Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.HemosiderinHeme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.CeruloplasminFMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Ferrozine: A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Hemosiderosis: Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Ferrichrome: A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
"Journal of Clinical Investigation. 16 (4): 547-54. doi:10.1172/JCI100881. PMC 424894. PMID 16694502.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate,[1] is a black compound often used as an iron supplement. It is the iron(II) salt of ... Main article: Iron supplement. Ferrous gluconate is effectively used in the treatment of hypochromic anemia. The use of this ... Iron exerts both local and systemic effects: it is corrosive to the gastrointestinal mucosa, it can have a negative impact on ...
Litwin CM, Calderwood SB (Apr 1993). "Role of iron in regulation of virulence genes". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 6 (2): 137 ... The iron dependent repressor family is a functionally similar but non-homologous family of proteins involved in iron ... Fur proteins are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria. Iron is essential for ... Pohl E, Haller JC, Mijovilovich A, Meyer-Klaucke W, Garman E, Vasil ML (Feb 2003). "Architecture of a protein central to iron ...
The future of clinical laboratory genomics. M.L.O. Dec (2004). 8-15. (Published online Dec 1, 2004 at [4]. Billings, P. CRG ... 6. [2]. Billings P. Iron revisited. Annals of Family Medicine 2004 Invited online commentary posted 4/1/04 at [3]. P.R. ... He is the author of nearly 200 publications and books on experimental and clinical medicine. His work on genetic discrimination ... Board certified internist and clinical geneticist, Dr. Paul R. Billings is a Chairman of Biological Dynamics, Inc. and Plumcare ...
ISBN 978-0-323-35681-7. "Iron deficiency may impact metabolic pathways". Clinical Adviser. Howard M. Shapiro (25 February 2005 ... Flow Cytometry in Clinical Diagnosis. ASCP. pp. 308-. ISBN 978-0-89189-625-8. "Low-cost neonatal test may save many babies". 26 ... 209-. ISBN 978-0-578-01786-0. Elaine Keohane; Larry Smith; Jeanine Walenga (20 February 2015). Rodak's Hematology: Clinical ...
Victorhoffbrand, A (2005). "Deferiprone therapy for transfusional iron overload". Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology ... Koren, a clinical pharmacologist, was not qualified to be MDTL's director, "Dr. Koren saw himself as an expert in the ... Clinical Toxicology. 31 (3): 407-13. doi:10.3109/15563659309000409. PMID 8355317. Koren G, Graham K, Shear H, Einarson T ( ... An independent review found that neither the lab's director, clinical toxicologist Gideon Koren, nor his staff, had the ...
Research findings can take some time before becoming routinely implemented into clinical practice. Clinical medicine needs to ... The main cause of anaemia is iron deficiency. In United States women iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) affects 37% of pregnant ... "Journal of Clinical Investigation. 112 (7): 973-977. doi:10.1172/JCI19993. PMC 198535. PMID 14523031.. ... In the adult woman, pregnancy leads to further iron depletion.[6] Violence[edit]. Main articles: Violence against women, ...
"Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron absorption". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 47 (2): 270-4. PMID 3341259. Gordon ... Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio ( ... When iron and zinc bind to phytic acid they form insoluble precipitates and are far less absorbable in the intestines. This ... Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to important minerals, such as calcium, iron, and zinc, although the binding of ...
Frataxin chaperones iron to the matrix side of ferrochelatase, where aspartate and histidine residues on both proteins ... James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0- ... Researchers studying Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase propose a mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin in which the ... most of which behave in an autosomal dominant manner with low clinical penetrance. Clinically, patients with EPP present with a ...
Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 94 (3): 847-853. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.003483. Retrieved 29 November 2018.. ... Beyond the iron-sulfur proteins, many other metal cofactors in enzymes are bound to the thiolate substituent of cysteinyl ... Examples include zinc in zinc fingers and alcohol dehydrogenase, copper in the blue copper proteins, iron in cytochrome P450, ...
Bothwell, TH (July 2000). "Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them". The American Journal of Clinical ... "Clinical Evidence. 2010: 1411. PMC 3217736 . PMID 21418682.. *^ MedlinePlus , Breast pain Archived 5 August 2012 at ... Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia.[93] Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for all ... "Routine Iron Supplementation and Screening for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review to Update the U.S ...
"Iron deficiency in Europe" (PDF). Public Health Nutrition: 4(2B). pp. 537-545. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. ... Speroff, Leon; Darney, Philip D. (2005). "Oral Contraception". A Clinical Guide for Contraception (4th ed.). Philadelphia: ... These are typically given as 21 tablets of estrogen and progestogen, followed by seven tablets of placebo or an iron supplement ... "Clinical Guidance: First Prescription of Combined Oral Contraception" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-04 ...
Each monomer binds one holo-transferrin molecule creating an iron-Tf-TfR complex which enters the cell by endocytosis. TfR1 as ... InatherYs, in Évry, France, developed a candidate drug, INA01 antibody (anti-CD71) that showed efficacy in pre-clinical studies ... TfR1 is required for iron import from transferrin into cells by endocytosis. TfR1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein composed of ... Speeckaert MM, Speeckaert R, Delanghe JR (December 2010). "Biological and clinical aspects of soluble transferrin receptor". ...
Andrews studied treatments for and molecular processes governing iron disease, such as anemia (iron deficiency) and ... Journal of Clinical Investigation 2005; 115:2187-91. Lim J, Jin O, Bennett C, Morgan K, Wang F, Trenor CC 3rd, Fleming MD and ... Nancy C. Andrews (born November 29, 1958) is an American biologist noted for her research on iron homeostasis. Andrews was ... Balancing acts: molecular control of mammalian iron metabolism. Cell 2004; 117:285-97. Huang FW, Pinkus JL, Pinkus GS, Fleming ...
Campbell, NR; Hasinoff, BB (1991). "Iron supplements: a common cause of drug interactions". British Journal of Clinical ... These micronutrients (manganese, iron, zinc, copper) are required for the health of the plants. Most fertilizers contain ... Harrington, M. J.; Masic, A.; Holten-Andersen, N.; Waite, J. H.; Fratzl, P. (2010). "Iron-Clad Fibers: A Metal-Based Biological ... For example, species of Pseudomonas are known to secrete pyochelin and pyoverdine that bind iron. Enterobactin, produced by E. ...
Bergeron, Raymond J.; Brittenham, Gary M. (6 December 1993). The Development of Iron Chelators for Clinical Use. CRC Press. ... Medical research considered for funding includes clinical trials in cell and gene therapies, and ongoing clinical projects with ... "The Development of Iron Chelators for Clinical Use" by Raymond J. Bergeron, Gary M. Brittenham Since 1964, the Foundation has ... The Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN). This 10-year project was funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood ...
The Development of Iron Chelators for Clinical Use. CRC Press. pp. 37-38. ISBN 0-8493-8679-9. John Daintith, ed. (2004). Oxford ... oxyanions of iron also exist. These too are called ferrates. Ferrate(VI) salts are formed by oxidizing iron in an aqueous ... Iron usually exists in the +2 and +3 oxidation states; however, in a strong oxidizing environment, higher oxidation states of ... The term ferrate is normally used to mean ferrate(VI), although it can refer to other iron-containing anions, many of which are ...
Chan, AO; Lai, KC (2006). "A patient with long-standing iron-deficient anemia". Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & ... Clinical gastroenterology. 20 (1): 179-94. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2005.09.004. PMID 16473807. Mönkemüller, K; Bellutti, M; Neumann, ... bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract of obscure cause iron deficiency anemia with normal colonoscopy and gastroscopy ...
British Journal of Clinical Psychology 43, 31-50. Gilbert P & Irons, C. (2004). A pilot exploration of the use of compassionate ... Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3, 23-34. Gilbert, P., Baldwin, M., Irons, C., Baccus, J. & Clark, M. (2006). Self- ... Gilbert P & Irons C. (2005). Focused therapies and compassionate mind training for shame and self-attacking. In, P. Gilbert (ed ... British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 32, 131-153. Gilbert, P. (1997). The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in ...
... studies investigating whether cognitive function in already iron-deficient children can be improved with iron supplements have ... A Lancet review identified 201 chemicals with the ability to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in human adults, as described in ... One way to prevent iron deficiency is to give specific supplementation to children, for example as tablets. However, this is ... Micronutrient deficiencies (e.g. in iodine and iron) influence the development of intelligence and remain a problem in the ...
"Iron deficiency in Europe" (PDF). Public Health Nutrition: 4(2B). pp. 537-545. Retrieved 2010-11-19. FFPRHC (2007). "Clinical ... These are typically given as 21 tablets of estrogen and progestogen, followed by seven tablets of placebo or an iron supplement ... ISBN 0-9664902-5-8. Speroff, Leon; Darney, Philip D. (2005). "Oral Contraception". A Clinical Guide for Contraception (4th ed ...
Bothwell, TH (July 2000). "Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them". The American Journal of Clinical ... Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant ... McDonagh, M; Cantor, A; Bougatsos, C; Dana, T; Blazina, I (March 2015). "Routine Iron Supplementation and Screening for Iron ... "Folic acid, iron and pregnancy -". Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August ...
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Gilbert, & Irons, 2005 Leary, M. R.; Tate, E. B.; Adams, C. E.; Allen, A. B.; ... "Self-Compassion in Clinical Practice". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 69 (8): 856-867. doi:10.1002/jclp.22021. Segal, Z., ... Clinical research from the past 25 years has found that MBSR is efficacious in reducing distress and enhancing individual well- ... 2004). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition". Clinical Psychology Science and Practice. 11: 191-206. Nolen-Hoeksema ...
"Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 78 ... Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ... "Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 10 (1): 1-18. PMC 172912 . PMID 8993856.. *^ Chaudière J, Ferrari-Iliou R (1999). "Intracellular ... "Clinical Chemistry. 40 (3): 411-6. PMID 8131277.. *^ Stahl W, Schwarz W, Sundquist AR, Sies H (April 1992). "cis-trans isomers ...
Iron is not usually readily available in the environment this group of bacteria find themselves in. However iron is essential ... Spencer, RC (2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-187. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905 ... to Fe3+ than the host's iron-binding proteins, and so will remove iron and then transported inside the cell. Bacillus anthracis ... FepA is an integral bacterial outer membrane porin protein, which is involved in the active transport of iron bound by the ...
"Natural Histories - Spinach-Iron". Hamblin, T J (1981-12-19). "Fake". British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.). 283 ( ... Spinach is sometimes wrongly claimed to be a good source of iron. However, this myth is often also wrongly explained by ... Later analysis also supports the idea that the true reason for the misestimation of the iron content of spinach are "unreliable ... Mike Sutton showed that there almost certainly was no decimal error involved in deriving the wrong iron content of spinach. ...
Clinical trials have been conducted to investigate aspects of the nutritional value of erythorbic acid. One such trial ... A later study found that erythorbic acid is a potent enhancer of nonheme-iron absorption. Since the U.S. Food and Drug ... Fidler, MC; Davidsson L; Zeder C; Hurrell RF (January 2004). "Erythorbic acid is a potent enhancer of nonheme-iron absorption ... ". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79 (1): 99-102. PMID 14684404. Hui YH (2006). Handbook of Food Science, Technology ...
Lab studies have also implicated potential therapeutic targets for future clinical studies. VEGFR-1 and EMT mediators may be ... "Wnt inhibitor screen reveals iron dependence of β-catenin signaling in cancers". Cancer Res. 71 (24): 7628-39. doi:10.1158/0008 ... By disrupting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, short-term neoadjuvant radiotherapy (STNR) may help prevent clinical recurrence ...
Channel-iron deposits, one of the major sources of saleable iron ore ... Clinical Infectious Diseases, a medical journal. *Collision-induced dissociation, a mass spectrometry mechanism ...
For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. Layout table for eligibility information. ... Drug: Iron sucrose Iron sucrose FERIV® (20 mg/ml). Dilution: 10 ml in 100 ml SF 0.9%. 25 ml in 15 minutes and the rest in ... MedlinePlus related topics: Anemia Fractures Hip Injuries and Disorders Iron Drug Information available for: Sucrose Iron, ... Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Iron Sucrose in Patients With Hip Fracture to Prevent Perioperative Anemia. The safety and ...
Although current treatments for iron-deficiency anemia can be effective, they commonly fail because pediatric patients do not ... Clinical trial shows traditional treatment is better for iron-deficiency anemia. Published Thursday 15 June 2017 Published Thu ... "Clinical trial shows traditional treatment is better for iron-deficiency anemia." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 15 ... 2017, June 15). "Clinical trial shows traditional treatment is better for iron-deficiency anemia." Medical News Today. ...
Clinical trial sheds new light on potential risk associated with intravenous iron treatment - read this article along with ... Clinical trial sheds new light on potential risk associated with intravenous iron treatment. Published: Dec 06, 2018 ... A new clinical trial finds that many patients who were treated for iron deficiency anemia with ferric carboxymaltose showed ... About the Duke Clinical Research Institute The Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI), part of the Duke University School of ...
A multicenter, randomized clinical trial of IV iron supplementation for anemia of traumatic critical illness*.. Pieracci FM1, ... Baseline iron markers were consistent with functional iron deficiency: 134 patients (89.3%) were hypoferremic, 51 (34.0%) were ... Iron supplementation increased the serum ferritin concentration significantly, but it had no discernible effect on transferrin ... Randomization to iron sucrose 100 mg IV or placebo thrice weekly for up to 2 weeks. ...
... for measuring deficiencies in iron and folate, but they are complex and expensive tests. The red cell distribution width (RDW- ...
Clinical Importance of Treating Iron Overload in Sickle Cell Disease. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Since each teaspoon of packed red blood cells contains about 5 mg of iron and humans have no way to get rid of excess iron, the ... Iron Overload. Chelation Therapy. Iron overload from blood transfusions. Heart rate variability. Autonomic dysfunction. ... Then we will treat the patients who have very high iron levels with a drug which will remove the iron. Only patients with a ...
While oral iron remains the cornerstone of IDA therapy, some patients require IV iron therapy (Box 6). Underuse of IV iron may ... Parenteral iron therapy. Intramuscular (IM) iron therapy. Although IM injection of iron is effective, it is painful, associated ... Iron stores can then be fully replaced with oral therapy (if tolerated), with IV iron polymaltose or further doses of IV iron ... New IV iron preparations. There are a number of new IV iron preparations. Iron carboxymaltose, which is available in Europe but ...
Treatment with oral iron preparations restored platelet monoamine oxidase activity to normal in those patients whose serum iron ... Human Platelet Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia B. H. Moussa B. H. Moussa ... Some Properties of Human Platelet Monoamine Oxidase in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia Clin Sci Mol Med (June, 1976) ... 3. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity remained low if treatment failed to restore serum iron concentration to within normal ...
A medical advisor forum for primary care NPs and PAs to have their clinical questions answered by medical experts in the field ... Plasma iron levels should be interpreted in the context of other iron studies, especially ferritin levels and transferrin ... or iron overload due to transfusions or dietary iron overload.. -Susan Kashaf, MD, MPH (111-14) ... Clinical Advisor Return To Top is for nurse practitioners and physician assistants, offering the latest ...
... what probiotics does kefir have iron, enzymes digestives biovea wiki, what is the best daily probiotic to take 40, probiotics ... Comments to "What probiotics does kefir have iron". * Puma. : 04.06.2016 at 15:48:56 Distress, you need to regulate your bowel ... What probiotics does kefir have iron,organic colon cleanse pills,how to take pb8 probiotic - New On 2016. admin , 04.06.2016 ... Come have some fun with Clinical Aromatherapist Dawn Duffy learning how to have better health through Probiotics!! But a new ...
Is cooking food in iron pots an appropriate solution for the control of anaemia in developing countries? A randomised clinical ... Anaemia prevalence (Hb , 110 g l(-1) in infants, Hb , 120 g l(-1) in girls or women) was 47% (cast iron group), 50% (blue steel ... To evaluate the effect of two types of iron pots on haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations in young children ( ... There is no evidence that iron cooking pots are effective against IDA. Further research is warranted to determine whether the ...
Role of iron in regulation of virulence genes. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Clinical ... Studies of the mechanisms of regulation of iron acquisition systems and virulence determinants by iron should lead to a better ... Role of iron in regulation of virulence genes.. C M Litwin, S B Calderwood ... Clinical Microbiology Reviews Apr 1993, 6 (2) 137-149; DOI: 10.1128/CMR.6.2.137 ...
lycopersici (6, 58) and are ferric iron chelators. Their formation depends on iron concentration but is not as stringently iron ... is combined with 2 mol of iron (Fe2DA3) to form the iron-bearing ligand. The binding of iron is weaker than that with the other ... at low iron concentrations (7 μM), yeasts transport the entire iron-bearing ligand with iron into the cells and reductively ... 1998) Iron chelators for clinical use. Metal Ions Biol. Syst. 35:691-730. ...
Reduction and Uptake of Ferric Iron by Human Duodenum in vitro K B Raja K B Raja ... K B Raja, D Pountney, A Bomford, R S Williams, R J Simpson, T J Peters; Reduction and Uptake of Ferric Iron by Human Duodenum ... Complex-formation and reduction of ferric iron by 2-oxo-4-thiomethylbutyric acid, and the production of hydroxyl radicals ... Monocyte-macrophage ferric reductase activity is inhibited by iron and stimulated by cellular differentiation Biochem J ( ...
Iron Deficiency , Cardiac Disease , Heart failure , Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of FCM as Treatment for Heart Failure ... Clinical trial for Heart disease , Congestive Heart Failure , ... Subject: Im Interested in Participating in Your Clinical Trial ... Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of FCM as Treatment for Heart Failure With Iron Deficiency Brief description of study. The ... Sign up for our FREE service to receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest ...
Clinical trial for Iron Overload , Other Anemias , SICKLE CELL ANEMIA , Efficacy and Safety of Ferriprox in Patients With ... is an iron chelator that is approved in the United States and over 60 other countries for the treatment of iron overload in ... Receive Emails About New Clinical Trials!. Sign up for our FREE service to receive email notifications when clinical trials are ... For both drugs, the starting dosage is based on how much extra iron they have taken in through transfusions in the last 3 ...
Iron deficiency anemia , Study With Oral Ferric Maltol for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Subjects With Chronic ... Receive Emails About New Clinical Trials!. Sign up for our FREE service to receive email notifications when clinical trials are ... Study With Oral Ferric Maltol for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Subjects With Chronic Kidney Disease Brief ...
Some samples were then washed in H2O, and iron deposits in the tissue were detected using the Accustain Iron Stain Kit (Sigma- ... Ferumoxytol: a new intravenous iron preparation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney ... Determination of iron content in the samples revealed that increased iron uptake was responsible for the observed relaxation ... biomarkers of their efficiency at inducing macrophage depletion would be of great clinical benefit. Moreover, since clinical ...
1. The sera of patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis and iron-overload have been found to contain low-molecular-weight iron ... Low-molecular-weight iron complexes and oxygen radical reactions in idiopathic haemochromatosis. J. M. C. Gutteridge, D. A. ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Clinical Science Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ... 3. The iron chelator desferrioxamine interferes with these reactions.. 4. We suggest that oxygen radical reactions stimulated ...
1.4 ms in myocytes from control and iron-deficient rats respectively (P , 0.01). These iron deficiency-induced ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Clinical Science Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ... Experimental Iron Deficiency in Rats: Mechanical and Electrophysiological Alterations in the Cardiac Muscle. Dalit Goldstein, ... 4. The L-type Ca2+ current was smaller in ventricular myocytes from control rats than in those from iron-deficient rats; at a ...
Haemochromatosis, hepcidin and disorders of iron metabolism: Fields of substantial clinical relevance and current advances. ... Faculty of Health SciencesDivision of clinical chemistryDepartment of Clinical Chemistry In the same journal. Scandinavian ... 2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 66, no ... Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, ...
... despite the availability of a clinical practice guideline, may be explained by variability in processes of care for achieving ... Implementing Iron Management Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Having Dialysis Michelle J ... Implementing Iron Management Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Having Dialysis Michelle J ... Effects of proactive iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent protocol implementation on achieving clinical guideline targets ...
Although H pylori-associated hypochlorhydria is transient during acute gastritis, this alters iron homeostasis with clinical ... In H pylori-associated atrophy, hypochlorhydria has a role in iron deficiency (ID) through changes in the physiology of iron- ... or total iron binding capacity, were observed. In H pylori-negative children with pH,4, iron and transferrin saturation were ... In H pylori-positive children with pH,4 (n=6) serum iron and transferrin saturation levels % were significantly lower (p,0.01) ...
Wikipedia : 76 African iron overload, also known as (Bantu siderosis, or Dietary iron overload), is an iron overload... more... ... Clinical features from OMIM: 601195 Human phenotypes related to Iron Overload in Africa:. 32 #. Description. HPO Frequency. HPO ... 25 African iron overload is a condition that involves absorption of too much iron from the diet. The excess iron is stored in ... Iron levels in the body are primarily regulated through control of how much iron is absorbed from the diet. NIH Rare Diseases : ...
Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia with Iron Overload. ... 25 Hypochromic microcytic anemia with iron overload is a condition that impairs the normal transport of iron in cells. Iron is ... MalaCards based summary : Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia with Iron Overload, also known as microcytic anemia and hepatic iron ... Diseases in the Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia with Iron Overload family:. Anemia, Hypochromic Microcytic, with Iron Overload 1 ...
  • It will also determine whether intravenous iron sucrose administration improve outcomes as Haemoglobin values, transfusional needs, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and cost-effectiveness. (
  • In my practice, I noticed the lack of strong experimental data supporting how we treat these patients with oral iron therapy. (
  • Because kidney failure is associated with reduced ability to excrete phosphate, patients with healthy kidneys are more likely to develop intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia. (
  • In contrast, other practitioners who frequently administer intravenous iron to patients at high risk for hypophosphatemia do not think about phosphate levels, and phosphate levels are not measured in standard lab panels. (
  • Meanwhile patients feel poorly because of their lower phosphate levels, but it is easy to misattribute their symptoms to the original iron deficiency they are being treated for or the underlying disease that caused iron deficiency. (
  • Its mission is to develop and share knowledge that improves the care of patients through innovative clinical research. (
  • Since each teaspoon of packed red blood cells contains about 5 mg of iron and humans have no way to get rid of excess iron, the levels of iron in sickle cell patients increase rapidly with each transfusion. (
  • To accomplish this we will screen sickle cell patients with a history of many blood transfusions to see if they have high iron levels. (
  • Then we will treat the patients who have very high iron levels with a drug which will remove the iron. (
  • Only patients with a very high iron level will be eligible for the treatment. (
  • 2. Treatment with oral iron preparations restored platelet monoamine oxidase activity to normal in those patients whose serum iron concentrations also returned to normal. (
  • This is a double-blind, multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of IV FCM compared to placebo on the 12-month rate of death, hospitalization for worsening heart failure, and the 6-month change in 6 minute walk test (6MWT) for patients in heart failure with iron deficiency. (
  • This study has been designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of deferiprone vs. deferoxamine in patients who have SCD or other anemias, and who require chelation because of the extra iron they are taking in through blood transfusions. (
  • To evaluate the outcomes of and barriers to implementing standard guidelines (Caring for Australasians with renal impairment [CARI]), using iron management in patients having dialysis as an example. (
  • Patients' iron indices and haemoglobin levels were obtained from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. (
  • How much iron do dialysis patients need in a typical year? (
  • In a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, 64 patients with METS were randomly assigned to iron reduction by phlebotomy (n = 33) or to a control group (n = 31), which was offered phlebotomy at the end of the study (waiting-list design). (
  • In patients with METS, phlebotomy, with consecutive reduction of body iron stores, lowered BP and resulted in improvements in markers of cardiovascular risk and glycemic control. (
  • Of the patients in the conventional iron group, 25 percent failed to complete the study, and 67 percent of those remaining complained of unpleasant side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, leg cramps, nausea and vomiting. (
  • We are extremely pleased that our patients were able to benefit from this new and effective iron source without suffering side effects," said study author, Dr. Fabijan Lulic of the Medical Diagnostic Center in Zagreb, Croatia. (
  • The objective of this non-interventional study was to prospectively collect data for the treatment routine, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of iron isomaltoside (Monofer®) in anaemic IBD patients. (
  • In total, 70 patients were previously treated with oral iron. (
  • A previous treatment with IV iron was documented in 65 patients. (
  • The patients received a total cumulative dose of 1 304 mg (1 190-1 418 mg) iron isomaltoside during the study. (
  • For example, a single ferrous sulfate 325mg tablet contains 60mg of elemental iron, so thrice daily dosing provides 180mg of elemental iron per day, well within the recommended daily range of 150-200mg for iron-deficient patients. (
  • Oral iron therapy is notorious for its side effects, namely constipation, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, and epigastric pain, which may plague up to 20% of patients and limit compliance to the different iron formulations. (
  • Apotransferrin administration prevents growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in serum of stemcell transplant patients by binding of free iron. (
  • In a randomized trial of patients with peripheral vascular disease, reduction of iron stores with serial phlebotomy decreased mortality compared with conventional therapy in the subjects in the youngest age quartile (aged 43-61 years) ( 4 ). (
  • The iron nanoparticles lack the toxic side effects of chemotherapy, suggesting they might be given to patients during the surgical recovery period. (
  • monitor iron levels in patients undergoing dialysis. (
  • Some patients who receive multiple transfusions (eg, some hemolytic anemias, thalassemia, renal dialysis patients) will have increased serum iron levels. (
  • According to a report, a clinical trial of patients with post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS, heart disease) depression finds that a centralized, patient-preference program decreased depressive symptoms and may be cost-neutral over time. (
  • Doctors and patients should be aware that there is not enough information to know whether screening for or treating iron deficiency in healthy pregnant women helps women or their babies. (
  • The drug should ordinarily not be given to such patients unless significant iron mobilization (e.g., 1 mg or more of iron per day) can be demonstrated. (
  • Desferal is contraindicated in patients with severe renal disease or anuria, since the drug and the iron chelate are excreted primarily by the kidney. (
  • Methods We assessed 100 patients with early-stage to mid-stage PD, and 37 age-matched controls using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a validated clinical algorithm for risk of cognitive decline in PD, measures of visuoperceptual function and the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 3 (UPDRS-III). (
  • We retrospectively evaluated cardiac events, cardiac iron and HFE genotype in 97 consecutive necropsies from patients with solid and hematological neoplasms. (
  • We expected the newer medication, the iron polysaccharide complex, would restore the hemoglobin more effectively because it was designed to have improved taste and be tolerated better, and this might help patients to stick to the treatment," Powers said. (
  • The exact mechanism of iron deficiency in heart failure patients is still not fully understood. (
  • Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of this complex pathology and determination of the long-term safety and effectiveness of iron administration in chronic heart failure patients. (
  • Here we provide a systematic review of iron reduction in HH, including 24 studies and 6000 patients. (
  • Thirty-eight patients had been submitted to regular transfusion therapy since childhood and to chelation with subcutaneous desferrioxamine 5-6 days per week, 8-12 h per day, while 59 patients received irregular iron chelation therapy. (
  • 10,12 Pieracci et al 13 documented these benefits in critically ill surgical patients, whereas van Iperen et al 11 did not find such benefits in critically ill patients receiving intravenous iron and erythropoietin. (
  • Some authors 1,14 object to giving iron to hospitalized patients (especially critically ill patients) who have infections on the grounds that it is risky, although definitive evidence is lacking. (
  • Hemodialysis (HD) patients with functional iron deficiency (FID) often develop resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). (
  • RESULTS: CHr was 24.95 3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93 2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. (
  • The Complexities of Iron Deficiency in Patients After Bariatric Surgery. (
  • The use of siderophores which the yeast cannot itself synthesize may occur by uptake of the entire iron-ligand complex with intracellular release of iron by reduction or by extracellular reduction of iron and transport of the Fe(II) ion. (
  • F4/80-negative mammary carcinoma cells and F4/80-positive TAMs were incubated with iron oxide nanoparticles and were compared with respect to magnetic resonance signal changes and iron uptake. (
  • Detection of iron using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine-enhanced Prussian Blue staining, combined with immunodetection of CD68, localized iron oxide nanoparticles to TAMs, showing that the signal effects on delayed MRIs were largely due to TAM-mediated uptake of contrast agent. (
  • Stable iron isotopes will be given to a subset of women to assess maternal Fe absorption and fetal Fe uptake. (
  • Alternate day treatment with supplemental iron has been suggested as a way to improve its absorption because daily doses may suppress the mucosal uptake of iron even in the presence of iron deficiency until the intestinal mucosa completes its turnover. (
  • Compound LS081 increased 55 Fe uptake in various cancer cell lines and Caco2 cells, a model system for studying intestinal iron uptake. (
  • We have developed a high through-put screening technique and identified small molecules that stimulate iron uptake both from ferriTf and non-Tf bound iron. (
  • In erythroid precursor cells, and indeed in all non-intestinal cells, iron uptake is mediated by receptor mediated endocytosis of ferri-transferrin (Fe-Tf) although routes for non-transferrin bound Fe (NTBI) also exist. (
  • Dietary iron uptake is closely regulated, which is critical to cell physiology and to ensure minimal concentrations of potentially dangerous free intracellular iron. (
  • The Iron Uptake Systems of Pathogenic Bacteria (E. Griffiths). (
  • We recorded ventricular isometric twitch, action potentials and the L-type Ca 2+ current in isolated ventricular myocytes from iron-deficient rats and control rats. (
  • 2. Twitch tension and maximal rates of tension activation and relaxation were reduced in iron-deficient compared with control rats, whereas twitch duration was prolonged. (
  • 3. To determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the reduced mechanical function in iron-deficient rats, action potentials and the L-type Ca 2+ current (with or without isoproterenol) were recorded in both groups. (
  • These iron deficiency-induced electrophysiological alterations most probably contribute to the depressed mechanical function in iron-deficient rats. (
  • 6. The L-type Ca 2+ current was augmented equally by isoproterenol in the two groups, suggesting that the enhanced inotropic responsiveness in iron-deficient rats was not due to an increased response of the L-type Ca 2+ current. (
  • Cupric carbonate and ferric citrate were added to the copper- and iron-deficient diets. (
  • Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women. (
  • Serum transferrin (and TIBC) may be low, serum iron normal or low (if patient also is iron deficient). (
  • Iron toxicity occurs when the sow and her piglets are deficient in vitamin E. Iron dextran injections become toxic and cause severe muscle reactions at the injection site. (
  • When iron supply to the erythroid marrow is deficient, red blood cell production is impaired and new cells released into circulation are poorly hemoglobinized. (
  • The absence of stainable iron in body tissues, including the bone marrow and liver, is the most useful histologic finding in individuals who are iron deficient. (
  • 4. We suggest that oxygen radical reactions stimulated by iron salts are important in the pathology of idiopathic haemochromatosis. (
  • van Deursen, C.T.B.M.. / Iron content of liver tissue : a biochemical, histological and clinical study, especially in hereditary haemochromatosis . (
  • Our data support the occurrence of an HFE-modulated heart iron accumulation in individuals treated with anthracyclines, independently of systemic iron load. (
  • Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation. (
  • Variability in achievement of iron targets, despite the availability of a clinical practice guideline, may be explained by variability in processes of care for achieving and maintaining adequate iron parameters. (
  • In uninfected children, hypochlorhydria was not associated with altered serum iron parameters, indicating a combination of H pylori infection and/or inflammation, and hypochlorhydria has a role in the aetiology of ID. (
  • Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. (
  • If prospectively confirmed, iron-related parameters might be useful as predictive factors for anthracycline cardiotoxicity. (
  • Mateos Gonzalez ME, de la Cruz Bertolo J, Lopez Laso E, Valdes Sanchez MD, Nogales Espert A. [Review of haematology and biochemistry parameters to identify iron deficiency] [Spanish]. (
  • Participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive therapy for 52 weeks with either deferiprone or deferoxamine, another type of iron chelator. (
  • 3. The iron chelator desferrioxamine interferes with these reactions. (
  • The involvement of iron in anthracycline cardiotoxicity is supported by extensive experimental data, and by the preventive efficacy of dexrazoxane, an iron chelator. (
  • Similarly, there is recent evidence that reduction of body iron stores may improve the symptoms of METS. (
  • Low levels of Iron have been associated with symptoms such as fatigue, poor hair growth, poor immunity, palpitations, exercise fatigue and autistic behavior. (
  • Looking at the risks of iron deficiency, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System appeals to our readers to read this article and know the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical consequences in detail. (
  • The association between injections and symptoms is usually clear and the clinical signs are typical. (
  • If fatigue is not due to secondary causes, the identification of iron deficiency as a potential cause may prevent inappropriate attribution of symptoms to putative emotional causes or life stressors, thereby reducing the unnecessary use of health care resources, including inappropriate pharmacologic treatments. (
  • Regulation of gene expression by iron in a number of pathogenic organisms is coordinated by proteins homologous to the Fur protein of E. coli. (
  • Additional regulatory proteins may be superimposed on the Fur repressor to provide the fine-tuning necessary for the precise regulation of individual virulence genes in response to iron and other environmental signals. (
  • Iron binding proteins and host defence. (
  • Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes. (
  • It describes the role of iron in various clinical pathologies and lastly, highlights the significance and potential of iron-related proteins in the diagnosis and therapeutics of liver fibrosis. (
  • Brain tissue iron accumulates with age and co-localises with pathological proteins linked to PD dementia such as amyloid. (
  • Iron Proteins (A. Bezkorovainy). (
  • Iron-binding Proteins and Host Defence (E. Griffiths & J. Bullen). (
  • Might inflammation arising from iron that is converted into an active state in the brain be the third leg of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) stool, joining the abnormal proteins "amyloid" and "tau" as the hallmarks of AD? (
  • Powers and her colleagues carried out a clinical trial that compared low doses of the traditional treatment, ferrous sulfate, with low doses of an iron polysaccharide complex preparation, which was designed to potentially have a more pleasant taste and be tolerated better. (
  • The primary objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of iron therapy using intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), relative to placebo, in the treatment of participants in heart failure with iron deficiency and with a reduced ejection fraction. (
  • These data indicate that tumor enhancement with clinically applicable iron oxide nanoparticles may serve as a new biomarker for long-term prognosis, related treatment decisions, and the evaluation of new immune-targeted therapies. (
  • How can we individual treatment with both IV iron and ESA to help maintain a stable Hb level? (
  • Therefore, understanding the role of iron in liver fibrosis is extremely essential as it can help in formulating iron-related diagnostic, prognostic and treatment strategies. (
  • Adverse events and reasons for treatment discontinuation were collected from clinical records. (
  • As iron reduction by venesection became the mainstay of HH treatment before the introduction of evidence-based medicine, its efficacy has never been the subject of high-level clinical research. (
  • Treatment of primary defective iron-reutilization syndrome: revisited. (
  • The body contains approximately 45mg/kg of elemental iron, of which two-thirds is in hemoglobin form, 15-20% in storage form, 10% as myoglobin, and 5% as other iron-containing enzymes. (
  • Still, enough is lost to require absorption of between 1 and 4 mg of elemental iron from the diet each day to maintain normal iron balance. (
  • A daily dose of 80 milligrams of elemental iron in the form of ferrous sulfate was associated with a decrease in fatigue stores of 48%, compared to a decrease of 29% in the placebo group, according to researchers from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and the French National College of General Practitioners. (
  • Children may show signs of toxicity with ingestions of 10-20 mg/kg of elemental iron. (
  • The excess iron is stored in the body's tissues and organs, particularly the liver, bone marrow, and spleen. (
  • Increased oxidative stress catalyzed by accumulation of iron in excess of physiologic requirements has been implicated in the pathogenesis of METS, but the relationships between cause and effect remain uncertain. (
  • The pathogenesis of METS is incompletely understood, but recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress catalyzed by accumulation of iron in excess of physiologic requirements may be contributory [ 4 ]. (
  • Excess iron can feed the Fenton reaction to generate unquenchable amounts of free radicals that cause grave cellular and tissue damage and thereby contribute to fibrosis. (
  • It examines the underlying mechanisms by which excess iron can facilitate fibrotic responses. (
  • A potential mechanism for selective vulnerability in PD dementia is excess brain iron accumulation. (
  • Liver biopsy shows excess iron deposition. (
  • Longterm therapy with Desferal slows accumulation of hepatic iron and retards or eliminates progression of hepatic fibrosis. (
  • A randomised clinical trial in Benin. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that phlebotomy-induced reduction of body iron stores would alter the clinical presentation of METS, using a randomized trial. (
  • A clinical trial is a research study involving human volunteers, and is designed to answer specific health questions. (
  • While strong deductions are prohibited by an absence of robust clinical trial data, the purported benefits of venesection are reviewed and we report an improvement in fatigue, liver function tests and fibrosis, and overall survival. (
  • Researchers recently announced the beginning of a FDA-approved clinical trial that uses umbilical cord blood stem cells to 'cure' autism. (
  • The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of monthly doses of aducanumab in slowing cognitive and functional impairment as measured by changes in the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score as compared with placebo in participants with early AD. (
  • Secondary objectives are to assess the effect of monthly doses of aducanumab as compared with placebo on clinical progression as measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (13 items) [ADAS-Cog and AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (Mild Cognitive Impairment version) [ADCS-ADL-MCI]. (
  • and third, a study giving three 60 mg iron doses (twice-a-day dosing) within 24 hours (study 3, n=13). (
  • Study 3 found that total iron absorbed from three doses was not significantly greater than the iron absorbed from two morning doses. (
  • Our data show that fractional absorption in iron-depleted women is highest at low iron doses (40-80 mg) and that acute, consecutive-day dosing results in decreased iron bioavailability," the authors concluded. (
  • Brain MRI disclosed white matter changes and iron accumulation (figure). (
  • Clinical and genetic determinants of anthracycline-induced cardiac iron accumulation. (
  • Randomization to iron sucrose 100 mg IV or placebo thrice weekly for up to 2 weeks. (
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in comparison to iron sucrose (IS) in women with IDA. (
  • This rare complication of iron dextran therapy is not much of a concern at present with the newer formulations of iron such as iron gluconate and iron sucrose. (
  • Injectable forms include iron dextran and iron sucrose. (
  • Furthermore, the investigators anticipate that the magnitude of these effects is proportional not only to the magnitude of total body iron stores but also to the duration of exposure to the high iron levels in tissues. (
  • In a subset of sites, a sub-study will be conducted to characterize serum phosphate levels overtime in participants with heart failure and iron deficiency after dosing with FCM. (
  • Factors associated with achieving the CARI guideline targets included nurse-driven iron management protocols, use of an iron management decision aid, fewer nephrologists per dialysis unit, and a "proactive" (actively keeping iron levels within target range) rather than "reactive" (only reacting if iron levels are out of the range) protocol. (
  • Iron levels in the body are primarily regulated through control of how much iron is absorbed from the diet. (
  • The low compliance with IFA consumption is largely due to its negative side effects (nausea, stomach pain, constipation) that present sooner and more apparently than the positive effects which are increased Hb and iron levels in the body and fetus 7 . (
  • Afterwards, serum iron levels decrease, while TIBC increases in an attempt to raise iron absorption. (
  • Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. (
  • Circulating iron levels are tightly regulated. (
  • Decreased levels are associated with low levels of dietary/supplemental iron, menorrhagia or occult bleeding. (
  • LS081-induced iron facilitation was correlated with rates of cancer cell growth inhibition, ROS production, clonogenicity, and hypoxia induced factor (HIF) levels. (
  • Under pathological conditions with reduced or increased baseline iron levels different consequences regarding protection or susceptibility to inflammation have to be considered. (
  • A lack of sufficient iron levels in the blood is a reason that some people cannot donate blood. (
  • Iron may reach high levels with iron poisoning. (
  • They also found little evidence that treating low iron levels in pregnant women improves outcomes. (
  • Despite substantial international efforts to address iron deficiency, the levels have continued to rise over the last decade. (
  • While benefits may be seen in days up to two months may be required until iron levels return to normal. (
  • In health, daily iron intake and losses comprise just 0.05% total body iron and are tightly balanced via feedback control. (
  • It is the only deficiency that is present in both the developing and the developed world [ 4 - 6 ] and arises when there is an imbalance of iron intake, iron stores and the normal recycling of iron that occurs within the body [ 7 ]. (
  • It can be caused by increased iron demand / loss or decreased iron intake. (
  • In babies and adolescents, rapid growth may outpace dietary intake of iron and result in deficiency in the absence of disease or a grossly abnormal diet. (
  • Nephrologists often administer intravenous iron, and they focus on phosphate because they treat people with kidney failure who frequently develop hyperphosphatemia," he said. (
  • Intravenous iron replacement therapy is safe and generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects compared to oral administration. (
  • unless there is the requirement for a rapid response, previous intolerance to oral iron or likely failure to respond. (