The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Activities performed by humans.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive organs of plants.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The physical measurements of a body.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
The educational process of instructing.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
"A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars". Science. 318 (5858): 1903-1907. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1903H. doi:10.1126/ ... Proposed use in climate engineering[edit]. Injections of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere has been proposed in climate ... In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the ... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. ...
"Financial Post publishes misleading opinion that misrepresents science of polar bears' plight". Climate Feedback. 2018-03-02. ... She is a blogger who writes about zoology and climate science, specializing in Holocene mammals. From 2004 to 2019 she was an ... Critics point out that none of Crockford's claims regarding the effects of climate change on polar bears has undergone peer ... Crockford is a signatory of the International Conference on Climate Change's 2008 Manhattan Declaration, which states that " ...
Heffernan, Olive (12 August 2009). "McIntyre versus Jones: climate data row escalates". Climate Feedback. Nature Climate Change ... "Climate data released - University of East Anglia (UEA)". 27 July 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011. Press Association (25 February ... In 2007 he told colleagues that, having seen what McIntyre's Climate Audit blog was doing, UEA had been turning down FOIA ... Pearce, Fred (2010), The Climate Files: The Battle for the Truth About Global Warming, Random House UK, pp. 143-156, ISBN 0- ...
Climate Feedback. 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2019-09-07. Illing, Sean (Feb 24, 2019). "It is absolutely time to panic about climate ... "The Cautious Case for Climate Optimism (From a Climate Alarmist)". Intelligencer. Retrieved 2019-05-25. Wallace-Wells, David ( ... "On the Cover: What Climate Change Has in Store for Los Angeles". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2019-06-23. Haskell, David George ... David Wallace-Wells is an American journalist known for his writings on climate change. He wrote the 2017 essay "The ...
"The Daily Wire makes wild claims about climate change based on no evidence". Climate Feedback. May 9, 2017. Retrieved April 29 ... "Analysis of 'Scientists: Here's What Really Causes Climate Change (And It Has Nothing To Do With Human Beings)'". Climate ... The Daily Wire published articles expressing skepticism that climate change is occurring and that humans contribute to climate ... Some climate scientists have described the articles as being inaccurate and misleading. The Daily Wire incorrectly credited the ...
"Story on congressman's incorrect claims about sea level rise could have corrected them more explicitly". Climate Feedback. ... In 2010, Brooks signed a pledge sponsored by Americans for Prosperity not to vote for any climate change legislation that would ... and earlier growth does not disprove that climate change is occurring. Brooks has said, "we cannot continue to be the world ...
Climate Feedback. July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017. Emily Atkin (July 10, 2017). "The Power and Peril of "Climate ... The NGO Climate Feedback summarized reviews by dozens of professional scientists, summarizing that, "The reviewers found that ... The story received immediate criticism from the climate change community along two fronts: the piece is too pessimistic; or it ... Rebecca Fishbein (July 10, 2017). "Are Humans Doomed? A Q&A With The Author Of NY Mag's Terrifying Climate Change Story". ...
2016". Climate Feedback. November 2016. Monbiot, George (8 December 2010). "David Rose's climate science writing shows he has ... Rose's journalism on climate has been criticised by climate scientists and environmentalists for an over-reliance on unsound ... Rose's journalism on climate has been criticised by climate scientists and environmentalists for an over-reliance on unsound ... This led to their successful appeals in 1991, and became the subject of his book A Climate of Fear (1992). Rose has repeatedly ...
Climate Feedback. December 23, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2020. Official website. ... In 2019, Natural News falsely claimed that wind turbines contribute more to climate change than fossil fuels. Weill, Kelly ( ... promotes alternative medicine and climate change denial, makes tendentious nutrition and health claims, disseminates fake news ...
"Western Journal op-ed deceives readers with completely unsupported claims". Climate Feedback. February 26, 2019. Retrieved May ... Climate change denial Dagnes, Alison (2019). "Negative Objectives: The Right-Wing Media Circle and Everyone Else". In Dagnes, ... "Climate Change 'Heat Records' Are a Huge Data Manipulation." Scientists criticized the article, saying it was deceptive and ...
A fact check performed by climate scientists for Climate Feedback gave the letter an overall scientific credibility of "very ... "Letter signed by "500 scientists" relies on inaccurate claims about climate science". Climate Feedback. Retrieved 5 October ... In 2019, Berkhout co-founded the climate sceptic organization Climate Intelligence Foundation (CLINTEL). Berkhout was born in ... Hundreds of climate sceptics to mount international campaign to stop net-zero targets being made law In: The Independent. 6 ...
Climate Feedback. March 27, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2018. "Is National Review doomed?". January 30, 2014. Retrieved October 2, ... "Climate researcher's defamation suit about insulting columns is on". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 2, 2018. Adler, Jonathan H ... "One chart shows how climate change deniers are skewing statistics to fit their view". Business Insider. Retrieved May 22, 2018 ... O'Connor, Lydia (December 15, 2015). "This Is How Climate Change Deniers Are Tricking You". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 22, ...
"Sea levels rose faster in the past century than in previous time periods". Climate Feedback. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 13 ... The author of the paper describes this interpretation as factually incorrect, constituting climate misinformation. Under threat ...
"Planet of the Humans" documentary misleads viewers about renewable energy". Climate Feedback. 2020-05-04. Retrieved 2020-11-19 ... "Planet of the Humans" documentary misleads viewers about renewable energy". Climate Feedback. 2020-05-04. Retrieved 2020-07-01 ... misleading the public about who is responsible for the climate crisis. We are used to climate science misinformation campaigns ... Jeff Gibbs has said that the film is designed to prompt discussion and debate beyond the narrow issue of climate change and to ...
"Breitbart article baselessly claims a study of past climate invalidates human-caused climate change". Climate Feedback. April ... "Sea levels have risen throughout the 20th century, contrary to claim in online articles". Climate Feedback. February 20, 2020. ... Breibart News published an article that claimed that a scientific study on past climate proved that man-made climate change was ... condemned the Breitbart story in an article titled "Note to Breitbart: Earth Is Not Cooling, Climate Change Is Real ...
Climate Feedback. 2020-12-18. Retrieved 2021-01-20. Hao, Sean (2006-01-13). "Greenpeace co-founder praises global warming". ... 3. Projected climate change and its impacts". "ESRL News: New Study Shows Climate Change Largely Irreversible" (Press release ... which expects climate change to have a significant and irreversible negative impact on climate and weather events around the ... Moore calls global climate change the "most difficult issue facing the scientific community today in terms of being able to ...
McGrath, Matt (2018-05-04). "New climate 'feedback loop' discovered". BBC News. Retrieved 2019-11-03. Steer, Bill (2019-02-21 ... Her research on climate change and global warming has examined shrinking ice cover of freshwater lakes, and how fish ... Her work on the impact to freshwater fisheries projected that in Ontario alone climate change would impact the trout fishery in ... Chung, Emily (2015-12-17). "World's lakes are warming surprisingly quickly due to climate change". Retrieved 2019-11-03 ...
A planet with little or no tilt will lack the stimulus to evolution that climate variation provides.[citation needed] In this ... feedback or forcing?". RealClimate. [1] The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems, Research Consortium on Nearby Stars. Ward & ... Kasting argues that a moonless Earth would still possess habitats with climates suitable for complex life and questions whether ... Michael H. Hart, astrophysicist who proposed a narrow habitable zone based on climate studies, edited the influential book ...
"Well-mixed Greenhouse Gases". Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. ... Much of the interest in cloud forcing relates to its role as a feedback process in the present period of global warming. The ... All global climate models used for climate change projections include the effects of water vapor and cloud forcing. The models ... Clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in future projections of climate change by global climate models, owing to the ...
The Climate Feedback reviewers assessed that the scientific credibility ranged between "low" and "very low". The Climate ... Climate change is a 100-year problem - we should not try to fix it in 10 years." Lomborg, Bjørn, Smart Solutions to Climate ... "Analysis of "The Alarming Thing About Climate Alarmism"". 10 February 2015. Archived from the original on ... "Analysis of "An Overheated Climate Alarm"". 11 April 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2019. "Analysis of "…in many ...
"Glossary, Climate system". NASA.. *^ a b "Annex III: Glossary" (PDF). IPCC AR5. Climate change may be due to natural internal ... This asymmetry is believed to result from complex interactions of feedback mechanisms. It has been observed that ice ages ... Notable climate events in Earth history[edit]. See also: List of periods and events in climate history, Geologic time scale, ... Precambrian climate[edit]. Main article: Precambrian. The climate of the late Precambrian showed some major glaciation events ...
"Strong atmospheric chemistry feedback to climate warming from Arctic methane emissions" (PDF). Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 25 ... "Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide , NOAA". Retrieved 2 March 2020.. ... In: Climate change 1995: Economic and social dimensions of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Second ... "NOAA science news & Information for a climate smart nation.. *^ "The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) - An ...
Curry, J. A.; Schramm, J. L.; Ebert, E. E. (1996-01-01). "Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism". Oceanographic Literature ... Walker, James C. G.; Hays, P. B.; Kasting, J. F. (1981-10-20). "A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization ... A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... and stabilizing due to silicate weathering feedback. And the Earth is not the only one that changed - the luminosity of the sun ...
"Feedback Loops in Global Climate Change Point to a Very Hot 21st Century". Science Daily. May 22, 2006. Retrieved January 7, ... Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ... There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and ... Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate ...
Climate Feedback. Retrieved 24 September 2020. Gleick, Peter H. (15 July 2020). "Book review: Bad science and bad arguments ... "Fighting Climate Change by Not Focusing on Climate Change" - via Ziser, Michael; Sze, Julie (2007). "Climate ... Emanuel, Kerry (2020-07-29). "MIT climate scientist Kerry Emanuel on energy and Shellenberger's 'Apocalypse' » Yale Climate ... Daren Samuelsohn, "Report: Treat climate change like 'Fight Club'," Politico, July 26, 2011 Lisa Friedman, "'Climate ...
1984). "Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms". In Hansen, J. E.; Takahashi, T. (eds.). Climate Processes and ... Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth's climate it has been suggested that they may also be used to ... Tropospheric water vapor is a key element of the Earth's climate, which has direct effects as a greenhouse gas, as well as ... Schumann resonances may therefore help us to understand these feedback effects. A paper was published in 2006 linking Schumann ...
These are some of Natali's most cited publications: Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback (2015) Climate change: ... "Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback". Nature. 520 (7546): 171-179. doi:10.1038/nature14338. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID ... Susan M. Natali is an associate scientist at the Woodwell Climate Research Center (formerly Woods Hole Research Center), where ... Natali was also invited to speak at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference about the importance of recognizing ...
This induces climate change that drives carbon concentration and carbon-climate feedback processes that modifies ocean ... Boer, G; Arora, V (2013). "Feedbacks in emission-driven and concentration-driven global carbon budgets". Journal of Climate. 26 ... Gregory, J; Jones, C; Cadule, P; Friedlingstein, P (2009). "Quantifying carbon cycle feedbacks". Journal of Climate. 22 (19): ... Climate change, a result of excess CO2 in the atmosphere, has increased the temperature of the ocean and atmosphere (global ...
"sign of LW cloud cover feedback is uncertain". "general theories do not exist for quantifying most individual climate feedbacks ... The argument over cloud feedbacks is irrelevant here. Jason Patton (talk) 15:53, 26 March 2008 (UTC). Also, do you disagree ... The climate feedback from water vapor comes from multiple mechanisms, one of which is by feeding moisture to clouds. The "role ... Feedbacks between temperature, cloud cover and radiation are potentially important agents of climate change. However, they are ...
Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184-187. ... However, climate change may affect the biological pump in the future by warming and stratifying the surface ocean. It is ...
"Biophysical feedbacks between the Pleistocene megafauna extinction and climate: The first human‐induced global warming?". ... One of the main theories to the extinction is climate change. The climate change theory has suggested that a change in climate ... "Humans, not climate, have driven rapidly rising mammal extinction rate". Retrieved 9 October 2020.. ... In March 2019, Nature Climate Change published a study by ecologists from Yale University, who found that over the next half ...
Zohar, D. (2010). Thirty years of safety climate research: Reflections and future directions. Accident Analysis and Prevention ... performance feedback from supervisors, the worker's own coping strategies, etc. There has not, however, been as much research ... Yang, L., Caughlin, D.E., Gazica, M.W., Truxillo, D.M., & Spector, P.E. (2014). Workplace mistreatment climate and potential ... An important influence on the incidence of accidents is the organization's safety climate that is employees' shared beliefs ...
This feedback can be described as follows: technological advance → increase in the carrying capacity of land for people → ... the effects of climate change,[140] the loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development,[141][142] and ... "Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 18, 2013.. CS1 ... "Food crisis will take hold before climate change, warns chief scientist". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 18, 2013 ...
Australian Youth Climate Coalition; Canadian Youth Climate Coalition; Arab Youth Climate Movement, China Youth Climate Action ... Climate Action Network - International, Global Campaign for Climate Action, Unite for Climate.[3]. ... "UK Youth Climate Coalition Annual Review 2009" (PDF). UK Youth Climate Coalition. Retrieved 2010-05-29.. [dead link] ... "Australian Youth Climate Coalition. Retrieved 2009-05-27.. *^ "Climate change Young Ambassadors". WWF. Archived from the ...
This is easier in warm or temperate climates. MAN B&W Diesel, Wärtsilä, and Deutz AG, as well as a number of smaller companies ... Climate change, disasters and electricity generation Archived 20 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. London: Overseas ... It concluded that not all biofuels perform equally in terms of their impact on climate, energy security and ecosystems, and ... This implies that a greater emphasis on sustainable forestry is very relevant for climate protection and sustainable, energy- ...
Climate CoLab, spun out of MIT and its Center for Collective Intelligence. ... group membership feedback; quality control and peer review; and a documented group memory or knowledge base.[18] As groups work ...
Climate variability and change. *Climate sensitivity. *Cloud forcing. *Feedbacks. *Effective temperature. *Earth's energy ... In Metz, Bert (ed.). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment ... "Extracting carbon from nature can aid climate but will be costly: U.N." Reuters. 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2017-05-02.. ... UK Committee on Climate Change (2018). Biomass in a low-carbon economy (PDF).. ...
... points at a threshold at which temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees through self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate ... Index of climate change articles. References[edit]. *^ "Article 2" (PDF). The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ... January 30, 2006, BBC: Climate report: the main points. *January 29, 2006, Washington Post: Debate on Climate Shifts to Issue ... For the concept of avoiding climate change, see Climate change mitigation. For the international treaty committing nations to ...
... due to the time scales associated with climate processes and feedbacks".[60] Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas ... The World Bank climate change and water sector, 2009 Water and Climate Change: Understanding the Risks and Making Climate-Smart ... US NRC (2001), Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. A report by the Committee on the Science of Climate ... eds.), Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III (WG3) to the Fifth Assessment ...
l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose dehydrogenase in spinach.[132] Ascorbic acid efflux by embryo of dicots ... climate where it grew, length of time since it was picked, storage conditions, and method of preparation.[70][71] The following ... There is feedback regulation in place, in that the presence of ascorbic acid inhibits enzymes in the synthesis pathway.[136] ... "Feedback Inhibition of Spinach L-Galactose Dehydrogenase by L-Ascorbate" (PDF). Plant and Cell Physiology. 45 (9): 1271-1279. ...
We noticed though that when you edited Continental climate, you added a link pointing to the disambiguation page Rainbow Bridge ... If you would like to help us improve this process, please consider leaving us some feedback. ... If you would like to help us improve this process, please consider leaving us some feedback. ... If you would like to help us improve this process, please consider leaving us some feedback. ...
World People's Conference on Climate Change. References[edit]. *^ a b Climate conference president resigns, Rasmussen to take ... "Jumping the climate change hurdle". YouTube. Retrieved 9 December 2009.. *^ "Building Blocks for Climate Change Solutions". ... " June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.. *^ a b c d e "Copenhagen deal reaction in quotes". BBC News. 19 December ... "Climate Consortium - COP15 United Nations Climate Change Conference Copenhagen 2009". Retrieved 9 December 2009.. ...
Climate change[edit]. D'Aleo has become a leading figure[according to whom?] in the debate over man-made climate change.[ ... "NASA Caught in Climate Data Manipulation; New Revelations Headlined on KUSI-TV Climate Special". Retrieved 10 December 2015.. ... "Water vapour: feedback or forcing?". RealClimate. Retrieved 2008-04-07.. External links[edit]. *Icecap blog ... "a sudden climate shift that history tells us will occur again, very possibly soon." In line with climate change denial, the ...
"S and T Campus to Celebrate Climate Leadership Award with Ice Cream Social". Rolla Daily News. June 16, 2013. Retrieved July 30 ... The team placed second during Nanosat-7, beating rival MIT.[73] With their legacy twin-satellite design and feedback from the ... the Solar Village was one of two highlights in a video short that won recognition from Second Nature and a Climate Leadership ...
ClimateEdit. Main articles: Climate change and Global warming. Writing in the British newspaper The Independent in January 2006 ... This eliminates the planet's negative feedbacks and increases the likelihood of homeostatic positive feedback potential ... I have a feeling that climate change may be an issue as severe as a war. It may be necessary to put democracy on hold for a ... The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a ...
This positive feedback loop is argued to have led to the rapid brain size increases seen in the Homo lineage. In DIT, the ... Climate, culture, and the evolution of cognition. In C.M. Heyes and L. Huber, (Eds), The Evolution of Cognition. Massachusetts ... Genes and culture continually interact in a feedback loop, changes in genes can lead to changes in culture which can then ...
This concept of land-atmosphere feedback is common among permaculturists, such as Masanobu Fukuoka, who, in his book, The One ... "USGS Open-File Report 2012-1155: National Climate Assessment Technical Report on the Impacts of Climate and Land Use and Land ... "The Effect of Land Masses on Climate". PBS LearningMedia.. *^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-06-09. ... Major land surface changes affecting climate include deforestation (especially in tropical areas),[4][5][6][7][8] and ...
... and feedback regarding creation of the largest all-concrete skate park in Maine.[43] ... ClimateEdit. Climate data for Lewiston, Maine. Month. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. ...
For example, climate change skeptics have published studies in the Energy and Environment journal, attempting to undermine the ... receiving wider feedback in parallel with or before peer review, and facilitating wider collaborations.[100] ... Politicians in the United States downplaying the science of climate change have then cited this journal on several occasions in ... body of research that shows how human activity impacts the Earth's climate. ...
Each of these migrations represent the increased flexibility of the genus Homo to survive in widely varied climates. Based on ... Symbolically mediated behavior may then feed back upon this process by creating a greater ability to manufacture symbolic ... "Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change". Nature Communications. 4 (1): 1905. Bibcode ...
"Climate change snapshots: Sydney" (PDF). Climate Change, Department of Environment.. *^ a b c "Climate change impacts on ... Climate Commission reports[edit]. David Karoly is an Australian expert on climate change and member of the board of the Climate ... "Climate Change in the South East Queensland Region" (PDF).. *^ a b c d Most at risk: Study reveals Sydney's climate change ' ... "Annual Climate Report 2015". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 February 2016.. *^ a b c d e f Preston, B. L.; Jones, R. N. ( ...
Trial-by-trial feedback given in studies using a "closed" ESP target sequence (e.g., a deck of cards) violates the condition of ...
eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 337-383. ... "Recent Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent trends and implications for the snow-albedo feedback", Geophysical Research ... Colorado Climate Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2009.. ... In colder climates, snow lies on the ground all winter. By late spring, snow densities typically reach a maximum of 50% of ...
Newhagen, J.E. (1999). ""The role of feedback in assessing the news on mass media and the Internet"". In Kent, Allen (ed.). ... Climate communication. *Cross-cultural communication. *Development communication. *Discourse analysis. *Environmental ... A video game is a computer-controlled game in which a video display, such as a monitor or television, is the primary feedback ... The increase in circulation, however, led to a decline in feedback and interactivity from the readership, making newspapers a ...
PIN code search and registration of feedback and complaints online.[31] ...
The changing political and legal climate of the 1950s and 1960s (new civil rights legislation, anti-discrimination laws in ... These changes can create positive feedback as well, encouraging other forms of development of the area that promote general ...
... suggests that plate geometry is governed by a feedback between mantle convection patterns and the strength of the lithosphere.[ ... "Climate History". Paleomap Project. Retrieved 18 June 2010.. *^ Zhao 2002, 2004 ...
In the milder climates seen in much of the southern hemisphere, most mares foal outside, often in a paddock[14][15] built ... these 2 hormones are in a positive feedback loop). Additionally, it causes behavioral changes in the mare, making her more ... Originally, this was due in part to a need for protection from the harsh winter climate present when mares foal early in the ... but adapted by natural selection to the ecology and climate of the west. These crosses ultimately produced new breeds such as ...
Kenneth G. Miller Jan-Feb 2006; Eocene-Oligocene global climate and sea-level changes St. Stephens Quarry, Alabama GSA Bulletin ... which strongly implies that feedbacks and factors other than the ACC were integral to the rapid cooling.[13] ... The Oligocene climate change was a global[8] increase in ice volume and a 55 m (181 feet) decrease in sea level (35.7-33.5 Ma) ... The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A ...
Climate Feedback. a blog from Nature Climate Change. Search. Go. Advanced search ... Climate Feedback is a blog hosted by Nature Publishing Group to facilitate lively and informative discussion on the science and ... Posted by Olive Heffernan , Categories: Climate Policy, Opinion, Sarah Tomlin, Technology, UN Conference on Climate Change, ... The blog aims to be a forum for debate and commentary on climate science in the Nature Climate Change journal and in the world ...
Climate Feedback. a blog from Nature Climate Change. Search. Go. Advanced search ... Climate Feedback is a blog hosted by Nature Publishing Group to facilitate lively and informative discussion on the science and ... The blog aims to be a forum for debate and commentary on climate science in the Nature Climate Change journal and in the world ... New, relentlessly pragmatic approach to climate change needed?. Posted by Olive Heffernan , Categories: Climate Policy, ...
Climate Feedback. a blog from Nature Climate Change. Search. Go. Advanced search ... Climate Feedback is a blog hosted by Nature Publishing Group to facilitate lively and informative discussion on the science and ... The blog aims to be a forum for debate and commentary on climate science in the Nature Climate Change journal and in the world ... AAAS 2011: Climate change poses challenge to food safety. *. While it is great to address fisheries management and ...
Customize this school climate survey to find out what parents think about your schools environment. Fully secure, can be ... Tweak this school climate survey template for your needs and start gathering valuable parent feedback to help improve your ...
The Yale Divinity School is launching focus groups to gather feedback from students on the schools sexual climate, in light of ... "One observation from that initiative was that [sexual] climate is very much locally determined, and some of the current, school ... The Association of American Universities 2015 study, the Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct, ... school-specific factors that influence the climate and individuals experiences at the school," Spangler said. "Each of these ...
An Assessment of Climate Feedbacks in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models, J. Climate 19:3354, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3799.1 reviews the ... relative role of various feedbacks in the IPCC AR4 runs. Held and Soden, ... Does climate feedback really vary in AOGCM historical simulations? * terry123a on Gregory et al 2019: Does climate feedback ... Unsound claims about bias in climate feedback and climate sensitivity estimation * Hifast on Gregory et al 2019: Does climate ...
"About us - Climate Feedback". Climate Feedback. 2015-05-01. Retrieved 2018-12-03. "Scientists, get onboard!". Climate Feedback ... Climate Feedback, an application of the platform to climate science communication, allows active climate scientists ... "Process - How Climate Feedback works". Climate Feedback. Retrieved 2020-02-22. "Is expert crowdsourcing the solution to health ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Science Feedback Official website Climate Feedback Official website Health Feedback ...
National Research Council Panel on Climate Change Feedbacks (2003). Understanding climate change feedbacks (Limited preview). ... Climate change (modern) Climate change (general concept) Climate inertia Complex system Parametrization (climate) Tipping ... Climate Feedback More Climate Feedback Loops Past Peak, November 27, 2007 Tipping point: Perspective of a climatologist. In ... Forcings and feedbacks together determine how much and how fast the climate changes. The main positive feedback in global ...
We investigate the dependence of ENSO atmospheric feedbacks on the mean-state in a perturbed atmospheric physics ensemble with ... the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) and in CMIP5 models. Additionally,... ... Sun DZ, Yu Y, Zhang T (2009) Tropical water vapor and cloud feedbacks in climate models: a further assessment using coupled ... It is found that the positive zonal wind feedback and the negative heat flux feedback, with the short-wave flux as dominant ...
While climate models had long predicted that the cloud feedback would amplify warming from human activities, until recently it ... Cloud feedback affects global climate and warming, says Texas A&M study. Texas A&M University ... Cloud feedback affects global climate and warming, says Texas A&M study ... Some prominent climate skeptics have recently been arguing that clouds would act to stabilize the climate, thereby preventing ...
1984) in Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, eds Hansen J, ... In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative ... Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation. Yoko Tsushima and ... 2006) On the contribution of local feedback mechanisms to the range of climate sensitivity in two GCM ensembles. Clim Dyn 27:17 ...
Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed From Climate Science to Action and wanted to share their ... and ratings for From Climate Science to Action from The World Bank Group. ... Learner Reviews & Feedback for From Climate Science to Action by The World Bank Group. Enroll for Free. Starts Nov 18 ... From climate science to actions. We need all to act in order to reduce the climate effects on our planet. To keep the warm ...
Water Vapor Feedback: It is now well accepted that a warmer climate will generally be a moister climate, and a colder one would ... If the feedback amplifies the forcing, we call it a positive feedback; if the feedback dampens the forcing, we call it a ... Climate Feedbacks: A Brief Primer. By Chris Colose on September 9, 2011 at 11:38 AM ... Once the climate is perturbed, a number of things happen which then become known as feedback processes. ...
Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries and wanted ... and ratings for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries from University of Cape Town. ... Learner Reviews & Feedback for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries by University of Cape Town. Enroll for Free. ... Whether you are a climate change practitioner, work in development or are simply curious about how climate mitigation is ...
... according to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). But what impact does a warming planet ... ... Global air travel contributes around 3.5 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions behind/driving anthropogenic climate change, ... CO2 feedback appears to be much less than was originally assumed. The IPCC also notes the inaccuracy of the climate models here ... Currently, global climate models to not incorporate inputs from air travel, so this potential feedback is missing from our ...
2009) Changes in vegetation in northern Alaska under scenarios of climate change, 2003−2100: Implications for climate feedbacks ... 2006) Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison. J Clim 19(14):3337-3353. ... Permafrost carbon−climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics. ... Permafrost carbon−climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics ...
A new study has confirmed the existence of a positive feedback operating in climate change whereby warming itself may amplify a ... More information: "Causal feedbacks in climate change" Nature Climate Change 2015. Egbert H. van Nes, Marten Scheffer, Victor ... Direct evidence for a positive feedback in climate change. I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. Learn more Note: ... A new study has confirmed the existence of a positive feedback operating in climate change whereby warming itself may amplify a ...
Climate. Amplified Arctic climate change: What does surface albedo feedback have to do with it?. Authors. *. Michael Winton. *E ... we group the feedbacks besides SAF into two composite feedbacks: non-SAF shortwave feedback, and longwave feedback. The non-SAF ... Robert Colman, Lawson Hanson, On the relative strength of radiative feedbacks under climate variability and change, Climate ... An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean-atmosphere models, submitted to Journal of Climate, 2005) (hereinafter ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Yet at the same time, climate change threatens the availability of food. Our nations agricultural policies incentivize ... Broken Agricultural System Promotes Climate Change Feedback Loop Agriculture is a leading source of human caused emissions that ... Yet at the same time, climate change threatens the availability of food. Our nations agricultural policies incentivize ... and climate problems of our time. We work to protect peoples health, communities, and democracy from the growing destructive ...
Plant Respiration Could Become a Bigger Feedback on Climate Than Expected. New research, led by the Centre for Ecology & ...
How accurately can the climate sensitivity to CO2 be estimated from historical climate change? by Gregory et al.[i] makes a ... Gregory et al 2019: Unsound claims about bias in climate feedback and climate sensitivity estimation. A guest post by Nic Lewis ... By Gregory et al 2019: Does climate feedback really vary in AOGCM historical simulations? « Climate Audit on Oct 31, 2019 at 1: ... Regression dilution is one reason why estimates of climate feedback and climate sensitivity derived from warming over the ...
Natural climate changes have causes too. The coming and going of ice ages are generally paced by long-term variations in ... How do we know that climate change is an abnormal phenomena? Could it be that it is normal for the Earth to warm during a ... The existence of feedbacks has been established. The question then is how much (and regional effects). Well some things are ... If you want to talk about past climate variations, I have another thread on that I linked to in my comment #11. Please no more ...
Most modeling studies on terrestrial feedbacks to warming over the twenty-first century imply that the net feedbacks are ... Feedbacks of Terrestrial Ecosystems to Climate Change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 32, November 2007 ... tend to diminish the negative feedbacks or lead to positive feedbacks. At high latitudes, negative feedbacks from forest ... Most modeling studies on terrestrial feedbacks to warming over the twenty-first century imply that the net feedbacks are ...
... Dates:. 10.06 - 15.06.2013 Venue:. La ... The 3rd CNRS Advanced Summer School Feedbacks in environmental systems will take place from the 10-15 June 2013 in La Rochelle ... 2013 session keywords include: atmosphere & oceans, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate, complex systems, dynamical ... France) and will focus on the interactions between Climate & Ecosystems & Society. ...
... one of the few robust aspects of the SW cloud feedback predicted by climate models is a negative feedback occurring in the ... On the Emergent Constraints of Climate Sensitivity The Dependence of Global Cloud and Lapse Rate Feedbacks on the Spatial ... a. Shortwave cloud feedbacks in CMIP5. The multimodel mean SW cloud feedback in the RCP8.5 experiment is presented in Fig. 1a. ... Despite continuing model improvement efforts, the cloud feedback remains the largest source of uncertainty in climate ...
Difference in cloud feedback between enhanced cloud feedback experiments and the control simulation. Cloud feedback is ... Difference in cloud feedback between enhanced cloud feedback experiments and the control simulation. Cloud feedback is ... Sensitivity of climate change induced by the weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to cloud feedback ... To test the role of positive cloud feedbacks on Atlantic climate variability, we perform model experiments using a state-of-the ...
The chicken and egg story of global warming and extreme droughts: A lesson on climate feedbacks ... This is an example of a positive feedback loop in the Earth System. A positive feedback means that one process occurs, causing ... gov/sciblog/2012/12/19/the-chicken-and-egg-story-of-global-warming-and-extreme-droughts-a-lesson-on-climate-feedbacks/ ... Dont be fooled, however, by the terms positive and negative feedback, which may imply one is good and one is bad. It is ...
"Anyone believing that positive feedbacks dominate negative feedbacks within the climate system",/i,. So who believes that?. The ... Bodes book is the ONLY feedback reference used to support the climate feedback model and yet how his analysis was applied to ... It would make sense that there are negative feedbacks if feedback was a relevant property of the climate system. The fact that ... Anyone believing that positive feedbacks dominate negative feedbacks within the climate system over the medium to long term ( ...
climate change, Path dependence, Policy design, Policy feedback, policy instruments. Abstract. Policy feedback is a widely used ... policy feedback in a changing climate. Title. Designing policies that intentionally stick: policy feedback in a changing ... The literature as a whole is therefore poorly equipped to make sense of the negative policy feedbacks that often appear in more ... It relates these expectations to a design situation where positive feedback seemed unlikely, and hence, the challenge of ...
  • The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. (
  • According to the report of the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment ( 1 ), about two-thirds of the current climate models have sensitivities that range between 2 °C and 4.5 °C. Although this range is itself large, the sensitivities of one-third of the models lie outside of this range. (
  • For over a decade, leading scientific organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the American Geophysical Union, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the American Meteorological Society have sent clear signals that Earth's climate is warming and that the changes are in large part the result of anthropic activities. (
  • Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. (
  • A graphic visualization from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change shows the rapid decrease in carbon isotope ratios that is indicative of a large increase in the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4, which was coincident with approximately 5C of global warming. (
  • Since the mid-twentieth century, human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land-use patterns, have been the dominant cause of climate change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007a). (
  • This trend is expected to continue through the present century and beyond, leading to rates of global warming that will exceed any experienced during the past several thousand years (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007a). (
  • At high latitudes, negative feedbacks from forest expansion are likely to be largely or completely compensated by positive feedbacks from decreased albedo, increased carbon emissions from thawed permafrost, and increased wildfire. (
  • Dessler used measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite to calculate the amount of energy trapped by clouds as the climate varied over the last decade. (
  • The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. (
  • Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. (
  • One of the principle scientific questions underlying modern day global warming is to determine how sensitive the Earth's climate is to change. (
  • When it comes to the Earth's climate, anything that forces it to change is called, well, a forcing. (
  • The most significant stabilizer of Earth's climate is the fact that when temperature increases, the rate of radiant energy emission by the planet increases. (
  • The main negative feedback comes from the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the amount of heat radiated from the Earth into space changes with the fourth power of the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. (
  • The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change , shows that in addition to the well understood effect of greenhouse gases on the Earth's temperature, researchers can now confirm directly from ice-core data that the global temperature has a profound effect on atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations . (
  • This means that as the Earth's temperature rises, the positive feedback in the system results in additional warming. (
  • Yes, the Earth's climate has always changed, with temperatures rising and falling over thousands of years. (
  • Climate scientist Richard Alley provides a detailed step-by-step explanation that examines the physics and chemistry of different "flavors," or isotopes, of carbon in Earth's atmosphere. (
  • This lesson addresses climate feedback loops and how these loops help drive and regulate Earth's unique climate system. (
  • Our Earth's Future is about the science of climate change and how to talk about it. (
  • During the past two and a half million years, the Earth's climate has been dominated by large fluctuations between glacial and interglacial conditions. (
  • The last global deglaciation began about 20 000 years ago, and full interglacial conditions have dominated the Earth's climate for the past 10 000 years. (
  • A comparison of the two periods suggests that the Earth's present climate, if allowed to evolve naturally, might last an additional 20 000 years or so before the conditions begin to slide back into the glacial part of the cycle. (
  • Changes in solar insolation due to variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun are thought to be the primary driver of climate change across glacial-interglacial cycles. (
  • The goal of research funded under the interdisciplinary P2C2 solicitation is to utilize key geological, chemical, atmospheric (gas in ice cores), and biological records of climate system variability to provide insights into the mechanisms and rate of change that characterized Earth's past climate variability, the sensitivity of Earth's climate system to changes in forcing, and the response of key components of the Earth system to these changes. (
  • How much fertilizer is too much for Earth's climate? (
  • Sand and colleagues used a numerical simulator of Earth's atmosphere and ocean to compare the effects on climate of artificially large increases in the emission of carbon dioxide and black carbon. (
  • The hypothesis was born that climate variability (not just day-to-day weather) determines flight times. (
  • In some sense, this is the easier part, because we see temperatures rising, we see glaciers/sea ice melting, etc, although you need to make sure the changes are outside the bounds of the typical natural variability inherent in the climate system. (
  • However, from observations alone, it is not possible to quantify the influence of regional cloud feedbacks on equatorial climate variability. (
  • Enhanced positive cloud feedback over the Namibian stratocumulus region increases local as well as equatorial SST variability, whereas enhanced cloud feedback over other regions in the South Atlantic increases local SST variability but exhibits negligible responses at the equator. (
  • These results highlight the important role of the regional coupling of cloud cover over the Namibian region with local SSTs and its effects on equatorial Atlantic climate variability. (
  • The representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model is shown to strongly influence the simulated climate variability and both the magnitude and pattern of the projected climate changes. (
  • It has been used to simulate and to analyze tropical climate variability (Braconnot et al. (
  • These data also indicate, however, that this period has experienced some pronounced changes in regional climates, likely due to natural, internal climate variability. (
  • Rice farming in Indonesia is greatly affected by short-term climate variability and could be harmed significantly by long-term climate change, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University, the University of Washington and the University of Wisconsin. (
  • and 2) enable transformative syntheses of paleoclimate data and modeling outcomes to understand the response of the longer-term and higher magnitude variability of the climate system that is observed in the geological and cryospheric records. (
  • Dommenget D (2016) A simple model perturbed physics study of the simulated climate sensitivity uncertainty and its relation to control climate biases. (
  • Dommenget D, Yu Y (2016) the seasonally changing cloud feedbacks contribution to the ENSO seasonal phase-locking. (
  • In 2016, Climate Feedback raised about $30,000 with Indigogo crowdfunding, which bolstered one of the efforts to conduct fact-checking via web annotation. (
  • J. Climate (2016) 29 (1): 139-157. (
  • Ceppi, P., D. L. Hartmann, and M. J. Webb, 2016: Mechanisms of the Negative Shortwave Cloud Feedback in Middle to High Latitudes. (
  • A new State of the Climate report confirmed that 2016 surpassed 2015 as the warmest year in 137 years of recordkeeping. (
  • These key findings and others are available from the State of the Climate in 2016 report released online today by the American Meteorological Society (AMS). (
  • If you and or your organization are interested in collaborating with the team to expand on the PPP Reference Guide, please submit your comments and feedback on the Consultations Hub by November 10, 2016. (
  • With the ratification of the Paris Agreement, many countries have acceded to act in combatting climate change. (
  • In 2017 Dana Nuccitelli, in a Guardian article on the role of denialist blogs in undermining public acceptance of anthropogenic global warming, described Climate Feedback as "a highly respected and influential resource. (
  • Implications of improved representations of plant respiration in a changing climate, Nature Communications (2017). (
  • Forcings and feedbacks together determine how much and how fast the climate changes. (
  • Forcings and feedbacks that impact the warming response are estimated for both Arctic and global regions based on standard model diagnostics. (
  • Fitting a zero-dimensional energy balance model to each region, an expression is derived that gives the Arctic amplification as a function of these forcings and feedbacks. (
  • It is the goal of this paper to place the SAF in the context of other feedbacks and forcings that affect Arctic amplification. (
  • We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). (
  • What are Feedback and Forcings? (
  • Given the sensitivity of GCM results to varying assumptions and parameterizations in this area, I would have liked it if AR4 had devoted entire chapters to each major issue in clouds and water vapor feedback, instead of a few cursory pages. (
  • Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. (
  • One of the most challenging tasks of climate science is to determine climate sensitivity. (
  • The need to reduce this sizable uncertainty is one of the important reasons it is urgent to understand and reliably quantify the mechanisms that determine climate sensitivity. (
  • Climate sensitivity is inversely proportional to the strength of the radiative feedback that operates on the global-scale perturbation of surface temperature. (
  • Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. (
  • Unravelling the feedback effect is particularly difficult, because the diverse soil organic compounds exhibit a wide range of kinetic properties, which determine the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of their decomposition. (
  • Moreover, several environmental constraints obscure the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of substrate decomposition, causing lower observed 'apparent' temperature sensitivity, and these constraints may, themselves, be sensitive to climate. (
  • Climate change feedbacks are important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state. (
  • The recently published open-access paper "How accurately can the climate sensitivity to CO2 be estimated from historical climate change? (
  • Perhaps most importantly, they say in the Abstract that "The real-world variations mean that historical EffCS [effective climate sensitivity] underestimates CO 2 EffCS by 30% when considering the entire historical period. (
  • But they do not indicate that this finding relates only to effective climate sensitivity in GCMs, and then only to when they are driven by one particular observational sea surface temperature dataset. (
  • If true, this would imply that observationally-based estimates using the difference method would be biased slightly low for climate feedback, and hence biased slightly high for climate sensitivity. (
  • To address this question, a set of sensitivity experiments are conducted using an atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM6) coupled to a slab ocean in which the strength of positive cloud feedback is enhanced over several regions in the South Atlantic basin. (
  • Climate sensitivity , expressed as a temperature increase for a doubling of CO2, is generally considered to lie in the range 2 to 4.5°C. The main uncertainties in the estimation of the climate sensitivity are the effects of clouds and aerosols . (
  • Each regional chapter of this assessment discusses the region's current climate, recent climate trends and future projections as input into analyses of sensitivity and vulnerability. (
  • We investigate the dependence of ENSO atmospheric feedbacks on the mean-state in a perturbed atmospheric physics ensemble with the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) and in CMIP5 models. (
  • Furthermore, too weak atmospheric feedbacks can cause quite different ENSO dynamics than observed, while enhanced atmospheric feedbacks lead to a substantial improvement of important ENSO properties such as seasonal ENSO phase locking and asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña. (
  • An example of a climate forcing is increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. (
  • Contributing to Arctic amplification are the Arctic-global differences in surface albedo feedback (SAF), longwave feedback and the net top-of-atmosphere flux forcing (the sum of the surface flux and the atmospheric heat transport convergence). (
  • Moreover, regressions of observed atmospheric fields on equatorial Atlantic SST anomalies indicate that cloud feedbacks over the Namibian stratocumulus region covary with Atlantic Niño. (
  • The majority of that atmospheric effect comes from methane, an especially potent short-lived climate pollutant . (
  • The Climate Momentum Simulation allows users to quickly compare the resulting sea level rise, temperature change, atmospheric CO2, and global CO2 emissions from six different policy options projected out to 2100. (
  • These drivers influence the amount of energy that the Earth receives from the sun and the amount that is retained within the atmosphere and oceans, resulting in changes in all elements of climate, such as temperature, precipitation and atmospheric circulation. (
  • Climate change drivers operate on a range of time scales, with changes in some factors (e.g. the orbit of the Earth around the sun) operating over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, whereas changes in others (e.g. atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and volcanic aerosols) operate on shorter time scales. (
  • suggest that roughly half of the total climate impact of black-carbon emissions is apparent only if these atmospheric responses feed back to the distribution of black carbon, lofting it to height and increasing its atmospheric lifetime and spatial extent. (
  • By using a pair of experiments, both of which explore the climate impacts of black carbon and differ only in whether black-carbon changes can also adjust to atmospheric-circulation responses, Sand et al . (
  • Soden and Held 2006, An Assessment of Climate Feedbacks in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models, J. Climate 19:3354, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3799.1 reviews the relative role of various feedbacks in the IPCC AR4 runs. (
  • Global air travel contributes around 3.5 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions behind/driving anthropogenic climate change, according to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (
  • 1] A group of twelve IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4) climate models have Arctic (60N-90N) warmings that are, on average, 1.9 times greater than their global warmings at the time of CO 2 doubling in 1%/year CO 2 increase experiments. (
  • The UN IPCC scientists who write the reports which guide international energy policy on fossil fuel use operate under the assumption that the climate system has a preferred, natural and constant average state which is only deviated from through the meddling of humans. (
  • All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. (
  • Climate change is an inescapable present and future reality, but the point of the IPCC report is that there is still a chance to seize the best-case scenario rather than surrender to the worst. (
  • In response to Monday's release of the IPCC report on the climate crisis - which warned that "unprecedented" changes were needed if global warming increases 1.5C beyond the pre-industrial period - a standup comic I know posted this plaintive request on her Facebook: "Damn this latest report about climate change is just terrifying. (
  • Amplified Arctic climate change: What does surface albedo feedback have to do with it? (
  • This aspect of the global warming pattern has often been linked to surface albedo feedback (SAF) - the extra absorption of shortwave radiation as ice melts and the surface becomes less reflective. (
  • Suggested activity: Investigate the albedo of various surfaces near you in the GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign and try to estimate if the surface cover changed, would it act as a positive or negative feedback in your local community. (
  • The purpose of this activity is to identify global patterns and connections in environmental data contained in the GLOBE Earth Systems Poster, to connect observations made within the Earth Systems Poster to data and information at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, and to understand the connections between solar energy and changes at the poles, including feedback related to albedo. (
  • The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology - an international body that traditionally has represented marine industry and more recently, scientists too - today released its position statement on climate change. (
  • South Asia In this endeavor, the MOOC brings together renowned scientists and policymakers to provide a synthesis of the most recent scientific evidence on climate change, regional low emissions and climate resilient development strategies across sectors. (
  • The above example can be thought of as a negative feedback, although in the terminology that climate scientists work in, this stabilizing influence actually becomes the reference system by which other feedbacks are defined. (
  • Climate Feedback is a web-based content annotation tool that allows qualified scientists to comment on stories online, adding context and noting inaccuracies. (
  • The website asks climate scientists in relevant fields to assess the credibility and accuracy of media stories related to climate change. (
  • Climate Feedback, an application of the platform to climate science communication, allows active climate scientists to add comments. (
  • At Climate Feedback, scientists encourage better science reporting. (
  • The study comes as scientists have predicted proliferation of these blooms as the climate changes, and amid increasing attention by the news media and local politicians to the worst cases. (
  • This study has been the result of an especially close collaboration over several years between field scientists, those who build computer models of how the global land surface operates, and researchers assessing expected future climate change. (
  • Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. (
  • Some of this concern focuses on journalists, whose regular use of terms such as "global warming" might be perceived as biased, whereas another concern focuses on climate scientists and specialized jargon that fails to convey key concepts [9] . (
  • And recently, scientists have declared a new geological time period: the Anthropocene, in which human activity is said to be the dominant influence on the environment, climate, and ecology the earth. (
  • Climate scientists predict that storms will continue to intensify, and King takes this to heart, worrying the next one could take down his house. (
  • The research, by scientists at NCAR and the Bureau of Meteorology in Australia, will be published online on September 18 in Nature Climate Change . (
  • To track where the heat was going, Meehl and colleagues used a powerful software tool known as the Community Climate System Model, which was developed by scientists at NCAR and the Department of Energy with colleagues at other organizations. (
  • This video highlights a variety of climate change research initiatives from scientists at the University of Colorado, Boulder. (
  • You will learn from scientists in the fields of climatology, oceanography, Earth science, and anthropology who study how climate change is affecting people, populations, and ways of life. (
  • These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. (
  • Some scientists are making the connection between the rise of Zika virus and climate change. (
  • roughly seven times stronger than those to carbon dioxide - will come as a surprise to many climate scientists. (
  • The blog aims to be a forum for debate and commentary on climate science in the Nature Climate Change journal and in the world at large. (
  • The study was published in this week's Nature Climate Change . (
  • Causal feedbacks in climate change" Nature Climate Change 2015. (
  • In an email to the News, University Title IX Coordinator Stephanie Spangler said that Title IX administrators conducted a University-wide sexual climate assessment in 2013, which used focus groups to gain insight into students' experiences. (
  • Here we use a global aerosol model to make an assessment of terrestrial natural aerosol-climate feedbacks, constrained by observations of aerosol number. (
  • Climate effects are addressed while meeting the agency's responsibilities in areas of monitoring and assessment, reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions, administering water centered programs to promote adaptation, supporting storm response and recovery efforts, providing mapping resources, and funding for climate preparedness and resiliency efforts. (
  • Large positive feedbacks can lead to effects that are abrupt or irreversible, depending upon the rate and magnitude of the climate change. (
  • The higher CO2 levels led to an additional climate warming ranging between 0.1° and 1.5 °C. However, there was still a large uncertainty on the magnitude of these sensitivities. (
  • As Earth warms in response to human CO 2 emissions, a critical uncertainty in the magnitude of expected warming is the degree to which changing climate will lead to changes in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and thus feed back on climate. (
  • These feedbacks are comparable in magnitude to other biogeochemical feedbacks, highlighting the need for natural aerosol feedbacks to be included in climate simulations. (
  • The global health benefits from climate policy could reach trillions of dollars annually, but their magnitude will importantly depend on the air quality policies that nations adopt independently of climate change. (
  • That is because, despite the large magnitude of related changes in climate when accumulated over many millennia, the rate of change on a century time scale is very small, on the order of 0.1 °C/century or less. (
  • An international team, led by earth scientist Robert Marchant of Boston University, documented the magnitude and the timing of the climate change. (
  • DiNezio PN et al (2012) Mean climate controls on the simulated response of ENSO to increasing greenhouse gases. (
  • Industries are responsible for not only a larger share of carbon emissions, but also the potential negative impacts of climate change. (
  • Many countries in South Eastern Europe (SEE) are adversely affected by the impacts of climate change, which are expected to become even more severe in the future. (
  • Eaarth is something of a bookender to that volume, describing as it does the ways in which McKibben thinks the impacts of climate change will force changes to the way we live. (
  • Wetlands and freshwater ecosystems are predicted to be the largest potential contributor to a global methane climate feedback. (
  • As the climate warms, the carbon balance of arctic ecosystems will respond in two opposing ways: Plants will grow faster, leading to a carbon sink, while thawing permafrost will lead to decomposition and loss of soil carbon. (
  • The balance of these processes determines whether these ecosystems will act as a stabilizing or destabilizing feedback to climate change. (
  • Most modeling studies on terrestrial feedbacks to warming over the twenty-first century imply that the net feedbacks are negative, that changes in ecosystems, on the whole, resist warming, largely through ecosystem carbon storage. (
  • With modest warming, net feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to warming are likely to be negative in the tropics and positive at high latitudes. (
  • The 3rd CNRS Advanced Summer School Feedbacks in environmental systems will take place from the 10-15 June 2013 in La Rochelle (France) and will focus on the interactions between Climate & Ecosystems & Society. (
  • Changes to either of these processes in response to climate change have profound implications for how much ecosystems soak up carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. (
  • Throughout the month of September and in the midst of a strengthening Pacific El Nino, researchers will investigate the combined effects of climate change and human activity on the these vast coral reef ecosystems and the diversity of life they sustain. (
  • They construct their climate models so that the models do not produce any warming or cooling unless they are forced to through increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic eruptions. (
  • Climate policies targeting CO 2 may also reduce air pollutant emissions-and the aerosols they produce-as the two share emission sources. (
  • The doubled CO 2 forcing and non-SAF shortwave feedback oppose Arctic amplification. (
  • It was clear from the start of the Trump administration that there was no interest in helping Alaskan communities, particularly coastal communities, adapt to climate change," said Victoria Hermann , president of the Arctic Institute . (
  • The rapidly warming Arctic climate is melting the permafrost layer below the shallow sea, making the layer permeable and releasing gas trapped below it. (
  • Permafrost is a distinct feature of the terrestrial Arctic and is vulnerable to climate warming. (
  • In observations, strong zonal wind and heat flux feedbacks are caused by a convective response in the western central equatorial Pacific (Niño4 region), resulting from an eastward (westward) shift of the rising branch of the Walker Circulation (WC) during El Niño (La Niña). (
  • While climate models had long predicted that the cloud feedback would amplify warming from human activities, until recently it was impossible to test the models using observations. (
  • Here, we describe our attempt to estimate the strength of the radiative feedback that operates on the global-scale perturbation of surface temperature in many current climate models and compare the results with those obtained from satellite observations. (
  • Observations and modelling studies indicate that there is a net positive feedback to warming. (
  • Observations show that cloud feedback over the Namibian stratocumulus region is positive because cloud cover is anticorrelated with local sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. (
  • Whether you are a climate change practitioner, work in development or are simply curious about how climate mitigation is understood, this course will give you insights into the complexity of how countries from the South pursue development goals while addressing climate mitigation. (
  • The assignments are very interesting and helped to learned about activities or initiatives that were taking place in other developing or developed countries regarding the climate change and development or mitigation. (
  • Collecting data on the state of the environment is a foundational step towards understanding the effects of a changing climate and predicting future conditions to enable informed planning, mitigation and adaptation efforts, and tracking progress toward meeting programmatic goals. (
  • The health co-benefits of CO 2 mitigation can provide a strong incentive for climate policy through reductions in air pollutant emissions that occur when targeting shared sources. (
  • We thus modify the standard tradeoff between CO 2 mitigation costs and climate damages with a more complete analysis that simultaneously weighs mitigation costs, climate damages from CO 2 , and the health and climate consequences of changes in air pollutant co-emissions. (
  • Whatever happens at the Copenhagen climate summit this December the world still desperately needs an action plan for reducing carbon emissions. (
  • In 2006, Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen suggested that we might need to start deliberately engineering the climate if no progress could be made on curbing our emissions. (
  • A new study by researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and University of Wisconsin Madison found a connection between climate and airline flight times, suggesting a feedback loop could exist between the carbon emissions of airplanes and our changing climate. (
  • The best model was used to predict the effects of climate change under two standardized scenarios representing contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and CO2 emissions. (
  • We know that creating new lakes with dams is not a good idea climate wise, as emissions of methane are thought to be significant. (
  • Just as troubling, these blooms could not only worsen with climate change, but also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Meanwhile, researchers have found evidence that algal blooms are not just consequences of climate change, but are also sources of climate-warming emissions. (
  • This work is an important part of quantifying progress in reducing GHG emissions in the Commonwealth, and informing policy tools to meet our Climate goals. (
  • Facility reporting of greenhouse gas emissions provides data that helps Massachusetts develop emission reduction targets and plans, and measure progress toward its Climate Action goals. (
  • At the same time, countries recognized the urgent need to do more to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help developing countries adapt to the inevitable impact of climate change. (
  • We will remain focused on mobilizing funds from all sources and in partnership to finance the kind of development projects that help the poor grow their way out of poverty, increase their resilience to climate change, and achieve emissions reductions. (
  • That said, we will continue to support our clients as they move towards greener paths of growth, developing low emissions development plans, and finding the triple win of increasing agricultural production and incomes for those working in agriculture (especially in Africa), increasing the climate resilience of agriculture and forests, and mitigating emissions from the landscape. (
  • Climate specialists said such heatwaves are becoming more frequent as a result of global warming from greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • To answer these questions, we modify the RICE optimization model 12 to include an empirically calibrated, regionally differentiated feedback mechanism whereby reducing CO 2 also reduces regional air pollutant emissions from co-emitting sources. (
  • Climate change drivers comprise both natural factors, such as solar orbit, sunspot cycles and volcanic eruptions, and anthropogenic factors, including emissions of greenhouse gases. (
  • Reproductive Choices and Climate Change Part 1: can you reduce your emissions by having fewer children? (
  • Which makes it by far the most effective lifestyle choice with regards to anthropogenic climate change, assuming per capita emissions will not rapidly decrease and approach zero (more on this below). (
  • We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. (
  • In response to the climate crisis, in December 2015 countries negotiated the Paris Agreement - an international and largely non-binding framework for national action to cut emissions. (
  • It remains in the atmosphere for only a few days, so cutting black-carbon emissions may be a viable way to reduce global warming over the next few decades, alongside measures to mitigate changes in the emissions of carbon dioxide.Such actions need to be supported by a good understanding and prediction of the climate role of black carbon. (
  • What surprised me in the discussion was that Held's expectation was that cloud feedback in the GCMs would be positive in some models and negative in others. (
  • Can anyone here discuss whether local cloud feedback studies can be generalized to the whole globe? (
  • This process is known as the "cloud feedback" and is predicted to be responsible for a significant portion of the warming over the next century. (
  • Vavrus [2004] performed similar experiments with the GENESIS2 climate model to evaluate the role of cloud changes under doubled CO 2 . (
  • Increases in cloud optical depth and liquid water path (LWP) are robust features of global warming model simulations in high latitudes, yielding a negative shortwave cloud feedback, but the mechanisms are still uncertain. (
  • The results indicate that in climate models, the suppression of ice-phase microphysical processes that deplete cloud liquid water is a key driver of the LWP increase with warming and of the associated negative shortwave cloud feedback. (
  • Uncertainty in the cloud feedback is tied to the difficulty of representing complex, small-scale cloud processes in global climate models. (
  • For this reason, accurately portraying the cloud response to warming constitutes a major challenge in the development of future generations of climate models. (
  • Despite the large uncertainty, one of the few robust aspects of the SW cloud feedback predicted by climate models is a negative feedback occurring in the middle to high latitudes. (
  • Climate simulations show that interactions between particles of black carbon and convective and cloud processes in the atmosphere must be considered when assessing the full climatic effects of these light-absorbing particulates. (
  • Moreover, they act to offset the initial artificially large perturbation, mainly because the warming and cloud loss at altitude effectively radiate energy to space, before the surface climate is able to respond. (
  • The latter factor is often associated with enhanced vertical convection and effects on clouds that have a net result, according to Sand and colleagues' climate simulations 3 , of reducing cloud at altitude (not shown). (
  • Both water vapor feedback and clouds have been identified as critical issues since at least as early as the Charney Report in 1979 and I suspect that much of the difficulty in making much (any) progress in reducing the uncertainties in climate models relates to the difficulty in reducing uncertainty in this area. (
  • Our projects focus on environmental governance, low-carbon economy, resilience to climate change, natural resources management and environmental stewardship. (
  • This work was supported by the SFB 754 "Climate-Biochemistry Interactions in the tropical Ocean", the European Union's InterDec project, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science (Grant CE110001028), the ARC project "Beyond the linear dynamics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation" (Grant DP120101442). (
  • In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. (
  • The term "forcing" means a change which may "push" the climate system in the direction of warming or cooling. (
  • in essence, feedbacks represent the internal processes of the system. (
  • The analysis reveals that the glacial cycles experienced by the planet over the past 400,000 years are governed by strong internal feedbacks in the Earth system. (
  • As direct evidence from data has been hard to achieve, Earth system models are used as a less direct alternative to quantify causality in the climate system. (
  • This is an example of a positive feedback loop in the Earth System. (
  • There are also examples of negative feedbacks in our Earth System. (
  • that the negative feedbacks are what produce balance in the Earth System, whereas the positive feedback loops can act like a runaway train. (
  • Does the Climate System Have a Preferred Average State? (
  • I'd like to address the question of whether there really is an average state that the climate system is constantly re-adjusting itself toward , even if it is constantly nudged in different directions by the sun. (
  • Humans are slightly changing the rules by which the climate system operates - that is, the estimated ~1-2% change in the rate of cooling of the climate system to outer space as a result of increasing CO2. (
  • There are still chaotic variations in the climate system, which is why any given climate model forced with the same amount of increasing CO2 but initialized with different initial conditions in 1760 will produce a different globally-averaged temperature in, say, 2050 or 2060. (
  • This time lag can introduce a wide range of complex behaviors in the climate system, and is capable of producing climate change all by itself. (
  • Turns out that under current conditions, existing lakes can become significant sources as well - another example of not-so-positive positive feedback in the climate system. (
  • Climate Communications & Law seeks to deepen the public's understanding of the issue of climate change and how its impacts are being dealt with by the legal system in the United States and around the world. (
  • As it represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. (
  • This paper is a contribution to the special issue on the IPSL and CNRM global climate and Earth System Models, both developed in France and contributing to the 5th coupled model intercomparison project. (
  • An important counterpart to observational evidence is computer modeling, an essential tool for investigating how the climate system works and how it will respond to continued greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere. (
  • In the climate system we mostly deal with feedbacks that are positive. (
  • Our synthesis results underline the need of accounting for Yedoma carbon stocks in next generation Earth-System-Models for a more complete representation of the permafrost-carbon feedback. (
  • An abrupt climate change occurs when the climate system is forced to transition to a new state at a rate that is determined by the climate system itself, and which is more rapid than the rate of change of the external forcing. (
  • One proposed reason for the observed abrupt climate change is that feedback loops within the climate system both enhance small perturbations and cause a variety of stable states. (
  • 2] Polar amplification of CO 2 forced warming is a common feature of climate change simulations. (
  • The study, based on computer simulations of global climate, points to ocean layers deeper than 1,000 feet (300 meters) as the main location of the "missing heat" during periods such as the past decade when global air temperatures showed little trend. (
  • Soil temperatures are taken from the soil thermal modules of ecosystem model simulations forced by a common set of future climate change anomalies under two warming scenarios over the period 2010 to 2100. (
  • 3 report climate simulations that provide insights into these issues. (
  • The researchers also highlight another result, which has implications for numerical simulations of climate change. (
  • Our results highlight the importance of first-order negative feedback and mean annual maximum temperature in driving airborne Poaceae pollen dynamics. (
  • The findings from this study provide a greater understanding of airborne pollen dynamics and how climate change might impact the future evolution of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations and thus the future evolution of related pollen allergies. (
  • Since climate science too is political, these dynamics matter, as certain trends of language use could lock the public into specific ways of defining, thinking, or interpreting climate change [8] . (
  • and models of soil thermal dynamics in response to climate warming. (
  • 1 , 3 The effects of changing weather systems are difficult to show conclusively when non-climate factors such as human population density, migration and insect vector dynamics add to the risk of disease. (
  • Climate Feedback is a blog hosted by Nature Publishing Group to facilitate lively and informative discussion on the science and wider implications of global warming. (
  • And, as the world contemplates rising sea temperatures caused by climate change, his work there has wide-ranging implications. (
  • Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies. (
  • Once the climate is perturbed, a number of things happen which then become known as feedback processes. (
  • Here the importance of microphysical processes for the negative optical depth feedback is assessed by perturbing temperature in the microphysics schemes of two aquaplanet models, both of which have separate prognostic equations for liquid water and ice. (
  • This work shows that internal self-regulating processes of the plants (negative feedback) should be included in pollen dynamic systems in order to give a better explanation of the observed pollen temporal patterns. (
  • Another slow feedback is related to thawing of the permafrost and the release of the carbon contained within it. (
  • Mobilization of permafrost carbon is expected to increase under future climate warming. (
  • Soils contain large amounts of carbon which is susceptible to increased decomposition with increasing global surface temperatures under climate change. (
  • Analyses of various proxy climate records extracted from polar ice cores, ocean sediments and other sources suggest that global temperatures have been remarkably stable during the past 10 000 years, a period referred to as the Holocene. (
  • It is found that the positive zonal wind feedback and the negative heat flux feedback, with the short-wave flux as dominant component, are strongly linearly related through sea surface temperature (SST) and differences in model physics are less important. (
  • If the house thermostat were broke, so that anytime the temperature went above 65°F it actually pumped the furnace up and made it even warmer, we'd call this a positive feedback. (
  • This stabilizer prevents the temperature from running away in one direction following small nudges to the climate. (
  • A set of models, combining feedback structure, temperature and actual evapotranspiration effects on airborne Poaceae pollen were built and compared, using a model selection approach. (
  • If we are to prevent the worst effects of climate change, there is global agreement that temperature rises need to be kept well below 2 °C from the pre-industrial era, with an ambition to keep it below 1.5 °C. Currently, however, assessments suggest that we are currently on course for temperature rises of up to as much as 4°C or higher. (
  • to the temperature it was at before, negative feedback. (
  • 4 The major source of inter-annual climate variation in our region is the 3-6 yearly El Niño Southern Oscillation cycle, which affects temperature, rainfall and the probability of storms, floods and droughts. (
  • This article proposes a novel methodological approach based on dynamic systems to investigate the interaction between feedback structure of plant populations and climate in shaping long-term airborne Poaceae pollen fluctuations and to quantify the effects of climate change on future airborne pollen concentrations. (
  • We then quantify and monetize the impact on both health and radiative forcing throughout the world and compute the resulting optimal climate policy. (
  • About the Course This action-oriented MOOC gives you the opportunity to learn about regional climate change impacts and sector-specific strategies to increase resilience and move towards a low-carbon future. (
  • According to Climate Feedback, each reviewer has to hold a PhD in a relevant discipline, and have at least one published article on climate science or climate change impacts in a top-tier peer-reviewed scientific journal within the last three years. (
  • Climate Liability News is a not-for-profit news site dedicated to reporting on the issues at the intersection of climate change impacts and law. (
  • It is also related to the forcing-feedback paradigm of climate change, which I usually defend - but which I will here take a skeptical view toward in the context of long-term climate change. (
  • It is uncertain how soil carbon will react to long-term climate change because of the differences in the decomposability of carbon sources in the soils. (
  • The climate model integrations of the KCM and ECHAM5 were performed at the Computing Centre of Kiel University. (
  • Climate change is now at the front and centre in investors' engagement. (
  • Tweak this school climate survey template for your needs and start gathering valuable parent feedback to help improve your school atmosphere. (
  • If carbon stored belowground is transferred to the atmosphere by a warming-induced acceleration of its decomposition, a positive feedback to climate change would occur. (
  • The main positive feedback in global warming is the tendency of warming to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, which in turn leads to further warming. (
  • It has also been suggested (by Chris Freeman) that the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat bogs into water courses (from which it would in turn enter the atmosphere) constitutes a positive feedback for global warming. (
  • With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. (
  • However, as our planet warms due to carbon dioxide being released at records levels into our atmosphere, climate extremes (such as droughts and floods) are expected to continue to become more frequent and severe (giving rise to the term non-stationarity ). (
  • It is a classical climate model that couples an atmosphere-land surface model to a ocean-sea ice model. (
  • demonstrate the role of the two-way black carbon-atmosphere interactions in driving the full climate response. (
  • Natural aerosol sources alter climate, but are also strongly controlled by climate, leading to the potential for natural aerosol-climate feedbacks. (
  • The extratropical aerosol-climate feedback is estimated to be −0.14 W m−2 K−1 for landscape fire aerosol, greater than the −0.03 W m−2 K−1 estimated for biogenic secondary organic aerosol. (
  • The introduction of this new BSc in Climate Change will allow students to investigate the issue using interdisciplinary skills. (
  • In this activity, students investigate soil erosion and how a changing climate could influence erosion rates in agricultural areas. (
  • Although it is clear that potentially important mechanisms can lead to carbon storage, a number of less well-understood mechanisms, several of which are rarely or incompletely modeled, tend to diminish the negative feedbacks or lead to positive feedbacks. (
  • But the U.S. government is, of course, now controlled by a party within which climate denial - rejecting not just scientific evidence but also obvious lived experience, and fiercely opposing any effort to slow the trend - has become a defining marker of tribal identity. (
  • Understanding the current condition of our waters, as well as historic water quality trends, helps to develop science based plans under different climate conditions and ensures healthy watersheds in the future. (
  • Bellenger H, Guilyardi E, Leloup J, Lengaigne M, Vialard J (2014) ENSO representation in climate models: from CMIP3 to CMIP5. (
  • The reason why most climate researchers do not think this is important for climate forecasting is that they are dealing with how the future climate might differ from today's climate in a time-averaged sense. . (
  • These data, when incorporated into state-of-the-art carbon cycling models, provide unprecedented insights into the extent of global plant respiration, and how future climates may impact the overall ability of plants to take in carbon dioxide . (
  • If there was a means for this thermal tolerance to genetically spread to other regions, there is the possibility that corals there too could cope with future climate change. (
  • Future climate models show that global warming and associated extreme weather events will alter agricultural patterns, compromise critical infrastructure, uproot communities, and in some cases, elevate the chance of humanitarian crises, instability, and even armed conflict," said U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy Daniel Chiu. (
  • Explore the multiple lines of evidence for the human-induced climate change that is happening today, and consider what that means for the future of our planet. (
  • Each part of the world faces specific vulnerabilities to climate change and has different opportunities to mitigate the effects and build resilience in the 21st century. (
  • Disagreement exists, however, regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks. (
  • The way we produce food needs to be entirely revamped, and we must invest in the necessary resources and infrastructure to protect our water from the dire effects of climate change. (
  • Here we find that when both co-benefits and co-harms are taken fully into account, optimal climate policy results in immediate net benefits globally, overturning previous findings from cost-benefit models that omit these effects. (
  • Climate change requires immediate and ambitious action to prevent the worst effects it can have on people and wildlife all over the world. (
  • But the new commitments fall far short of the hundreds of billions-some say trillions-of dollars that must be mobilized in order to achieve the Paris Agreement's goals of limiting climate change and helping poor countries survive its worst effects. (
  • To grasp the effects of feedback on motivation in sport, we must first define the very theories that support the frameworks. (
  • This is lesson six in a nine-lesson module about climate change. (
  • We are particularly pleased to see progress on the creation of a Green Climate Fund. (
  • The Climate Park project was implemented with the participation of the REC's Sustainable Resource Use topic area, with funding from the European Regional Development Fund and the support of the Hungary-Slovakia Cross-border Co-operation Programme. (
  • RAN's Climate Action Fund gives grants to extraordinary grassroots organizations working to defend their communities and their environment from the fossil fuel industry. (
  • Your tax-deductible donation, today, will support our Climate Action Fund efforts. (
  • It has been considerable focus on climate, and certainly as the planet warms up the biogeographic extent to which mosquitoes can emerge widens toward the poles. (
  • Certain mid and all low level clouds constitute time dependeng negative feedbacks (also TOD function) - namely, they constitute such a feedback during day and less so or neutral at night, with the following caveat. (
  • If such clouds are dropping precip, they are an outright negative feedback, with no regard for time of day. (
  • if the feedback dampens the forcing, we call it a negative feedback . (
  • The thermostat in your house is an example of a negative feedback. (
  • This "stabilizing influence" is a negative feedback. (
  • In reality, the globe might warm more than 2°F, in which case we can say that all the other feedbacks meshed together become positive, or the climate can warm less than 2°F, in which case all the other feedbacks have a tendency to negative. (
  • Conversely, if increases of plant-derived carbon inputs to soils exceed increases in decomposition, the feedback would be negative. (
  • Positive (or reinforcing) feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative (or balancing) feedback reduces it. (
  • At low latitudes, negative feedbacks to warming will be decreased or eliminated, largely through direct human impacts. (
  • Gordon and Klein 2014 ) and are therefore likely the main driver of the negative optical depth feedback. (
  • A negative feedback, however, would cause the opposite to happen where the subsequent process results in an outcome that counteracts or weakens the first process. (
  • Don't be fooled, however, by the terms positive and negative feedback, which may imply one is good and one is bad. (
  • Positive and negative feedback from Hog1 produced these dual behaviors. (
  • The fate of stem cells in plant meristems is governed by directional signaling systems that are regulated by negative feedback. (
  • Conversely, nicotine administration reduced habenula activity following both positive and negative feedback among abstinent smokers, but not nonsmokers, and increased habenula activity among smokers correlated with elevated state-level tobacco cravings. (
  • The ball in the valley undergoes negative feedback. (
  • Your body is governed by a lot of negative feedback systems. (
  • Increased flooding and storm damage from weather events strengthened by Climate Change pose a threat to hazardous waste sites that have not yet been completely cleaned up or closed. (
  • One important way that climate change affects our collective security is by acting as a threat multiplier in other less stable and more precarious regions of the world," Espach warned. (
  • King, a former Air Force Lt. Colonel and practicing lawyer, is a Republican, but voted for Hillary Clinton in the last presidential election because he sees Donald Trump 's stance on climate science as a threat to the country. (
  • On the whole, the most scientifically literate and numerate subjects were slightly less likely, not more, to see climate change as a serious threat than the least scientifically literate and numerate ones. (
  • Climate change - and the actions to address climate change - will have profound consequences for competitiveness at the national, sector and firm levels. (
  • The two-week UN conference on climate change in Durban ended Sunday with agreement by all countries to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change by 2015. (
  • the agreements in Durban marked another step forward, but lacked the necessary ambition to support development for the poor in a world where climate change is shaping the options available to them. (
  • Led by Managing Director Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Bank Group participation in the Durban climate change conference spanned a range of activities, from taking part in high-level panel discussions to launching new initiatives designed to bolster international climate action. (
  • A new report published today by Oxfam and WWF argues that a proposed deal to apply a carbon price to international shipping should be at the heart of the agreement at the UN climate change conference in Durban, South Africa, later this year. (
  • Differences in the mean-state SST are suggested to be a major source of ENSO diversity in current climate models. (
  • We calculate litterfall C inputs required to maintain steady-state C balance for the current climate, and hold those inputs constant. (