ... "Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility: Integrating Modern Clinical and Laboratory Practice, p601". Springer, New York. ... It was licensed as a technique in Britain in 1991, with the first SUZI birth in the UK taking place in September 1992 at the ... These techniques would eventually be developed into intracytoplasmic sperm injection, while Research Instruments would go on to ...
Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: Laboratory and Clinical Perspectives. pp. 10-12. Martin Hutchinson (24 July 2003 ...
Gardner DK, Weissman A, Howles CM, Shoham Z (2001). Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: Laboratory and Clinical ... 136-7 "Fertell Clinical Results". Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. "Clinical Guideline, February ... 134-5 Speroff L, Fritz MA (2005). Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility (7th ed.). Philadelphia PA: Lippincott ... Check JH (2006). "Pharmacological options in resistent[sic] ovary syndrome and premature ovarian failure". Clinical and ...
Techniques and Applications for the Clinical Laboratory. Boston MA: Academic Press Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-369428-7. Kan YW, Lee KY ... As of 2011[update], some US clinical laboratories nevertheless used assays sold for "research use only". Laboratory processes ... such as the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Good Laboratory ... Hammerling JA (2012). "A Review of Medical Errors in Laboratory Diagnostics and Where We Are Today". Laboratory Medicine. 43 (2 ...
CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 5 (February 1974): 50-52. doi:10.3109/10408367409107625. Schneider, J ( ... Shepard's Fixative/Diluent Kleihauer, E (February 1974). "Determination of Fetal Hemoglobin: Elution Technique". ... It accurately predicts the risk of preterm labor after maternal trauma whereas the article concluded that clinical assessment ... but standard methods available in most laboratories admit an extremely low probability of the return of a false positive when ...
Muhammad I, Nasir, SA (2009). Bedside Techniques: Methods of Clinical Examination. Multan, Pakistan: Saira Publishers/Salamat ... "Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Travel Medicine and Infectious ... Inayatullah, Muhammad; Nasir, Shabbir Ahmed (2016). Bedside Techniques: Methods of Clinical Examination (4th ed.). Paramount ... Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (3rd ed.). Boston: Butterworths. ISBN 0-409-90077-X. PMID ...
Meningitis/Encephalitis Syndromic Testing in the Clinical Laboratory". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 56 (4). doi:10.1128/ ... Tang, Yi-Wei; Stratton, Charles W. (November 9, 2018). Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology: Volume 2: Applications. ... Kirby, James E. (August 11, 2019). Advances and Trends in Clinical Microbiology: The Next 20 Years, An Issue of the Clinics in ... Rifai, Nader (January 17, 2019). Clinical Microbiology Elsevier eBook on VitalSource. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN ...
2001). Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Laboratory and Clinical Perspectives. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-85317-870-2. ... After retrieval, the ova are fertilized by the sperm of the male partner (or sperm donor) in the laboratory, and, after several ... van der Hoorn ML, Lashley EE, Bianchi DW, Claas FH, Schonkeren CM, Scherjon SA (2010). "Clinical and immunologic aspects of egg ... This work established the technical foundation and legal-ethical framework surrounding the clinical use of human oocyte and ...
Kaye, Paul (26 August 2020). "Flow cytometry: a critical technique in combating leishmaniasis". Clinical Laboratory Int. ... this area is dedicated to supporting and coordinating pre-clinical research, clinical testing and development of individual ... "Early clinical development of a live, attenuated combination vaccine against Shigella and ETEC diarrhoea". Community Research ... It has supported the testing and development of 40 different vaccine formulations that have progressed into clinical ...
Ringsrud's Clinical Laboratory Science - E-Book: The Basics and Routine Techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 586-95, 543, ... Richard A. McPherson; Matthew R. Pincus (6 September 2011). Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. ... Medical laboratory Seroconversion Serovar Medical technologist Dr. Geoffrey Tovey, noted serologist Forensic serology Ryan KJ, ... These surveys are potentially the most direct and informative technique available to infer the dynamics of a population's ...
Ringsrud's Clinical Laboratory Science - E-Book: The Basics and Routine Techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 395-. ISBN ... Clinical Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Application of Laboratory Data. Year Book Medical Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8151-7098-3. ... Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods: First South Asia Edition_e-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp ... 459-. ISBN 978-81-312-4677-1. Norbert W. Tietz (1987). Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8862- ...
Clinical laboratory scientist Transfusion medicine Todd, C. Interview. 16 May 2008. Immunohematologist. v t e (All articles ... It deals with the concepts and clinical 2 techniques related to modern transfusion therapy. Efforts to save human lives by ... medicine which studies antigen-antibody reactions and analogous phenomena as they relate to the pathogenesis and clinical ...
Ringsrud's Clinical Laboratory Science - E-Book: The Basics and Routine Techniques (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 318 ... Hematology and Clinical Microscopy Committee (2019). "Blood cell identification: Granulocytes and Monocytes: Neutrophil, toxic ... John P. Greer; Sherrie L. Perkins (December 2008). "Chapter 62: Qualitative disorders of leukocytes". Wintrobe's Clinical ... Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood). ... but this is an artifactual change with no clinical significance ...
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As a scientist, Hart mastered and applied different techniques to laboratory and clinical research endeavors. He also conducts ... clinical optometrist, professor, and the founder of Woodbury Ophthalmic Group and Woodbury Optical Studio. Dean ran for Nassau ... clinical epidemiology, microbiology, elemental analysis, physiological optics, bioethics, and contact lenses. In 2015, Hart ran ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Clinical pathology, Laboratory techniques, Medical imaging ... The technique was introduced in the 1990s based on patents by Steiner and Ecker (CEO/founder TissueGnostics), describing a ... Hence, tissue cytometry complements the use of flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope in basic research, clinical practice ... Immunohistochemistry is used in clinical practice, where tissue biopsies from every potential cancer patient are collected, ...
The diagnosis varies from clinical and laboratory techniques to field studies (prevalence, ecological and socioeconomic ... Clinical Medical Division, clinical Surgical Division, Clinical Laboratory Research Division, Immunology &Therapeutic ... This was followed by the establishment of a "Laboratory for Schisosomiasis Research" in the chemistry building of the National ... Blood bank and various laboratories Affiliated to the hospital is a nursing school which graduated 295 students since 1998 up ...
2009). "New Guidelines for Hemorheological Laboratory Techniques". Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 42 (2): 75-97. ... Other techniques have been implemented such as photoacoustic measurements. This technique uses a single-pulse laser beam to ... Another experimental technique used to evaluate viscoelasticity consisted of using Ferromagnetism beads bonded to a cells ... Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 30 (2004) 61-75 J. Womersley, Method for Calculation of Velocity, Rate of Flow and ...
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 23 (4): 206-9. doi:10.1002/jcla.20332. PMC 6648992. PMID 19623657. Cunha BA (May 2006 ... Pignanelli S, Shurdhi A, Delucca F, Donati M (2009). "Simultaneous use of direct and indirect diagnostic techniques in atypical ... These clinical results correlate with epidemiological evidence that C. pneumoniae is positively associated with asthma severity ... PLOS Clinical Trials. 1 (2): e11. doi:10.1371/journal.pctr.0010011. PMC 1488900. PMID 16871333. Hahn DL, Grasmick M, Hetzel S, ...
Laboratory techniques: physical chemistry, organic chemistry, clinical chemistry. Repères chronologiques / Jacques Tréfouël ( ... For the next ten years, he served as laboratory chief at the Institute, during which time, he was involved in the synthesis and ... From 1920 to 1928 he worked as an assistant to Ernest Fourneau in the laboratory of medicinal chemistry at the Pasteur ... Techniques de laboratoire : chimie physique, chimie biologique, chimie clinique, 1947 - ...
... importance of assay technique and method of interpretation". The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 139 (2): 72-9. ... March 2016). "Clinical and genetic correlates of decision making in anorexia nervosa". Journal of Clinical and Experimental ... clinical features and symptoms of the sample at intake". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 67 (5): 703-11. doi:10.4088/JCP. ... In a clinical sample, it is clear that at the pretreatment step of a patient's recovery, more severe eating disorder symptoms ...
Ridley, John (2010). Essentials of Clinical Laboratory Science. Cengage Learning. pp. 199. ISBN 9781435448148. Seely, Oliver. " ... "Microscale Techniques - Complete Manual". Retrieved 2017-06-13. "Transfer pipette, polyethylene ... "Laboratory Glassware Disposal , Laboratory Waste Management , Environmental , Safety Programs , EHRS". ... In laboratory use, droppers should not be used for work involving high accuracy since droppers are not designed to measure ...
This technique is widely used in clinical laboratories because it is relatively easily automated. It is based on the principle ... Nephelometry is a technique used in immunology to determine the levels of several blood plasma proteins. For example the total ... Stevens, Christine Dorresteyn (2010). Clinical Immunology and Serology (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. p. 127. ISBN 978- ...
Baldwin, Dianne R; Marshall, William J (1999). "Heavy Metal Poisoning and its Laboratory Investigation". Annals of Clinical ... and that one category A technique and at least one other technique be used. If a category A technique is not available, or the ... Spectroscopy techniques are useful when the sample being tested is pure, or a very common mixture. When an unknown mixture is ... Laboratories also tend to keep in-house databases for the substances they find locally. Guidelines have been set up by various ...
Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Laboratory and Clinical Perspectives, edited by David K. Gardner, 2001[page ... Delvigne A, Rozenberg S (2003). "Review of clinical course and treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)". Hum ...
... first to offer clinical laboratory testing for certain mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which cause hereditary breast ... an important flow-cytometric human sperm separation technique for preconceptual gender selection. The services and research ... Clinical Genetics. 49 (2): 57-8. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.1996.tb04327.x. PMID 8740912. S2CID 45703511. Fugger, E.; Black, SH; ... cancer;[citation needed] developed the important technique of non-surgical sperm aspiration for improved treatment of male ...
... staining is used in clinical diagnostics and in laboratory research. In clinical diagnostics, immunostaining ... Related techniques are also useful in sub-typing lymphocytes which all look quite similar on light microscopy. In laboratory ... Indirect immunoperoxidase assay Immunohistochemistry Protocols, Buffers and Troubleshooting (Laboratory techniques). ... Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular ...
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Learn about the veterinary topic of Clinical Techniques in Amphibians. Find specific details on this topic and related topics ... Clinical Techniques in Amphibians By Brent R. Whitaker , MS, DVM, University of Maryland, Institute of Marine and Environmental ... However, cell morphology and reactive changes can aid in clinical diagnosis. Urine may be collected for analysis from those ... Dont Let it Croak: Clinical Approach to Amphibian Emergencies. 67th Convention of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association ...
Antibiotics and Their Laboratory Control Blood Groups and Techniques Diagnostic Procedures in Clinical Bacteriology. The ... The Laboratory Aids Series: Antibiotics and Their Laboratory Control Blood Groups and Techniques Diagnostic Procedures in ... Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & Association of Clinical Pathologists. All rights reserved. ... Clinical Bacteriology. The Specimen Essentials of Microtomy Histological Methods for Bone Human Tissue Mucins ...
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Results of search for su:{Clinical laboratory techniques} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Laboratory medicine education in medical schools : guidelines for courses on the effective use of clinical laboratory tests / ... Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 2003Other title: Manual of laboratory techniques.. ... Clinical laboratory management / Lynne S. Garcia, editor in chief ; editors, Vickie S. Baselski ... [et al.]. by Garcia, Lynne ...
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Regulations for Implementing the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988: A Summary ... Concentration or differential staining techniques *Identification techniques requiring interpretative skills *Antigen test ... specifying laboratory standards and requirements.. INTRODUCTION. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 ... laboratory directors, b) technical consultants, c) clinical consultants, and d) testing personnel. The laboratory director ...
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Learn about the veterinary topic of Clinical Procedures for Reptiles. Find specific details on this topic and related topics ... A useful and often underrated technique, ultrasonography has gained popularity as a diagnostic technique for reptiles. It is ... Diagnostic Techniques Radiology of Reptiles Several anatomic differences make it difficult to obtain quality radiographs in ... Clinical Procedures for Reptiles By Stephen J. Divers , BVetMed, DACZM, DECZM, FRCVS, Department of Small Animal Medicine and ...
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The measurement of breathlessness induced in normal subjects: validity of two scaling techniques. Clin Sci (Lond) 1985; 69: 7- ... Critics of laboratory dyspnoea studies have stated that laboratory-induced dyspnoea is not the same as clinical dyspnoea. This ... Translation between laboratory and clinical studies. Controllable laboratory dyspnoea interventions are essential to study ... The MDP was designed to be useful in both laboratory and clinical research, allowing better translation between laboratory and ...
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The selection of the specific biopsy site and biopsy technique is determined on the basis of the presumptive clinical diagnosis ... Aleksejuniene J, Gorovenko M. Caries detection techniques and clinical practice. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2009 Jan-Feb. 21(1 ... 2003/viewarticle/clinical-overview-oral-selective-estrogen-receptor-degraders-2023a1000mceeducation. Clinical Overview of Oral ... When the clinical diagnosis of an oral lesion cannot be confirmed with its signs and symptoms, a biopsy of the oral soft ...
As a scientist, Hart mastered and applied different techniques to laboratory and clinical research endeavors.[16][17][18] He ... clinical epidemiology, microbiology, elemental analysis, physiological optics, bioethics, and contact lenses.[19][20][21][22][ ... clinical optometrist, professor, and the founder of Woodbury Ophthalmic Group and Woodbury Optical Studio.[1] Dean ran for ...
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  • This module aims to cover quality and safety management systems recommended for effective operation and performance of diagnostic pathology laboratories. (
  • skills and techniques used in clinical pathology to understand the clinical meaning of laboratory data which characterize common pathological conditions. (
  • The use of automated blood culture systems for the recovery of these organisms from blood remains the standard technique for the microbial diagnosis of endocarditis. (
  • It is in view of the limitations noted, specifically that failure to recover the agent either through prior antibiotic treatment or the fastidious nature of the organism, that greater attention has been given to the role of both serology and the application of molecular techniques to the diagnosis of endocarditis. (
  • This review aims to provide the reader with an overview of both the current and future roles of serology and molecular-based detection methods in the laboratory diagnosis of endocarditis. (
  • In 1988, Congress passed the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), which set standards to improve the quality of clinical laboratory testing in all laboratories in the nation that conduct testing on human specimens for health assessment or for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease. (
  • They revise and supersede the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1967 and expand federal oversight to include virtually all laboratories in the country that conduct testing on human specimens for health assessment or for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease. (
  • Dr. Joseph is conducting preclinical, clinical, and translational studies to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and management of chemosensory disorders. (
  • This certificate aims to equip participants with the knowledge and skills required to process human body specimens for microscopic examination and diagnosis in Histopathology and Cytology laboratories. (
  • Depending on the work environment, testing performed by biomedical scientists can aid in clinical diagnosis, provide a better understanding of human biology, provide better therapeutic strategies and much more. (
  • Clinical laboratory testing plays a crucial role in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. (
  • The median annual wage for medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians was $53,120 in May 2019. (
  • The MLT Program has as its mission to provide continuously improving, diversified, quality learning experiences for students in order to graduate Medical Laboratory Technicians that perform competently and professionally in the field. (
  • the clinical biochemistry skills and techniques to evaluate the functional state of organs and tissues, using liquid and solid samples from patients. (
  • Employment of medical laboratory technologists is projected to grow 7 percent from 2019 to 2029, faster than the average for all occupations. (
  • Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 50 (2), 399 - 402. (
  • Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine ( CCLM ) publishes articles on novel teaching and training methods applicable to laboratory medicine. (
  • CCLM is the official journal of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine ( EFLM ) and affiliated to the National Societies that are members of the EFLM Academy . (
  • Blood grouping reagents are the vital tools in diagnostic laboratories for blood group serology. (
  • A Feature Paper should be a substantial original Article that involves several techniques or approaches, provides an outlook for future research directions and describes possible research applications. (
  • Dr. Joseph is Lasker Clinical Research Scholar Tenure Track Clinical Investigator and Chief of the Section of Sensory Science and Metabolism (SenSMet) in Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research (DICBR) at the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism with a joint appointment at the National Institute of Nursing Research. (
  • To provide mechanistic insight into our clinical research, we are also conducting preclinical studies using rodent models to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms that influence how the brain perceives the chemical senses (taste, smell, chemesthesis) and feeding behavior in a state of disease (e.g., obesity and substance use disorders). (
  • After earning her Ph.D. in Nursing with a focus in Genomics from the University of Pennsylvania and conducting her research at The Monell Chemical Senses Center, Dr. Paule Joseph completed a Workforce Diversity Postdoctoral Fellowship at the NINR, in the laboratory of Dr. Wendy Henderson. (
  • Her postdoctoral research focused on combining clinical and basic research in a single research program by examining the brain-gut interactions related to gastrointestinal disorders (i.e., obesity and diabetes). (
  • In 2017, she was appointed as Assistant Clinical Investigator and Chief of the Sensory Science and Metabolism Unit (SenSMet) in the NINR Division of Intramural Research. (
  • Each subject participated in two 51-hour closed-loop blood glucose control experiments at the Massachusetts General Hospital Clinical Research Center. (
  • 2 Centre for Clinical Infection & Diagnostics Research, King's College London. (
  • This course is relevant for individuals who are keen to pursue a career in diagnostic clinical laboratories or other related fields in biomedical research and technology. (
  • The biomedical sciences submajor is an academic, non-clinical submajor that provides you with excellent preparation pursue careers in medicine, dentistry, veterinary science, optometry, pharmacy, chiropractic, research and other related fields requiring an advanced degree. (
  • Biomedical scientists can work in a variety of settings such as clinical, research and biotechnology laboratories. (
  • We pioneer knowledge exchange through our dedicated teaching, collaborative research, and investments in our world-class Bodmer Laboratories. (
  • Our £3m Bodmer Laboratories are packed with industry-standard research equipment that keeps your learning at the forefront of discovery. (
  • Dr. Lin has academic research interests in the clinical, basic science, and biomechanical foundations of injury, healing, and rehabilitation. (
  • He continues to participate in clinical outcomes research and laboratory research. (
  • His research focus is developing new surgical techniques and harnessing emerging technologies for both surgical and nonsurgical treatment. (
  • The vast number of available techniques for clinical and laboratory research often makes selecting the optimal method a difficult process. (
  • Research in the lab encompasses the development of acquisition techniques and analysis algorithms for parametric and functional mapping using clinical MRI and MEG (magnetoencephalography), as well as multimodal integration in both clinical and pre-clinical imaging. (
  • The mission of the Human Immunology Center is to provide expertise for applying new cutting edge immunological techniques from basic animal research through development and standardization to human research. (
  • Research in the HIC core laboratory supports exploratory clinical research programs by establishing measures for immune status and response across multiple disciplines and programs. (
  • It is focused on basic and applied research and cutting-edge clinical laboratory medicine. (
  • Dr. Sally A. Quataert, Director of the Human Immunology Center (HIC) Core Laboratory, is an internationally recognized expert in bioanalytical method development and standardization. (
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. (
  • To achieve this goal, our laboratory conducts clinical-translational inpatient and outpatient studies. (
  • The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 (PL 100-578) resulted from public and congressional concerns about the quality of clinical laboratory testing in the United States and set standards designed to improve quality. (
  • The NHANES quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) protocols meet the 1988 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act mandates. (
  • The regulations for implementing CLIA, developed by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), consist of four separate sets of rules: a) laboratory standards, b) application and user fees, c) enforcement procedures, and d) approval of accreditation programs. (
  • Detailed instructions on specimen collection and processing are discussed in the NHANES Laboratory Procedures Manual (LPM) . (
  • NCHS and contract consultants use a structured competency assessment evaluation during visits to evaluate both the quality of the laboratory work and the quality-control procedures. (
  • The curriculum prepares Medical Laboratory Assistants to perform a variety of supportive procedures in the pre-analytical and analytical stages of clinical samples processing. (
  • Simulations, laboratory activities and clinical training provide proficiency in laboratory techniques and procedures. (
  • Clinical laboratories, such as public health or academic labs, commonly conduct procedures involving pathogens that are infectious via inhalation. (
  • Typically, BSL-2+ containment is a laboratory where work with microorganisms is conducted in a BSL-2 lab with biosafety practices and procedures generally found at BSL-3. (
  • An increase in the aging population is expected to lead to a greater need to diagnose medical conditions, such as cancer or type 2 diabetes, through laboratory procedures. (
  • Automation of procedures in clinical bioanalysis. (
  • Standard procedures using 18-color multichromatic flow cytometry for cell analysis and 15-color cell sorting, Elispot, fluorispot and lysispot are available for application to clinical trials including lymphoma, autoimmunity, and infectious disease. (
  • Emphasis is placed on collection, processing, preparation and analysis of patient specimens, critical assessment of specimens for pre-analytical errors and interfering substances, proper documentation and reporting of patient results appropriate to the level of a MLA while following established laboratory protocols as well preparation, analysis, interpretation and reporting of quality control per standard operating procedures. (
  • Students will follow established laboratory protocols as well as prepare, analyze, interpret and report quality control per standard operating procedures. (
  • Although histology is considered one of the most valuable diagnostic tests for infection, the requirement of excised material prevents this from being a principle technique. (
  • Based on their findings, the researchers concluded that even in infants with initially mild disease, early determination of WBC count and close WBC count monitoring is critical in predicting the severity and clinical course of B. pertussis infection. (
  • This is consistent with positive treatment studies of NTX for amphetamine dependence, as well as ongoing clinical trials for MA. (
  • In addition, applications can include the utilization of human laboratory paradigms to screen potential medications for subsequent phase 2 and 3 trials as well as to determine the actions of the medications. (
  • They will also learn about the general concepts underlying disease mechanisms, common conditions affecting the various body systems, contemporary diagnostic methods available to detect diseases and the quality management systems recommended for effective operation of diagnostic laboratories. (
  • While various functional neuroimaging techniques are widely used for pre-surgical mapping of critical functional zones in the brain, traditional analysis methods are not well suited to objectively generating reliable maps of brain function in individual patients. (
  • The main focus of the subject is on new clinical applications of experimental, reference and routine methods. (
  • It is also intended to prepare the student for independent mastering of the validation and verification of laboratory methods, to familiarize him with the current trends in the automation of methods used in the clinical laboratory and to provide him / her with basic information for correct evaluation of achieved results. (
  • Modern trends in the development of methods in clinical laboratories. (
  • Under her leadership and scientific direction, her laboratory at Wyeth Vaccines (formerly Lederle-Praxis Biologicals) established W.H.O. recognized methods for evaluating serological correlates for immune protection with polysaccharide conjugate vaccines for Neisseria meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • The voice, swallowing, respiration and resonance laboratories of the Charles Van Riper Language, Speech and Hearing Clinic are operated by the Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences at Western Michigan University. (
  • Clinical Simulation Laboratory faculty have established a reputation for successfully implementing innovative and effective clinical training programs. (
  • The Clinical Simulation Laboratory will offer the required training as needed for individual faculty members. (
  • principles and applications of the major techniques used in radiology and nuclear medicine, the principal sources of radiological risk and the relevant protective measures for operators and patients. (
  • MLT 131 covers the basic principles and techniques used in the medical laboratory. (
  • Clinical decision limits as criteria for setting analytical performance specifications for laboratory tests. (
  • Available with full and part-time study routes, our science postgraduate courses are designed to equip science graduates and professionals with laboratory skills, critical thinking and analytical techniques to thrive in the bioscience revolution. (
  • The subject spreads the range of student bioanalytical knowledge for independent and safe work in a clinical laboratory with an emphasis on modern trends in all phases of laboratory examination. (
  • Wallace State Community College's Medical Laboratory Technician program provides the training and education needed to enter the workforce, including the eligibility to sit for the Board of Certification Examination. (
  • Before implementing a BSL-2+, the essential first step is to conduct a biosafety risk assessment in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). (
  • Testing biosafety competencies should be part of the training process to ensure laboratory staff are properly trained. (
  • MLA's work in hospitals, medical clinics, commercial clinical laboratories, physician office laboratories and in other clinical facilities. (
  • You will learn core laboratory skills primarily required for testing in physician office lab, urgent care and other decentralized testing sites. (
  • Emphasis is placed on terminology, basic laboratory equipment, specimen collection and processing, safety and computations. (
  • Using sophisticated lab equipment, clinical laboratory personnel examine and analyze body fluids and cells. (
  • Strategically located in Halifax's largest hospitals, our infrastructure ranges from clinical 3T MRI and MEG, to pre-clinical MRI, PET, SPECT and CT. (
  • The regulations summarized here for readers of the MMWR series will affect laboratory practice with the goal of improving and maintaining quality. (
  • It is difficult for unaided physicians to keep up with the scientific advances and changing practice guidelines relevant to ordering and interpreting laboratory tests. (
  • Discusses the implications of AI in clinical practice. (
  • You'll gain a strong science background, professional management skills and technical expertise, all of which you can put to practice in our modern laboratory facilities. (
  • Our mission is to improve patient outcomes through optimal transfusion management utilizing a standard of care based on the most current clinical evidence and outcomes. (
  • Laboratory medicine education in medical schools : guidelines for courses on the effective use of clinical laboratory tests / Mohamed. (
  • Divining without seeds : the case for strengthening laboratory medicine in Africa / Iruka N. Okeke. (
  • Annals of laboratory medicine. (
  • International Journal of Clinical Medicine , 10 , 109-121. (
  • Dr. Kenneth Lin is an orthopaedic surgeon and clinical assistant professor at Stanford University School of Medicine. (
  • DR. MANDEL: This is an interview of Dr. Jack Davidson, Dr. Giovanni DiChiro, Dr. Gerald Johnston, and Dr. John Harbert, all formerly of the Department of Nuclear Medicine in the Clinical Center about the history of that department. (
  • Interviewing these gentlemen will be Dr. Richard Mandel, who is currently on contract with the Clinical Center Office of communications developing a history of the Clinical Center, Dennis Rodrigues from the NIH Historical Office and Ronald Newman from the Department of Nuclear Medicine, who is currently the Chief of that section. (
  • DR. MANDEL: What I would like to do this afternoon is start as close to the beginning as we can in terms of Nuclear Medicine at the Clinical Center and then we'll come through the l960s and years subsequent to that. (
  • Nuclear Medicine or the department that would become Nuclear Medicine was given an independent status by Jack Masur, in the original leadership of the Clinical Center. (
  • And I made a formal proposal to the management in Building 1 that they ought to consider instituting a Department of Nuclear Medicine in the Clinical Center to centralize these facilities and to be available then to all patients in any institute. (
  • Manual of basic techniques for a health laboratory. (
  • Latest diagnostic techniques , including Real-Time PCR and Multiplex PCR. (
  • Graduates from the NOVA Career Studies Certificate in Medical Laboratory Assistant are employed in the Northern Virginia area as well as throughout the rest of the state and surrounding areas. (
  • A variety of simulation techniques and methodologies are utilized in the CSL. (
  • A variety of simulation methodologies are utilized in the Clinical Simulation Laboratory. (
  • The various institutes did different operations clinically with radioisotopes apart from the laboratory uses. (
  • This publication is intended for a large audience--both providers and users of laboratory services. (
  • Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that NTX may be useful for the treatment of MA use disorder. (
  • To inform treatment development, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled human laboratory study of NTX. (
  • Pertinent laboratory tests, signs and symptoms and ultrasound techniques and protocols will be included. (
  • Laboratory testing, signs and symptoms and specialized ultrasound techniques and protocols will be reviewed. (
  • The Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Laboratory Science) is a multi-campus experience where it combines the strengths of five polytechnics' curricula and aims to equip participants with the knowledge and technical skills to support the needs of the biomedical science industry, particularly in medical laboratory science. (
  • In clinical public health laboratories, routine diagnostic testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtB) in a BSL-2+ space is commonly performed. (
  • Laboratorians can use online test catalogs to steer physicians toward optimal test algorithms, with hyperlinking to journal articles, clinical guidelines, and other reference materials. (
  • International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, 32 (1 PART.2), 127 - 131. (
  • As a medical laboratory assistant, you will be able to perform lab tests that help to detect, diagnose and study diseases. (
  • The Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Laboratory Science) comprises of five Modular Certificates (MCs) that focuses on a specific area of expertise that will enable participants to acquire the relevant knowledge and skills. (
  • Her goals for the HIC Core lab are to reduce to practise the highest quality innovative bioanalytical techniques for evaluation of human immune responses and to assist biomedical researchers in the acquisition and execution of these techniques. (
  • As part of this initiative our institution offers safe and effective transfusion-free medical and surgical techniques. (
  • Medical Laboratory Assistant (MLA), C.S.C. (
  • The Diploma in Applied Science (Medical Laboratory Science) will be issued upon meeting 50% of attendance requirement and passing all coursework and assessment. (
  • A physical or mental impairment must be established by medical evidence consisting of signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings, not only by [an individual's] statement of symptoms. (
  • Choose Wallace State's Medical Laboratory Technician degree for a career in a highly-rewarding, high-demand field at a fraction of the cost of attending a university. (
  • Discover your story in Medical Laboratory Technician at Wallace State! (
  • Wallace State Community College's Department of Medical Laboratory Technology now offers a Medical Laboratory Assistant (MLA) certificate program. (
  • MLT 132 is designed specifically for students to apply knowledge and skill needed to perform as a Medical Laboratory Assistant (MLA). (
  • Upon completion of this course, the student will demonstrate satisfactory competency as an entry-level medical laboratory assistant and be eligible for MLA national certification exam. (
  • If you wish to continue to further your education and apply to the WSCC Medical Laboratory Technician program, MLT131 will be waived upon acceptance into the program for students who have completed MLT 131 with a C or better. (
  • Functional Reference Limits: Describing Physiological Relationships and Determination of Physiological Limits for Enhanced Interpretation of Laboratory Results. (
  • This course provides knowledge of vascular anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology, hemodynamics, direct and indirect ultrasound imaging techniques of the peripheral arterial and visceral systems. (
  • All of our physicians are trained in ultrasound technique and ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration biopsies. (
  • Pathologists and clinical laboratory scientists have valuable knowledge that can help treating physicians provide higher-quality and more cost-effective care. (
  • She was responsible for all aspects of laboratory regulatory compliance and quality systems management in the performance of clinical trial evaluations for vaccine development at Wyeth. (
  • Dr. Quataert has extensive experience in conducting inter-laboratory studies and method validation in support of pre-clinical and clinical testing. (
  • Evaluation and treatment services are provided through the in-house voice and respiration laboratories. (
  • State-of-the-art technology, including stroboscopic and endoscopic techniques, provides precise observation and evaluation of the vocal and respiratory mechanisms. (
  • Evaluation of laboratory data. (