Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.El Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.FiresWater Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Atlantic OceanAfrica, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.North AmericaFood Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.South AmericaPhytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Pacific OceanBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.EuropeGreenlandGeological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)AfricaSafety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.North SeaIndian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Foraminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Acupressure: A type of massage in which finger pressure on specific body sites is used to promote healing, relieve fatigue, etc. Although the anatomical locations are the same as the ACUPUNCTURE POINTS used in ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY (hence acu-), no needle or other acupuncture technique is employed in acupressure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed). Shiatsu is a modern outgrowth that focuses more on prevention than healing.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Communicable DiseasesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Extreme Heat: High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Animal DiseasesTibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.NevadaPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (1/2516)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (2/2516)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

Environmental variation shapes sexual dimorphism in red deer. (3/2516)

Sexual dimorphism results from dichotomous selection on male and female strategies of growth in relation to reproduction. In polygynous mammals, these strategies reflect sexual selection on males for access to females and competitive selection on females for access to food. Consequently, in such species, males display rapid early growth to large adult size, whereas females invest in condition and early sexual maturity at the expense of size. Hence, the magnitude of adult size dimorphism should be susceptible to divergence of the sexes in response to environmental factors differentially influencing their growth to reproduction. We show that divergent growth of male and female red deer after 32 years of winter warming and 15 years of contemporaneously earlier plant phenology support this prediction. In response to warmer climate during their early development, males grew more rapidly and increased in size, while female size declined. Conversely, females, but not males, responded to earlier plant phenology with increased investment in condition and earlier reproduction. Accordingly, adult size dimorphism increased in relation to warmer climate, whereas it declined in relation to forage quality. Thus, the evolutionary trajectories of growth related to reproduction in the sexes (i) originate from sexual and competitive selection, (ii) produce sexual size dimorphism, and (iii) are molded by environmental variation.  (+info)

Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate. (4/2516)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (5/2516)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases. (6/2516)

Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system.  (+info)

Malaria reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon region. (7/2516)

Epidemic malaria has rapidly emerged in Loreto Department, in the Peruvian Amazon region. Peru reports the second highest number of malaria cases in South America (after Brazil), most from Loreto. From 1992 to 1997, malaria increased 50-fold in Loreto but only fourfold in Peru. Plasmodium falciparum infection, which has increased at a faster rate than P. vivax infection in the last 3 years, became the dominant Plasmodium infection in the highest transmission areas in the 1997 rainy season. The vector Anopheles darlingi has also increased during this epidemic in Loreto. Moreover, chloroquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine drug-resistant P. falciparum strains have emerged, which require development of efficacious focal drug treatment schemes.  (+info)

Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately. (8/2516)

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States.  (+info)

*Climate

Weather portal Atmosphere Climate graph Climate inertia Climate Prediction Center Ecosystem Effect of sun angle on climate ... NOAA Climate Services Portal NOAA State of the Climate NASA's Climate change and global warming portal Climate Models and ... Climate. Oceanic Climate. Retrieved on 2008-04-15. Michael Ritter. Mediterranean or Dry Summer Subtropical Climate. Archived ... oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, desert, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, and polar ice cap. Rainforests are ...

*Classroom climate

... is not associated with learning. Emotional climate Leadership climate Bierman, Karen L. (September-October ... Classroom Climate is the classroom environment, the social climate, the emotional and the physical aspects of the classroom. ... "Classroom Climate". Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. The Trustees of Indiana University. Retrieved 23 October 2013 ... 12 (2). ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Allodi, Mara W. (18 May 2010). "The meaning of social climate of learning ...

*Climate One

... Retrieved 2013-12-04. come together (2010-02-26). "Greg's Arctic Voyage". Climate One. Retrieved 2013-12-04. ... Climate One is a branch of The Commonwealth Club of California based in San Francisco, California. It aims to bridge the gap ... Past speakers at Climate One include: General Motors CEO Dan Akerson, who announced that GM would withdraw funding for the ... "Deepak Chopra and Rinaldo Brutoco on Climate, Energy, and Consciousness at the Commonwealth Club". World Business Academy. ...

*Temperate climate

These include humid subtropical climate, Mediterranean climate, oceanic, and continental climate. Subtropical climates are ... There are a couple factors why the climate of large city landscapes differs from the climate of rural areas. One factor is the ... "Weather & climate Change Climates around the world". educationscotland.gov.uk. "Latitude & Climate Zones". The Environmental ... In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on latitude. ...

*Climate inertia

The observed transient climate sensitivity and the equilibrium climate sensitivity are proportional to the thermal inertia time ... Climate inertia describes the widespread inherent characteristic of the climate, ecological, and socio-economic systems. ... The inertia of the climate system, which will cause climate change to continue for a period after mitigation actions are ... Thus, Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity adjusts over time until a new steady state equilibrium has been reached. Even ...

*Drawdown (climate)

Project Drawdown is a climate change mitigation project initiated by Paul Hawken and climate activist Amanda Joy Ravenhill. ... Climate drawdown is the point at which greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere begin to decline on a year-to-year basis ... Paul Hawken Climate Change "Drawdown". Project Drawdown. Retrieved 13 January 2016. Makower, Joel (22 October 2014). "Two Steps ... Drawdown is a goal for reversing climate change, and eventually reducing global average temperatures. ...

*Climate commitment

... describes the fact that climate reacts with a delay to influencing factors ("climate forcings") such as the ... climate prediction runs in which a full ocean is used and the climate is out of balance. The "commitment" can apply to ... climate prediction runs in which only a shallow ocean is used and it is assumed that the climate has come to equilibrium and " ... Climate commitment studies attempt to assess the amount of future global warming that is "committed" under the assumption of ...

*Homogenization (climate)

Homogenization in climate research means the removal of non-climatic changes. Next to changes in the climate itself, raw ... To study climate change and variability long instrumental climate records are essential, but are best not used directly. These ... A homogeneous climate record is one where variations are caused only by variations in weather and climate. Long instrumental ... By homogenizing climate datasets, it was found that sometimes inhomogeneities can cause biased trends in raw data; that ...

*Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a ... a hot desert climate (BWh), a cold desert climate (BWk) and, sometimes, a mild desert climate (BWh/BWn). Furthermore, to ... In Africa, this climate is found along parts of coastal Namibia, Western Sahara and Mauritania. In Asia, this type of climate ... has a mild desert climate that makes it one of the driest capital cities in the world. In North America, this type of climate ...

*Alpine climate

This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate. There are multiple definitions of alpine climate. ... In the Köppen climate classification, the alpine climate is part of "Group E", along with the polar climate, where no month has ... The lowest altitude of alpine climate varies dramatically by latitude. If alpine climate is defined by the tree line, then it ... Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. ...

*Organisation climate

Although culture and climate are related, climate often proves easier to assess and change. At an individual level of analysis ... Climate surveys can provide concrete evidence of how this works in action. Organisational climate surveying enables the impact ... Organizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process of quantifying the "culture" of an organization, ... There are two difficulties in defining organization climate: how to define climate, and how to measure it effectively on ...

*Climate Capitalism

... : Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change is a 2011 book by L. Hunter Lovins and Boyd Cohen. It presents ... of Doubt Reinventing Fire Climate change controversy Climate change policy of the United States Media coverage of climate ... Gail Whiteman (12 May 2011). "Climate economics: Corporate greening falls short". Nature (473): 149-150. doi:10.1038/473149a. ... whether climate change is happening or not". However, reviewer Gail Whiteman is unconvinced by the argument that naked greed ...

*Emotional climate

Classroom climate Leadership climate Emotions Rivera, Joseph De (1992). "Emotional climate: Social structure and emotional ... Emotional climate is a concept that quantifies the "climate" of a community, being a small group, a classroom, an organization ... The concept of emotional climate was first used in educational psychology to define the effects of classroom climates on ... In the framework of an organization, emotional climate appears to be a significant contributor to overall staff morale, ...

*Climate engineering

Climate Intervention Reports; Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration and Climate Intervention ... Climate engineering offers the hope of temporarily reversing some aspects of global warming and allowing the natural climate to ... Climate engineering would represent a large-scale, intentional effort to modify the climate. It would differ from activities ... Climate engineering, commonly referred to as geoengineering, also known as climate intervention, is the deliberate and large- ...

*Climate Challenge

... is an environmental serious game, designed to give players an understanding of the science behind climate ... "Climate Challenge". BBC. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2007-08-17. "Free Game of the Week - BBC Climate Challenge". Counterglow Forums ... Andi (2007-02-14). "Climate Challenge:Comments". Casual Gameplay. Retrieved 2007-08-17. Climate Challenge, direct link to the ... Climate Challenge is a Flash-based global warming game produced by the BBC and developed by Red Redemption. Players manage the ...

*Pliocene climate

During the Pliocene epoch (5.3 Ma to 2.6 Ma) climate became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The ... Pliocene El Niño Five Million Years of Climate Change Robinson, M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Chandler, M. A. (2008). "Pliocene role in ... The mid Pliocene warm period is considered a potential analog of future climate. The intensity of the sunlight reaching the ... Model simulations of mid-Pliocene climate produce warmer conditions at middle and high latitudes, as much as 10-20 °C warmer ...

*Proxy (climate)

However, ice cores can reveal the climate records for the past 650,000 years. Location maps and a complete list of U.S. ice ... 2] "Climate Change 2001: 2.3.2.1 Palaeoclimate proxy indicators." IPCC. 2003. Sept. 23, 2009. [3] "Coral Layers Good Proxy for ... Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D. (eds) 1992: Climate since AD 1500. London: Routledge. de Vernal, A.; Eynaud, F.; Henry, M.; ... Proxy methods are of particular use in the study of the past climate, beyond times when direct measurements of temperatures are ...

*Climate Connections

... was the 2008-09 FIRST Lego League competition. Its theme centered on understanding the effects of climate ... Teams had to do a project on the subject of climate. Teams were to identify a climate problem in their area, investigate ... There were eighteen (18) missions in the Climate Connections game. Each revolved around some topic pertaining to climate change ... The table performance portion of Climate Connections is played on a 4 ft by 8 ft field rimmed by wood boards. At competition, ...

*Climate change

... Performance Index 2010 Climate Library at Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University Climate Change: Coral ... "The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". 21 March 1994. Climate change means a change of climate which is ... "Land ice - NASA Global Climate Change". Shaftel, Holly (ed.). "Climate Change: How do we know?". NASA Global Climate Change. ... Climate Change Resources from SourceWatch Climate Change from the UCB Libraries GovPubs Climate Change from the Met Office (UK ...

*Climate pattern

A climate pattern is any recurring characteristic of the climate. Climate patterns can last tens of thousands of years, like ... Climate Trends Associated with Multi-decadal Variability of Atlantic Hurricane Activity Natural climate variability at the ... 100,000-year climate pattern linked to sun's magnetic cycles, according to a new analysis "climate science_glossary" (PDF). ... A climate pattern may come in the form of a regular cycle, like the diurnal cycle or the seasonal cycle; a quasi periodic event ...

*Climate classification

Aridity index Alisov climate classification Köppen climate classification Holdridge life zone classification Trewartha climate ... A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome category, as climate is a major influence on biological life in a ... The most popular classification scheme is probably the Köppen climate classification scheme.[citation needed] Climate ... Climate classification systems are ways of classifying the world's climates. ...

*Climate First

Climate change in New Zealand to Climate First.pdf "Introduction to the Climate First Party" Check ,url= value (help) (PDF). ... Climate First. Retrieved 30 August 2017. "Universal Citizen's Income". Climate First. Retrieved 30 August 2017. "Information ... Climate First is an unregistered political party in New Zealand. The party is focused on highlighting and addressing the threat ... of climate change. It also supports a universal basic income. The party ran a single candidate in the 2017 election, in the ...

*Climate resilience

... news.sciencemag.org/climate/2014/02/obama-propose-1-billion-climate-resilience-fund. 15, February 2014. EPA. "Climate Impacts ... The climate gap is the inequitably negative impact on poor people and people of color due to the effects of climate change. ... The Act for Climate Justice Campaign [1] has defined climate justice as "a vision to dissolve and alleviate the unequal burdens ... As climate justice has revealed, the individual areas and countries that are least responsible for the phenomenon of climate ...

*Climate justice

Litigation related to climate change, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ... to federal court due to their contribution to climate change (from which the city is already suffering). Climate ethics Climate ... Bali Principles of Climate Justice, article 18, August 29, 2002 In 2004, the Durban Group for Climate Justice was formed at an ... Durban group for Climate Justice The Global Humanitarian Forum Annual Meeting 2008 Climate Change and Justice: On the road to ...

*Climate ensemble

A climate ensemble involves slightly different models of the climate system. There are at least four different types, to be ... Modern climate models do a good job of simulating many large-scale features of present-day climate. However, these models ... Because the climate system is chaotic, tiny changes in things such as temperatures, winds, and humidity in one place can lead ... These include: The ensemble has to be wide ranging to ensure it covers the whole range where the climate models may be good. ...
Get this from a library! Climatic effects on pavement and geotechnical infrastructure : proceedings of the International Symposium on Climatic Effects on Pavement and Geotechnical Infrastructure 2013, August 4-7, 2013, Fairbanks, Alaska. [Jenny Liu, (Civil engineer); Construction Institute.;]
Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climates influence on you and society. People who are climate science literate know that climate science can inform our decisions that improve quality of life. They have a basic understanding of the climate system, including the natural and human-caused factors that affect it. Climate science literate individuals understand how climate observations and records as well as computer modeling contribute to scientific knowledge about climate.
Hosted by Metro on August 21st, 2013, the Climate Adaptation Planning for Transit and Fleet Operators webinar was the final outreach component of the FTA Climate Adaptation Pilot. The goal was to build upon the roundtable event, and to provide resources on both mitigation and adaptation strategies ...
Cold semi-arid climates (type "BSk") tend to be located in temperate zones or elevated portions in subtropical zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid ...
Solar Influences on Holocene Climate: A review of what is known about the potential climatic effects of solar variability and observed climate variability throughout the Holocene suggests that the former may have been responsible for the latter, and that solar variability may have played a greater role in the warming of the past century than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change would like people to believe. Jet Aircraft Contrails Reduce the Diurnal Amplitude of Earths Surface Air Temperature: A model study of the climatic effects of jet aircraft contrails suggests that they tend to cool the earths surface during the day and warm it at night.. Ship Emissions Perturb Radiation Balance Over the Sea: A data-plus-model approach to evaluating the climatic consequences of ship emissions suggests that they have a modest cooling effect on the planet.. Solar Forcing of Climate Change: In reviewing what is known about relationships between the abundance of cosmogenic isotopes (14C and 10Be) and ...
Before interpreting the temporal variability in any climate proxy record we first need to study the reproducibility of the measured signal. One way of doing this is to compare variations in nearby records that were subject to the same history of the target climate variable, such as local temperatures. In simple terms, features that appear only in individual records most likely represent non-climate variability, whereas those that reproduce across multiple proxy records potentially represent variations in climate. Such a comparison provides an upper limit on the climate information contained in the record.. Reproducibility is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a reconstructed signal to be inferred as climatic in origin. Spatially coherent variability can also be caused by environmental changes independent of the variable of interest. For example, changes in ocean circulation might cause large-scale changes in water masses that affect the preservation of marine climate proxies and thus ...
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate. There are multiple definitions of alpine climate. One simple definition is the climate which causes trees to fail to grow due to cold. According to the Holdridge life zone system, alpine climate occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F), which prevents tree growth. Biotemperature is defined as the temperature, except all temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are treated as 0 °C (32 °F), because plants are dormant below freezing. In the Köppen climate classification, the alpine climate is part of "Group E", along with the polar climate, where no month has a mean temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an interaction between radiation and convection. Sunlight in the visible spectrum hits the ground and heats it. The ground then ...
(Phys.org)-A team of researchers with affiliations to several universities in the U.S. has helped uncover the frequency of El Niño events during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age by obtaining Eastern ...
Large-scale shifting of the weight of the atmosphere between mid- and high latitudes creates climate patterns known as the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. These patterns have a big influence on winter weather in the Eastern U.S.
The idea of a National Climate Service has circulated at NOAA since the late 1970s, but data-gathering efforts remain spread over many programmes and agencies. NOAA draws on a host of different observing systems, including satellites, instruments that measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, and ocean buoys that monitor water temperature and salinity. NOAAs National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC, keeps archives of long-term climate records, and regional NOAA centres work on climate research problems specific to their geographical area. Outside NOAA, the US Geological Survey collects stream flow data, and the US Department of Agriculture monitors snowpack melt. "There is so much information floating around on climate change that it is difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff," says Larry Larson, executive director of the Association of State Floodplain Managers in Madison, Wisconsin. Forest and shoreline managers, utility companies, insurance companies and policy-makers are all looking ...
The December 2004 issue of BAMS contains an article warning of the threats of abrupt climate change (Epstein and McCarthy 2004, hereafter EM04). The article seeks to raise awareness of the risks of an abrupt change in climate related to human influences on the climate system, but, in doing so it repeats a common factual error. Specifically, it identifies the recent growth in economic damages associated with weather and climate events, such as Hurricanes Mitch and Jeanne and tornadoes in the United States, as evidence of trends in extreme events, arguing "the rising costs associated with weather volatility provide another derived indicator of the state of the climate system . . . the economic costs related to more severe and volatile weather deserves mention as an integral indicator of volatility." Although the attribution of increasing damages to climate changes is but one of many assertions made by EM04, the repetition of this erroneous claim is worth correcting because it is not consistent ...
Use the Climate-,Local link (on the left sidebar of most of our web pages) to view current climate products. Those products include the Daily Climate Report (CLI), Preliminary Climatology Data (CF6), Record Event Report (RER), Monthly Weather Summary (CLM) and the Regional Summary (RTP). Archived climate products from 2002 to the present are available on this page ...
Welcome to the Bureaus online home of the Australian Climate and Weather Extremes Monitoring System. This website provides comprehensive and timely information about climate and weather extremes of temperature and rainfall. Weather and climate extremes can have significant social, environmental and economic costs, with heat waves and floods prime examples. One of the greatest impacts of climate variability and climate change occurs through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. This system has been designed to provide a better basis for monitoring such changes, so that we will be better able to understand, prepare for and adapt to future changes in extreme events. ...
Fire is an intrinsic element of many forest ecosystems; it shapes their ecological processes, determines species composition and influences landscape structure. However, wildfires may: have undesirable effects on biodiversity and vegetation coverage; produce carbon emissions to the atmosphere; release smoke affecting human health; and cause loss of lives and property. There have been increasing concerns about the potential impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires. Climate change can alter factors that influence the occurrence of fire ignitions, fuel availability and fuel flammability. This review paper aims to identify tools and methods used for gathering information about the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires, forest fuels and the probability of fires. Tools to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires include: remote sensing, dynamic global vegetation and landscape models, integrated fire-vegetation models, fire danger rating systems,
Identifying the effect of climate on societies is central to understanding historical economic development, designing modern policies that react to climatic events, and managing future global climate change. Here, I review, synthesize, and interpret recent advances in methods used to measure effects of climate on social and economic outcomes. Because weather variation plays a large role in recent progress, I formalize the relationship between climate and weather from an econometric perspective and discuss their use as identifying variation, highlighting tradeoffs between key assumptions in different research designs and deriving conditions when weather variation exactly identifies the effects of climate. I then describe advances in recent years, such as parameterization of climate variables from a social perspective, nonlinear models with spatial and temporal displacement, characterizing uncertainty, measurement of adaptation, cross-study comparison, and use of empirical estimates to project the ...
The identification of properties that contribute to the persistence and resilience of ecosystems despite climate change constitutes a research priority of global relevance. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess the relative sensitivity of ecosystems to climate variability, one property of resilience that builds on theoretical modelling work recognizing that systems closer to critical thresholds respond more sensitively to external perturbations. We develop a new metric, the vegetation sensitivity index, that identifies areas sensitive to climate variability over the past 14 years. The metric uses time series data derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index, and three climatic variables that drive vegetation productivity (air temperature, water availability and cloud cover). Underlying the analysis is an autoregressive modelling approach used to identify climate drivers of vegetation productivity on monthly timescales, in addition to
Scientists use very fast supercomputers to run Global Climate Models (GCMs). GCMs are a good tool to use to better understand Earths climate. We know that climate is not the same everywhere in the world. In some parts of the world it is pretty easy to model the climate. In other places, it is much more tricky to model the climate. It turns out that theSoutheast Pacific, near the west coast of South America, is one of those tricky places ...
Many people hold the mistaken belief that reconstructions of past climate are the sole evidence for current and future climate change. They are not. However, they are very interesting and useful for all sorts of reasons: for modellers to test out theories of climate change, for geographers, archaeologists and historians to examine the impact of climate on past civilizations and ecosystems, and for everyone to get a sense of what climate is capable of doing, how fast it does it and why. As a small part of that enterprise, the climate of the medieval period has received a very high (and sometimes disproportionate) profile in the public discourse - due in no small part to the mistaken notion that it is an important factor for the attribution of current climate change. Its existence as a period of generally warmer temperatures (at least in the Northern hemisphere) than the centuries that followed is generally accepted. But the timing, magnitude and spatial extent are much more uncertain. All ...
Page 0 The Mobilization for Climate Justice is a North America-based network of organizations and activists who have joined together to build a North American climate justice movement that emphasizes non-violent direct action and public education to mobilize for effective and just solutions to the climate crisis. The Mobilization for Climate Justice invites communities, organizations and activists across North America to join us in organizing mass action on climate change on November 30, 2009 (N30). N30 is significant because it both immediately precedes the upcoming UN Climate Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) and is the ten-year anniversary of the successful shut down of the WTO in Seattle, when activists worldwide came together to demonstrate the power of collective action. The Copenhagen climate meetings will be a major focus for international mass actions this November and December, and the MCJ is linked to these efforts as well.
The second issue of the WHS newsletter is now available here. (http://www.worldhealthsummit.org/) Online registration has began and profiles of some of the keynote speakers. The Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina will host a panel on Climate Change and Health.. With reference to the impact of climatic change on parasitic diseases the Colombian Academy of Medicine informs us that a symposium is being organized at the XX Congress of the Latin American Federation of Parasitology in Bogotá, Colombia from 27 September to 1 October 2011. Topics covered will include: Climatic and non-climatic factors affecting tick borne diseases emergence and spread in Europe, Impact of climatic change on transmisssion of Ascaris lumbricoides and Distribution of Leishmaniasis. More information is available here. www.saludtropicalcolombia.org. An IAMP sponsored workshop on Scientific Writing will be held next week in Paris at the Académie des Sciences & Académie Nationale de Médecine. The aim is to ...
1. Introduction. Climate from geological epoch has been changing with time and it is reasonable to assume that it will change. Recently, the severe drought conditions have disrupted human societies in Bundelkhand region of central India and got the attention of India on reality of climate variability and its significance. The information on annual and seasonal rainfall of a region is useful to design water harvesting structure for agricultural operations, field preparation, seeding, irrigation, fertilizer application and overall in field of crop planning [1] [2] . Climatic variability, particularly rainfall is the major factor influencing the agricultural productivity and sustainability in the tropics [3] . Around 60% of the Indian agriculture is rain-dependent, distress-prone and vulnerable to climate. Constant increase in green house gas concentrations, since pre-industrial times, has led to positive radiative forcing of the climate, tending to warm the surface. The fourth assessment report of ...
Dow Jones Industrial Average, which is based on the stock prices of 30 companies, is used to represent the fluctuations in the stock market as a whole, climate indices are used to represent the essential elements of climate. Climate indices are generally identified or devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. Because the climate indices are generally determined from measurements made in a localized area, they can have impacts in other areas around the globe, through processes sometimes called teleconnections.. References: ...
Temperature variability in the Southwest US is investigated using skew-normal probability distribution functions (SN PDFs) fitted to observed wintertime daily maximum temperature records. These PDFs vary significantly between years, with important geographical differences in the relationship between the central tendency and tails, revealing differing linkages between weather and climate. The warmest and coldest extremes do not necessarily follow the distribution center. In some regions one tail of the distribution shows more variability than does the other. For example, in California the cold tail is more variable while the warm tail remains relatively stable, so warm years are associated with fewer cold extremes but not necessarily more warm extremes. The opposite relationship is seen in the Great Plains. Changes in temperature PDFs are conditioned by different phases of El Nino-La Nina (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). In the Southern Great Plains, La Nina and/or negative PDO ...
The failure of the Madrid climate negotiations, the Cop25, was not really unexpected. Even today, very few people, be they politicians or citizens, understand the risks of whats happening, and those who do are accused of "alarmism". But how long can we carry on as if nothing is happening? What do we risk if we do nothing?. The answer is that we risk much more than we can afford. Many studies tell us this, among others also a recent article published in Nature titled "Climate tipping points - too risky to bet against." Even without going into the details, the title is clear enough to understand that the matter is becoming dramatic. But why so much concern among scientists?. We can summarize the problem in one short sentence: the Earths climate is unstable. It is something that is emerging with ever greater force from all studies in climate science. Of course, the fact that the climate always changes is a favorite argument of those who deny climate science. Their reasoning is: "the climate has ...
Our climate is changing because of distinctive variables affecting earth at large. The need of measuring stations in numerous remote regions and particularly over the endless sea zones implies that satellites are the only way to assemble information on Essential Climate Variables - ECVs. By utilizing Earth observation strategies from space, we can screen global natural change not possible with other procedures. , monitoring, prediction, and related administrations depend on exact perceptions of the climate, land, and sea, adequately tested universally and over adequately long time periods. Satellite estimations have given coordinate observational proves that later increases in greenhouse gas concentrations have created the anticipated changes to the active energy transmitted by the Earth. However, while they play a basic part in assessing and improving the models used to make future climate projections required by policymakers they are not however of sufficient exactness to absolutely set up ...
Guest post by Bart Verheggen, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change , Energy research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN). The impacts of aerosols on climate are significant, but also very uncertain. There are several reasons for this, one of which is the uncertainty in how and how fast they are formed in the atmosphere by nucleation. Here, in part I, Ill review some of the basic processes that are important in determining the climate effects of aerosols, focusing in particular on their formation. This is also relevant in order to better understand -and hopefully quantify- the hypothetical climate effects of galactic cosmic rays which Ill discuss in a follow-up post.. Background. Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere (but not including water droplets or ice crystals). They can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere (primary aerosols like dust), or they can be formed in the atmosphere by condensation (secondary aerosol like sulfates). Almost all of ...
The tropics are a critical part of climate system, modulating global temperature and precipitation patterns on a variety of timescales. Yet, natural climate variability across much of the tropics remains poorly characterized due to the dearth of instrumental observations prior to 1970s. Massive corals are now routinely used to reconstruct past tropical climate variability, however the accuracy of these records have been questioned as corals growing on the same reef can produce very different geochemical signals. Diagenetic alteration, prevalent in both modern and fossil corals, is another factor that significantly compromises the accuracy of coral records. To quantify intercolony reproducibility at Palmyra Atoll (6˚N,162˚W), we compare oxygen isotope (δ18O) and Sr/Ca records across in five overlapping modern corals. Our results demonstrate that Palmyra corals reconstruct similar monthly to interannual climate variability, however absolute δ18O and Sr/Ca are systematically offset among ...
Palmer drought severity index. Figure 4. Monthly statewide average values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for the state of Wisconsin, 1895-2007 (data from the National Climate Data Center, www.ncdc.noaa.gov). Paleodrought: The role of natural climate variability is even more on display when we investigate the very long-term moisture records for the state. We find that the droughts experienced during the past century in Wisconsin pale in comparison to the long lasting and severe dry conditions that have occurred there in the more distant past.. The character of past climates can be judged from analysis of climate-sensitive proxies such as tree-rings. Using precipitation information about past precipitation contained in tree rings, Dr. Edward Cook and colleagues have been able to reconstruct a summertime moisture record for Wisconisn that extends back in time more than 700 years.. Interestingly, while there has been a slight trend towards generally wetter conditions across the past ...
This study investigates the effects of service climate on (1) psychological antecedents of frontline employees (FLEs) work engagement-i.e., psychological meaningfulness and psychological safety, (2) work engagement itself, (3) a performance outcome of work engagement-i.e., FLEs service performance quality, and (4) the relationships between FLEs psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety, work engagement, and service performance quality. It also examines the mediating roles of work engagement in the relationships between its psychological antecedents and its performance outcome. An emphasis is placed on respecting the levels of analysis of the constructs. Service climate represents a groups work environment. It is, therefore, a collective-level variable. Psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety, work engagement and FLEs service performance quality are mental and behavioural phenomena. They are individual-level variables. In this study, service climate is operationalised as ...
Governments in the Caribbean recognise climate variability and change to be the most significant threat to sustainable development in the region. Policies and strategies, such as the regional framework for achieving development resilient to climate change and its implementation plan, acknowledge the scale of the threat and provide a plan that aspires to safeguard regional prosperity and meet development goals. To do this, decision-makers need effective tools and methods to help integrate climate change considerations into their planning and investment processes. To build resilience, decision-makers can benefit from access to appropriate climate change data that are specific to their geographical location and relevant to their planning horizons ...
Investment Climate Factors with Reference to Firm Performance in Bangladesh: A Prospective Cohort Study: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1008-6.ch019: A productive investment climate is key to the growth of any developing country. Given the limited literature and importance of economic zone in attracting
... WHAT: Can America really cope with inevitable climate change... WHO: Keynote speakers include Lockheed Martin retired CEO No... WHERE: University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center Col... WHEN: Monday and Tuesday October 22 and 23 2007 ...,Meeting,real-world,climate,information,needs,of,business,,government,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Aim: It is widely acknowledged that species distributions result from a variety of biotic and abiotic factors operating at different spatial scales. Here, we aimed to (1) determine the extent to which global climate niche models (CNMs) can be improved by the addition of fine-scale regional data; (2) examine climatic and environmental factors influencing the range of 15 invasive aquatic plant species; and (3) provide a case study for the use of such models in invasion management on an island. Location: Global, with a case study of species invasions in Ireland. Methods: Climate niche models of global extent (including climate only) and regional environmental niche models (with additional factors such as human influence, land use and soil characteristics) were generated using maxent for 15 invasive aquatic plants. The performance of these models within the invaded range of the study species in Ireland was assessed, and potential hotspots of invasion suitability were determined. Models were ...
Many of Global Exchanges friends and allies are already working on the first two steps, but we believe that more effort needs to be made to build political support here in the United States for a fair climate deal. Thats what we have chosen to work on and thats why Global Exchange is launching our Campaign for Climate Equity. Global Exchange has been driven by social and economic justice for 20 years now. This is a comfortable niche for us.. In order to maintain a human-friendly climate on earth, all the major GHG-emitting countries must accept emission limits, but that simply will not happen unless they are all bound to an agreement that all consider fair. The major roadblock to a fair international climate agreement is the peculiar belief held by most of our political and economic leaders that we actually deserve to be more wealthy than the vast majority of people in the world.. The most inconvenient truth we must confront in order to reverse climate change is the fact that the wealth of ...
Major Emitters Failed People at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York, Civil Society said.. The Climate Action Network calls out rich major emitters that failed to commit to ambitious climate action at the UN Climate Action Summit. Monday 23 September 2019. New York- The UN Climate Action Summit in New York opened with anger. "Nature is angry," said. Antonio Guterres. Youth activist Greta Thunberg told leaders "How dare you gamble with our future and continue talking about fairytales of eternal economic growth?". Although keynote speakers reaffirmed that our house is on fire with impacts becoming more intense and frequent across the world, country speeches which ensued showed that governments are still fueling the fire. They continue to ignore the science and fail to present ambitious climate commitments. In the end, the urgency and the emergency did not transpire in leaders speeches.. The world did not hear many announcements on enhanced targets or phase out of polluting fossil fuels such ...
This is a challenging project and will appeal to students keen to make a contribution in the areas of scientific databases and geoinformatics.. The NCAR Command Language (NCL) is an interpreted language for scientific data analysis and visualisation ( http://www.ncl.ucar.edu/). NCL is widely-used for the processing of climate data which are held in arrays, generally in a netCDF format ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf/index.html). rasdaman is an array database system that uses an SQL-style query language to retrieve and maintain unlimited size multi-dimensional arrays stored in standard relational databases ( http://rasdaman.eecs.jacobs-university.de/trac/rasdaman).. This project will load NetCDF climate data into a rasdaman database, and develop an interface to allow its use from NCL commands. It will explore the technical issues that arise, and the benefits and limitations of the rasdaman system and its associated query languages and APIs.. The student will have an opportunity to ...
It is a signal of large climate variability in the high latitudes," Hakkinen said. "If this trend continues, it could indicate reorganization of the ocean climate system, perhaps with changes in the whole climate system, but we need another good five to 10 years to say something like that is happening." Rhines said, "The subpolar zone of the Earth is a key site for studying the climate. Its like Grand Central Station there, as many of the major ocean water masses pass through from the Arctic and from warmer latitudes. They are modified in this basin. Computer models have shown the slowing and speeding up of the subpolar gyre can influence the entire ocean circulation system ...
Several decades of scientific research have yielded significant advances in understanding the oceans role in regulating Earths climate. This summary covers some of the major points about abrupt climate change that are often misunderstood.
29] We have shown that our model has skill in simulating a large number of observational data sets from the past 50 years and that it is mostly consistent (within the error bars) with those observations that provide error estimates. However, this does not guarantee reliability of simulations of a climate that is very different from the one of today. Comparisons with proxy data of paleoclimates offer the opportunity to evaluate the fidelity of the model to reproduce climates much different from todays and/or more drastic climatic changes than those observed during the observations period (last 150 years). The physical model has been successfully applied earlier to simulations of the last glacial maximum [Weaver et al., 1998; Schmittner et al., 2002a; Meissner et al., 2003] and rapid climate changes during the last ice age [Schmittner et al., 2002b, 2003; Clark et al., 2007]. These studies together with recent paleostudies using the ocean biogeochemical model [Schmittner, 2005; Schmittner et al., ...
And they simulate that as coming entirely from CO2 weve added to the atmosphere. But the world has warmed similarly many times in the past. That makes it pretty likely that at least some of the warming weve seen came from natural causes, not our CO2 emissions.. Whats more, the models estimate "climate sensitivity"-how much warmer the atmosphere will be after the whole climate system adjusts to a doubling of atmospheric CO2-at 1.5-4.5˚ C with a 3˚ "best estimate." But more empirically driven estimates put "climate sensitivity" at about 0.5-1.5˚ C.. So the models are wrong. Almost unanimously wrong. Hopelessly wrong.. (Take a look at that first graph again. The closest to right is a Russian model. Collusion, anyone?). And if the models are wrong, they provide no rational basis for predicting future temperature. Hence no rational basis for any policy.. But dont sweat the small stuff. "Climate math," you know? That solves everything.. So dont even bother to ask about the math for global ...
Nic Lewis (a co-author of ODonnell et al 2010) is a very sharp analyst whos recently taken an interest in climate sensitivity estimates and has an interesting guest post at Judy Currys today. In his studies, he noticed that the IPCCs representation in AR4 Figure 9.20 of the probability distribution for climate sensitivity arising from…
Nic Lewis (a co-author of ODonnell et al 2010) is a very sharp analyst whos recently taken an interest in climate sensitivity estimates and has an interesting guest post at Judy Currys today. In his studies, he noticed that the IPCCs representation in AR4 Figure 9.20 of the probability distribution for climate sensitivity arising from…
During the past two and a half million years, the Earths climate has been dominated by large fluctuations between glacial and interglacial conditions. Although average global surface temperatures during glacial periods were only about 4 to 6 °C colder than during the warm interglacial periods, these changes were enough to alter Canadas landscape from one almost entirely covered with thick ice sheets to the hospitable biome of today. The last global deglaciation began about 20 000 years ago, and full interglacial conditions have dominated the Earths climate for the past 10 000 years. The best analogue for the current interglacial, in terms of both climate forcing and the pattern of paleogeographic changes, may be the interglacial that took place some 400 000 years ago (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica community members, 2004). A comparison of the two periods suggests that the Earths present climate, if allowed to evolve naturally, might last an additional 20 000 years or so ...
By: Rob Bushway - Climate DepotJuly 24, 2017 2:57 PM The Climate Alarmists Gross Perversion of the Word Clean. http://www.carlineconomics.com/archives/3740. Climate alarmists have gone to endless efforts to gain public acceptance of their doomsday premise that the world must greatly reduce its use of fossil fuels to avoid catastrophic anthropogenic global warming. They have fudged the surface temperature data, used meaningless climate models, argued that human emissions of carbon dioxide will warm the planet despite the strong evidence to the contrary, and so on, but their greatest perversion is of the English language. They have branded CO2 as a pollutant and claimed that reducing it is necessary to make the world "clean." All the alarmists from Gore to McKibben to Obama are guilty of this; in fact, the use of this terminology is so uniform that one suspects that they all have been coached to say it at every opportunity. Unfortunately, their efforts have even been supported by the Supreme ...
By: Rob Bushway - Climate DepotJuly 24, 2017 2:57 PM The Climate Alarmists Gross Perversion of the Word Clean. http://www.carlineconomics.com/archives/3740. Climate alarmists have gone to endless efforts to gain public acceptance of their doomsday premise that the world must greatly reduce its use of fossil fuels to avoid catastrophic anthropogenic global warming. They have fudged the surface temperature data, used meaningless climate models, argued that human emissions of carbon dioxide will warm the planet despite the strong evidence to the contrary, and so on, but their greatest perversion is of the English language. They have branded CO2 as a pollutant and claimed that reducing it is necessary to make the world "clean." All the alarmists from Gore to McKibben to Obama are guilty of this; in fact, the use of this terminology is so uniform that one suspects that they all have been coached to say it at every opportunity. Unfortunately, their efforts have even been supported by the Supreme ...
I have posted on this a zillion times over here, and most of you are up to speed on this, but I posted this for my Coyote Blog readers and thought it would be good to repost over here.. Take all the psuedo-quasi-scientific stuff you read in the media about global warming. Of all that mess, it turns out there is really only one scientific question that really matters on the topic of man-made global warming: Feedback.. While the climate models are complex, and the actual climate even, err, complexer, we can shortcut the reaction of global temperatures to CO2 to a single figure called climate sensitivity. How many degrees of warming should the world expect for each doubling of CO2 concentrations (the relationship is logarithmic, so that is why sensitivity is based on doublings, rather than absolute increases - an increase of CO2 from 280 to 290 ppm should have a higher impact on temperatures than the increase from, say, 380 to 390 ppm).. The IPCC reached a climate sensitivity to CO2 of about 3C per ...
Anthropogenic aerosols have been identified as an important driver of global and regional climate. Globally, aerosols are estimated to have offset much of the positive forcing due to greenhouse gases; regionally, their effect can be dominating, and can potentially drive climate anomalies far from the emission sources due to changes in the atmospheric circulation. Aerosols emitted from North America (NA) and Europe (EU) dominated the global aerosol loading until the late twentieth century. Despite recent progress, our knowledge of the climate imprint of NA and EU aerosols is still incomplete, especially regarding the decades before the mid-twentieth century, in which emissions were still lower and did not yet change as rapidly as later, but might have been more effective due to non-linearities in the aerosol-cloud interactions. The overarching goal of this work is thus to determine robust features of the impact of NA and EU aerosols on regional and large-scale climate and to advance current ...
When discussing global warming, the public eye is mostly directed to global average surface air temperatures, but thats just one slice of the climate pie. If you havent noticed, the ocean is awfully big, and it holds a great deal more heat energy than the atmosphere. In fact, about 90 percent of the energy thats been added to the climate system by human activities has gone into the ocean.. Unfortunately, its hard to monitor that. There are a multitude of measuring stations for surface air temperatures, but our presence in the ocean is limited. With the advent of the ...
For a copy of the official data for these stations, you can contact NWS-Shreveport at (318) 631-3669 (Monday-Friday, 7am-4pm) or the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) at (828) 371-4800. ...
Within ESAs Climate Change Initiative, expert Frank Paul of the University of Zürich, Switzerland, explains the importance of glaciers as an Essential Climate Variable to understand our changing world.. ...
Climate resiliency is an important strategy in sustainability planning. However, todays buildings are designed to operate in the future using weather data from the past. Research suggests that predicted energy savings from green buildings may be significantly different than actual building performance in coming years due to the changing climate.. Douglas Ahl, director of research at Seventhwave, will provide case studies and research findings on the impact of climate on efficient technology choices and building energy use. He will also share feedback from a wide variety of stakeholders on their understanding and opinons about climate and clean energy.. ...
Within ESAs Climate Change Initiative Project, expert Rainer Hollman of DWD in Germany explains the importance of clouds as an Essential Climate Variable to understand our changing world.. Read more. .. ...
Definition of climate classes in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is climate classes? Meaning of climate classes as a legal term. What does climate classes mean in law?
The earths climate system is constantly changing," said Dr. Peter Dailey, assistant vice president and director of atmospheric science at AIR Worldwide. "Not only does a change to any component of the system influence the risk from natural catastrophes, but the interactions between components bring about an inherent uncertainty surrounding how climate will evolve in the future. By conditioning our models on future climate scenarios developed by leading climate researchers at the Met Office, the study we have conducted on behalf of the ABI advances our understanding of the relationship between these complex climate relationships and insured risk.". The research brings together unique climate model projections with state-of-the-art catastrophe models. And as weve recently seen with Typhoon Ketsana, which demolished parts of China, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos and killed almost 700 and caused more than $1 billion in damage - research in this area is greatly needed. Nothing can stop ...
General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the C
Perhaps the most hotly debated topic among climate scientists, when they are not facing off with the ignorance of underhanded climate change deniers, is the potential rate of Earth Systems response to human caused climate change. In general, the low hanging fruit of climate research is a more easy to puzzle out pace of likely warming due to the direct forcing of human greenhouse gas and CO2 emissions and the more rapid climate feedback coming from increasing water vapor due to increased evaporation. But higher up the tree hang the critical fruits of pace of albedo change and pace of carbon response as the Earth System warms. Understanding these two will provide a much greater clarity to the question of a long term rate of warming given a doubling of atmospheric CO2.. Paleoclimate, Paleoclimate, and Paleoclimate. Perhaps the best way to test the accuracy of our long-term Earth Systems global…. ...
First unified reference textbook in seasonal to interannual climate predictions and their practical uses Embraces prediction of El Niño and management
Writings on climate change, sea level rise, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, climate adaptation & protests from a Melbourne Citizen Journalist.
Writings on climate change, sea level rise, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, climate adaptation & protests from a Melbourne Citizen Journalist.
Writings on climate change, sea level rise, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, climate adaptation & protests from a Melbourne Citizen Journalist.
BERKELEY - Computer users who want to devote their machines spare time to worthy public computing projects no longer have to choose only one, like [email protected], and forget the rest. A new computing platform developed at the University of California, Berkeley, called BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing), now lets users participate in many Internet computing projects and tell their computers how much time to devote to each. The latest project to move to BOINC was announced last month at UC Berkeley. Climateprediction.net, which runs models of global climate change, joins [email protected], which searches for radio signals indicative of extraterrestrial intelligence, and [email protected], which predicts how proteins fold. Climateprediction.net was launched a year ago and now boasts 75,000 participants in 130 countries.. "With BOINC, you can participate in many different public computing projects and control the amount of time each gets," said David Anderson, the director of both BOINC and ...
When the fourth IPCC report comes out next year look for a change in the climate sensitivity prediction interval. The climate sensitivity is the increase in global mean temperature for a doubling of co2 concentration. IPCC has reported the same interval, 1.5 C -- 4.5 C, three times since 1990. The reason we have an interval is model uncertainty. The climate modelers dont know which model (if any) is correct so they run a suite of models (each with its own uncertainty span) and report an interval of predictions. If you dont see this interval shrink it means we have made little or no progress towards understanding the link between increased co2 and temperature increase. One of the biggest contributors to the uncertainty is the physics of water-vapor feedback. Without this feedback to amplify the co2 effect the temperature increase falls to about 1 C with almost no uncertainty. This amount of warming is too small to be significant. Getting the feedback right means understanding cloud physics ...
Lakoff did his usual thing on framing, YMMV. I think the idea of framing is correct although Im less sure that the frames he says categorize the political spectrum are accurate. Both he and Espen Stoknes had some useful things to say on ways to communicate (emphasize climate health, risk management as opposed to uncertainty, etc.). Espen Stoknes has a book on climate communication, and I think it looks worthwhile - he may be further down the road of Dan Kahan/cultural cognition stuff then I like, but its not completely off-base. Lakoff was very negative towards climate scientists for failing to teach "systemic causation", that the inability to attribute a particular weather event with 95% certainty to climate change doesnt eliminate a systemic level of causation of bad things ...
In Western Canada we know that winters can be long and harsh. Just as birds head south for warmer climates before winter settles in, many of us feel the urge to escape to warmer areas when winter is most intense. Some go south so often in the winter that they are known as
Background The world is experiencing a high climatic variability and has its impact on all ecosystems, regions and sectors, but the nature and extent of vulnerability to climate change differs with...
POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATIC CHANGES ON INDOXACARB PERSISTENCE AND ITS PRE-HARVEST INTERVAL IN TOMATO FRUITS. EL DIN, ALI M. SHAMS; AZAB, MOHAMED M.; ALMAZ, MONIR M.; GAABOUB, IBRAHIM A.; SOUMAN, HANIM M. // Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research;2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1(B), p767 It is real and significant that climatic changes affect the pesticide behaviour, but there are no data available on their effect on the pesticide persistence and its preharvest interval (PHI). Therefore, to estimate the potential effect of climatic changes on the fate of indoxacarb in tomato... ...
The report holds out hope that disastrous warming could still be avoided, but not without major effort. Global emissions would need to be reduced by 40 percent, to 70 percent below 2010 levels, by 2050 and essentially cease by the year 2100 in order to have a shot at holding the increase in the global mean temperature to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Thats the benchmark scientists and international negotiators have long regarded as the highest level that could be tolerated before dire consequences set in.. ...
NASA scientists say 2013 tied with 2009 and 2006 for the seventh warmest year since 1880, continuing a long-term trend of rising global temperatures. With the exception of 1998, the 10 warmest years in the 134-year record ...
Synopsis: ENSO-neutral conditions are expected to continue through the end of 2008. ENSO-neutral conditions continued during August 2008, as recent increases in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) abated across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Above-average SSTs in the east-central and eastern Pacific diminished, while below-average SSTs in the central Pacific strengthened slightly (Fig. 1). From west to east, the latest weekly SST index values range from -0.4 C in the Ni o-4 region to +0.7 C in the Ni o 1+2 region (Fig. 2). The subsurface oceanic heat content (average temperatures in the upper 300m of the ocean, Fig. 3) also decreased in response to the emergence of negative temperature anomalies at thermocline depth in the east-central Pacific (Fig. 4). Although ENSO-neutral conditions have been in place since June 2008, the atmospheric circulation over the western and central tropical Pacific continues to reflect lingering aspects of La Ni a. Enhanced low-level easterly winds and upper-level ...
In the past year, climate change activism has surged to unprecedented levels. Three growing climate movements - Fridays for Future (led by Greta Thunberg), the Sunrise Movement, and Extinction Rebellion - continue to make news headlines. The recent September 20th and 27th global climate strikes involved approximately 6.6 million participants in more than 150 different
Observed Equatorial Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Ocean Interannual Flow Using Theory and High Resolution ECCO2 Model Results". Fundamental to an understanding of El Ni o/Southern Oscillation climate fluctuations is an understanding of the anomalous equatorial Pacific surface flows which move the surface waters and change the sea surface temperature. Through the advent of accurate satellite altimeter measurements from late 1992 to the present, they now have an unprecedented opportunity to examine these flows not just in the Pacific, but also in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The main goal of this project will be to describe the anomalous equatorial surface flows in all three ocean basins and understand major aspects of them using theory and the dynamically consistent high resolution ECCO2 global numerical model. The scientific community is beginning to take advantage of the ECCO2 global ocean model, and a secondary benefit of the analysis will be the evaluation of the accuracy of this model and ...
Tropical Pacific climate variations and their global weather impacts may be predicted much further in advance than previously thought, according to research by an international team of climate scientists from the USA, Australia, and Japan. The source of this predictability lies in the tight interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere and among the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Such long-term tropical climate forecasts are useful to the public and policy makers.
(SAN FRANCISCO, US) 14 September 2018 - At this weeks Global Climate Action Summit, leaders from business, local governments and civil society committed to more than 500 actions and detailed new plans to work together to reduce global emissions. The Summit concluded with a call to national governments to increase climate ambition to secure a climate-safe future for all.
Palaeomagnetic studies of the Chinese loess provided the first firm chronology for these sediments and revealed that their depositional history reaches back over 2.5 Ma. Magnetic susceptibility records can provide an even more detialed chronology through correlation with d18O deep-sea stratigraphy. The susceptibility fluctuations have been used also, either alone or in combination with 10Be measurements, to reconstruct palaeoclimate. However, there is still debate as to the origin of the 10Be and magnetic minerals in the Chinese loess and hence their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we analyse magnetic data from six sites across the Loess Plateau, and reinterpret the 10Be data from Luochuan as largely reflecting primary 10Be dust loading rather than as a palaeorainfall indicator. We discount previous ideas of both constancy of the flux of magnetically susceptible minerals (i.e. susceptibility flux) or constancy of the ratio of the flux of 10Be and susceptibility. We explain the susceptibility ...
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Global climate models did not account for a drop in global temperatures since 2006, but climate scientists believe the lower temperatures are temporary.
...Scientists are reporting significant changes in the distribution of co...CSIROs Climate Adaptation and Wealth from Oceans Flagships have ident...These include warm temperate surf-zone species such as Silver Drummer ... Furthermore up to 19 species or 5 per cent of Tasmanian coastal fi...,Climate,change,hits,southeast,Australia,fish,species,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
NASA Documents Reveal Mission of Military and Federal Agencies to Modify the Climate Video Script (PDF): AGW, Artificial Global Warming and the Climate Industrial Complex __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Its unacceptable that the UN/IPCC continue to push CO2 as the cause for climate change but refuse to acknowledge the military has been actively engaged in Climate…
Synopsis: The chance of El Niño is 70% during the Northern Hemisphere summer and reaches 80% during the fall and winter. Above-average sea surface temperatures (SST) expanded over the equatorial Pacific Ocean during May 2014 (Fig. 1), though the collective atmospheric and oceanic state continued to reflect ENSO-neutral. All of the Niño indices increased during the month, with the latest weekly values between 0.6oC and 1.6oC (Fig. 2). In contrast, subsurface temperature anomalies decreased over the last two months (Fig. 3), but still reflect a large pool of above-average temperatures at depth (Fig. 4). The low-level winds over the tropical Pacific remain near average, except for westerly anomalies over the eastern Pacific. At upper-levels, anomalous easterly winds have predominated over most of the equatorial Pacific. Unlike the previous month, convection was near average across most of the tropics (Fig. 5). The lack of a clear atmospheric response to the positive SSTs indicates ENSO-neutral, ...
Summary. ISC seeks a highly motivated Senior Program Officer for our International Climate programs (SPOIC) with 10 + years of international experience working with multi-disciplinary climate mitigation and adaptation projects in urban environments. Experience in South/Southeast Asia is strongly preferred. The initial primary responsibility of the SPOIC is to manage ISCs support to the Low Emissions Asia Development (LEAD) program. In addition, the SPOIC will play a major role in shaping and supporting ISCs long-term strategy and vision for working on subnational climate mitigation and adaptation in Asia, and will build relationships and pursue business development opportunities toward that purpose. The ideal candidate is a forward-thinking, experienced, capable manager that is creative in finding solutions to global urban challenges. The position will report to the Senior Manager for International Climate Programs ...
Sixty million dollars are being invested by the federal government on three major studies on the effects of climate change on crops and forests in hopes of ensuring farmers and foresters can continue producing food and timber while limiting the impact of a shifting environment, the Associated Press (AP) reports.. Midwestern corn will be the subject of one study, wheat will be the focus in the Northwest and a third study will determine the effects on Southern pine forests. The studies will attempt to combine crop and climate researchers from a wide variety of fields and encourage them to find solutions appropriate to specific geographic areas. "Shifting weather patterns already have had a big effect on US agriculture, and the country needs to prepare for even greater changes, explained Roger Beachy, director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, to APs Steve Karnowski. Some areas may gain longer growing seasons or suffer more frequent floods, while others may experience more ...
A re-evaluation of the palaeoclimatic significance of phosphorus variability in speleothems revealed by high-resolution synchrotron micro XRF mapping
Environmentalists slam climate summit | NDTV.com Video | The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate held its first meeting at Sydney. The extremes in climate, hurricanes, heat waves and harsh winter have forced the partnership of six countries. Representatives of Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and the US are participating in the meet to look at ways to develop new technologies to bring down global emissions.
Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation, Morelli, T. L., Daly Christopher, Dobrowski Solomon Z., Dulen Deanna M., Ebersole Joseph L., Jackson Stephen T., Lundquist Jessica D., Millar Constance I., Maher Sean P., Monahan William B., et al. , PLOS ONE, Aug-10-2016, Volume 11, Issue 8, p.e0159909, (2016) ...
Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation, Morelli, T. L., Daly Christopher, Dobrowski Solomon Z., Dulen Deanna M., Ebersole Joseph L., Jackson Stephen T., Lundquist Jessica D., Millar Constance I., Maher Sean P., Monahan William B., et al. , PLOS ONE, Aug-10-2016, Volume 11, Issue 8, p.e0159909, (2016) ...
Pagano, T. & Garen, D., 2005. Integration of Climate Information and Forecasts Into Western US Water Supply Forecasts. In J. Garbrecht & Piechota, T. Climate Variations, Climate Change, and Water Resources Engineering. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 198 ...
Pagano, T. & Garen, D., 2005. Integration of Climate Information and Forecasts Into Western US Water Supply Forecasts. In J. Garbrecht & Piechota, T. Climate Variations, Climate Change, and Water Resources Engineering. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 198 ...
A climate skeptic in the White House? Yes, thats what we have. While there are several ways in which the climate debate can move, as a skeptic, observer, and occasional participant, I wanted to outline some key points. Representation Who does the climate issue belong to? Here is one of the darkest, damnedest of secrets…
We often get comments on Climate Resistance that ask us what qualifications to speak about climate change I and my colleague, Stuart Blackman, have.. Neither of us are climate scientists.. To take issue with the moral and political arguments that emerge from the climate debate, is seen as equivalent to taking issue - to denying - climate science.. What I think this speaks most loudly about is the weight of expectations that climate science has to bear.. What makes climate sciences relationship with the social political sphere special and unusual, compared to other forms of science is that there is so much moral and political capital invested in the idea of a climate catastrophe.. It seems to me that that something like Climategate was bound to happen, and will continue to happen in the form of things like as Glaciergates and Africagates for instance as people start to see what climate science is and isnt capable of producing for their moral and political arguments.. George Monbiot is one of my ...
Climate models are tools that have been developed to understand and to predict specific features of the real climate system of our Earth. In order to be useful for this purpose, it is necessary to evaluate the capability of the models to realistically represent these features. Such model evaluation is most commonly based on the direct comparison between simulation results and measurements of individual observables. Related studies often imply that such a comparison can result in absolute statements regarding model quality, which is reflected, for example, in rankings of model simulations based on their agreement with a specific observable, in the misleading use of terms such as verification or validation [1], or in generic calls that models need to be improved that fail to match a specific observable.. However, such assessments ignore the fact that models are tools that are in practice used to answer specific questions, be it to project the global temperature at the end of this century or to ...
Article Bridging the divide in global climate policy - Strategies for enhanced participation and integration. 15 years after the climate conference in Rio de Janeiro, an international climate regime with clear structures has emerged.1 For several yea...
Global warming" describes an average temperature increase of the Earth over time. "Climate change" describes how weather patterns will be affected around the globe. These changes could be manifested in changes in climate averages as well as changes in extremes of temperatures and precipitation. It is likely that the changes will vary depending on what region you are in. "Global change" describes other effects that dont fall into either category, like socioeconomic and ecological impacts.. ...
The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a set of climatological mean, gridded fields of oceanographic variables based on in-situ measurements from a wide variety of sources. Global, decadal averages of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients are provided at monthly, seasonal and annual averaging... ...
Sharp phase boundaries Small changes in climate can show big effects - i.e. number of events. Climate Phase change and amplification Frost and salt crystallisation Phase transitions at precise thermo-hygrometric conditions
Coastal County Snapshots is an online tool that produces user-friendly reports identifying and describing three categories of coastal hazards and change - flooding risk, wetland impacts, and ocean jobs impact - for selected coastal counties in the United States. Users select a coastal county, and the tool generates reports for the three categories identifying and describing changes that have occurred (e.g., changes in land cover, job trends) and important sectoral information (e.g., amount of coastal infrastructure at risk from flooding, how wetlands can be used to reduce flood impacts). ...
An anonymous reader writes An important paper that re-examines historical climate data was published on 28 October in the respected journal Energy & Environment. (The paper is also available here.) According to an article in Canadas National Post, the paper shows that a pillar of the Kyoto Ac...
The incoming Trump administrations EPA transition team intends to remove some climate data from the agencys website. These researchers are swooping in to help.
Latest news and features on science issues that matter including earth, environment, and space. Get your science news from the most trusted source!
Woodworth, P. L., Maqueda, M. A. M., Gehrels, W. R., Roussenov, V. M., Williams, R. G., & Hughes, C. W. (2017). Variations in the difference between mean sea level measured either side of Cape Hatteras and their relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation. CLIMATE DYNAMICS, 49(7-8), 2451-2469. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3464- ...
More carbon dioxide-related worries lead to a study of the Earths rock/dirt cores in an effort to understand past climate transitions and to predict future climate conditions
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis are seasonal rodent-borne infections in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The occurrences of HFRS and leptospirosis are influenced by climatic variability. However, few studies have examined the effects of local climatic variables on the development of these infections. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of HFRS and leptospirosis in Korea. Daily records on human cases of HFRS and leptospirosis between January 2001 to December 2009 were analyzed. The associations of climatic factors with these cases in high incidence provinces were estimated using the time-series method and multivariate generalized linear Poisson models with a maximal lag of 12 weeks. From 2001 to 2009, a total of 2912 HFRS and 889 leptospirosis cases were reported, with overall incidences of 0.67 and 0.21 cases per 100,000, respectively, in the study areas. The increase in minimum temperature (1 °C) at a lag of 11 weeks
There is a risk that increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels could trigger abrupt changes in the climate system - that is, changes so abrupt that they could seriously challenge the ability of humans, plants and animals to adapt. Ice core records can help us better understand this risk: they notably show that, during the last glacial period (around 100 000 to 20 000 years ago), temperature over the Greenland ice sheet could change by up to 16°C within a few decades.. With his INTERCLIMA (Inter-hemispheric Coupling of Abrupt Climate Change) project, Dr Joel Pedro of the University of Copenhagen has been trying to advance understanding of the governing mechanisms and inter-hemispheric coupling involved in abrupt climate change. By doing so, he hopes to help scientists trying to understand the extent and nature of the anthropogenic climate change we are witnessing to improve their climate predictions.. How can past climate change events inform us on future risks?. The Ice Age temperature ...
Map of the observed surface temperature change from 1901 to 2012 derived from temperature trends determined by linear regression from one dataset (orange line in panel a). Trends have been calculated where data availability permits a robust estimate (i.e., only for grid boxes with greater than 70% complete records and more than 20% data availability in the first and last 10% of the time period). Other areas are white. Grid boxes where the trend is significant at the 10% level are indicated by a + sign. (Graphic from the The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) less ...
2013 rained down another round of extreme weather events on communities across the country. Destructive floods in Colorado, months of prolonged drought in Texas and California, and dangerously high temperatures in the Northeast were just some of the record-breaking events from the year. The media reported on many of these disasters. But they often missed a key dimension of the story: climate change is also a disaster for our health.. In fact, climate change is "one of the most serious public health threats facing our nation," according to Dr. Georges Benjamin, Executive Director of the American Public Health Association. Children, the elderly, and communities struggling with poverty are among the most vulnerable to climate-related illness and disease. Yet they are not the only ones. The extreme weather events of 2013 revealed once again that many of us live in harms way. Intense heat is one of the biggest threats. NOAA and NASA say that 2013 was one of the 10 top hottest years ever worldwide. ...
View 2011 UNFCCC DRR profile. A number of the NAPAs prioritize issues related to building resilience and/or DRR. The NAPA priorities database is a good source of information on this. New projects submitted to the GEF in 2012 that are related to the HFA priority areas include:. 1. Benin, Burkino Faso, Sao Tome and Principe, and Sierra Leone: Strengthening climate information and early warning systems in Western and Central Africa for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change.. 2. Bhutan: Reducing climate change-induced risks and vulnerabilities from glacial lake outbursts in the Punhakha-Wangdi and Chamkhar Valleys; and addressing the risk of climate-induced disasters through enhanced national and local capacity for effective actions.. 3. Burundi: Community disaster risk management.. 4. The Gambia: Strengthening climate services and early warning systems in the Gambia for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change.. 5. Uganda and Zambia: Strengthening ...
Northern Europe consists roughly of Fennoscandia, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe, Greenland, and the main European continent.. The area is defined by the volcanic islands of the far northwest, notably Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard, extending from the mountainous sections of Great Britain and Ireland to the Scandinavian mountains peaking in Norway, the central north mountains and hills of Sweden (which are the foothills of the Scandinavian mountains) and the large eastern plain, which contains, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland.. The region has a south west extreme of around 50 degrees north and a northern extreme of 81 degrees north. The entire regions climate is mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates ...
In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested
Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford Amazon: amazon.com - amazon.co.uk - amazon.de - amazon.fr Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermats Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo ...
article{74f068fa-017e-403f-85d8-b7d190975c54, abstract = {,p,Radiocarbon dating is the most commonly used chronological tool in archaeological and environmental sciences dealing with the past 50,000 years, making the radiocarbon calibration curve one of the most important records in paleosciences. For the past 12,560 years, the radiocarbon calibration curve is constrained by high quality tree-ring data. Prior to this, however, its uncertainties increase rapidly due to the absence of suitable tree-ring ,sup,14,/sup,C data. Here, we present new high-resolution ,sup,14,/sup,C measurements from 3 floating tree-ring chronologies from the last deglaciation. By using combined information from the current radiocarbon calibration curve and ice core ,sup,10,/sup,Be records, we are able to absolutely date these chronologies at high confidence. We show that our data imply large ,sup,14,/sup,C-age variations during the Bølling chronozone (Greenland Interstadial 1e) - a period that is currently characterized ...

Malta Restaurants - Malta Dining - Cuisine in MaltaMalta Restaurants - Malta Dining - Cuisine in Malta

Similarly, the soil is excellent for olive orchards, and the climate is perfect for viticulture. So there are vineyards and ...
more infohttp://www.destination360.com/europe/malta/dining

Culture in Malta and Gozo | Churches, Museums, Architecture and MoreCulture in Malta and Gozo | Churches, Museums, Architecture and More

They are the triumph of men on the arid climate, and a display of skilled and tasteful composition of flowers and plants. ...
more infohttp://www.malta.com/en/attraction/culture

Spa and Wellness in Malta and Gozo | Massage, Manicure, FacialSpa and Wellness in Malta and Gozo | Massage, Manicure, Facial

Malta is truly an ideal destination to relax and pamper yourself, the warm climate, clear blue waters and the fresh all help to ...
more infohttp://www.malta.com/en/attraction/spa-wellness

Malta Business and Professional Association - July Networking BreakfastMalta Business and Professional Association - July Networking Breakfast

We promote and advance the commercial, industrial, civic climate and general interests of the business and professional ...
more infohttp://www.maltabpa.com/event-2249932/Attendees

Climate Central: A Science & News OrganizationClimate Central: A Science & News Organization

... providing clear information to help people make sound decisions about the climate. ... Climate Central bridges the scientific community and the public, ... Climate Science Data-driven research and reporting that makes ... Members of the Climate Central staff and board are among the most respected leaders in climate science. Staff members are ... Climate Central surveys and conducts scientific research on climate change and informs the public of key findings. Our ...
more infohttp://www.climatecentral.org

Climate Change and Public Health - Climate Effects on Health  | CDCClimate Change and Public Health - Climate Effects on Health | CDC

Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ... The information on the health effects of climate change has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessments Health ... Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ... Climate Change Decreases the Quality of the Air We Breathe pdf icon[PDF 111 KB] ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/default.htm

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research - PIK Research PortalPotsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research - PIK Research Portal

A "Hothouse Earth" climate will in the long term stabilize at a global average of 4-5°C higher than pre-industrial temperatures ...
more infohttps://www.pik-potsdam.de/

Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures | TCFD - HomepageTask Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures | TCFD - Homepage

... consistent climate-related financial risk disclosures for use by companies in providing information to stakeholders. ... The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) will develop voluntary, consistent climate-related financial ... Scenarios were the focus of discussion at the TCFD & BoE Conference on Climate Scenarios, Financial Risk and Strategic Planning ... The e-learning platform has been designed to help organisations enhance their disclosures of climate-related information. The ...
more infohttps://www.fsb-tcfd.org/

Climate Week NYCClimate Week NYC

... is one of the key summits in the international calendar and has been driving climate action forward since it ... About The Climate Group. The Climate Groups mission is to accelerate climate action to achieve a world of under 2°C of global ... About Climate Week NYC. Climate Week NYC is the time and place where the world gathers to showcase amazing climate action and ... Climate Week NYC Media Portal This year we have introduced a Climate Week Media Portal - you can log in here to find all the ...
more infohttps://www.climateweeknyc.org/

Climate Action Project - PresidentialClimate Action Project - Presidential

The above statement was true as of the last writing of this portion of the FAQ. If you find they no longer back their RAM, please submit feedback to my guestbook. Note, the RAM in the Flat Panel iMac is only accurately reported by the hardware test CD and not the System Profiler. Even when RAM is to spec, sometimes it can be bad RAM for Mac OS X and at least you should remove any additional RAM the machine had installed to see if you suspect you have a bad RAM module. If the computer boots with a series of beeps and wont move further, that usually means the internal RAM test of the boot process detected bad RAM. Before assuming the RAM is bad, check if deleting the contents of your /var/vm/app_profile folder (the virtual memory files of Mac OS X) fixes your problem. To delete those files, restart the computer holding down the SHIFT key. Then run Onyx to clean the virtual memory swapfile. Restart as instructed. The wrong RAM may yield unpredictable results. One of the most notorious of these ...
more infohttp://www.climateactionproject.com

NASA: Climate Change and Global WarmingNASA: Climate Change and Global Warming

Current news and data streams about global warming and climate change from NASA. ... Play and Learn: Climate Kids NASAs Climate Kids website brings the exciting science of climate change and sustainability to ... Climate Time Machine Travel through Earths recent climate history and see how increasing carbon dioxide, global temperature ... What is Climate Change?. Evidence. How do we know climate change is real? ...
more infohttps://climate.nasa.gov/

How climate change became a question of faith - CSMonitor.comHow climate change became a question of faith - CSMonitor.com

Debate around climate change frequently hinges on religion, particularly Evangelicalism. To many scientists and scholars, ... How climate change became a question of faith Debate around climate change frequently hinges on religion, particularly ... Citing analysis from thousands of studies, the nations climate assessment offers not just a dire warning about what climate ... Test your knowledge Climate change: Is your opinion informed by science? Take our quiz! By Bryan Cronan Staff writer ...
more infohttps://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2017/0808/How-climate-change-became-a-question-of-faith

CP - HomeCP - Home

Using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM-SALSA, the effect of humans on European climate in the Roman Empire was ... pointing to the regions hotter and drier climate in recent years. The results are now published in Climate of the Past. ... pointing to the regions hotter and drier climate in recent years. The results are now published in Climate of the Past. ... and review papers on the climate history of the Earth. CP covers all temporal scales of climate change and variability, from ...
more infohttps://www.climate-of-the-past.net/

Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science (NIACS)  - Northern Research Station - USDA Forest ServiceNorthern Institute of Applied Climate Science (NIACS) - Northern Research Station - USDA Forest Service

Climate change Changes in the earths climate are having substantial effects on forest ecosystems and may reduce the ability of ... Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science. The Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science develops synthesis products, ... NIACS leads the USDA Northern Forests Climate Hub, which part of the broader network of USDA Climate Hubs ...
more infohttps://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/niacs/

Climate Leaders Program for Professional Students at HarvardClimate Leaders Program for Professional Students at Harvard

... strengthens the climate science and health curriculum; and liaises with climate science leaders across the University. ... The climate-related topics covered at these dinners, as well as the overall format of the dinner, are left to the participants ... The Climate Leaders Program for Professional Students at Harvard is a new student-led, faculty-advised program for Masters and ... The Climate Leaders Program for Professional Students at Harvard is a product of many efforts across campus to secure ...
more infohttps://www.climateleadersprogram.com/

Welcome to the USDA Northern Forests Climate Hub | USDA Climate HubsWelcome to the USDA Northern Forests Climate Hub | USDA Climate Hubs

About the Northern Forests Climate Hub. The Northern Forests Climate Hub assists natural resource managers, woodland owners, ... Tools to help professionals consider the potential effects of climate change on forests, and to design actions that can help ... Private land owners and can respond to the risks of climate change on their lands. Many resources describing practices that ... More and more educational resources are coming avaiable as people try to better understand climate change and how it could ...
more infohttps://www.climatehubs.oce.usda.gov/hubs/northern-forests

Our Power CampaignOur Power Campaign

On the 1 Year Anniversary of Trump Pulling Out of the Paris Climate Agreement Environmental Justice Groups Launch the It Takes ... Continue to stand and support frontline climate leaders and advance this visionary future for 2018! ...
more infohttp://www.ourpowercampaign.org

Climate - WikipediaClimate - Wikipedia

Climate models[edit]. See also: Climate model and Climatology. Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the ... This page presents a general overview of Earths climate system. For other uses of "climate", see Climate (disambiguation) ... climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean and ice on Earth.[1] The climate of a ... Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.[8] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate

ClimateClimate

Trump Shares Fox News Guests Climate Change Denial. "There is no climate crisis, theres weather and climate all around the ... Trumps Climate Denial Gets More Ridiculous By The Day. The president is embracing climate change deniers so hardcore it would ... Activists Challenge Biden on Climate Change: Prove It. "Its easy for politicians to simply acknowledge that climate change ... Climate Change Set to Bring More Extreme Weather. There is some good news, however-sea level rise wont be quite as bad as ...
more infohttps://www.newsweek.com/topic/climate

ClimateClimate

... Science Methods That Survived for Centuries. Observing the climate is sometimes as easy as paying attention to whats ... Senators Balk at Climate Change Cash, Citing Palestine. Senators say United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ... Climate Change Bad for Our Health. By reducing food availability, climate change could kill 500,000 by 2050 ... South Florida Mayors Ask Rubio, Bush for Climate Action. South Florida Mayors ask Marco Rubio for help on climate change ...
more infohttps://www.newsweek.com/topic/climate?page=7

Climate - WikipediaClimate - Wikipedia

Climate models[edit]. See also: Climate model and Climatology. Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the ... "Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-05-14.. *^ "Climate averages". Met Office. ... Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.[9] ... oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, desert, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, and polar ice cap. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_climate

Climate ChangeClimate Change

The Forest Service & Climate Change. U.S. Forest Service Chief Tom Tidwell. Climate change is one of the great challenges of ... Many of you already know a lot about climate change and are familiar with the concepts and consequences. For some of you, this ... Message from U.S. Forest Service: One of the most significant issues the Forest Service faces is the effects of climate change ...
more infohttps://www.fs.fed.us/video/climate/

Climate  RealityClimate Reality

Broadcasting September 16-17, we will be exploring 24 reasons to be hopeful about solving the climate crisis. Go to ... and help us ensure that progress is our new reality by signing up to dedicate a day for climate action in the next year. http ... the fourth annual live-streaming multimedia event dedicated to sparking action on climate change. ... Dedicate a day for Climate Action Join us for 24 Hours of Reality, the fourth annual live-streaming multimedia event dedicated ...
more infohttps://www.ustream.tv/climatereality

Climate | AudubonClimate | Audubon

Birds Tell Us That We Need To Act On Climate. Pledge to stand with Audubon as we call on the administration to listen to ... Some Wisconsin Birds Are Already Moving to Canada Due to Climate Change January 10, 2020 - The states newest bird atlas shows ... Clean Energy Tax Credits Give Congress An Opportunity for Climate Progress. December 12, 2019 - As 2019 comes to a close, ... January 28, 2020 - During this years Christmas Bird Count on Key West, the impacts of climate change were impossible to ignore ...
more infohttps://www.audubon.org/news/climate

climate - Wiktionaryclimate - Wiktionary

climate in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *climate in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co ... climate (third-person singular simple present climates, present participle climating, simple past and past participle climated ... Industries that require a lot of fossil fuels are unlikely to be popular in the current political climate.. *. 2012 November 7 ... The blessed gods / Purge all infection from our air whilst you / Do climate here!. ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/climate
  • December 12, 2019 - In Audubon's first foray into climate fiction, or cli-fi, we asked writers of compelling-and sometimes strange-fiction to imagine what climate chaos will bring for birds and people. (audubon.org)
  • As 2019 comes to a close, Congress has one more chance to pass legislation that will help fight climate change. (audubon.org)
  • Guided by science, our journalists tell compelling stories of climate change impacts and solutions. (climatecentral.org)
  • Data-driven research and reporting that makes climate science local and advances understanding of climate change impacts. (climatecentral.org)
  • These will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change and, if left unchecked, undermine the sustainable development gains that have been achieved over the course of the country s history. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Barbados will face indirect climate-related impacts including drought, flooding, and storms (physical damage), increased pest outbreaks, the spread of invasive species, the increased probability for the occurrence of vector borne and heat related illnesses and the destruction of key ecosystems which all threaten national productivity and may undermine the potential for real growth. (globalsecurity.org)
  • As a small island developing state (SIDS) that is extremely vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change and cognizant of the implications for its economic, social and environmental sectors, the Government of Barbados (GOB) ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2000. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Accordingly, with the recognition of the need for an urgent global response to address the adverse impacts of climate change, the GOB is expecting the agreed and adopted outcome of the 21st COP of the UNFCCC to be an internationally legally-binding agreement under the Convention that is in the form of a protocol and is applicable to all Parties. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Because the climate indices are generally determined from measurements made in a localized area, they can have impacts in other areas around the globe, through processes sometimes called teleconnections. (mcgill.ca)
  • Some of the leading figures from the world of business will also come together to make a series of announcements and commitments in an urgent bid to accelerate climate action and achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • Through our ground breaking OneNYC strategy and our ambitious 1.5˚C Plan, we've committed our city to hit the highest goals of the Paris climate agreement. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • McCarthy signed the Clean Power Plan, which set the first-ever national standards for reducing carbon emissions from existing power plants, underscoring the country's commitment to domestic climate action and spurring international efforts that helped secure the Paris Climate Agreement. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • On the 1 Year Anniversary of Trump Pulling Out of the Paris Climate Agreement Environmental Justice Groups Launch the It Takes Roots Action Camp: From Roots to Resilience . (ourpowercampaign.org)
  • The Trump administration tried to remove the phrase "climate change" from an international statement on Arctic policy while Senate Republicans refused to take up a bill on the Paris climate agreement. (newsweek.com)
  • What Paris Climate Deal? (newsweek.com)
  • Was The Paris Climate Deal A Success? (newsweek.com)
  • In Paris, the climate conference tackles another global threat. (newsweek.com)
  • Barbados was the only country in the Western Hemisphere chosen to participate in the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) Project, Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health, covering the years 2010 to 2014. (globalsecurity.org)
  • New York's most famous buildings will go green on the eve of the Opening Ceremony of Climate Week NYC, Sunday September 23, 2018. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • Every four years, the nation's scientists from myriad federal agencies come together to release a comprehensive report synthesizing the current state of climate science. (csmonitor.com)
  • Citing analysis from thousands of studies, the nation's climate assessment offers not just a dire warning about what climate change may bring in future years, but a detailed account of effects that are already occurring and of human contributions to those changes. (csmonitor.com)
  • One of the most significant issues the Forest Service faces is the effects of climate change on the Nation's natural resources. (fed.us)
  • But once it became an issue of global climate change, Ms. Vox notes that evangelists like the bestselling author Hal Lindsey denounced climate science as a scam "being used to to consolidate the governments of the world into a coalition that may someday facilitate the rise of the Antichrist. (csmonitor.com)
  • An independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public. (climatecentral.org)
  • Though to many scientists and scholars, the pitting of climate science and religion against each other is a smokescreen, and an oversimplification. (csmonitor.com)
  • In the face of those who continue to deny climate change, 375 leading scientists who are members of the National. (inhabitat.com)
  • What if there were an organic technology that could cut greenhouse emissions in half and literally suck down and sequester carbon dioxide in living soil - bringing the total amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere down to 350 ppm - the level scientists warn us we must acheive in order to avert a climate catastrophe? (organicconsumers.org)
  • With a climate changing faster than most crops can adapt and food security under threat around the world, scientists have found hope in a living museum dedicated to a staple eaten by millions daily: the humble potato. (organicconsumers.org)
  • As it happens, a group of Iowa scientists popped by the state capitol here a couple of weeks ago to talk about the effects of climate change on this state, which does not yet have any beachfront property to worry about, although we may be able to surf Ottumwa sometime in the future, if the UN panel is correct. (esquire.com)
  • Scientists use climate indices in their attempt to characterize and understand the various climate mechanisms that culminate in our daily weather. (mcgill.ca)
  • Since then, Barbados has actively participated in the Conference of Parties (COP) and related inter-sessional meetings of the UNFCCC, as well as undertaken a variety of measures that fit with the overarching objective of the Convention and intended to build national resilience to the challenges imposed by climate change. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude , altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least in so far as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned. (mcgill.ca)
  • BRUSSELS (AP) - Greenpeace activists on Thursday scaled the European Union's new headquarters, unfurling a huge banner warning of a "climate emergency" hours before the bloc's leaders gather for a summit focused on plans to combat global warming. (ap.org)
  • Members of the Climate Central staff and board are among the most respected leaders in climate science. (climatecentral.org)
  • Targeting upper-elementary-aged children, the site includes interactive games, hands-on activities, and engaging articles that make climate science accessible and fun. (nasa.gov)
  • That fear likely stems from a general skepticism of climate science that runs through the Trump administration. (csmonitor.com)
  • Climate change: Is your opinion informed by science? (csmonitor.com)
  • That message conflicts with ideas put forth by many members of the Trump administration, which has taken a more skeptical view of climate science. (csmonitor.com)
  • Climate science has been very deliberately framed as an alternate religion," says Dr. Hayhoe, who also directs Texas Tech's Climate Science Center and is an Evangelical who has engaged deeply with faith communities around the issue of climate science. (csmonitor.com)
  • The dispute over Darwin planted a seed, and the evolution argument set the groundwork for the current climate science argument," says Michael Altman, professor of religious studies at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. (csmonitor.com)
  • The forest is a site for internationally-significant climate science research . (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • and liaises with climate science leaders across the University. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • Pledge to stand with Audubon as we call on the administration to listen to science and work toward climate solutions. (audubon.org)
  • The record shows wine grapes in Burgundy, eastern France, have been picked 13 days earlier on average since 1988 than they were in the previous six centuries, pointing to the region's hotter and drier climate in recent years. (climate-of-the-past.net)
  • Observing the climate is sometimes as easy as paying attention to what's going on outside, and people have been doing it for centuries. (newsweek.com)
  • The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) will develop voluntary, consistent climate-related financial risk disclosures for use by companies in providing information to investors, lenders, insurers, and other stakeholders. (fsb-tcfd.org)
  • These observations are consistent with climate change projections for the Caribbean region. (globalsecurity.org)
  • NEW YORK (AP) - Exxon Mobil won Tuesday in a closely watched lawsuit over the costs of climate change, with a judge saying there was no proof the energy giant duped investors about the toll that regulations could take on its business. (ap.org)
  • The Climate Leaders Program for Professional Students at Harvard is a new student-led, faculty-advised program for Master's and professional doctorate students across all Harvard graduate schools, developed in partnership with the Harvard University Center for the Environment (HUCE). (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • Browse selected special issues on key topics in Environment, Climate and Water. (springer.com)
  • Classroom Climate is the classroom environment, the social climate, the emotional and the physical aspects of the classroom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Task Force will consider the physical, liability and transition risks associated with climate change and what constitutes effective financial disclosures across industries. (fsb-tcfd.org)
  • The work and recommendations of the Task Force will help firms understand what financial markets want from disclosure in order to measure and respond to climate change risks, and encourage firms to align their disclosures with investors' needs. (fsb-tcfd.org)
  • Private land owners and can respond to the risks of climate change on their lands. (usda.gov)
  • Global warming and climate change are to blame for creating the strong winds and low humidity that are currently. (inhabitat.com)
  • And, given our current, cool and considered response to a single death from Ebola, which is not carried by mosquitoes, I'm not sanguine about how our politics would handle even a small outbreak of dengue fever, but I'm fairly sure we would blame immigrants, or the government, or the phases of the moon, but we would not blame climate change, not in the real sense of actually doing anything about it. (esquire.com)
  • Explore preparedness actions each state is taking in relation to their current and future changes in climate threats. (climatecentral.org)
  • More generally, the "climate" of a region is the general state of the climate system at that location at the current time. (wikipedia.org)
  • At our current climate trajectory, humanity will likely face "untold suffering," as reported in a new study. (inhabitat.com)
  • Since very few direct observations of climate are available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores , and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate Central surveys and conducts scientific research on climate change and informs the public of key findings. (climatecentral.org)
  • Climate of the Past (CP) is a not-for-profit international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of research articles, short communications, and review papers on the climate history of the Earth. (climate-of-the-past.net)
  • In polling by the Pew Research Center in November 2008, fully half the respondents thought the two parties would cooperate more in the coming year, versus only 36 percent who thought the climate would grow more adversarial. (wiktionary.org)
  • Every day, news reporters circulate the latest climate studies that seem to prove the world is ending. (inhabitat.com)
  • Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ways. (cdc.gov)
  • Climate change activism is reducing symptoms of mental ill-health among young people, headteachers and psychotherapists have said. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Evidence for a changing climate abounds, from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the oceans," a draft of the report published by The New York Times reads. (csmonitor.com)
  • Many lines of evidence demonstrate that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are primarily responsible for the observed climate changes in the industrial era, especially over the last six decades. (csmonitor.com)
  • A newly published series of dates of grape harvest covering the past 664 years is the latest line of evidence confirming how unusual the climate of the past 30 years has been. (climate-of-the-past.net)
  • By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. (mcgill.ca)
  • It's just going to keep melting," David Titley, the director of the Center for Solutions to Weather and Climate Risk at Penn State, told Newsweek. (newsweek.com)
  • Refugees and a climate pact are shaping up to be the issues Republicans and Democrats will stake the government's survival on this December. (newsweek.com)
  • Taking place between September 24-30, in New York City, this is the 10th annual Climate Week NYC, run by The Climate Group in coordination with the United Nations and the City of New York. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • Senators say United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change treats Palestine as a state, and U.S. law bars any expenditures. (newsweek.com)
  • The two-week COP21 United Nations climate change conference began Monday. (newsweek.com)
  • This year we have introduced a Climate Week Media Portal - you can log in here to find all the latest on Climate Week NYC including press releases, as well as agendas, logos, photographs and videos in the lead up and during the week itself. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • This interdisciplinary program provides the latest publications on monitoring, modeling, risk analysis, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, and is intended for academic researchers and professional organizations, as well as governmental bodies. (springer.com)
  • Scenarios were the focus of discussion at the TCFD & BoE Conference on Climate Scenarios, Financial Risk and Strategic Planning which took place in London on October 31 and November 1, 2017. (fsb-tcfd.org)
  • Michael Bloomberg shares a video message on why climate risk disclosure is important for businesses. (fsb-tcfd.org)
  • The climate-related topics covered at these dinners, as well as the overall format of the dinner, are left to the participants to determine together. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • These workshops will allow participates to dive deep into climate-related topics like designing a low-carbon economy, negotiating across differences, managing effective multidisciplinary teams, or other topics of interest to the cohort as a whole. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • The program - which includes a weekend fall retreat at the Harvard Forest, dinners and workshops with leaders in the field, and a year-end event - will accept up to 40 Master's and professional doctorate students from at least 5 Harvard graduate schools, prioritizing students with a demonstrated interest in climate-related work. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • The Climate Leaders Program for Professional Students at Harvard is a product of many efforts across campus to secure additional opportunities for cross-Harvard collaboration for students with a professional interest in climate-related work. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • During the weekend, students will get to know peers from across Harvard's graduate schools who share a professional interest in climate-related work, while setting program priorities and establishing a foundation for the inaugural year of the Climate Leaders Program. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • HARTFORD, Conn. (AP) - Connecticut Gov. Ned Lamont said Wednesday he plans to work with his counterparts in Rhode Island, New York and New Jersey to address climate change, noting Wednesday he hopes the coalition of states can set an example for the rest of the country. (ap.org)
  • For the climate of a specific place or area, see the article on that place or area. (mcgill.ca)
  • It is definitely the case that climate skepticism is most likely among white US Evangelicals," says Willis Jenkins, professor of religious studies at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. (csmonitor.com)
  • CP covers all temporal scales of climate change and variability, from geological time through to multidecadal studies of the last century. (climate-of-the-past.net)
  • Climate also includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frustrated with the "ludicrous charade" of the COP25 World Climate Summit in December, Spanish design collective. (inhabitat.com)
  • A "Hothouse Earth" climate will in the long term stabilize at a global average of 4-5°C higher than pre-industrial temperatures with sea level 10-60 m higher than today, the paper says. (pik-potsdam.de)
  • New York's famous skyline was transformed on Sunday evening to celebrate the 10th year of Climate Week NYC, the biggest climate week event on earth. (climateweeknyc.org)