Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.GreenlandAntifreeze Proteins: Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.El Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)FiresWater Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Atlantic OceanHockey: A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.North AmericaBaltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.South AmericaSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Pacific OceanEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.EuropeAdaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Foraminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.AfricaHistory, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.North SeaTime: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
"Page 1 1 International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) The oldest ice core: A 1.5 million year record of climate and ... Ice[edit]. Mountain glaciers and the polar ice caps/ice sheets provide much data in paleoclimatology. Ice-coring projects in ... "Glossary, Climate system". NASA.. *^ a b "Annex III: Glossary" (PDF). IPCC AR5. Climate change may be due to natural internal ... Quaternary climate[edit]. Ice core data for the past 800,000 years (x-axis values represent "age before 1950", so today's date ...
Climate[edit]. Perm krai has a continental climate. Winters are long and snowy, with average temperatures in January varying ... Kungur Ice Cave. Perm Krai is rich with minerals, that can be explained its diverse relief in mountainous and flat parts. There ...
Although the Great Arctic Cyclone did not cause the record melting of sea ice which occurred in 2012, turbulence from the storm ... Michael D. Lemonick (December 27, 2012). "Great Arctic Cyclone in Summer 'Unprecedented'". Climate Central. Retrieved March 6, ... "Cyclone did not cause 2012 record low for Arctic sea ice". University of Washington. Retrieved March 6, 2013. ... is believed to have contributed to melting of sea ice, due to the rise of warmer saltier water from below. On August 2, 2014, ...
Freedman, Andrew (12 September 2012). "'Astonishing' Ice Melt May Lead to More Extreme Winters". Climate Central. Retrieved 26 ... "Climate Change and Sandy". NOVA (TV series). PBS. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2013. Mooney, Chris (25 April 2013 ... Francis's research focuses on climate change in the Arctic, and has published over 40 scientific papers on the topic. It is ... Dankosky, John (20 September 2013). "Why Climate Change Ups the Odds of Fires, Floods". NPR. Retrieved 9 October 2013. Johnson ...
"Billions of Tons of Methane Lurk Beneath Antarctic Ice , Climate Change". Live Science. Retrieved 31 May 2016. "'Cryo-egg' to ... "Billions of Tons of Methane Lurk Beneath Antarctic Ice , Climate Change". Live Science. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Morales, Alex. " ... "Billions of Tons of Methane Lurk Beneath Antarctic Ice , Climate Change". Live Science. Retrieved 31 May 2016. "Philip ... She has worked in the polar regions, including the Antarctic and the Greenland ice sheets. This has led to more than 90 ...
Ice storm - Ice storms are one of the most dangerous forms of winter storms. When surface temperatures are below freezing, but ... Colorado Climate. 17 (7). Retrieved 2009-07-18.. *^ John E. Oliver (2005). Encyclopedia of World Climatology. Springer. p. 401 ... Ice storms also make unheated road surfaces too slick to drive upon. Ice storms can vary in time range from hours to days and ... David A. Kuemmel (1994). Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. Transportation Research Board. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-309 ...
"Atmospheric forcing of Fram Strait sea ice export: a closer look". Climate Dynamics. 35 (7-8): 1349-1360. Bibcode:2010ClDy... ... The lowness in salinity has a lot to do with freshwater run off from sea ice melting, river runoff, and Pacific water flux and ... Aagaard, K.; Carmack, E. C. (1989). "The Role of Sea Ice and Other Fresh Water in the Arctic Circulation". Journal of ... Bibcode:1988DSRI...35.1335F. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(88)90086-6. Martin, T; Wadhams, P (1999). "Sea-ice flux in the East ...
Jan 2008). "The History of Early Polar Ice Cores" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-27. "Climate Eismitte, ... Eismitte Eismitte, in English also called Mid-Ice, was the site of an Arctic expedition in the interior of Greenland that took ... The name "Eismitte" means Ice-Center in German, and the campsite was located 402 kilometers (250 mi) from the coast at an ... North Ice Summit Camp NEEM Camp Camp Century Renland Hourly meteorological observations at station Eismitte by Johannes Georgi ...
Evidence from ice shelves for channelized meltwater flow beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature Geoscience, 6, 945-948. doi: ... 2001). Florindo, F. and Siegert, M.J. (eds.). Antarctic Climate Evolution. Developments in Earth & Environmental Science, vol. ... A dynamic early East Antarctic Ice Sheet suggested by ice covered fjord landscapes. Nature, 474, 72-75 (2011). Ross, N. et al. ... Ice flow direction change in interior West Antarctica. Science, 305, 1948-1951. (2004). Wingham, D.J., Siegert, M.J., Shepherd ...
"Deline A" (CSV (3069 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 22010KA. Retrieved 2014-01-09. " ... There is an ice crossing from Deline to the winter road on the far side of the Great Bear River. , On 5 March 2016, a tank ... "Impassable ice roads delay holiday travel". CBC News: North. CBC. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2013. "Open and Close ... It was part of Glacial Lake McConnell in the pre-glacial valleys reshaped by erosional ice during the Pleistocene. Since, the ...
Melting of continental Antarctic ice could contribute to global sea level rise. Climate models predict more snowfall than ice ... White Ocean of Ice Antartica and climate change blog. ... Ice makes cold climate sensitive by introducing a strong ... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to ... The West Antarctic ice sheet has warmed by more than 0.1 °C/decade in the last 50 years, with most of the warming occurring in ...
"BBC: No seatbelts allowed on Europe's longest ice road". Retrieved 18 February 2014. "Climate normals-Temperature". Estonian ... "Climate normals-Precipitation". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 28 September 2016. "Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian ... In the winter, the island can be reached, conditions permitting, via a 26.5 km ice road (the longest in Europe) across the ... Estonia claims Europe's longest ice highway. The Independent. 19 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. " ...
"Ice and Climate". Retrieved 12 December 2014. "Tropical Climate History...Shrinking : Image of the Day". ... It is one of the few tropical glaciers left in the world, and is the main outlet of the Quelccaya Ice Cap. This glacier has ... It is the largest of all of the tongues of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, many of which are in retreat. Testing shows that the Qori ...
Climate model simulations suggest that rapid and sustained September Arctic ice loss is likely in future 21st century climate ... Abrupt Climate Change A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, U.S. ... Changes in this ocean circulation could have a profound impact on many aspects of the global climate system. There is growing ... These abrupt changes have had a profound impact on climate, both locally in the Atlantic and in remote locations around the ...
Kunzig, Robert; Broeker, Wallace (2009). Fixing climate : the story of climate science : and how to stop global warming. London ... Keeling has studied Antarctic ice and glacial CO2 with Britton B. Stephens, modeling concentrations of atmospheric CO2 during ... Gillis, Justin (December 21, 2010). "A Scientist, His Work and a Climate Reckoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2016. ... Metcalfe, John (March 1, 2013). "NASA Scientists Are Turning LA Into One Big Climate-Change Lab". Mother Jones. Retrieved 17 ...
TWP-ICE Synoptic Overview, 1 February 2006.[permanent dead link] Retrieved on 2008-05-03. Bureau of Meteorology. Climate of ... Climate Variability on CNMI. Archived 22 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. Sixiong Zhao and Graham A. ... Climate Variability of Tropical Cyclones: Past, Present and Future. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. Patrick A. Harr. Tropical Cyclone ...
Long-term climate simulations, based on CMIP5 climate modeling, project reduced sea ice cover. However, melting of Antarctic ... Typical sea ice has an albedo rate of 0.6, meaning 60% of the suns ray's are reflected. The reduction of sea ice ice has ... 2006). "Past and future polar amplification of climate change: climate model intercomparisons and ice-core constraints". ... Some models of modern climate exhibit Arctic amplification without changes in snow and ice cover. The individual processes ...
... ice core during the rapidly changing climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition". Bulletin of the Geological Society of ... Weng, H. (2012). "Impacts of multi-scale solar activity on climate. Part I: Atmospheric circulation patterns and climate ... ... Further delays were caused by the weather at airports that did not possess de-icing equipment. At O'Hare International Airport ...
National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved January 29, 2005. "NASA Sees into the Eye of a Monster Storm on Saturn". Cassini- ... La Niña-related climate anomalies significantly strengthen the polar vortex. Intensification of the polar vortex produces ... The Antarctic vortex of the Southern Hemisphere is a single low pressure zone that is found near the edge of the Ross ice shelf ... Li, L; Li, C; Pan, Y (2012). "On the differences and climate impacts of early and late stratospheric polar vortex breakup". ...
Mengel, M.; A. Levermann (4 May 2014). "Ice plug prevents irreversible discharge from East Antarctica". Nature Climate Change. ... David Archer (2009). The Long Thaw: How Humans Are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth's Climate. Princeton University ... Berger, A & Loutre, MF (2002). "Climate: an exceptionally long interglacial ahead?". Science. 297 (5585): 1287-8. doi:10.1126/ ... Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11294-9. Li King-Fai; ...
A cryoseism, also known as an ice quake or a frost quake, is a seismic event that may be caused by a sudden cracking action in ... Sylvia S. Tognetti (2006-03-27). "Climate and economic models". The Post-Normal Times. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28 ... It was the first recorded ice quake in Kansas. During a January 2016 record cold spell several unusual loud bangs and tremors ... This movement has been attributed to a veneer of water which may pool underneath a glacier sourced from surface ice melt. ...
After the ice passes the icefall, the glacier ends up in a valley and takes a left turn to the west. Another ice stream from a ... "Glaciers and Climate Change". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-10-06. Mount Olympus, WA (Map). TopoQwest (United States ... The glacier covers an area of 1.7 sq mi (4.4 km2) and contains 580,000,000 cu ft (16,000,000 m3) of ice and snow in spite of ... As the glacier flows north, it cascades down a steep slope and thus, the smooth ice turns into a chaotic icefall, replete with ...
Sea Ice, Lake and River Ice; Cryosphere, Atmosphere and Climate; Planetary and other Ices of the Solar System. A number of ... Currently these are: Snow and Avalanches; Glaciers and Ice Sheets; ... developing from the International Commission of Snow and Ice of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) ...
"Ice-Core-Based Volcanic Atmospheric Loading for the Past 1500 Years". Retrieved 2016-01-30. Temin, ...
Rahmstorf, Stefan (2004). "The climate sceptics" (PDF). Weather catastrophes and climate change - Is there still hope for us?. ... Ice core data show no carbon dioxide increase, 21st Century Science and Technology, pdf Jaworowski, Z., 1996, Reliability of ... The shift from warm to cool climate might have already started.. When approached to see if he would bet on future cooling, ... Jaworowski's works on ice cores were published in Jaworowski (1994, 1992) and in reports Jaworowski (1990, 1992). Jaworowski ...
Climate, ice, water, landscapes. ... ice descended; (3) "Aufeis" ledoyoms; (4) An ice-dammed lake ... They consisted of a thick lens of lake water, which was covered by lake ice, aufeis and glacier ice, and by snow-firn sequence ... "dead ice" may remain in the basins, as well as intraglacial water-ice forms - eskers and kames which were projected onto the ... began functioning in an under-ice regime because they never got free from ice for thousands of years. Such lakes turned into ...
"INDEPENDENCE, CALIFORNIA - Climate Summary". Retrieved 2017-09-29.. *^ "Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary" ... ice cream social and BBQ at Dehy Park, concluding with a fireworks display at the airport. ... ClimateEdit. Independence, as well as most of the Owens Valley, has a high desert climate with hot summers and cold winters. ... Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2011-01-14.. *^ "Camp Independence Marker". Historical Marker Database. California ...
A study of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores in the 1990s found markers that implied that a massive volcanic eruption had ... Climate of the Past. 10 (5): 1707-1722. doi:10.5194/cp-10-1707-2014. Dai, Jihong; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Thompson, Lonnie G. ( ... "Ice core evidence for an explosive tropical volcanic eruption six years preceding Tambora". Journal of Geophysical Research: ... 1991). "Ice Core Evidence for an Explosive Tropical Volcanic Eruption Six Years Preceding Tambora". Journal of Geophysical ...
The ice gets pretty dirty and its the guano stains that we can see.. Emperor penguins guarding their chicks in Antartica - ... The climate would have been quite moderate, according to Case. "Where today [Antarctica] seems pretty stark … back in this ... And as they may stay in the same area for up to eight months at a time, the ice under their feet can lose its pure white lustre ... "No other birds breed on the sea ice and each colony can have tens of thousands of birds in it.. "Emperor penguins are quite big ...
Ice plays an important role in Earths climate. The huge temperature difference between the frozen poles and the equator drives ... Essential Ice. Ice plays an important role in Earths climate. The huge temperature difference between the frozen poles and the ... Polar ice is also an enormous reservoir of water: the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets hold enough water to raise global sea ... in the form of ice sheets, ice shelves, permafrost, and sea ice. ... Ice and Climate main content.. Ice and Climate Part of the ...
A new and rare ice core record of tropical temperatures highlights changes in the of world climate, the El Niño/La Niña- ... Big climate patterns. Ice cores draw the attention of climate researchers because the ratio of oxygen isotopes in the ice acts ... One notable climate event in the ice cores is the Little Ice Age, which chilled these tall mountains from 1520 to 1880. In ... The two ice cores (or cylinders of ice) drilled from the Quelccaya hold 1,800 years of climate history, according to a study ...
This article will appear in print under the headline "Antarctic ice grows as climate warms" ... Climate models predict that, in a warmer world, ice slipping off Antarctica will raise sea levels. But they also show warmer ... Using a climate model, they show that a realistic injection of cool meltwater should bulk up Antarctic ice. They predict these ... A draft of the next report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change could only say that the growth of Antarctic sea ice ...
... researchers are drilling ice cores in Antarctica to answer questions about global climate change. ... ice core containing a 740,000-year climate record. Coring Ice Ice cores are cylinders of ice about six inches (ten centimeters ... Climate-Change Forecast? Ask the Antarctic Ice. John Roach. for National Geographic News. ... The age limit of any core is determined by the thickness of the ice. While portions of Antarctica have been covered in ice for ...
... according to evidence written in the Greenland ice sheet. Rather than seeing nice, gra ... EARTHs climate has often changed dramatically in just a few years, ... The ice core record shows that the Earths climate has been more stable since the end of the last ice age than at any other ... EARTHs climate has often changed dramatically in just a few years, according to evidence written in the Greenland ice sheet. " ...
But climate change is threatening this ecosystem. Temperatures are rising and ice is melting at an alarming rate. Since 1980, ... Under Thin Ice. In the Arctic, life thrives on the ice and under it. But for how long? Extreme diver Jill Heinerth investigates ... Heinerth and Cyr bring viewers into a majestic underwater world threatened by disappearing ice and rapid climate change. ... Under Thin Ice. Friday, November 8, 2019 at 9 PM on CBC-TV. ... Here, where ice meets open waters, living species gather for a ...
... and the amount of sea ice there is close to its all-time lowest level. ... Due to climate change, temperatures in the Arctic are among the warmest on record, ... Almost all of the oldest, thickest ice in the Arctic Ocean is gone due to climate change. Due to climate change, temperatures ... Almost all of the oldest, thickest ice in the Arctic Ocean is gone due to climate change Due to climate change, temperatures in ...
... will direct lasers at sheets of ice in the Arctic and Antarctica to note changes. ... NASAs Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, ... "With sea ice, weve been able to measure the extent (or area) ... The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, will direct six lasers at sheets of ice and glaciers in the Arctic ... A NASA satellite orbiting Earth every 91 days will measure melting ice, possibly providing clues to climate change, officials ...
Ice Data Center reported this week that the sea ice minimum reached reached the fourth-lowest level on satellite record. ... Ice Data Center, which was the fourth lowest in the satellite record, was released today. ... The annual sea ice minimum report from the National Snow & ... Greenpeace Says Sea Ice Minimum Is Latest Climate Siren. ... "The sea ice minimum measurement is a devastating reminder of how fast were hurtling towards an unstoppable climate crisis. On ...
We have no idea how long the Arctic ice will continue to decrease, as it did this year to a record low. Most important perhaps ... This means that if, as projected, there is no ice left by 2050, or before, we will at least have an idea of how the environment ... We have no idea how long the Arctic ice will continue to decrease, as it did this year to a record low. Most important perhaps ... Change is in the air as well as the ice it seems. "When you go up there you really see changes," said Jackie Grebmeier. ...
For decades now scientists have observed rapid melting in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru. The glacier ebbs ... ... The Quelccaya Ice Cap is a tropical glacier, located 18,000 feet above sea level.. "This is an important result since there has ... Until now, we didnt know for sure what was causing the ice cap to shrink and retreat. But a study published this week in the ... The ice cores collected by Thompson were tested by Kelly and her team, who were looking for radioactive isotopes called ...
... helping to shape the Earths climate and influencing the ``greenhouse effect. These ice-free regions, some as large as France ... Scientists dont know if the holes called polynyas existed before then or even how frequently they develop in the vast ice ... Mysterious holes that periodically form in the ice covering Antarctic seas may serve as vents for excess heat and trapped gas, ... Polynya (pronounced "pa-lean-yah") is a Russian word used to identify an area in an ice field that is persistently free of ice ...
Los Alamos scientists are modeling ice sheets to predict sea level rise and coupling ice sheet models to climate models to ... Slow-moving ice (blue and green) from the interior of the ice sheet feeds fast-moving (yellow and orange) ice streams and ice ... Better Climate Models? Just Add Ice. View full size image ». The global climate is a complex system, so its no surprise that ... Better climate models? Just add ice.. With the help of supercomputers, Los Alamos scientists are modeling ice sheets to predict ...
Paleoclimatologist James White finds stark warnings about the potential for rapid climate change hidden in ancient ice ... Ice Cores from Greenland Unlock Ancient Climate SecretPaleoclimatologist James White finds stark warnings about the potential ... Ice Cores from Greenland Unlock Ancient Climate Secret. Paleoclimatologist James White finds stark warnings about the potential ... White began working on ice cores, the most reliable and accurate way for paleoclimatologists to recreate past climates - and ...
... change spin row after claiming that the Arctic could be completely ice-free within five years. ... Copenhagen climate summit: Al Gore condemned over Arctic ice melting prediction. Al Gore, the former US Vice-President, has ... He added: "I was very explicit that we were talking about near-ice-free conditions and not completely ice-free conditions in ... Global warming , oceans , ice caps. , fossil fuels , forests , carbon trading , population growth , money ...
asked some people at AGU about whether GCMs could model getting into and getting out of ice ages. In some treatments, the ... To start ice sheets at the right location or to melt the ice at fast rates is certainly no pre-condition to tell us about ... With respect to ice age models, Peter Huybers said that some models could plausibly get into ice ages, but, once in, couldnt ... We need to be reminded that we live smack in the middles of an Ice Age. The Great Pleistocene Ice Age has gone on now for ...
Under the Köppen climate classification, the ice cap climate is denoted as EF. Ice caps are defined as a climate with no months ... over time forming a large ice sheet. The ice cap climate is distinct from the tundra climate, or ET. A tundra climate has a ... Ice cap climates have only existed in ice ages. There have been at least five such ice ages in the Earths past. Outside these ... An ice cap climate is a polar climate where the temperature never exceeds 0 °C (32 °F). The climate covers areas in or near the ...
Climate Change Puts Alaskas Sled Dog Races On Thin Ice. Climate Change Puts Alaskas Sled Dog Races On Thin Ice. Listen · 3:55 ... Climate Change Puts Alaskas Sled Dog Races On Thin Ice Warm temperatures and dwindling snow have shaken even the toughest ... Climate Change Puts Alaskas Sled Dog Races On Thin Ice. Listen · 3:55 3:55. ... Climate Change Puts Alaskas Sled Dog Races On Thin Ice 3:55. ... Other mushers add blocks of ice or even snow. Mushers are also ...
If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt, it would raise sea level 7 ... the melting of the earths two massive ice sheets-Antarctica and Greenland-could raise sea level enormously. ... Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves of Climate Refugees. As the earth warms, the melting of the earths two massive ice ... More posts on climate-forced migration.. Climate Forced Migration: Pathways Of Future Conflict. U.S. Leads World in Climate ...
For instance, warm winter temperatures in Europe result from ocean currents partly driven by meltwater from Arctic ice. So ... Beyond the area it covers, the influence of polar ice extends out to ocean circulation and planetary weather patterns. ... Snow and ice have a high albedo, meaning they reflect solar radiation back into space. And they also insulate land and ocean ... Monitoring ice thickness. ESAs CryoSat mission performs radar mapping to an unprecedented order of detail in order to ...
Trapped toxic chemicals are escaping from melting snow and ice in the Arctic, according to new research ... Climate Change Remobilizes Long Buried Pollution as Arctic Ice Melts. Trapped toxic chemicals are escaping from melting snow ... The new study demonstrates that climate change can remobilize POPs stored in water, snow, ice and presumably soils -- and that ... Hung believes the larger increase at the Svalbard site is caused by its proximity to ocean areas where sea ice has retreated. ...
Since then, NASA has relied on Operation Ice Bridge, which sends planes to Antarctica from South America to study how fast ... ice sheets are melting. Mark Phillips went aboard for his latest installment of the Climate Diaries. ... NASAs newest satellite designed to measure ice sheets over the North and South Poles is in its permanent orbit. ... Climate Diaries: Antarctica ice melting at an.... ...
Says Taylor, We are very excited to work with ancient ice that fell as snow as long as 100,000 years ago. We read the ice like ... Working as part of the National Science Foundations West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS Divide) Ice Core Project, a team of ... column of ice detailing 100,000 years of Earths climate history, including a precise year-by-year record of the last 40,000 ... ice sheet that scientists believe will provide the clearest climate record for the last 100,000 years. ...
Plants long entombed beneath Canadian ice are now emerging, telling a story of warming unprecedented in the history of human ... As ice retreats, frozen mosses emerge to tell climate change tale. Dating of plants suggests summers hotter now than its been ... ICE FREED Geologist Kurt Refsnider, now at Prescott College in Arizona, collects mosses revealed by retreating ice on Canadas ... As the planet warms and the ice retreats on Canadas Baffin Island, the change is revealing plants long buried beneath the ice ...
  • Studying this chronological record allows scientists to see how the global climate responded to variations of greenhouse gases in the past. (
  • For decades now scientists have observed rapid melting in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru. (
  • Scientists don't know if the holes called polynyas existed before then or even how frequently they develop in the vast ice cover.Teams of scientists from the Soviet Union, the United States and West Germany have worked since 1981 to figure out how the holes form, what role they play in ocean cirulation and how they affect the climate. (
  • With the help of supercomputers, Los Alamos scientists are modeling ice sheets to predict sea level rise and coupling ice sheet models to climate models to sharpen their predictive capabilities. (
  • The blunder follows the controversy over hacked emails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit, which sceptics claim suggest scientists manipulated data to strengthen their argument that global warming is man-made. (
  • Scientists say the make up of the frozen north polar sea has shifted significantly in recent years as much of the thick year-round ice has given way to thin seasonal ice. (
  • A 2005 study, conducted by the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) team, an international group of 300 scientists, concluded that the Arctic is warming almost twice as fast as the rest of the planet. (
  • A team of scientists from the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the National Center for Atmospheric Research concluded that the ice is melting much faster than climate models had predicted. (
  • Some scientists now think that the Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in the summer by 2030, if not earlier. (
  • The WAIS project took more than 15 years of planning and preparation, including extensive airborne reconnaissance and ground-based geophysical research, to pinpoint the one (less than a square mile) space on the 932,000-square-kilometer (360,000-square-mile) ice sheet that scientists believe will provide the clearest climate record for the last 100,000 years. (
  • During July in southern Florida, scientists from NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. will join others to investigate high tropical cirrus clouds composed of tiny ice crystals.The researchers hope to determine how the clouds form, how they limit the amount of sunlight reaching the surface of the Earth and how they trap heat rising from the surface and lower atmosphere. (
  • Scientists from NASA, other government agencies, academia and industry will investigate cirrus clouds in Florida with the objective of reducing uncertainties in forecasts of the Earth s future climate. (
  • In 1978 scientists were putting together climate models based on historical data and emerging technological advances such as new satellite data. (
  • An independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public. (
  • Our scientists publish and our journalists report on climate science, energy, sea level rise. (
  • But where September will ultimately end up is still unclear, and predicting the annual minimum has been a thorny problem that sea ice scientists are continually trying to solve. (
  • With 2014 looking like it will go down as the warmest year globally on record, climate scientists now wonder whether 2015 will be the year nations finally take significant steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • An "ice-free" Arctic, as defined by scientists, would remain full of floating ice in the summer, but the ice would be broken up enough that a ship could push through it. (
  • Wadhams' pronouncement was angrily challenged by one of the scientists modeling sea ice decline, but the elderly physicist stuck to his guns. (
  • What's hot in the news around climate and sea ice and what are scientists talking about now? (
  • When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. (
  • Other scientists elsewhere were working on their own pieces, on demanding and often dangerous missions, sometimes in subfreezing temperatures and high winds, sleeping in tents on the ice, isolated for weeks at a time, linked tenuously by satellite phone. (
  • Dr. Shevenell and her USF CMS Ph.D. student, Imogen Browne, will work with an international team of scientists to drill sites in the Ross Sea, which will enhance understanding of Antarctica's ice sheet evolution over the past 20 million years. (
  • Sean Hannity cited a recent Mail on Sunday article purporting to report on the research of climate scientist Mojib Latif to claim that 'several prominent scientists say that we are on the verge of a mini ice age' and commented, 'sorry Al [Gore] looks like you may have to put that house boat away for awhile, it's probably going to be too cold to use. (
  • HANNITY: And in tonight's meltdown we bring Al Gore some devastating news, now the vanquished vice president will be alarmed to learn that several prominent scientists say that we are on the verge of a mini ice age. (
  • Scientists who point out the small actual glacier size (and volume of ice) are brushed aside in the rush to get a headline or a flamboyant sound byte that will keep the viewers tuned in. (
  • Scientists track ice shelves and study collapses carefully because some of them hold back glaciers, which if unleashed, can accelerate and raise sea level, Scambos said. (
  • Well, scientists have been watching a major rift (crack) that has grown in the past few years, carving out a section of floating ice nearly the size of Delaware. (
  • During the last ice age, much of North America was covered by a giant ice sheet that many scientists believe underwent several catastrophic collapses, causing huge icebergs to enter the North Atlantic-phenomena known as Heinrich events. (
  • For some reason, the best climate scientists put together didn't think it much worthwhile, why would you? (
  • The planet's inexorable warming means there will be no new ice age for at least the next 100,000 years, scientists say. (
  • But ultimately what determines the rhythm of these events is what climate scientists call insolation: how much sun the Earth actually gets in a summer. (
  • The interest in the Ice Age mechanisms is not new: in the 1970s, climate scientists began to ask whether a glaciated world could come back. (
  • What the Potsdam scientists have done, using climate simulations, is to pinpoint the intricate balance of insolation and atmospheric chemistry that controls the beginning and the end of an Ice Age. (
  • Scientists have determined that if temperature rises surpass 2°C, this will lead to substantial and dangerous climate impacts, which will hit the world's poor in particular. (
  • Published today in Nature Communications , a team of researchers based at the London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), in collaboration with scientists from Oxford and Cambridge, found that, against expectations, the Third Law of Thermodynamics could be restored in thin films of the magnetic material spin ice. (
  • A team of 89 polar scientists from 50 international organisations have produced the most complete picture of Greenland ice loss to date. (
  • We climate scientists are good detectives too. (
  • The only large landmass in the extreme northern latitudes to have an icecap climate is Greenland, but several smaller islands near the Arctic Ocean also have permanent ice caps. (
  • If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt, it would raise sea level 7 meters (23 feet). (
  • In testimony before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee, Sheila Watt-Cloutier, an Inuit speaking on behalf of the 155,000 Inuits who live in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and the Russian Federation, described their struggle to survive in the fast-changing Arctic climate as "a snapshot of what is happening to the planet. (
  • This may account for the accelerating shrinkage of the Arctic sea ice and the rising regional temperature that directly affects the Greenland ice sheet. (
  • Recently a new project called NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) has been launched to investigate the Eemian period in Earth history. (
  • The North Greenland Ice Core Project camp. (
  • Information gleaned from a Greenland ice core by an international science team shows that two huge Northern Hemisphere temperature spikes prior to the close of the last ice age some 11,500 years ago were tied to fundamental shifts in atmospheric circulation. (
  • Startlingly, the Greenland ice core evidence showed that a massive "reorganization" of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere coincided with each temperature spurt, with each reorganization taking just one or two years, said the study authors. (
  • The team used changes in dust levels and stable water isotopes in the annual ice layers of the two-mile-long Greenland ice core, which was hauled from the massive ice sheet between 1998 to 2004, to chart past temperature and precipitation swings. (
  • The team believes the ancient tropical warming caused large, rapid atmospheric changes at the equator, the intensification of the Pacific monsoon, sea-ice loss in the north Atlantic Ocean and more atmospheric heat and moisture over Greenland and much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • This was partly due to the fact that "one of the few cool areas in the world actually for the first few months of the year was Greenland and northeastern Canada" and so adjacent areas of the Arctic Ocean got off to a slow start, Ted Scambos, a senior scientist with the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder , Colo., said. (
  • Experts track sea ice, which floats on the ocean, as well as the Greenland ice sheet, which if it completely melted into the ocean would raise sea levels by 20 feet. (
  • New research from the NEEM ice core drilling project in Greenland shows that the period was warmer than previously thought. (
  • The feasibility of using satellite data for climate research over the Greenland ice sheet is discussed. (
  • Our study supports the use of lower resolution AVHRR (GAC) data for process studies over most of the Greenland ice sheet. (
  • Ambach, W., Kuhn, M., 1985: The shift of equilibrium line altitude on the Greenland Ice Sheet following climatic changes. (
  • ON JAKOBSHAVN GLACIER, Greenland - The pilot eased his five-ton helicopter toward the glacier's rumpled surface, aiming for the lightest of setdowns atop one of the fastest-flowing ice streams on Earth. (
  • But researchers have since determined that Greenland lost ice in the 2004-2009 period four times faster than in 1995-2000. (
  • During an exceptionally well-documented event at Eqip Sermia, west Greenland, the collapse of a 200 m high ice cliff caused a tsunami wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed exceeding 100 km h −1 . (
  • The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise. (
  • On the Greenland Ice Sheet the vertically integrated total column water was positively correlated with the summertime surface melt. (
  • The number of melt days on the Greenland Ice Sheet were also correlated with positive North Atlantic Oscillation Index and Greenland Blocking Index, indicating that these large scale patterns contribute in creating conditions that favour melt. (
  • Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructions V. Masson-Delmotte et al. (
  • The deep NEEM ice core provides the oldest Greenland ice core record, enabling improved understanding of the response of ice core records to local climate. (
  • For the first time, we document the ongoing warming in a Greenland ice core. (
  • The deep NEEM ice core provides the oldest Greenland ice core record, enabling improved. (
  • New research linking loss of arctic ice to increased rain in the UK, drying around the Mediterranean, and more Greenland Melt. (
  • Examples that have received recent attention include the potential collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) ( 1 ), dieback of the Amazon rainforest ( 2 ), and decay of the Greenland ice sheet ( 3 ). (
  • ClimateWire's Lauren Morello explores a National Science Foundation-funded project to perfect Yeti Robot and Cool Robot to collect data on the Greenland ice sheet. (
  • The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) Team combined 26 separate surveys to compute changes in the mass of Greenland s ice sheet between 1992 and 2018. (
  • The findings, published today in Nature , show that Greenland has lost 3.8 trillion tonnes of ice since 1992 enough to push global sea levels up by 10.6 millimetres. (
  • On current trends, Greenland ice melting will cause 100 million people to be flooded each year by the end of the century. (
  • But this new study shows that Greenland s ice losses are rising faster than expected and are instead tracking the IPCC s high-end climate warming scenario, which predicts 7 centimetres more. (
  • IMBIE s reconciled estimate of Greenland ice loss is timely for the IPCC. (
  • Their satellite observations show that both melting and ice discharge from Greenland have increased. (
  • With sea ice, we've been able to measure the extent (or area) really well since about 1980 … but what we haven't been able to measure is the thickness," NASA's deputy project scientist for the mission Tom Neumann told The Guardian . (
  • In the summer of 2007, the Arctic ice cap dwindled to a record low minimum extent of 1.7 million square miles in September. (
  • On January 1, 2018, Arctic sea ice extent was at record low for the time of the year. (
  • It is too early to bet on 2015 hitting a historical low sea ice extent, but it is quite certain that 2015 will rank in the lowest years," François Massonnet , a post-doctoral researcher at the Université Catholique de Louvain in Belgium, said in an email. (
  • Sea ice hits its annual maximum extent in March and its minimum in September. (
  • In fact, for a period of several days in May, sea ice extent was at record low levels for that time of year. (
  • The daily trend in Arctic sea ice extent from April through early July, 2015, as compared to the 2012 record low and the long-term average. (
  • Wadhams has access to data not only on the extent of ice covering the Arctic, but on the thickness of that ice. (
  • In addition, the geographically small extent of the ice sheets in this era meant that ice-albedo was not a major climatic factor, and so orbital influences were almost completely dominant. (
  • Their extrapolation from those proxies to sea ice extent is dubious, at best. (
  • You state flatly that total ice area extent is at an "historic" low for "at least 1450 years into the past. (
  • Reconstructed Arctic SATs show episodes of warming during this period (Fig. 3f), but according to our results the decrease in Arctic sea ice extent during the Little Ice Age was more pronounced than during the earlier Medieval Warm Optimum. (
  • Except for the sea-ice extent and ocean temperatures where ice was lost, all surface conditions were fixed at climatological values in the model, thereby isolating the influence of sea-ice loss. (
  • During the height of winter in each hemisphere, sea ice can cover 14 to 16 million square kilometres of the Arctic Ocean and 17 to 20 million of the Southern Ocean, pulling back to less than half that extent during their respective polar summers. (
  • With Arctic temperatures already at their warmest for the last four centuries, measurements suggest sea ice extent has declined by 10% since the 1960s. (
  • The best means of accurately measuring both ice extent and thickness on an ongoing basis is space-based radar and altimetry instruments of the type flown on ESA's ERS, Envisat and CryoSat-2 spacecraft. (
  • Milankovitch cycles dominate climate on the glacial-interglacial timescale, but there exist variations in ice sheet extent that are not linked directly with insolation. (
  • Arctic sea-ice has been declining since the late 1970s, reducing in extent by about 4%, or 0.6 million square kilometres (an area about the size of Madagascar) per decade. (
  • The summer minimum Arctic sea ice extent has decreased by 13.3% per decade since 1979. (
  • The ice pack reaches its greatest extent at the end of the winter, during March, and its lowest point at the end of. (
  • This information will improve computer models that are used to predict how the current, unprecedented high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by human activity will influence future climate. (
  • CEP is one of the pioneers in studying the concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in air enclosed as well as the isotopic composition (e.g. d 13 C of CO 2 and d 18 O of O 2 ) in air enclosed as bubbles or air hydrates in the ice. (
  • The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased. (
  • They travel on the breaking ice floe, dive with belugas and narwhals in the open Arctic Ocean, and explore the underside of the sea ice coated in algae, the source of around half of the oxygen on the planet. (
  • In addition, a large portion of the Arctic Ocean near the North Pole remains frozen year round, effectively making it an icecap climate. (
  • When incoming sunlight strikes the ice in the Arctic Ocean, up to 70 percent of it is reflected back into space. (
  • If all the ice in the Arctic Ocean melts, it will not affect sea level because the ice is already in the water. (
  • For much of the winter, the land within the Arctic Circle receives little direct sunlight*, and most of the surface of the Arctic Ocean is capped by ice. (
  • The area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice naturally waxes and wanes with the seasons, with the cap growing throughout the cold months and then melting again as the sun's rays return come summer. (
  • One of the leading authorities on the physics of northern seas is predicting an ice-free Arctic Ocean by the year 2020. (
  • Most of the Arctic Ocean will be ice-free for six months of the year by 2020 if sea ice trends continue. (
  • The zone, which is a key component of global atmospheric circulation, has migrated northward, according to the ice core record. (
  • Under Thin Ice follows Canadian extreme divers and cinematographers Jill Heinerth and Mario Cyr on a journey to investigate how Arctic wildlife is adjusting to global warming. (
  • Throughout their expedition, Heinerth explains how global warming in the Arctic and large swaths of melting ice are affecting polar wildlife as well as the rest of the planet. (
  • The global climate is a complex system, so it's no surprise that improving the predictions made by climate models requires some serious computing power. (
  • Salinity is therefore a key variable in ocean circulation patterns - in turn influencing global climate. (
  • Our objective is to find out how ice clouds affect global warming," said Eric Jensen, project mission scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in California s Silicon Valley. (
  • Clouds are the largest source of uncertainty in computerized global climate models," Jensen said. (
  • New studies examine how the disintegration of ice sheets could result in a rise in global sea levels. (
  • Plants and animals have been studied for possible global climate effects. (
  • SOS" is intended to inspire ice cream eaters to support the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Dr. Tatiana Rynearson describes the outsized role of polar environments for global climate and biological productivity. (
  • The shift likely had significant consequences for global circulation and could have contributed to tipping the climate system over the threshold for deglaciation," said lead author Allison Jacobel , a Ph.D. student at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. (
  • Increases in summer sunlight at high northern latitudes due to changes in the Milankovitch cycles would have increased the melting of large northern ice sheets, leading in turn to catastrophic iceberg discharges that can weaken the oceans' global overturning circulation and diminish the oceans' transport of heat from South to North. (
  • Although this increasing trend is modest, it is surprising given the overall warming of the global climate and the region. (
  • Moreover, sea ice in the Arctic has exhibited pronounced declines over the same period, consistent with global climate model simulations. (
  • The floating ice cap has been on a steady downward trajectory for decades, thanks to global warming, and in recent years it has hit record lows with the added influence of seasonal weather. (
  • Serious climate policies must lead to serious shifts in their portfolios, away from fossil fuel extraction, towards investments that will stimulate the emergence of a global low carbon economy. (
  • A review of the relationship between the solar input to high latitudes and the global ice volume over the past 2.7 million years. (
  • 2006) proposed an explanation for the first difficulty in terms of global ice volume resulting from the sum of an out of phase growth and decline of northern and southern ice sheets. (
  • This partial cancelation of out-of-phase precessional ice fluctuations combined with in-phase obliquity ice fluctuations results in a a global (North + South) ice volume that appears to only follow the obliquity cycle. (
  • If, for some reason, the hemispherically asymmetric effects of precession mostly cancel out in their impact on global ice volume during some time period, the global ice volume will vary with the underlying 41-ky obliquity cycle, and the effects of precession will be hidden in the ice volume record. (
  • We do not observe this at all in the historical record of global ice volume over the past ~2.7 million years. (
  • If all the ice eventually slipped into the ocean, it would be enough to raise global sea levels by 23 feet. (
  • And so it's an important global experiment that's trying to teach us about how the climate system responds to warming. (
  • Appearing on Russia Today on January 11, Latif stated, 'I don't think' we will see decades of global cooling, noting, 'There are of course natural climate fluctuations which could warm or cool the Earth. (
  • Reindeer, Russia's cattle of the Arctic regions, suffered terrible losses in 2006 and 2013, as thick ice covered snow due to effects of global warming. (
  • Our expectations are mainly based on model calculations, but it is also possible to reconstruct the response of the global climate system to disturbances such as changing greenhouse gas concentrations, volcanos or changes in ocean circulation by investigating past global changes. (
  • Like no other force on the planet, ice ages have shaped the global environment and thereby determined the development of human civilisation. (
  • However, it remains uncertain whether such climate oscillations had similar impact on East Asian biota, despite its widely recognized importance in global biodiversity. (
  • It contains the majority of global freshwater and has a major influence on climate. (
  • Climate Common Sense is not a sceptical site but a non-believer's site .Global warming and cooling are natural phenomena and carbon dioxide is a lovely gas vital to plant growth. (
  • Facts Don't Lie: Unexceptional Global Climate Warming In The U.S. - Is there dangerous, human-caused global warming affecting the climate of the continental U.S. (
  • Researchers trekked to an altitude of more than 18,000 feet (5,600 meters) to probe the ice. (
  • The Quelccaya Ice Cap has shrunk 985 feet (300 meters) since the researchers first climbed to the glacier in 1983. (
  • Co-author Hayley Hung, a scientist with Environment Canada's Air Quality Division who studies toxic organic pollutants in the Arctic, said that in recent years, researchers had posited that warmer conditions would liberate POPs stored in land, ice and ocean reservoirs back into the atmosphere. (
  • The specimens lived before, during, and after the last ice age, offering the researchers a glimpse into how the population handled the extreme conditions. (
  • The international research project is led by researchers from Center for Ice and Climate and the Niels Bohr Institute and the very important results are published in the prestigious scientific journal, Nature. (
  • Researchers believe that a 110-metre ice core they plan to drill will reveal a comprehensive picture of climate as far back as 500 years. (
  • These findings are important, researchers say, because they identify a critical piece of evidence for how the Earth responds to changes in climate. (
  • In this study described in a UCL press release , the researchers fabricated, for the first time, thin spin ice films with a thicknesses of only a few nanometres. (
  • Year after decade after century after millennium, these compressed snow layers trap air bubbles in them and become buried ice vaults, locking data into retrievable troves of climate and atmospheric information. (
  • Atmospheric crustal dust also supplies iron, an essential nutrient for phytoplankton, to ocean surface waters and may indirectly affect climate by modulating the biological export of carbon to the deep ocean ( 3 ). (
  • Most previous high-resolution ice core studies used as proxies of atmospheric dust the non-sea-salt component of soluble calcium (nssCa) or magnesium (nssMg) that are computed by using estimated elemental ratios in sea salt aerosols ( 11 , 19 ). (
  • Air diffusing slowly through the upper firn layers of the ice sheet can also be sampled in large volumes to give more recent historical information on atmospheric composition. (
  • Dr Screen used a state-of-the-art atmospheric model to compare the mid-latitude circulation during conditions of extensive sea ice (representative of the late 1970s) to that with much reduced sea ice (representative of present day). (
  • The atmospheric responses to reduced sea ice in both real and modeled worlds show not only precipitation patterns in Europe similar to those observed during the past six abnormally wet summers, but they also reveal features in the large-scale circulation that appear coincident with unusual weather patterns experienced elsewhere around the northern hemisphere in recent years. (
  • And if the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide are not high when the total insolation is near its lowest point, great thick sheets of ice begin to advance over Europe, Asia and North America. (
  • Although ice exists in many places on the globe, including high mountains near the equator, 99 percent of it is at the poles, in the form of ice sheets, ice shelves, permafrost, and sea ice. (
  • The reason, say Richard Bintanja and colleagues at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, is that the deep warm water is melting the shelves of floating ice that extend from the continent. (
  • Warm deep ocean currents will keep eating away at the ice shelves. (
  • The ice has melted over more-productive continental shelves as ice has formed over less-productive, deeper waters. (
  • Ice shelves are also sensitive to basal melting. (
  • The ice core showed the Northern Hemisphere briefly emerged from the last ice age some 14,700 years ago with a 22-degree-Fahrenheit spike in just 50 years, then plunged back into icy conditions before abruptly warming again about 11,700 years ago. (
  • These include natural variations during the so-called Little Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere from the 16th to the 18th Centuries and also including the subsequent warming that has taken place during the era of human industrialisation. (
  • One might then expect ice ages to occur alternately in each hemisphere, every 11,000 years - in line with the hemispherically alternating precessional cycle. (
  • And to be able to understand how the arctic sea ice is connected to monsoons, how the northern hemisphere is connected to the southern hemisphere, how the intertropical convergence zone is moving around when you warm the northern hemisphere so much as we do in the moment … the only way you have to explain that or to understand that is to go back and understand these interhemispheric connections. (
  • Willerslev and his colleagues report that the classic image of the Northern Hemisphere during the last Ice Age - one dominated by a grass steppe - is not as accurate as previously believed. (
  • Snow and ice have a high albedo, meaning they reflect solar radiation back into space. (
  • Ellis and Palmer (2016) proposed an explanation for the second difficulty by describing by describing the occurrence of terminations in the post-MPT era in terms of dust deposition affecting ice-albedo on the ice sheets. (
  • Best (2018) then modified the model to include the representation of the dust induced ice-albedo effect. (
  • At this MPT point, the energy balance of the Earth was reduced such that its natural state favored an ice age, so long as the ice sheets had high albedo. (
  • until the albedo of the ice sheets could be lowered via dust deposition. (
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in 2016 XXV International Congress of Entomology (ICE). (
  • Evaluation and decision regarding the endorsement of the JRA-55 by OMDP (with input from the broader ocean and climate modelling communities) as the forcing for the future CORE-II efforts and OMIP ocean-ice climate model simulations. (
  • Unless we drastically reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, sea-ice-dependent animals like the polar bear will not survive into the coming century. (
  • In other parts of the world we've found that the rates of warming out of the last ice age are similar to the rates of warming that we're witnessing today as greenhouse gas emissions increase," he added. (
  • However, our study also shows that relatively moderate additional anthropogenic CO2 emissions from burning oil, coal and gas are already sufficient to postpone the next ice age for another 50.000 years. (
  • Fonterra's use of palm kernel expeller (PKE) could hide a large source of unaccounted climate emissions, making a significant contribution to the carbon footprint of its milk products - palm products are typically grown on cleared rainforest or. (
  • The past is the key to the future, because only if we know how the climate system works can we more accurately predict how it will behave in the future," said Heinz Miller, a geophysicist at the Alfred Wegner Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. (
  • Drilling out a core of such ice reveals the past in a neat sequence of millennia. (
  • Better still, the ice contains information about the past. (
  • Stocker says: "Ice-drilling is an area in which Europe has taken a decisive technological and scientific lead in the past decade. (
  • In the past decade, though, the ice conditions have changed dramatically, with a thinner ice cover that is laced with shallow ponds of meltwater. (
  • These results have far-reaching implications for understanding the forces driving dust generation and impacts of changing dust levels on climate both in the recent past and future. (
  • If you can understand what happened in the past, and how fast or slow the ice melted," said Licciardi, "it can help us understand what is going on in the present day and maybe even help us more confidently predict what might occur in the future. (
  • Dr Curran said that the core would be used to produce a detailed climate record covering the past 500 years. (
  • This past June (2012) saw the largest Arctic sea ice loss since the inception of record keeping -- 1.18 million square miles or the equivalent area of Alaska, California, Florida and Texas. (
  • Using this new method, we were able to develop a nearly 60,000-year, ultra-high-resolution record of methane much more efficiently and inexpensively than in past ice core studies, while simultaneously measuring a broad range of other chemical parameters on the same small sample of ice," McConnell noted. (
  • Also worth remembering that for total area of ice, we are at a low that is historic over not just the satellite era, but at least 1450 years into the past. (
  • First off, let's be clear: The climate has indeed changed naturally in the past, with ice ages being an obvious example. (
  • Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates. (
  • An April study said if the world warms 7.2 degrees this century, the Arctic will likely have a three-month, ice-free period each summer by 2050. (
  • As the Arctic sea ice retreats and the Arctic warms, there is a dramatic effect on the weather, due to its disruption of jet streams. (
  • They continued to gather data, to create new technologies, and to discover more about the complicated mechanisms of ice masses. (
  • The combined efforts have begun to provide observational data that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms behind ice shelf collapse, Scambos said. (
  • The chopper pulled up sharply and veered off over the chaotic icescape of white knobs and pinnacles and bluish glints of meltwater, on to another, safer landing spot where Carl Gladish, Holland's lanky, ponytailed assistant, stepped cautiously off the skid and onto the ice, under the thudding rotor blades, to swiftly carry out his assigned task. (
  • How effectively is meltwater percolating from the ice sheet's inland surface to its base, lubricating movement toward the sea? (
  • This is achieved by melting the ice samples continuously and analysing the meltwater online and simultaneously for the different chemical species. (
  • Here, melting is the dominant ice removal process, resulting in predominant mass loss occurring towards the edges of the ice sheet, where icebergs are calved in the fjords and surface meltwater runs into the ocean. (
  • We have analyzed the transition from the last glacial period until our present warm interglacial period, and the climate shifts are happening suddenly, as if someone had pushed a button," said Dahl-Jenson. (
  • New spaceborne data, research data gathered in the polar regions, and climate models indicate that the 1978 prediction might be coming true. (
  • It provides a consistent, daily and monthly time series of sea ice concentrations from 09 July 1987 through the most recent processing for both the north and south polar regions. (
  • This Ph.D. thesis concentrates on the aspects of melting land ice in the polar regions. (
  • This photo from a 1977 expedition to Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru shows annual layers of ice and dust visible in the ice cap's margin. (
  • They hypothesise that the layer of cool surface water insulates the remaining floating ice from warm deep currents. (
  • A surfeit of melting ice as the mass balance of the cryosphere shifts threatens to affect the salinity of the oceans, modifying or switching off ocean currents, along with increasing sea level. (
  • Melting Arctic sea ice causes the jet stream (currents of strong winds roughly 10 km up in the atmosphere) to shift further south than normal, Screen found, increasing the frequency of cloudy, cool and wet summers over north-west Europe. (
  • The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. (
  • The brilliant white of the ice-covered poles reflects the Sun's radiant energy. (
  • Others still say, that we could see the earth tip into a ice age that last a 100,000 years. (
  • Baran, A. J. , P. N. Francis , L.-C. Labonnote , and M. Doutriaux-Boucher ( 2001 ), A scattering phase function for ice cloud: Tests of applicability using aircraft and satellite multi-angle multi-wavelength radiance measurements of cirrus , Q. J. R. Meteorol. (
  • The latter comes from submarines that have been beneath the ice collecting measurements every year since 1979. (
  • In addition, three other sea ice concentration products are included with the CDR that extend the sea ice measurements back to 26 October 1978. (
  • These data are comprised of surface-climate measurements, including solar time, wind speed, wind direction, dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and vapor pressure in 24 sites focused at the three Northern Canadian locations. (
  • Dr Curran said that measurements would be used in the field to identify major volcanic eruptions, detectable in the ice core, to help in refining this estimate. (
  • For the CH 4 and N 2 O measurements we are melting the ice samples in an evacuated glass container and detect these gases using gas chromatography. (
  • They used a new analytical method perfected in collaboration with Joe McConnell at the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada, to make extremely detailed measurements of the air trapped in the ice. (
  • Altogether, data from 11 different satellite missions were used, including measurements of the ice sheet s changing volume, flow and gravity. (
  • Another mystery is how the overwhelming consensus on regional climate models having no predictive power gets translated into a mysterious Arctic-UK non-deterministic connection. (
  • Beyond the area it covers, the influence of polar ice extends out to ocean circulation and planetary weather patterns. (
  • From changing moose migration patterns to ice melting much sooner in the spring, the signs of a changing climate are all over the North. (
  • Over time the planet continues to warm" even without El Ninos, showing that those natural patterns "do not dominate the long-term signal," Deke Arndt, climate monitoring chief at the National Climatic Data Center, recently told . (
  • We have to understand the interhemispheric climate patterns," said Joerg Schaefer , a glacial geologist at Lamont-Doherty who works with Putnam. (
  • The Quelccaya Ice Cap is a tropical glacier, located 18,000 feet above sea level. (
  • Their research showed that the Qori Kallis outlet glacier, part of the bigger ice cap, extended to its maximum position about 520 years ago. (
  • Picture of the Week: Better climate models? (
  • Better climate models? (
  • Some of the models suggest to Dr Maslowski that there is a 75 per cent chance that the entire polar ice cap during some of summer months could be completely ice free within five to seven years. (
  • conversely, other models could plausibly get out of ice ages, but couldn't get in. (
  • The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, and Arctic sea ice is melting faster than any of the climate models predicted," said Rebecca Noblin, Alaska director of the Center for Biological Diversity. (
  • Indeed, climate models, which incorporate our best understanding of the processes affecting the region, generally simulate a decrease in sea ice. (
  • Climate models suggest only a decade passed between the iceberg intrusion and a resulting impact in the tropics. (
  • Without this tracing of all factors possible, we will have no options left when that ice finally melts. (
  • As the Arctic sea ice melts, however, and the incoming sunlight hits the much darker open water, only 6 percent is reflected back into space and 94 percent is converted into heat. (
  • As the image below indicates, year-to-date average Arctic sea ice volume has been at record low in 2017, which means that there has been very little sea ice underneath the surface throughout 2017. (
  • In the largest jump since January, the rift in the Larsen C Ice Shelf has grown an additional 17 km (11 miles) between May 25 and May 31 2017. (
  • Combined with other research on the region's climate history, Putnam said, the ultimate goal is to "use the biggest warming in our history as a means of calibrating our understanding of how the snowpacks might diminish with future warming and affect how the downstream water resources feeding Los Angeles and other communities might be impacted. (
  • Earlier this year they reported on a 1.9-mile-long (3-kilometer-long) ice core containing a 740,000-year climate record. (
  • Until the end of the last ice age, about 10 000 years ago, the record shows that climate often changed from one stable state to another. (
  • Wintertime sea ice in the Bering Sea was at an all-time record low last winter, NOAA said. (
  • In addition, the report said wintertime sea ice in the Bering Sea is at its lowest level on record and that overall, almost all of the Arctic Ocean's oldest, thickest ice has been lost. (
  • We have no idea how long the Arctic ice will continue to decrease, as it did this year to a record low. (
  • In 2007, Arctic sea ice shrank some 20 percent below the previous record set in 2005. (
  • We now have a continuous record of 800,000 years of climate history, thanks to EPICA and other European initiatives. (
  • The climate signal contained in the aluminosilicate dust record may differ significantly from that in the chemically weathered dust record because the former arises primarily from deposits of mechanically weathered sediments, such as glacial loess. (
  • Record warm oceans are driving that, and this year is likely to overtake 2010 as the warmest on record as long as December is among the 10 warmest on record - a pretty safe bet, federal climate trackers have told (
  • This data set provides a Climate Data Record (CDR) of sea ice concentration from passive microwave data. (
  • Working along the moraine ridges of this valley, Putnam and his colleagues will collect a record of when and how fast the ice retreated. (
  • This year, the sea-ice cover was the second-lowest on record in the Arctic, and there is fear of another famine. (
  • Below, Dr. Walt Meier of NSIDC discusses the techniques of evaluating ice cover before the satellite record. (
  • The six summers from 2007 to 2012 witnessed the six lowest amounts of sea ice on record, with summer 2012 the all-time low. (
  • The ice caps in Iceland had similar reduction in ice loss in the last two years of their record, but this last summer was very warm here and resulted in higher loss. (
  • Instead of using data like the sea ice minimum as a clear warning sign to take bold action, our leaders are allowing Shell to drill for oil in the melting Arctic ice. (
  • These marginal regions restrain the vast body of ice behind them but are susceptible to speedup and destabilization through melting caused by the ocean below and atmosphere above. (
  • Warming trends that forced widespread ice melting and monumental sea-level rise weren't a millennium-long process. (
  • Dr Maslowki said that his latest results give a six-year projection for the melting of 80 per cent of the ice, but he said he expects some ice to remain beyond 2020. (
  • The second positive feedback mechanism also has to do with ice melting. (
  • Ice is thinning, melting, and collapsing into the sea. (
  • The spatial distribution of solar radiation under a melting Arctic sea ice cover. (
  • Then, starting perhaps 15,000 years ago here, the ice began to pull back, dropping rocks off its melting face as it receded. (
  • Warming and melting land ice creates positive feedback loops that further increase melting. (
  • In order to check whether there's a link between melting Arctic sea ice and wet UK summers, Screen changed the amount of sea ice in a climate model - the UK Met Office Unified Model - whilst keeping constant other factors that affect European weather. (
  • The effect of latent heat, resulting from melting of ice or freezing of sea water, also has a role to play. (
  • Because the sea ice is melting earlier in the spring, polar bears are being forced to the land without building up sufficient fat reserves to survive until the next freeze up. (
  • We're seeing the effects all around us - polar ice melting, sea level rising and extreme weather events. (
  • Ice losses peaked at 335 billion tonnes per year in 2011 ten times the rate of the 1990s during a period of intense surface melting. (
  • Although the rate of ice loss dropped to an average 238 billion tonnes per year since then, this remains seven times higher and does not include all of 2019, which could set a new high due to widespread summer melting. (
  • Official US Government research graphs that show that Arctic ice was about the same in 1945 and 1960 as the present level ,giving the lie to climate scammers claims about unprecedented melting. (
  • Crustal dust in the atmosphere has a direct impact on climate forcing in two significant ways: modifying the radiation balance and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • But at the end of the last Ice Age something happened: humans had discovered fire, and then used it to invent agriculture and metal foundries, and then began to alter the carbon balance in the atmosphere, even before the discovery of fossil fuels. (
  • The answer to this is hidden in a large number of sediment samples from around the Arctic and in the gut content from permafrozen woolly rhinos, mammoth and other extinct ice age mammals. (