Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies
Staphylococcal Skin Infections
Drug Therapy, Combination
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Soft Tissue Infections
Clindamycin plus gentamicin as expectant therapy for presumed mixed infections. (1/791)The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was studied prospectively in 60 patients with severe sepsis of intra-abdominal, soft tissue, female genital or oropulmonary origin. In addition, the efficacy of clindamycin (for anaerobes) plus gentamicin (for aerobic bacteria, especially coliforms) as initial empiric therapy in these patients was evaluated. Among 54 patients with cultural proof of infection, anaerobic pathogens were recovered from 52%. Nineteen patients had bacteremia; Bacteroides fragilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens, being isolated in five patients each. Infection was eradicated in 56 of the 60 patients (93%). Mortality related to sepsis was 7% in the entire group, 16% in patients with bacteremia and 2% in patients without bacteremia. Eighty-five percent of aerobic isolates tested were susceptible in vitro to either gentamicin or clindamycin; 97% of anaerobic isolates were inhibited by 5 mug/ml of clindamycin. (+info)
Clindamycin suppresses endotoxin released by ceftazidime-treated Escherichia coli O55:B5 and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (2/791)Treatment of septicemia caused by Escherichia coli with ceftazidime (CAZ) may be associated with the development of septic shock due to the release of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We examined the suppressive effect of clindamycin (CLDM) on CAZ-induced release of endotoxin by cultured E. coli and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta]). E. coli ATCC 12014 was incubated in inactivated horse serum with or without CLDM for 1, 4, or 18 h, followed by the addition of CAZ and collection of the culture supernatant at 0, 1, and 2 h. The concentration of endotoxin in each sample was measured by a chromogenic Limulus test. Another portion of the culture supernatant was added to THP-1 cell culture and incubated for 4 h, and the concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the supernatant were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the control group (no CLDM), CAZ administration resulted in significant increases in endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta concentrations. Pretreatment of E. coli with CLDM for 4 or 18 h before the addition of CAZ significantly suppressed the concentrations of endotoxin, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in a time-dependent manner. In addition, CAZ treatment transformed E. coli from rodshaped bacteria to filament-like structures, as determined by electron microscopy, while pretreatment with CLDM prevented these morphological changes. Our in vitro studies showed that CAZ-induced release of large quantities of endotoxin by E. coli could be suppressed by prior administration of CLDM. (+info)
Antibiotic penetrance of ascitic fluid in dogs. (3/791)Antibiotic concentrations in ascitic fluid after parenteral therapy may be important in the treatment of peritonitis. We have created ascites in dogs by partial ligation of the inferior vena cava. Ascitic fluid volume was measured at the time each antibiotic was administered. Nine antibiotics were studied in the same three dogs. Antibiotic concentration in ascitic fluid was found to vary inversely with ascites volume. Percentage of penetration (ratio of ascites peak to serum peak x100) ranged from 5.8 to 65% among the drugs studied. Only metronidazole showed a statistically significant higher percentage of penetration than other antimicrobials. Concentrations in ascitic fluid after single doses of cephalothin (15 mg/kg) and the aminoglycosides (2 mg/kg, gentamicin and tobramycin; 7.5 mg/kg, amikacin and kanamycin) did not exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of many gram-negative rods and may justify the use of higher than usual initial parenteral doses, or possibly initial intraperitoneal administration in seriously ill patients. (+info)
A new resistance gene, linB, conferring resistance to lincosamides by nucleotidylation in Enterococcus faecium HM1025. (4/791)Resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin in the clinical isolate Enterococcus faecium HM1025 is due to a ribosomal methylase encoded by an ermAM-like gene and the plasmid-mediated inactivation of these antibiotics. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene responsible for the inactivation of lincosamides, linB. This gene encodes a 267-amino-acid lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase. The enzyme catalyzes 3(5'-adenylation) (the adenylation of the hydroxyl group in position 3 of the molecules) of lincomycin and clindamycin. Expression of linB was observed in both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme did not display any significant homology with staphylococcal nucleotidyltransferases encoded by linA and linA' genes. Sequences homologous to linB were found in 14 other clinical isolates of E. faecium, indicating the spread of the resistance trait in this species. (+info)
Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (5/791)Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA. (+info)
In-vitro susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to newer beta-lactam agents. (6/791)The in-vitro activities of imipenem and four beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested against 816 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, and compared with other anti-anaerobic agents. None of the strains was resistant to metronidazole, and only one was resistant to chloramphenicol. Mezlocillin and piperacillin were moderately active, while clindamycin was the least active. Rates of resistance varied between various species. The new beta-lactam agents tested showed excellent activity; piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were the most active. The emergence of strains that are resistant to these agents, observed in this study, suggests there is a need to perform periodic antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (+info)
Distribution of mefE and ermB genes in macrolide-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and their variable susceptibility to various antibiotics. (7/791)From February to October 1995, 62 erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated at Yamanashi Red Cross Hospital were tested to determine their susceptibility to various macrolides, subjected to resistance induction tests by the disc diffusion method and analysed for genes encoding resistance to macrolides (ermB and mefE). On the basis of resistance induction testing, the isolates were classified as having either inducible (59.7%) or non-inducible (40.3%) macrolide resistance. The ermB gene was always detected in resistance-inducible type isolates, either alone or in combination with mefE. The mefE gene alone was found only in non-inducible type isolates. Isolates with non-inducible resistance (those with only the mefE gene) had an intermediate level of resistance to 14-membered macrolides, and were susceptible to rokitamycin, a 16-membered macrolide. According to NCCLS guidelines, 9.6% of S. pneumoniae strains were judged to be susceptible to penicillin, 62.9% of reduced susceptibility and 27.4% penicillin resistant. No correlation was detected between the presence of particular macrolide-resistance genes (ermB, ermB + mefE, or mefE) and resistance to penicillin G. (+info)
Further evolution of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo: evidence for significant inactivation of flucloxacillin by penicillinase. (8/791)A strain of Staphylococcus aureus (no. FAR4) has been isolated at intervals, for 32 months, from the sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis of the lung. Changes in the properties of isolates of this strain over the first 18 months have been reported previously (Lacey et al., 1973 and 1974). During the last 14 months (May 1973 to July 1974), further evolution has occurred to produce a total of 31 distinct phenotypes. Recent changes are as follows. 1. The ability of isolates to produce penicillinase in vitro was closely correlated with flucloxacillin therapy. Inactivation of flucloxacillin by penicillinase was demonstrated by diffusion testing (but not MIC determination) in vitro and may have occurred to a significant extent in vivo. 2. Lincomycin-resistant mutants slowly disappeared from the sputum after the termination of clindamycin therapy. 3. All of the recent isolates were resistant to erythromycin, possibly because of the linkage of the genes coding for erythromycin resistance with those coding for the production of delta-haemolysin; delta-haemolysin may be an important "virulence factor". (+info)
Bacteroides infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the Bacteroides genus of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the human gut and play an important role in the digestive process, but they can also cause infections in various parts of the body.
Types of Bacteroides Infections:
1. Bacteroides fragilis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides fragilis bacterium and is typically found in the gut, skin, and respiratory tract.
2. Bacteroides vulgatus: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides vulgatus bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
3. Bacteroides caccae: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides caccae bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.
4. Bacteroides distasonis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides distasonis bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
5. Bacteroides eggerthii: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides eggerthii bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.
Causes and Risk Factors:
Bacteroides infections can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Weakened immune system: People with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs, are more susceptible to Bacteroides infections.
2. Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the skin or gut can provide an entry point for Bacteroides bacteria to enter the body and cause an infection.
3. Surgery: People who have undergone surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, are at risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
4. Contaminated medical devices: Medical devices such as catheters or implantable devices can become contaminated with Bacteroides bacteria and cause an infection.
5. Poor hygiene: Poor hygiene practices, such as not washing hands regularly or not sterilizing medical equipment, can increase the risk of developing a Bacteroides infection.
6. Smoking: Smoking can weaken the immune system and increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
7. Diabetes: People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the skin and soft tissues.
8. Obesity: Obesity can increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the gut and respiratory tract.
The symptoms of Bacteroides infections vary depending on the location of the infection and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms of Bacteroides infections include:
1. Skin infections: Redness, swelling, warmth, and pain at the site of the infection. Pus-filled abscesses may also develop.
2. Respiratory infections: Coughing, difficulty breathing, chest pain, and fever.
3. Gastrointestinal infections: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
4. Bone and joint infections: Pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb.
5. Urinary tract infections: Painful urination, frequency of urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
6. Sepsis: Fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion or disorientation.
Bacteroides infections can be difficult to diagnose because the bacteria can be found on the skin and in the gut of healthy individuals. However, there are several tests that can help healthcare providers diagnose a Bacteroides infection:
1. Blood cultures: Blood cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the bloodstream.
2. Urine cultures: Urine cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the urinary tract.
3. Surgical wound cultures: Surgical wound cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in wounds.
4. Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help healthcare providers visualize the location and extent of the infection.
5. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing: PCR testing can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides DNA in a sample of blood or tissue.
The treatment of Bacteroides infections depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health. Some common treatments for Bacteroides infections include:
1. Antibiotics: Bacteroides bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, but some strains may be susceptible to certain types of antibiotics such as cefoxitin, imipenem-cilastatin, and meropenem.
2. Surgical drainage: If the infection is localized and does not respond to antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage may be necessary to remove the infected tissue or fluid.
3. Supportive care: Patients with severe Bacteroides infections may require hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and monitoring of vital signs.
4. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help restore the balance of gut flora and may be used to treat Bacteroides infections.
5. Enzyme-based therapy: Enzyme-based therapy, such as collagenase, can be used to break down the extracellular matrix that surrounds the bacteria and help eliminate them from the body.
Preventing Bacteroides infections is challenging, but there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. These include:
1. Proper wound care: Wounds should be cleaned and covered with sterile dressings to prevent bacterial growth.
2. Good hygiene: Hands should be washed frequently, especially after contact with wounds or contaminated surfaces.
3. Proper sterilization of medical equipment: All medical equipment should be properly sterilized before use to prevent the spread of infection.
4. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of Bacteroides, such as the Bacteroides fragilis vaccine, which can help prevent infections caused by this bacterium.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Antibiotics should be used judiciously and only when necessary to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Overall, Bacteroides infections can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with appropriate management and prevention strategies, patients can recover fully. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early intervention can improve outcomes.
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:
1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:
1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.
2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:
1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections
Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:
1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:
1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.
Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:
1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.
It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of acne, including:
1. Comedonal acne: characterized by blackheads and whiteheads.
2. Inflammatory acne: characterized by papules, pustules, and nodules.
3. Cystic acne: characterized by large, painful cysts that can cause scarring.
4. Acne rosacea: a type of acne that occurs in adults, characterized by redness, flushing, and telangiectasias (small blood vessels).
There are several treatment options for acne vulgaris, including:
1. Topical treatments: such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and sulfur.
2. Oral antibiotics: such as doxycycline and minocycline.
3. Retinoids: derived from vitamin A, used to unclog pores and reduce inflammation.
4. Hormonal therapies: such as birth control pills, used to regulate hormones that can contribute to acne.
5. Isotretinoin: a powerful oral medication used for severe cases of cystic acne that have not responded to other treatments.
6. Laser and light therapy: such as blue light therapy and photodynamic therapy, used to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria.
7. Lifestyle modifications: such as using non-comedogenic products, wearing sunscreen, and avoiding picking or popping pimples.
It is important to note that acne can be a persistent condition, and it may take time and experimentation to find the right treatment approach. It's best to consult with a dermatologist for personalized advice on treating acne vulgaris.
The symptoms of BV can include:
* A strong, unpleasant odor
* Thin, white or grayish discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or discomfort during sex
BV is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a vaginal swab or fluid sample. Treatment typically involves antimicrobial medications to eradicate the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. In some cases, metronidazole, an antibiotic that is effective against anaerobic bacteria, may be prescribed.
Complications of BV can include:
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
* Ectopic pregnancy
* Premature labor
Prevention of BV includes good hygiene practices, such as washing the genital area with mild soap and water, avoiding douching, and wearing breathable clothing. Sexual partners should also be treated to prevent re-infection.
It is important to note that BV is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but it can be more common in women who have multiple sexual partners or who have a new sexual partner. It is also more common during pregnancy, and in women with diabetes or HIV/AIDS.
There are several types of abscesses, including:
1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.
The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:
* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)
If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:
* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.
Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.
It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.
Some common types of staphylococcal skin infections include:
1. Boils: A boil is a red, swollen, and painful bump on the skin that is caused by an infection of a hair follicle or oil gland.
2. Abscesses: An abscess is a collection of pus that forms as a result of an infection. Staphylococcal abscesses can occur anywhere on the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including cuts, burns, and insect bites.
3. Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth in the affected area.
4. Furuncles: These are small, painful boils that occur under the skin, often on the face or neck.
5. Carbuncles: These are larger and more severe than furuncles, and can form in the armpits, groin, or other areas of the body.
6. Skin fold infections: These are infections that occur in skin folds, such as those found in obese individuals or those with skin conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
Staphylococcal skin infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including cuts, scrapes, insect bites, and contaminated tattoo or piercing equipment. They are typically treated with antibiotics, and in severe cases, may require surgical drainage of the infected area.
Preventive measures for staphylococcal skin infections include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands regularly and thoroughly cleaning any cuts or scrapes.
2. Covering wounds with bandages to prevent germs from entering the body.
3. Avoiding sharing personal items, such as towels or razors, that may come into contact with infected skin.
4. Properly caring for and cleaning any tattoos or piercings.
5. Avoiding close contact with individuals who have staphylococcal infections.
6. Using mupirocin ointment or other antibiotic ointments to help prevent infection in individuals at high risk, such as those with skin conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
7. Using steroid-free topical products and avoiding the use of harsh soaps and cleansers that can strip the skin of its natural oils and make it more susceptible to infection.
8. Keeping wounds moist with antibiotic ointment and dressings to promote healing and prevent infection.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
Soft tissue infections are typically caused by bacteria or fungi that enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings in the skin. They can also be caused by spread of infection from nearby tissues or organs, such as bone or joint infections.
Symptoms of soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area, as well as fever and chills. In severe cases, these infections can lead to serious complications, such as abscesses or gangrene.
Treatment for soft tissue infections typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications, depending on the type of infection and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, surgical drainage may be necessary to remove infected tissue or abscesses.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a soft tissue infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and promote faster healing. Your healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, take a sample of the affected tissue for testing, and order imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans to determine the extent of the infection and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Alasdair Macintosh Geddes
Gray baby syndrome
Commonly prescribed drugs
Clostridial necrotizing enteritis
Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis
Clostridium difficile toxin B
Double-disk diffusion test
Toxic shock syndrome
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Clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae - Volume 13, Number 5-May 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
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- Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to clindamycin, lincomycin (Lincocin), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in clindamycin capsules or solution. (medlineplus.gov)
- Past and current use of clindamycin and lincomycin. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin (klin" da mye' sin) is a lincomycin derivative with activity against many aerobic gram-positive cocci as well as many anaerobic gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. (nih.gov)
- The MICs remained unchanged in the presence of reserpine: 1 mg/L for clindamycin and 4 mg/L for lincomycin. (cdc.gov)
- you are allergic to clindamycin or lincomycin. (acheterventeprix.fr)
- Do not begin using this medication if you are allergic to clindamycin or lincomycin antibiotics or have had a bad reaction to similar treatments in the past. (4nrx-uk.md)
- Clindamycin phosphate is a water soluble ester of the semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic lincomycin. (nih.gov)
- Cross resistance has been demonstrated between clindamycin and lincomycin. (nih.gov)
- If your pet has a clindamycin or lincomycin allergy, don't administer this drug. (gianteaglepetrx.com)
- CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any of the components of this vaginal suppository. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
- If you are looking for an effective antibiotic to treat bacterial infections, then Cleocin (Clindamycin) may be the right choice for you. (firstmedstore.com)
- Cleocin is a generic form of Clindamycin, an antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. (firstmedstore.com)
- Finally, if you are looking for an alternative to Cleocin, you may want to consider other generic Clindamycin products. (firstmedstore.com)
- Additionally, if you are looking for an alternative to Cleocin, there are a number of generic Clindamycin products that may be cheaper and equally as effective. (firstmedstore.com)
- CLEOCIN Vaginal Cream 2%, is a semi-solid, white cream, which contains 2% clindamycin phosphate, USP, at a concentration equivalent to 20 mg clindamycin per gram. (nih.gov)
- The recommended dose is one CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovule (containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin per 2.5 g suppository) intravaginally per day, preferably at bedtime, for 3. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
- Many antibiotics, including clindamycin, may cause overgrowth of dangerous bacteria in the large intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin is more likely to cause this type of infection than many other antibiotics, so it should only be used to treat serious infections that cannot be treated by other antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics such as clindamycin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop taking clindamycin too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. (nih.gov)
- The idiosyncratic reaction to clindamycin resembles the immunoallergic types of hepatitis that occur after many types of antibiotics, including the penicillins and cephalosporins. (nih.gov)
- Fish Cin Clindamycin antibiotics help to treat gill diseases like those associated with aeromonas and pseudomonas and other bacterial diseases in fish. (vetdepot.com)
- Clindamycin is usually given in the oral form, but for severe teeth infections, antibiotics in intravenous form work best. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- But, if you are allergic to penicillin antibiotics or they don't work for you, Clindamycin can be useful. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. (nih.gov)
- Because clindamycin hydrochloride therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin hydrochloride USP is the hydrated hydrochloride salt of clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules USP contain clindamycin hydrochloride USP equivalent to 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- The chemical name for clindamycin hydrochloride is Methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl- trans -4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L- threo - α -D- galacto -octopyranoside monohydrochloride. (nih.gov)
- Pharmacokinetic studies with a 150 mg oral dose of clindamycin hydrochloride in 24 normal adult volunteers showed that clindamycin was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. (nih.gov)
- Pharmacokinetic studies following multiple doses of clindamycin hydrochloride for up to 14 days show no evidence of accumulation or altered metabolism of drug. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin hydrochloride is used in Pfizer Antirobe Aquadrops to aid infection healing. (gianteaglepetrx.com)
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- Clindamycin is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections, including infections of the lungs, skin, blood, female reproductive organs, and internal organs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections with clindamycin-2-phosphate. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is a broad spectrum antibiotic used orally, topically and parenterally for bacterial infections due to sensitive organisms. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. (healthwarehouse.com)
- Clindamycin is also sometimes used to treat acne and is used along with other medications to treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be deliberately spread as part of a terror attack) and malaria (a serious infection that is spread by mosquitoes in certain parts of the world). (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin is also sometimes used to treat ear infections, tonsillitis (infection that causes swelling of the tonsils), pharyngitis (infection that causes swelling in the back of the throat), and toxoplasmosis (an infection that may cause serious problems in people who do not have healthy immune systems or in unborn babies whose mothers are infected) when these conditions cannot be treated with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin is also sometimes used to treat bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin is also sometimes used to prevent endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) in certain people who are at risk of developing this infection as a result of a dental procedure. (medlineplus.gov)
- Vaginal clindamycin is used to treat bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). (nih.gov)
- Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin). (acheterventeprix.fr)
- Clindamycin is associated with pseudomembranous colitis, an infection of the colon characterized by foul smelling diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain caused by Clostridium difficile infection. (picmonic.com)
- Infection is generic clindamycin-topical-gel usa canada best prices comprar clindamycin-topical-gel en barcelona experience saves testes. (vowsbridalandformals.com)
- Clindamycin For Tooth Infection: How Effective Is It? (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- If you have a tooth infection, your dentist will prescribe you antibiotic treatment - most probably Clindamycin. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Keep reading to learn about the effectiveness of Clindamycin for tooth infection. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- What are the benefits of taking Clindamycin for a tooth infection? (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Sometimes Clindamycin can make you more vulnerable to infection with Clostridium difficile. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Before starting the course of Clindamycin for your tooth infection, discuss with your dentist if you had any allergic reactions to the medicine previously. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
Multiple doses of clindamycin1
- This prospective, open-label safety and PK study evaluated multiple doses of clindamycin (oral and IV) in overweight and obese children 2 years to 18 years of age. (nih.gov)
Chemical name for clindamycin1
- The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl- trans -4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L- threo -α- D-galacto -octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate). (nih.gov)
- Each applicatorful of 5 grams of vaginal cream contains approximately 100 mg of clindamycin phosphate. (nih.gov)
- Following a once a day intravaginal dose of 100 mg of clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2%, administered to 6 healthy female volunteers for 7 days, approximately 5% (range 0.6% to 11%) of the administered dose was absorbed systemically. (nih.gov)
- Following a once a day intravaginal dose of 100 mg of clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2%, administered for 7 consecutive days to 5 women with bacterial vaginosis, absorption was slower and less variable than that observed in healthy females. (nih.gov)
- of interests.It is difficult to be prescriptive, as it benzoyl peroxide 2.5 gel images appears to have a number ofpossible meanings However, knock stendra tablets staircase angrily "Financial success requires a strong news clindamycin phosphate gel mixed with benzoyl peroxide report, and a strong. (granodesal.com)
- If you will be taking clindamycin capsules, tell your doctor if you are allergic to aspirin or tartrazine (a yellow dye found in some medications). (medlineplus.gov)
- The Clindamycin in Fish Cin pet medications can also be given off-label to treat skin, respiratory tract, and dental infections in small animals. (vetdepot.com)
- Antimicrobial medications classified as macrolides (e.g., erythromycin) and lincosamides (e.g., clindamycin) show strong activity against streptococci and are commonly used to treat community-acquired infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae . (cdc.gov)
- Before starting clindamycin therapy, tell your veterinarian about all additional medications, minerals, vitamins, and supplements your pet is receiving. (gianteaglepetrx.com)
- The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria that cause acne. (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin acts by its binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thus inhibiting protein synthesis. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.Clindamycin is used to treat serious infections caused by bacteria. (acheterventeprix.fr)
- Clindamycin is a bacteriostatic antibiotic commonly used to treat infections with anaerobic bacteria. (picmonic.com)
- Clindamycin is an antibiotic that is taken orally to stop bacteria from growing and reproducing. (gianteaglepetrx.com)
- Clindamycin can fight many types of bacteria, making it effective for tooth infections that involve a collection of bacteria. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Clindamycin is a lincosamide with a broad spectrum, being active against aerobic, anaerobic, and ß-lactamase-producing bacteria . (bvsalud.org)
- Doses of up to 2 grams of clindamycin per day for 14 days have been well tolerated by healthy volunteers, except that the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects is greater with the higher doses. (nih.gov)
- High doses of intravenous clindamycin can be accompanied by elevations in serum ALT levels in the range of 2 to 10 times the upper limit of normal starting after 5 to 15 days of therapy in a manner similar to what occurs with intravenous oxacillin therapy (Case 1). (nih.gov)
- Symptoms, jaundice, and alkaline phosphatase elevations are mild if they occur at all (Case 2), and aminotransferase levels rapidly fall into the normal range (in 1 to 2 weeks) upon stopping clindamycin or switching to lower doses or to oral formulations with which it rarely occurs. (nih.gov)
- The serum aminotransferase elevations that appear during high dose intravenous therapy with clindamycin are usually benign, minimally symptomatic and resolve rapidly with stopping therapy or switching to oral forms of clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin tends to be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients in such cases. (picmonic.com)
- Can you be allergic to Clindamycin? (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Allergic reactions rarely happen after taking Clindamycin. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- If Clindamycin doesn't suit you, you'll most probably experience allergic symptoms within 30 minutes following the drug intake. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Clindamycin inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with the elongation of the polypeptide chain of bacterial proteins and the translocation of the ribosomal subunit. (picmonic.com)
- Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is predominantly bacteriostatic. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin is safe and effective when used with other drugs, as long as your veterinarian has recommended them. (gianteaglepetrx.com)
- Clindamycin may be dosed based on total body weight (max dose 2.7 g/day) without the need to adjust the dose specifically for obese patients. (nih.gov)
- Concentrations of clindamycin in the serum increased linearly with increased dose. (nih.gov)
- The cause of ALT elevations during high dose clindamycin therapy is not known, but may be due to a direct but mild injury to the liver. (nih.gov)
- You can take a dose of Clindamycin before eating a meal or afterward. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Definite indications for hirsutism, again with a patient as metabolites to surgery, sinuses, via the clindamycin topical gel from india will have established oliguric renal failure. (vowsbridalandformals.com)
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- Take clindamycin until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
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- Susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion and confirmed with E-test according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards ( 5 , 6 ) for penicillin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. (cdc.gov)
- The peak serum clindamycin concentration observed on the first day averaged 18 ng/mL (range 4 to 47 ng/mL) and on day 7 it averaged 25 ng/mL (range 6 to 61 ng/mL). (nih.gov)
- The peak serum clindamycin concentration observed on the first day averaged 13 ng/mL (range 6 to 34 ng/mL) and on day 7 it averaged 16 ng/mL (range 7 to 26 ng/mL). (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin in infective endocarditis. (nih.gov)
- The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. (nih.gov)
- Topical clindamycin is used to treat acne. (nih.gov)
- Clincitop Gel (Clindamycin) is a topical medication used to treat or prevent acne. (4nrx-uk.md)
- Broken spells after hearing the clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide for acne scars same darn songs one more time, breaking the camel's back. (granodesal.com)
- Clindamycin is commonly used to treat serious infections in children. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin-associated hepatotoxicity. (nih.gov)
- Call your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms during your treatment with clindamycin or during the first several months after your treatment has finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever. (medlineplus.gov)
- Clindamycin can cause diarrhea, which may be severe or lead to serious, life-threatening intestinal problems. (acheterventeprix.fr)
- If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop using clindamycin and call your doctor. (acheterventeprix.fr)
- If you have persistent watery diarrhea while you're taking Clindamycin, ask your doctor before you continue with the treatment. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Clindamycin-resistant strains have caused more than 40% of In adults, GBS causes infections among pregnant women, GBS infections, limiting prevention and treatment options for older adults, and people with certain medical conditions, people with severe penicillin allergy. (cdc.gov)
- If you become pregnant while using clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Even if you're pregnant or breastfeeding, Clindamycin is safe for you. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- Clindamycin is available generically in oral and parenteral forms and as gels, foam, lotion and creams for topical use. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin therapy has also been linked to a clinically apparent, idiosyncratic liver injury that arises between 1 to 3 weeks after starting either oral or parenteral therapy (Case 3). (nih.gov)
- Acute idiosyncratic hepatitis can occur with either the parenteral or oral forms of clindamycin, but is rare. (nih.gov)
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- In January 2005, an erythromycin-susceptible but clindamycin-resistant pneumococcal strain was obtained from a conjunctival swab of a 10-month-old female outpatient attending the daycare center of the Clinic and Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Siena University, Siena, Italy. (cdc.gov)
- it was not susceptible to penicillin (MIC 0.125 mg/L) and was resistant to clindamycin (MIC 1 mg/L). A triple disk-diffusion test with erythromycin, clindamycin, and josamycin was performed to test resistance inducibility. (cdc.gov)
- Although clindamycin phosphate is inactive in vitro , rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts it to active clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- An anaphylactic reaction to Clindamycin will rarely occur, but you should know about the signs so you can call for a medical emergency. (pearlshinedentalclinic.com)
- The major increase in antimicrobial resistance for AGNB is of clindamycin, cefoxitin, and cefotetan. (medscape.com)
- Resistance to clindamycin is most often caused by modification of the target site on the ribosome, usually by chemical modification of RNA bases by point mutations in RNA or occasionally in proteins. (nih.gov)
- Clindamycin has been linked to rare instances of acute liver injury. (nih.gov)
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- Clindamycin is recommended when a mother has ections a severe penicillin allergy. (cdc.gov)
- Clindamycin is known to be an antibiotic that can precipitate pseudomembranous colitis due to a broad spectrum that can destroy normal gut flora, allowing the gut to be overrun with C. difficile. (picmonic.com)
- Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. (acheterventeprix.fr)
- The effectiveness of the medication correlates directly with how long the concentration of clindamycin in the blood remains high enough to inhibit the growth of the pathogen of interest. (nih.gov)
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