Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Nobel PrizeForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.United StatesAwards and PrizesMediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.El Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.FiresWater Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.EuropeNorth AmericaInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Religion and ScienceEnvironmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Atlantic OceanAfrica, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.AfricaDroughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.South AmericaPhytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Pacific OceanCell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.GreenlandAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Animal DiseasesAgricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Communicable DiseasesVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Climate[edit]. Pyongyang has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), featuring hot, humid summers and ... Mirae (Future) Scientist's Street Culture[edit]. Cuisine[edit]. Pyongyang raengmyeon (Hangul: 평양랭면; Hanja: 平壤冷麵), cold ...
New Scientist. Retrieved on 23 January 2013. *^ Scott Bevan (2 November 2006). "Climate concerns fuel coal mine opposition ... The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, which followed the draft report in the Garnaut Climate Change Review, placed a price on ... Preston, B.L. and Jones, R.N Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse ... Links between coal mining, coal burning, and climate change are being discussed widely in Australia.[27][28] ...
Peter Huybers, climate scientist. *James Longley, filmmaker. *L. Mahadevan, applied mathematician. *Heather McHugh, poet ...
Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. 37. ... The OSS past however led to a growing suspicion that American scientists working in India were CIA agents. David Challinor, a ... The first-ever full-length biography of Ripley, The Lives of Dillon Ripley: Natural Scientist, Wartime Spy, and Pioneering ... former Smithsonian administrator, noted that there were many CIA agents in India, with some posing as scientists. He noted that ...
Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (24 ...
Accession 92-063, Box 1. Quoted in Lewis (2003) Ali (1985):195 Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a ... Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (24): 2324-2332. Ali (1985):122 Ali, S (1979). Bird study in ... Newton, Paul & Matt Ridley (1983). "Biology under the Raj". New Scientist. 99: 857-867. Ali, Salim (1927). "The Moghul emperors ...
"UW-Madison Q&A session addresses climate change". "A climate proposal beyond cap and trade". "Unlocking the Climate Puzzle" ( ... "Scientists & Economists". "The Myriad Benefits of a Carbon Tax". "DiCaprio: 'We must put a price on carbon'". Dolan, Ed. " ... heat up the climate debate'". Viewpoint with Eliot Spitzer. "Save our Climate Act of 2007" (PDF). "Erwin Stelzer on ... "Bill Gates on R&D, a carbon tax, and China's Climate Role". "A Road Map for Environmentalism". Greg Mankiw (2010-03-01). "A New ...
Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (24 ...
"Top climate change scientists' letter to policy influencers". 3 November 2013.. ... On November 3, 2013, climate scientists Ken Caldeira, Kerry Emanuel, James Hansen, and Tom Wigley wrote an open letter "to ... "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. p. 8.. *^ a b M. V. Ramana (July 2011). "Nuclear power and the public". Bulletin of the ... "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.. *^ a b Matthew Wald (June 14, 2013). "Nuclear Plants, Old and Uncompetitive, Are Closing ...
"Millennial Climate Variability: Is There a Tidal Connection?".. *^ "Hungry for Power in Space". New Scientist. New Science Pub ... It has been suggested that in addition to other factors, harmonic beat variations in tidal forcing may contribute to climate ...
Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (24 ... "New Scientist. 99: 857-867.. *^ Ali, Salim (1927). "The Moghul emperors of India as naturalists and sportsmen. Part I". J. ...
"Interviews with Australian Scientists: Dr Leanne Armand". Interviews with Australian Scientists. The Australian Academy of ... "ACE CRC , Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre". Retrieved 2016-06-28. "Dr Leanne Armand ... Armand participates in CSIRO's Scientists in Schools program, sharing her experiences as a female research scientist. Armand ... Dr Leanne Armand (born February 1968) is a marine scientist and an expert in the identification of diatoms in the Southern ...
One environmental factor that contributes to the health of the global community is climate change. Climate change is the long ... ISBN 978-0-309-29241-2. "Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Human Health". Union of Concerned Scientists. n.d. Norway Environment, ... Climate change can affect the respiratory system by the amount of pollen and allergens in the air, mold proliferation, and the ... Climate change issues have become more prevalent in the 21st century, requiring action from global leaders. When there are ...
"Western Siberia". Climate Hot Spots. Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 10 July 2016. "West Siberian Taiga". Terrestrial ... Under the Köppen climate classification system, the ecoregion is Subarctic climate (Dfc)), also called a 'boreal climate', a ... To the north of the ecoregion, the climate grades into a Tundra climate), where no month average temperature rises above 10 °C ... To the south of the ecoregion in forest-steppe, the climate is grades into Humid continental climate (Koppen Dfa), where the ...
Scientists' amicus brief "Inez Fung BIOGRAPHY Climate Scientist". National Science Board. February 27, 2013. "Berkeley ... In 2006, she joined with 17 other climate scientists to file an amicus curiae brief in Massachusetts v. EPA to support the need ... Stephanie Harris (April 14, 2008). "Leading climate scientist speaks about global warming". Lawrence ... Since then she has done extensive work on climate modeling, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change. During the last decade, ...
Source processes and climate impacts, which is scheduled to end in 2018. Babu received the Young Scientist Award of the Indian ... Known for his studies on the Atmospheric aerosols, Babu is a recipient of the Young Scientist or Associate Award of all the ... "NASI Young Scientist Award". National Academy of Sciences, India. 2017-11-12. Retrieved 2017-11-12. "Indian National Young ... "10 scientists receive Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize". The Hindu. September 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-11. S. Suresh Babu, ...
... Biography Black, Richard (3 February 2005). "Scientists' grim climate report". BBC News. ... Dennis Tirpak is an expert on Climate Change. He is a Senior Fellow at the World Resources Institute. He was the director of ... He was the head of the climate change unit at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for three years ... In 1989 he co-authored the first report to Congress, The Potential Effects Of Global Climate Change on the United States, and ...
The NBCC denies the scientific consensus on climate change, stating on their website that "...there is no sound science to ... "National Black Chamber of Commerce Report on Clean Power Plan". Union of Concerned Scientists. August 19, 2015. Retrieved ... Negin, Elliott (July 16, 2015). "ExxonMobil Is Still Spending Millions of Dollars on Climate Science Deniers". The Huffington ... Kaufman, Alexander C. (January 9, 2017). "Exxon Continued Paying Millions To Climate-Change Deniers Under Rex Tillerson". The ...
Climate scientists, science journalists, environmental groups and science advocacy organisations dispute Crichton's views on ... Sixteen of 18 US climate scientists interviewed by Knight Ridder said the author was bending scientific data and distorting ... Since climatology can not incorporate double-blind studies, as are routine in other sciences, and climate scientists set ... This novel received criticism from climate scientists, science journalists and environmental groups for inaccuracies and ...
Don Rittner (1 January 2009). A to Z of Scientists in Weather and Climate. Infobase Publishing. pp. 54-. ISBN 978-1-4381-0924-4 ...
"ARRA funding to help scientists better understand climate change". Argonne National Laboratory. 2009-12-08.. ... Argonne scientists develop and validate computational models and reactor simulations of future generation nuclear reactors.[31] ... Materials for Energy: Argonne scientists work to predict, understand, and control where and how to place individual atoms and ... Argonne scientists and engineers help advance science, engineering, and mathematics education in the United States by taking ...
... efforts to force scientists to turn over all of their personal email," said Michael Mann, a climate scientist targeted by ... Horner "has been instrumental in orchestrating the attacks on climate scientists over the past decade in the form of vexatious ... Horner has been criticized for hounding climate scientists with frivolous requests for documentation and emails. Horner has ... pdf) Lee Fang (August 25, 2015). "Attorney Hounding Climate Scientists Is Covertly Funded By Coal Industry". The Intercept. ...
"New Zealand Association Of Scientists Incorporated". 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011. "Climate change ... sic] "About ,". 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011. New Zealand Association of Scientists " ... Further global climate changes are predicted, with impacts expected to become more costly as time progresses. Reducing future ... On 10 July 2008, the Society released a statement on climate change that said, in summary: The globe is warming because of ...
One third of Americans believe that climate scientists know about climate change, while fewer than one third believe that ... Funk, Cary; Kennedy, Brian (2016-10-04). "1. Public Views on Climate Change and Climate Scientists". Pew Research Center: ... The American Council on Science and Health said that denialism of the facts of climate science and of climate change, means to ... whereas Southern Baptists and Evangelicals have denounced belief in climate change as a sin, and have dismissed scientists as ...
Geman, Ben (November 3, 2013). "Climate scientists: Embrace nuclear power". The Hill. Retrieved 1 May 2015. "A Fierce Green ... including civil rights leader Julian Bond and NASA climate scientist James Hansen. In May 2015, the Sierra Club appointed its ... Ethan Elkind, director of the climate program at the Center for Law, Energy and the Environment (CLEE) at UC Berkeley Law, said ... "Sierra Club Now Opposes One Of The Most Important Climate Bills In California". Ethan Elkind. 2018-01-24. Retrieved 2018-01-27 ...
... and predictions stated by climate scientists at the climate change pre-summit in Copenhagen,[18] it is highly likely most of ... Climate change and the flooding of the Vistula delta[edit]. Widespread flooding along the Vistula River in south-eastern Poland ... The climate of the Vistula valley, its plants, animals, and its very character changed considerably during the process of ... The river is connected to the geological period called the Quaternary, in which distinct cooling of the climate took place. In ...
Climate Scientists. Climate scientists: Unpersuasive? Risa Palm, Toby W. Bolsen. Editors Picks. Our Dunning-Kruger president ...
Michael Mann says as he and other climate-change scientists face personal and professional attacks, evidence of global warming ... This is a silly -- and indeed, dangerous -- way to have a climate change debate in this country. What keeps climate scientists ... forming a Climate Science Rapid Response Team to connect scientists with journalists and a Climate Science Legal Defense Fund ... Now, its climate scientists turn. In the most infamous episode, somebody stole thousands of e-mails and documents from ...
Online fraudsters are targeting climate scientists through invitations to fake conferences, often at fictional five-star London ... Climate scientists targeted for fraud. By Richard Black Environment correspondent, BBC News ... Online fraudsters are targeting climate scientists through invitations to fake conferences, often at fictional five-star London ... US-based scientist Lee Schipper became aware of the global warming scams in 2009, and receives about one fake invitation each ...
Climate solution. From Jessica Cadzow-Collins I was struck by the links between the article about large-scale seawater ...
You are a scientists and you are doing two things. First, you have finished a preliminary study and submitted a grant proposal ... Michael Mann, a climate scientist who has been subjected to some of this sort of nefarious activity. , recently wrote an Op Ed ... Now he is using his committee chairmanship to go after the governments own climate scientists, whose latest study is an ... Last month, Smith subpoenaed climate scientist Kathryn Sullivan of NOAA demanding the release of those honest convo emails and ...
Hazardous Gas Helps Climate Scientists. IAEA and WMO Collaborate to Improve Atmospheric Research Using Radon. Monday 10 August ... Such models help scientists predict the effects of pollutants on air quality and the climate. ... Environmental scientists in different countries use different methods to measure radon being emitted from the land, so many ... Scientists and engineers involved in measuring radon emission from land, those involved in measuring atmospheric radon, and ...
Climate change is here, and its causing a wide range of impacts that will affect virtually every human on Earth in ... Scientists have concluded that avoiding the worst impacts of climate change will require limiting global warming to 1.5ºC to ... Climate scientist Dr. Kristy Dahl discusses how global warming is fueling wildfire season and its impacts on the most ... Climate Change. Climate change is one of the most devastating problems humanity has ever faced-and the clock is running out. ...
Climate Scientists Strike Back. A year after ClimateGate, can a trio of scientists clear the air of global warming ... While the episode inflamed climate skeptics, it also forced some climate scientists to rethink their role in the debate. Many ... a climate scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists, pointed out in a recent op-ed. This makes stepped-up efforts to ... Launching later this week, the Climate Science Rapid Response Team has signed up more than 40 scientists to take part in the ...
Climate Change Posted on Jul.28, 2017 in Climate Change, CRS, Energy, Environment by Steven Aftergood ... "Climate Change" Enters the DoD Lexicon. The term "climate change" was included for the first time in the latest revision of the ... What to Expect from Paris Climate Talks, and More from CRS. The possible outcomes of the ongoing Paris climate change ... And on the side of wanting to combat climate change, about $100 million was committed by NextGen Climate, a political action ...
Climate scientists issue sea level warning. 11 March 2009 WE NOW have a clearer idea of what is happening to the ice in ... Climate change will drive longer extreme heatwaves in summer * A classic quantum theorem may prove there are many parallel ... Climate change will drive longer extreme heatwaves in summer * We have spotted 8 more mysterious repeating radio bursts from ... In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecast a rise of 18 to 59 centimetres by 2100. But these figures did ...
... climate change is real, man-made and dangerous." Not only does Obama sloppily equate "scientists" with "climate scientists," ... climate change is real, man-made and dangerous." Not only does Obama sloppily equate "scientists" with "climate scientists," ... 1. What exactly do the climate scientists agree on?. Usually, the person will have a very vague answer like climate change is ... 1. What exactly do the climate scientists agree on?. Usually, the person will have a very vague answer like "climate change is ...
"Climate Scientists Perceptions of Climate Change Science". GKSS Report 11/2007.. *^ Climate scientists views on climate ... "A Survey of the Perspectives of Climate Scientists Concerning Climate Science and Climate Change" (PDF).. ... In 2003, Bray and von Storch conducted a survey of the perspectives of climate scientists on global climate change.[34] The ... as climate scientists who assert that Cook misrepresented their work.[16] Climate economist Richard Tol has also been a ...
Climate scientists agree.. I am inclined to think that things will break before we get there, Kevin Trenberth, a climate ... Climate scientists who have been warning of the dangerous effects of global warming now have the World Bank on their side, ... Climate Scientists Applaud Dire World Bank Report. By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor , November 21, 2012 10:22am ET ... The report, issued by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics for the World Bank, urges nations ...
With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in ... 49 Former NASA Scientists Send A Letter Disputing Climate Change. Gus Lubin ... noted that many of the former NASA scientists harbored doubts about the significance of the C02-climate change theory and have ... "Theres a concern that if it turns out that CO2 is not a major cause of climate change, NASA will have put the reputation of ...
One series of these e‐​mails called out the journal Climate Research, which had the audacity to publish a paper surveying a ... The more we learn about the purloined e‐​mails from the University of East Anglias Climate Research Unit the more it resembles ... Patrick J. Michaels is senior fellow in environmental studies at the Cato Institute and author of Climate of Extremes: Global ... Along with the CRU head Phil Jones and other climate luminaries, they then cooked up the idea of boycotting any scientific ...
This declaration was contained in a 400-word denunciation of attacks on climate scientists and the politicization of climate ... AAAS board defends climate scientists. Group decries intimidation of researchers, expresses concern that public access to ... Climate science: Credibility at risk, scientists say. Science News blog. Feb. 21, 2010. [Go to]. ... Climate of fear: scientists face death threats. Canberra Times, June 4, 2011. [Go to] ...
... panel of climate scientists in a 2014 report, it said. Trees soak up heat-trapping carbon dioxide as they grow and release it ... The Paris climate agreement, weakened by U.S. President Donald Trumps decision in June to pull out, seeks to limit a rise in ... Climate change could jeopardize production of crops such as corn, wheat, rice and soy even as a rising global population will ... "If we are serious about climate change, then we are going to have to get serious about investing in nature," said Mark Tercek, ...
... and scientists worried about global warming were enouraged. ... The last full day of the Copenhagen climate summit saw an ... While some leading American climate scientists clearly now feel elation after so many years trying to warn the world about the ... But some eminent American climate scientists are greatly encouraged by the high-level arguments that took place -- often simply ... Climate Change Train Finally Leaving the Station. "I cried on Saturday morning for happiness," American economist Gary Yohe ...
"To assume that it is a problem is to assume that the state of Earths climate today is the optimal climate, the best climate ... Several other NASA climate scientists contacted by ABC News echoed Hansens comments, saying an overwhelming majority of their ... The scientists believe research on issues like climate change will suffer as NASA shifts priorities toward exploration missions ... Scientists Surprised by NASA Chiefs Climate Comments. NASA administrator Michael Griffin questions need to combat warming. ...
... fossil fuel companies have deliberately deceived the public for nearly 30 years about the realities and risks of climate change ... Climate scientist Dr. Kristy Dahl discusses how global warming is fueling wildfire season and its impacts on the most ... Climate Change. Climate change is one of the most devastating problems humanity has ever faced-and the clock is running out. ... It is also unacceptable for companies to publicly accept the science while funding climate contrarian scientists or front ...
... and others are expected to visit the RDS in Dublin over the next few days to view displays at this years BT Young Scientist ... Young Scientists at the Mansion House Co Monaghan schoolgirl named winner on her 18th birthday. Young Scientist Founder Father ... Climate change, pollution and Brexit prove popular for young scientists at BTYSE Updated / Wednesday, 9 Jan 2019 18:16 ... Hundreds of interesting projects at the at the BT Young Scientist and Technology Exhibition at the RDS. Doors open to the ...
An in-depth analysis of eight leading fossil fuel companies assesses their climate actions and ranks them on their climate ... Climate Change, Stronger Hurricanes and COVID-19 Response Senior climate scientist Dr. Astrid Caldas discusses the connections ... Pay their share of climate costs. Agree to pay the companys share of the costs of climate-related damages and climate change ... COVID-19 Climate Hazards Climate hazards across the world will inevitably collide with the COVID-19 pandemic in ways that will ...
... said a report released Monday.The Iowa Climate Statement ... ... drought is consistent with predictions that global climate ... The Iowa scientists said theyre statement is not one of gloom and doom, but meant to indicate investments can be made now to ... The scientists are careful to avoid saying any single extreme weather incident is directly caused by global warming, saying too ... Michaels said the scientists who signed on to the report are "nibbling around the edges" with their recommendations that ...
... climate change to urge a stampede to legislation putting unprecedented controls in the hands of government to control climate ... The scientists sent their letter, dated October 29, in response to a letter the Senators received from the American Association ... More than a few conscientious scientists are trying to call Whoa! to the herd of independent minds that is using the issue ... On the other hand, proponents of taking action to curb climate change charge that efforts at reform are being opposed by the ...
All in all, this paper, published under the rubric of social science by a biologist, an engineer, a climate scientist and an ... FWIW, I am not a climate skeptic. I am a scientist who cares about the integrity of science.. ... 2) Climate scientists want to be contributors to the IPCC (and have their work cited by the IPCC) as it increases their ... 427 Responses to "What do climate scientists think?". « Previous 1 2 3 4 5 … 9 Next » ...
  • Because that research caught the public's attention when it was released in 1998, I became one of dozens of climate researchers who have been systematically targeted by a well-funded anti-science campaign. (
  • Attacks on science and scientists are an effort to advance a political agenda, not an effort to better understand science or the risks it uncovers. (
  • Last year, the inspector general of the National Science Foundation found the charges against me were all baseless and reaffirmed mainstream climate science. (
  • recently wrote an Op Ed in the New York Times that talks about Smith's assault on climate science . (
  • Last month, Smith subpoenaed climate scientist Kathryn Sullivan of NOAA demanding the release of those honest convo emails and other similar documents pertaining to climate change related research published in Science . (
  • This is nothing but an expeditionary move to damage science and some of the scientists who do that science. (
  • These models are used to predict climate change and global warming," says Wlodek Zahorowski, Environmental Researcher at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. (
  • In the combustible world of climate denial, the email release added fuel to the fire, reigniting old attacks on science in the blogosphere and among right-wing members of Congress -including a few who are in line to lead powerful House committees next year . (
  • The confusion sowed about climate science recently inspired a trio of scientists to create a "rapid response" team to dispel misinformation. (
  • There's a huge disconnect between what is known in the science community and what is understood in the general public," says John Abraham, a professor of engineering at the University of St. Thomas and one of the leaders of what he and his colleagues are calling the Climate Science Rapid Response Team. (
  • Launching later this week, the Climate Science Rapid Response Team has signed up more than 40 scientists to take part in the initiative, and organizers are hoping to grow the total to at least 100. (
  • The study concluded that if Americans were graded on their understanding of climate science, 52 percent of the population would get an "F." Yale's researchers also found that only 34 percent of the public agreed with the statement, "Most scientists think global warming is happening. (
  • James L. Powell , a former member of the National Science Board and current executive director of the National Physical Science Consortium , analyzed published research on global warming and climate change between 1991 and 2012 and found that of the 13,950 articles in peer-reviewed journals, only 24 rejected anthropogenic global warming. (
  • There's a concern that if it turns out that CO2 is not a major cause of climate change, NASA will have put the reputation of NASA, NASA's current and former employees, and even the very reputation of science itself at risk of public ridicule and distrust. (
  • With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in the catastrophic forecasts, coming particularly from the GISS leadership, it is clear that the science is NOT settled. (
  • At risk is damage to the exemplary reputation of NASA, NASA's current or former scientists and employees, and even the reputation of science itself. (
  • The last IPCC compendium on climate science, published in 2007, left out plenty of peer‐​reviewed science that it found inconveniently disagreeable. (
  • Patrick J. Michaels is senior fellow in environmental studies at the Cato Institute and author of Climate of Extremes: Global Warming Science They Don't Want You to Know . (
  • These include forged letters to Congress, secret funding of a supposedly independent scientist, the creation of fake grassroots organizations, multiple efforts to deliberately manufacture uncertainty about climate science, and more. (
  • Fossil fuel companies have almost certainly been aware of the underlying climate science for decades. (
  • Many of these companies have worked to systematically block laws or regulations that would reduce heat-trapping emissions, in some cases by spreading disinformation about climate science. (
  • One scientist who helped draft the report, Dave Courard-Hauri, chairman of environmental science and policy program at Drake University, said continuing to deny the connection between increased storm volatility and a warming climate helps no one. (
  • The scientists sent their letter, dated October 29, in response to a letter the Senators received from the American Association for the Advancement of Science claiming a 'consensus' of the scientific community on climate change and asserting that 'immediate and drastic action is needed to avert a climactic catastrophe. (
  • To that end, folks like Fred Singer, Art Robinson, the Cato Institute and the 'Friends' of Science have periodically organised letters and petitions to indicate (or imply) that 'very important scientists' disagree with Kyoto, or the Earth Summit or Copenhagen or the IPCC etc. (
  • It is in response to these attempts to portray the scientific community as fractured and in disagreement, that many people have tried to find quantitative ways to assess the degree of consensus among scientists on the science and, as with this new paper, the degree of credibility and expertise among the signers of various letters advocating policies. (
  • The main reason most climate scientists come out of the lab and engage publicly is not to share their subjective emotions about the state of the world, but rather to discuss the results and consequences of our science. (
  • But the principal role for climate scientists is to inform the public debate about the outcome of collective science efforts and the risks associated with the different trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, not how they feel about it. (
  • More broadly, climate change science also provides multiple insights into how to manage climate risks. (
  • Climate Science underestimated the pace of climate change, it was too conservative. (
  • Scientists have started copying recent environmental measurements from government servers to make sure they are not lost under the administration of President-elect Donald Trump, who has denied mainstream climate science. (
  • Scientists are unsure of what will happen once the Trump administration takes office, so they're guarding against any public loss of access," Michael Halpern, the deputy director of the center for science and democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists , told Yahoo News on Wednesday. (
  • The letter, published in the journal Science, says the recent attacks on climate researchers are being run by special interests and the debate must address the compelling evidence of climate change. (
  • But earth scientist Pamela Matson from Stanford University, who led the report's section on the state of the science, says measuring what's happening now isn't enough anymore. (
  • Last month, he was cleared of yet another allegation of misconduct in his climate research, this time by the National Science Foundation. (
  • The Union of Concerned Scientists, the American Association of University Professors, the American Geophysical Union and Climate Science Watch have all expressed concern about the disclosure of personal emails between scientists, arguing that it jeopardizes academic freedom. (
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has also decried this type of attack on scientists, arguing that they that have created a "hostile environment that inhibits the free exchange of scientific findings. (
  • The report was completed this year and is a special science section of the National Climate Assessment, which is congressionally mandated every four years. (
  • What the New York Times obtained, in other words, is an advance look at one of "the most comprehensive climate science reports" ever written. (
  • Trump has argued that climate science is part of a massive conspiracy cooked up by the Chinese to undermine the free-enterprise system. (
  • Following the release of the draft, the press as well as the science community expressed deep concerns over the administration's position on climate change and its impact on how experts have operated under Trump. (
  • Gov. Jerry Brown has been taking a lead globally in confronting climate change, warning the Trump administration's approach is reckless and defies science. (
  • Science educators today are eager to show people of all ages that they, too, can do the work of scientists. (
  • These data have been used in more than 150 peer-reviewed and published scientific papers by professional scientists, says Janis Dickinson , director of citizen science at the lab and an associate professor of natural resources at Cornell University . (
  • The break comes despite the Trudeau government's repeated emphasis on the need for science-based decision-making in response to climate change. (
  • At a time when climate change is threatening humanity, genetically modified foods are proliferating, and medical science is making incredible strides, it would seem safe to assume that most people pay close attention to science. (
  • Most people, scientists and laypeople alike, believe that science is important, and that it has positively affected health care, food, and the environment. (
  • Scientists and the general public are also in agreement that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is sorely lacking. (
  • Beyond a lack of widespread STEM education in the U.S., scientists surveyed also believe that a lack of public interest in science-related news, a lack of scientists communicating their findings properly, and a corresponding lack of media interest in science, are all to blame. (
  • CSIR-National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), Delhi, under the ministry of science and technology, has proposed to the ministry of earth sciences a project to study the impact of climate change in Kerala, as the coastal state struggles to rebuild itself after the devastating floods in August. (
  • The three-year project, which has an estimated budget of ₹ 79 crore, would involve more than 50 scientists from several research institutions including the Indian Institutes of Technology, laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the National Institute of Oceanography, Cochin University of Science and Technology, and University of Calcutta, who would study climate change in the state and suggest adaptation measures. (
  • Michael Mann, an influential climatologist who has spent years in the center of the debate over climate science, has sued two organizations that have accused him of academic fraud and of improperly manipulating data. (
  • But he faces a high bar: Mann has played a key role in climate science for decades, and the law generally requires a much higher burden of proof from public figures, said CEI general counsel Sam Kazman. (
  • William O'Keefe (who was leader of the Global Climate Coalition at the time) was asked by the Times why there was such a gap between their public campaign-which stressed that the uncertainties regarding climate science were such that a cautious approach was the best thing-and that of their own advisors. (
  • Suggestions that the measures could help keep global temperature increases to under 2 degrees Celsius - the target set in the Paris Agreement on climate change - "appear optimistic" and cannot compensate for inadequate emissions cuts, a report from the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) noted. (
  • About 87 percent of science models that show a path to holding world temperature hikes to below 2 degrees Celsius rely on such technologies, said Gideon Henderson, a geochemist at the British Royal Society and chair of a group of UK scientists and engineers looking at the technologies. (
  • For years, Kim Cobb was the Indiana Jones of climate science. (
  • But climate scientists familiar with the data insist that the reports are based on sound science and that the data in question was altered as part of standard operating procedure to ensure consistency across reporting stations. (
  • NASA's dabbling with climate science is bureaucratic overreach. (
  • A much-awaited report from the U.N.'s top climate science panel will show an enormous gap between where we are and where we need to be to prevent dangerous levels of warming. (
  • He's also courted controversy by pursuing and pushing for research at the outside edges of atmospheric science, exploring the possibility of manipulating the climate itself. (
  • A prolific researcher and author, co-founder of the journal Climatic Change, and a wonderful communicator, his contributions to the advancement of climate science will be sorely missed," Gore said in a statement. (
  • Schneider was an influential, and at times combative, public voice in arguing the man-made causes of climate change, and appeared on news and science television programs, wrote articles and blogged. (
  • Through his books, his extensive public speaking, and his many interactions with the media, Steve did for climate science what Carl Sagan did for astronomy," said Ben Santer, a climate researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (
  • They're declaring a climate emergency because the science supports it. (
  • This list of climate scientists contains famous or otherwise notable persons who have contributed to the study of climate science. (
  • See also Category:Climatologists and List of authors of Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. (
  • In order to accept climate science, evangelicals must find a way to unravel some of the bonds they ve formed with the Tea Party mentality of climate skepticism, and also to address a widely-held belief among American evangelicals that contributes to their doubt of climate science: that God is the only one powerful enough to change something as major as the climate. (
  • Jim Ball, executive vice president for policy and climate change at the Evangelical Environmental Network, told E&E Publishing that the evangelical community s culture of climate skepticism also comes down to a matter of trust in science something some Christians have historically struggled with. (
  • To have evangelical scientists, people of faith, saying to the evangelical community that you can trust this science is quite important. (
  • It may be difficult for evangelicals to embrace a culture that accepts climate science though as the scientists letter shows, it isn t impossible (and they ve done it before ). (
  • Our experimental design provides an instrument for detecting ambiguity, a valuable new source of information when linking climate science and climate policy which can help policy makers select decision tools appropriate to our true state of knowledge. (
  • Now comes another devastating analysis of Cook's cooked data from a big name in the climate science community: Professor Richard S. J. Tol. (
  • A new area of study called "event attribution science" is mining data in an attempt to make more definitive links, or at least better gauge the odds of an extreme event in the context of climate change that results partly from human activities, including burning fossil fuels. (
  • A group of leading climate scientists has announced the formation of the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition, aimed at refuting what it believes are unfounded claims about man-made global warming. (
  • In a previous post I wrote that the "leading climate scientists" in the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition only contained one actual climate scientist, Chris de Freitas. (
  • This [story](…) on Bob Carter in the Age is a good one for playing [Global Warming Skeptic Bingo]( (
  • The congressmen - all members of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee - made their claims while questioning Philip Duffy , a physicist and the president of the Woods Hole Research Center, a climate change think tank. (
  • Denial and suppression of established climate science has become a litmus test for primary candidates from the GOP, which is heavily funded by oil, coal, and other fossil-fuel interests. (
  • Journalists who normally pose as defenders of science concerned about the impact of global warming have also attacked the UEA scientists. (
  • The storm that has engulfed Professor Jones is as much the responsibility of the respectable broadsheets and papers of record as it is of the tabloids.The media have responded in a cowardly and hypocritical way to an assault from corporate interests, in order to discredit scientists and science itself. (
  • Keating says that the evidence for global warming is so ubiquitous that the only way to deny that climate change is real is to deny science. (
  • The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change. (
  • George Gray, director of the Center for Risk Science and Public Health at George Washington University, said that demanding absolute proof on things such as climate doesn't make sense. (
  • With the U.N. panel about to weigh in on the effects of greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of oil, coal and gas, The Associated Press asked scientists who specialize in climate, physics, epidemiology, public health, statistics and risk just what in science is more certain than human-caused climate change, what is about the same, and what is less. (
  • Climate science calculates what the future climate will look like using the basic laws of physics. (
  • The Trump Administration budget request for FY 2018 would "severely reduce" Energy Department funding for development of carbon capture and sequestration technologies intended to combat the climate change effects of burning fossil fuels. (
  • Image courtesy of Union of Concerned Scientists, "Underwater: Rising Seas, Chronic Floods, and the Implications for US Coastal Real Estate 2018. (
  • The following letter asking the agency to move away from climate models and to limit its stance to what can be empirically proven, was sent by 49 former NASA scientists and astronauts. (
  • 49 former NASA scientists and astronauts sent a letter to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden last week admonishing the agency for it's role in advocating a high degree of certainty that man-made CO2 is a major cause of climate change while neglecting empirical evidence that calls the theory into question. (
  • The group, which includes seven Apollo astronauts and two former directors of NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, are dismayed over the failure of NASA, and specifically the Goddard Institute For Space Studies (GISS), to make an objective assessment of all available scientific data on climate change. (
  • They charge that NASA is relying too heavily on complex climate models that have proven scientifically inadequate in predicting climate only one or two decades in advance. (
  • H. Leighton Steward, chairman of the non-profit Plants Need CO2, noted that many of the former NASA scientists harbored doubts about the significance of the C02-climate change theory and have concerns over NASA's advocacy on the issue. (
  • While making presentations in late 2011 to many of the signatories of the letter, Steward realized that the NASA scientists should make their concerns known to NASA and the GISS. (
  • We believe the claims by NASA and GISS, that man-made carbon dioxide is having a catastrophic impact on global climate change are not substantiated. (
  • As former NASA employees, we feel that NASA's advocacy of an extreme position, prior to a thorough study of the possible overwhelming impact of natural climate drivers is inappropriate. (
  • June 1, 2007 -- NASA administrator Michael Griffin continues to draw the ire of preeminent climate scientists inside and outside of NASA, as well as members of Congress, after apparently downplaying the need to combat global warming. (
  • Hansen believes Griffin's comments fly in the face of well-established scientific knowledge that hundreds of NASA scientists have contributed to. (
  • Several other NASA climate scientists contacted by ABC News echoed Hansen's comments, saying an overwhelming majority of their colleagues believe global warming is an urgent issue that society should be addressing. (
  • Griffin's comments also angered scientists outside of NASA. (
  • Members of Congress also weighed in, criticizing NASA for cutting the budgets of satellite programs that help monitor the effects of climate change. (
  • Setting aside NASA Administrator Griffin's personal views on the significance of global warming, I remain concerned that NASA is not doing as much as needs to be done on climate change data collection and research," said Rep. Bart Gordon, D.-Tenn. (
  • Last year, many NASA scientists were upset when reports surfaced that the agency had quietly deleted the phrase "to understand and protect our home planet" from the NASA mission statement. (
  • The scientists believe research on issues like climate change will suffer as NASA shifts priorities toward exploration missions to the moon and Mars. (
  • Trump, it is becoming clearer by the day, is in no mood to show any mercy to the cabal of scientists at institutions like NASA GISS and NOAA who have been manipulating raw temperature data - torturing it till it screams - in order to exaggerate the appearance of 20th century warming. (
  • The Washington Post mentions, disapprovingly, a Trump adviser calling for NASA to focus on space exploration and not climate research. (
  • Under Trump it will hopefully return to its core function, with its climate activism at NASA GISS, run by alarmist Gavin Schmidt, swiftly deep-sixed. (
  • This climate visualization shows the temperature anomalies by country from 1880 through 2017, based on data from NASA. (
  • Daily Caller) Former NASA scientist Dr. Roy Spencer is sick of being labeled a global warming 'denier' by politicians and environmentalists. (
  • Researchers and other representatives from NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, universities and additional organizations will speak on various aspects of climate change. (
  • See for more information. (
  • Nuclear, especially next-generation nuclear, has tremendous potential to be part of the solution to climate change," said James Hansen, the NASA scientist who first raised dire warnings over global warming, at the COP21 conference in December. (
  • The pledges countries made during the Paris climate accord don't get us anywhere close to what we have to do," said Drew Shindell, a climate expert at Duke University and one of the authors of the IPCC report. (
  • Bert Bolin (1925-2007), Swedish meteorologist, first chair of the IPCC Gerard C. Bond (1940-2005) American geologist and paleoclimate researcher Jason Box, American professor of glaciology at Ohio State University Raymond S. Bradley, American, historical temperatures, paleoclimatology, and climate variability. (
  • These, of course, represent only a small sampling of the thousands of scientists who have expressed various levels of disagreement with the hysterical climate pronouncements of the IPCC, Al Gore, and John Cook. (
  • It is useful as a sort of mini IPCC, reviewing mainstream research and policy proposals regarding the climate and its discontents. (
  • They are not necessarily expecting the Trump administration to start deleting data sets, but simply taking this information offline or failing to collect additional public health and environmental data would have serious implications for communities around the United States and scientists to protect the public. (
  • But Trump has repeatedly denigrated the work of climate scientists and padded his Cabinet with people who share that view. (
  • For years, Trump has railed against climate change as a "hoax" and even "bulls***" while calling for additional global warming whenever it was especially cold outside. (
  • But three days later, speculation became reality as news broke that the incoming Trump administration's EPA transition team does indeed intend to remove some climate data from the agency's website. (
  • At Penn, a group of coders that called themselves "baggers" set upon these tougher sets immediately, writing scripts to scrape the data and collect them in data bundles to be uploaded to , an Amazon Web Services-hosted site which will serve as an alternate repository for government climate and environmental research during the Trump administration. (
  • The average temperature in the United States has risen rapidly and drastically since 1980, and recent decades have been the warmest of the past 1,500 years, according to a sweeping federal climate change report awaiting approval by the Trump administration. (
  • A leaked draft of an extensive federal climate change report is causing alarm on Tuesday-both because of its findings, which make clear that the U.S. is currently experiencing the effects of climate change, and because of statements by the report's authors, who say they're concerned President Donald Trump will try to suppress the paper. (
  • Earlier this year, with the support of his cabinet, Trump withdrew the U.S. from the Paris climate accords to limit greenhouse gas emissions, saying it was a "bad deal" for Americans. (
  • In light of the Trump administration's skepticism on the issue, according to the New York Times , "a scientist involved in the process, who spoke to the Times on the condition of anonymity, said he and others were concerned that [the report] would be suppressed," leading the team to leak its findings to the newspaper. (
  • He traveled last month to a United Nations climate conference in Bonn, Germany, to meet with world leaders and send the signal that much of the nation is moving to act on climate change, even if President Trump is not. (
  • Trump has dismissed manmade climate change as a hoax invented by the Chinese and says he will abandon the Paris agreement if elected. (
  • It is, however, all too typical of the kind of posturing and projection we can expect to see from the climate alarmist establishment as their elaborate Ponzi scheme begins to collapse with the advent of President Donald Trump. (
  • Climate change is officially defined by DoD as "Variations in average weather conditions that persist over multiple decades or longer that encompass increases and decreases in temperature, shifts in precipitation, and changing risk of certain types of severe weather events. (
  • Fossil fuel companies have intentionally spread climate disinformation for decades. (
  • The data will probably be useful for improving climate models and we may just have to resort to such tactics since we've been doing relatively little about climate change even though we've been aware of the issue for decades. (
  • A lack of data on tropical cyclones has made it difficult for scientists to determine whether global warming is already affecting major storms, with only North Atlantic data on hurricanes considered robust enough over decades to identify trends. (
  • LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Emerging plans to curb climate change by sucking excess emissions out of the atmosphere rely on technologies that have "limited realistic potential" to work, at least in coming decades, scientists warned Wednesday. (
  • However, even though the technologies are unlikely to be of significant help in coming decades, research into them needs to continue, particularly as climate change impacts - from worsening floods and droughts to sea level rise - grow stronger, scientists said. (
  • No one has done more damage to "climate data" in the past three decades than the corrupt, politicized activist scientists who are now afraid that they may be neutered or booted out of office by the incoming administration. (
  • But after decades of ignoring the mounting evidence on climate change, there is little choice but to cut emissions to basically zero. (
  • Schneider studied climate change for decades and wrote a number of books charting its effects on wildlife and ecosystems in the United States, and later chronicled its effect on the nation's politics and policy. (
  • The climate scientists responsible for the declaration, published Tuesday in the journal BioScience , say experts have been sounding the alarm for decades. (
  • The president of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences, Ralph Cicerone, and more than a dozen other scientists contacted by the AP said the 95 percent certainty regarding climate change is most similar to the confidence scientists have in the decades' worth of evidence that cigarettes are deadly. (
  • He has been at the forefront, for decades, of some of the most important studies pertaining to the biological impacts - particularly in alpine environments - of climate change, as well as humanity's role in the disruption of critical ecosystems . (
  • I have had the privilege of working twice with Dr. Harte during the last eight months: once for a day filming our three-hour Dancing Star Foundation TV series, "State of the Earth" and then again this July at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory above Crested Butte, Colorado, where Dr. Harte and colleagues have been monitoring climate, soil and biological changes for nearly two decades. (
  • Natural climate solutions, also including protection of carbon-storing peat lands and better management of soils and grasslands, could account for 37 percent of all actions needed by 2030 under the 195-nation Paris plan, it said. (
  • The Paris climate agreement, weakened by U.S. President Donald Trump's decision in June to pull out, seeks to limit a rise in global temperature to "well below" two degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial times. (
  • They should immediately stop funding climate deception and publicly acknowledge the long-term goal of the Paris Climate Agreement and its implications for the swift transition to global net-zero emissions. (
  • Now is the time for the prime minister and the rest of his government to show leadership on this issue, by implementing effective domestic policies to tackle climate change and to support efforts overseas, including a strong international agreement [at a crunch UN summit] in Paris at the end of this year, " he added. (
  • Droplets of water fall from a melting ice block harvested from Greenland and installed on Place du Pantheon in Paris, France, Dec. 3, 2015 as the World Climate Change Conference 2015 (COP21) continues. (
  • The administration has been working aggressively to unravel Obama -era action on climate change, withdrawing from the Paris agreement that seeks to limit its impact, dismantling restrictions on power plant emissions, and signaling that it will relax vehicle mileage rules that are a critical component to addressing global warming. (
  • Hundreds of top scientists warned on Tuesday against Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump's vow to pull the United States out of the Paris climate-warming accord if elected in November. (
  • Nuclear energy's resilience was never more apparent than during the COP21 climate talks in Paris. (
  • The definition was originally proposed in the January 2016 DoD Directive 4715.21 on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience . (
  • This graphic by John Cook from "Consensus on Consensus" (2016) uses pie charts to illustrate the results of seven climate consensus studies by Naomi Oreskes , Peter Doran , William Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed Maibach, J. Stuart Carlton, and John Cook. (
  • This comprehensive study includes eight leading fossil fuel companies and is based on extensive research into the companies' climate-related communications, positions, and actions, focusing on the period from January 2015 through May 2016. (
  • I worked on climate change research that indicated the world is a lot warmer today than it was in the past. (
  • The report , issued by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics for the World Bank, urges nations to work to prevent the Earth from warming 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) past preindustrial averages. (
  • Climate research also suggests tropical storms would strengthen and drought would increase across much of the tropical and subtropical world. (
  • I am inclined to think that things will break before we get there,' Kevin Trenberth, a climate scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, said of a 4-degree-C world. (
  • The more we learn about the purloined e‐​mails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit the more it resembles Watergate. (
  • One series of these e‐​mails called out the journal Climate Research , which had the audacity to publish a paper surveying a voluminous scientific literature that didn't support Mann's claim that the last 50 years are the warmest in the past millennium. (
  • These include articles from the journals Arctic , Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , Earth Interactions , Geophysical Research Letters , International Journal of Climatology , Journal of Climate , Journal of Geophysical Research , Nature , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , and Quaternary Research . (
  • The National Research Council report also stresses that scientists need to figure out how to predict the effects of climate change -- and develop ways to adapt. (
  • The communiqué, signed by 24 of the top professional and research institutions, also said more investment in tackling climate change would lead to greater economic prosperity, as well as improving public health by reducing pollution. (
  • The research helps resolve the enigma of how the climate remained stable enough to support life despite repeated global climatic events. (
  • The expedition is part of the Cape Farewell program, started by London-based artist and sailor David Buckland, with a mission to raise awareness about climate change by sailing to the front lines of the issue, and giving artists full access to the advanced--and potentially quite important--research being conducted there. (
  • Natalie is a Teaching and Research Fellow at the University of Surrey and is collaborating with ESA on the Climate Detectives school project. (
  • The current project grew from early campaigns by Gabriel Wolken, a research scientist and manager of the Climate and Cryosphere Hazards Program at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), to enlist the snowmobile community in Valdez, Alaska, in data collection efforts. (
  • California could be hit with significantly more dangerous and more frequent droughts in the near future as changes in weather patterns triggered by global warming block rainfall from reaching the state, according to new research led by scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (
  • These observations can be very valuable to scientists," says Dr. Henderson, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. "[Professional] scientists can't be everywhere, and we're asking volunteers to be these extra eyes on the landscape. (
  • Scientists who work at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory on Ellesmere Island are among those facing disruption and uncertainty after a key federal program for funding climate research expires this year. (
  • Climate scientists across Canada are preparing to shutter research projects and lay off staff as time runs out on the federal program that supports their work. (
  • For researchers who have welcomed recent statements from Ottawa about the importance of climate research after years of anemic funding from previous governments, the looming gap is a source of disappointment and some surprise. (
  • All the right words are there, but somehow research groups are going to be dismantled within a few months and nothing is going to appear to prevent this," said René Laprise, a professor and climate scientist at the University of Quebec at Montreal. (
  • Dr. Laprise is among dozens of academic researchers whose work is funded through the federal program called Climate Change and Atmospheric Research (CCAR), which expires this year. (
  • For Dr. Laprise, a specialist in regional climate modelling, there is currently no alternative to letting go his team of PhD-level research assistants whose positions are paid for by CCAR. (
  • This is more so as recent research has shown that climate change is forcing fishes to migrate faster in search of colder waters. (
  • Our new study paints the most detailed picture yet of how aircraft turbulence will respond to climate change," said Dr Paul Williams, who conducted the research. (
  • He stepped up an already aggressive research pace that's produced nearly 150 papers on climate and related issues, earning more than 12,000 citations in the scientific literature. (
  • The implications of Jan Veizer's work has sent shockwaves through the climate research community. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO - Stephen Schneider , a Stanford University scientist who served on the international research panel on global warming that shared the 2007 Nobel Prize with former Vice President Al Gore , has died. (
  • Kevin Anderson, Director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and is an adviser to the British Government on climate change. (
  • James Annan, British climatologist with Blue Skies Research, UK Julie Arblaster, Australian climatologist at The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in CSIRO David Archer, American professor of oceanography at University of Chicago Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish, greenhouse effect. (
  • A LifeWay Research report released in April found that 54 percent of Protestant pastors don t think climate change is real, and some of politics most outspoken Christians Michele Bachmann and Sarah Palin , for example virulently deny climate change is occurring. (
  • Tipping Points and Ambiguity in the Economics of Climate Change ," NBER Working Papers 18230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Combine the chilled air converging on the East with the massive moisture coming from the Gulf of Mexico region and you've got the "perfect setup for a big storm," Kevin Trenberth, of the Climate Analysis Section at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado, told The Huffington Post in an email. (
  • The grants of $250,000 to each scientist are part of a larger project to fund research on topics such as sea-level rise and coastal resilience, marine pollution and renewable energy. (
  • In the olden days to become a leading climate scientist you had to work hard, do lots of research and publish it in good journals. (
  • Of course, just because he hasn't any qualifications or experience in climate research doesn't mean that he might not be able to offer some insight. (
  • The most important example is McKitrick and Michaels 2004 Climate Research Vol 26 pages 159-173 which shows that the surface temperature record is biased. (
  • Last year, climate change skeptics claimed emails leaked from a leading UK research unit showed an attempt to falsify data to exaggerate the threat of global warming. (
  • The Media Research Center reports that the study's findings differ largely from the often used statistic that 97 percent of scientists believe in man-made global warming. (
  • Through a series of field experiments at five European sites, a Brown University-led research team has charted the internal and external signals that guide the life cycle of one plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, across its native climate range. (
  • This is a powerful tool to predict how this plant species and other species will respond to climate change and which genetic pathways are important in different environments," said Amity Wilczek, a postdoctoral research associate in ecology and evolutionary biology at Brown and the paper's lead author. (
  • By examining mutants impaired in different genes, the research team could quantify shifts in the balance of this seesaw across different seasons and climates. (
  • The theft and publication of emails from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia in England, containing communications between top scientists, has been used to boost the reactionary campaign backed by major oil producers and corporate lobbyists to deny the existence of global warming. (
  • In the run up to the Copenhagen summit, the anti-climate change lobby has seized on sentences taken out of context from private communications between Professor Phil Jones, head of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), and other scientists to attack them and undermine their work. (
  • He asserted that scientists are supporting claims of climate change simply to get more research funding: "The climate comrades are trying to keep the gravy train going. (
  • Keating says that the tobacco industry funded scientists to undermine "valid research," while calling into question the ability of any scientists receiving government funding to remain unbiased. (
  • The finding, reported in the May 13 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters, has implications for better understanding global and regional climate change, and is the first to identify high-latitude phenomena that significantly influence climate in the equatorial regions of the world. (
  • The prevailing wisdom, according to Zhengyu Liu, lead author of the paper and director of UW-Madison's Center for Climatic Research, was that climate and weather phenomena at higher latitudes tended to be static, with no far-reaching influence. (
  • The Center for Climatic Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is a leading center of research into world climate. (
  • With a PhD in physics, his research encompasses the most serious biochemical and climate-ecosystem feedback processes of global warming and theoretical ecology. (
  • In a letter sent to all 100 members of the United States Senate, five scientists from Princeton University, the University of Virginia, and the University of California, Santa Barbara have warned the Senators that any supposed consensus of the scientific community on climate change is 'a fake, designed to stampede you into actions that will cripple our economy, and which you will regret for many years. (
  • Better stewardship of the land could have a bigger role in fighting climate change than previously thought," the international team of scientists said of findings published in the U.S. journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • For the series, Bowers interviewed a selection of scientists in varying fields, capturing the frightened looks on their faces while they contemplated their findings. (
  • The scientists, whose findings appear in the journal Nature Climate Change, simulated the penguins' past habitat shifts and identified future vulnerable areas. (
  • These disparities have led to a situation where the majority of scientists think that the best scientific findings aren't being used to guide policy choices related to clean air, clean water, and land use. (
  • The scientists believe their findings may help both climate modelers and policy makers to understand the true climatic consequences of burning trees or sooty industrial fuels. (
  • These findings, though contrary to popular narrative on climate change, are unsurprising to anyone familiar with the prevalence of dissent in the scientific community. (
  • The findings suggest that "scientists may need to rethink widely accepted ideas about why human ancestors became smarter and more sophisticated," George Washington University said in a statement. (
  • The findings support information provided in Australia's first Marine Climate Change Impacts Report Card, released in 2009, which describes recorded and projected changes to marine species from shifts in climate. (
  • Larger political factors helped sink the climate change talks. (
  • After years of studying the issue, the experts recommended to climate diplomats in 2013 that they consider the concept of a "carbon budget" to help frame the talks. (
  • Moreover, any serious discussion of the carbon budget would amplify a point of serious contention, known as "climate injustice," in the talks. (
  • The extent to which intellectual property rights represent a barrier to the diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries has been among the most contentious issues in global climate talks in recent years. (
  • The National Climate Assessment - 2014 (NCA) is a masterpiece of marketing that shows for the first time the full capabilities of the Obama Administration to spin a scientific topic as they see fit, without regard to the underlying facts. (
  • Even if 97% of climate scientists agreed with this, and even if they were right, it in no way, shape, or form would imply that we should restrict fossil fuels--which are crucial to the livelihood of billions. (
  • With efforts to cut the use of fossil fuels falling short of what is needed, a growing number of scientists and engineers believe efforts to capture climate pollution already emitted will be necessary to hold warming to relatively safe levels. (
  • Individuals can make a difference by reducing meat consumption, voting for political parties and members of government bodies who have clear climate change policies, rejecting fossil fuels where possible, using renewable and clean sources of energy, reducing car and air travel, and joining citizen movements. (
  • 97 percent of climate scientists have confirmed that climate change is happening and that human activity is responsible. (
  • Indeed a score of the signers are Members and Fellows of the AAAS, none of whom were consulted before the AAAS letter to you,' the dissenting scientists wrote. (
  • Craig Idso , Nicola Scafetta , Nir J. Shaviv and Nils-Axel Mörner , who question the consensus, were cited in a Wall Street Journal article by Joseph Bast and Roy Spencer disputing the 97% figure, as climate scientists who assert that Cook misrepresented their work. (
  • What has bedevilled all these attempts is that since it is very difficult to get scientists to respond to direct questions (response rates for surveys are pitiful), proxy data of some sort or another are often used that may or may not be useful for the specifics of the 'consensus' being tested (which itself is often not clearly defined). (
  • The mainstream media and climate-alarmist blogosphere uncritically accepted the Cook study and trumpeted the consensus claims as gospel. (
  • While the episode inflamed climate skeptics, it also forced some climate scientists to rethink their role in the debate. (
  • Along with the CRU head Phil Jones and other climate luminaries, they then cooked up the idea of boycotting any scientific journal that dared publish anything by a few notorious "skeptics," myself included. (
  • They just discovered it pays well (and far better than the climate skeptics who can't find jobs). (
  • The lead industry tried to discredit a scientist who found that lead exposure hurt children's cognitive abilities. (
  • There is a larger context for this latest development,' he wrote, 'namely the onslaught of dishonest and libelous attacks that climate scientists have endured for years by dishonest front groups seeking to discredit the case for concern over climate change. (
  • One of the main papers behind the 97 percent claim is authored by John Cook, who runs the popular website , a virtual encyclopedia of arguments trying to defend predictions of catastrophic climate change from all challenges. (
  • Thomas Newsome, from the University of Sydney, said scientists have a moral obligation to warn the planet's citizens about the threat of catastrophic climate change. (
  • But I work on the small things, the ocean's plankton, and we are already seeing climate shifts in these organisms. (
  • The latest study adds a worrying dimension to the challenge California is already facing in adapting to climate change, and shifts focus to melting polar ice that only recently has been discovered to have such a direct, potentially dramatic impact on the West Coast. (
  • Shifts in the distribution of marine animals in response to climate change can be detrimental to some species. (
  • The discovery of a new species of human ancestor, called Homo naledi, has been unveiled by scientists in South Africa. (
  • The well-preserved remains of 15 individuals from a new species of human ancestor, called Homo naledi, have been unveiled by scientists in South Africa. (
  • For the world s poorest people, climate change means dried-up wells in Africa, floods in Asia that wash away crops and homes, wildfires in the U.S. and Russia, loss of villages and food species in the Arctic, environmental refugees, and disease. (
  • The technique allows scientists who are studying fish spawning to tell which species the tiny, gelatinous eggs belong to. (
  • He said world leaders had only one or two years to act before the Earth reaches a "tipping point" with major consequences to the global climate and species survival. (
  • One scientist ran computer simulations to see how species would naturally go extinct and be created over time and found there are random patterns that appear, with clusters of species coming or going at the same time. (
  • But the computer simulations calculated how species would rise and fall without climate change and found nature would still have clusters that are the same size as some of the pulses. (
  • That means despite the fact that a lot of scientists believe climate change spurred a pulse in which the human species was born, random events could be just as likely. (
  • The paleoanthropologist behind the evolutionary analysis, Andrew Barr , is arguing that in the case of the pulse that included humans, a random spike could have paved the way for our species to be born rather than climate change. (
  • Scientists from Australia's University of Queensland and the Queensland government suspect the Bramble Cay melomys, a small rodent likely only found on the island of Bramble Cay, is the first species to go extinct because of climate change. (
  • They finally concluded the Bramble Cay melomys is very likely extinct, and is possibly the first mammal species to perish because of climate change caused by humans. (
  • Ecologist John White from Deakin University told The Guardian, "I am of absolutely no doubt we will lose species due to the increasing pressure being exerted by climate change. (
  • Scientists are reporting significant changes in the distribution of coastal fish species in south-east Australia which they say are partly due to climate change. (
  • In a survey of 520 individual reefs that make up the Great Barrier Reef's northern section, scientists from Australia's National Coral Bleaching Task Force found only four with no signs of bleaching. (
  • One morning in early February, climate scientist Ken Caldeira stood ankle deep on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, shielded from the glare in a floppy blue sun hat. (
  • Technology to store captured carbon below ground - a key part of everything from British plans to address climate change to U.S. President Donald Trump's push for "clean coal" - is "in a state of paralysis" with little progress toward making it a viable reality, Norton said. (
  • If you look at the literature, the specific meaning of the 97% claim is: 97 percent of climate scientists agree that there is a global warming trend and that human beings are the main cause--that is, that we are over 50% responsible. (
  • Now he is using his committee chairmanship to go after the government's own climate scientists, whose latest study is an inconvenience to his views. (
  • If we are serious about climate change, then we are going to have to get serious about investing in nature," said Mark Tercek, chief executive officer of The Nature Conservancy, which led the study. (
  • But, they did say increasingly volatile weather patterns have been predicted by scientists who study global warming. (
  • Our design was aimed at looking at what will happen in 20 to 30 years, when the Arctic becomes ice-free in the summer," said Ivana Cvijanovic, the lead climate scientist on the study. (
  • Over several years, the project will build a database that will, among other things, help professional scientists study how global warming is affecting plant life around the country. (
  • Right now, "there is no incentive for anyone to do this," said John Shepherd, part of the EASAC environment steering panel and chair of a Royal Society study of climate "geoengineering" in 2009. (
  • The Georgia Tech professor flew to the caves of Borneo to study ancient and current climate conditions. (
  • Some climate scientists and activists are limiting their flying, their consumption of meat and their overall carbon footprints to avoid adding to the global warming they study. (
  • But the study emerged as other scientists said winter waves pounding the Scottish and Irish coasts have grown by up to 5ft 6in (1.7metres) over the past 70 years. (
  • Cook made a big media splash in May with the publication of a study by him and several co-authors claiming to prove that climate scientists overwhelmingly support the theory that human activity is warming the planet to dangerous levels. (
  • The Purdue study was done to compare opinions on climate change from scientists, climatologists, and the agricultural industry. (
  • When experts see these clusters happen in real life, through a "turnover in the mammalian fossil record," they are often called "pulses" and attributed to the influence of prehistoric climate change, the study says. (
  • He points to a recent Drexel University study which shows that nearly $560 million in funding has been given to groups that focus on climate change denial over the last eight years. (
  • The new study, says Liu, provides a missing piece of the climate puzzle. (
  • Mitigating and adapting to climate change while honouring the diversity of humans entails major transformations in the ways our global society functions and interacts with natural ecosystems. (
  • Excessive extraction of materials and overexploitation of ecosystems, driven by economic growth, must be quickly curtailed to maintain long-term sustainability of the biosphere," scientists wrote. (
  • On the other hand, proponents of taking action to curb climate change charge that efforts at reform are being opposed by the coal, oil, and natural-gas industries and from oil-rich countries like Saudi Arabia. (