The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Activities performed by humans.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
The physical measurements of a body.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
The reproductive organs of plants.
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.
Organisms that live in water.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (1/2516)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (2/2516)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

Environmental variation shapes sexual dimorphism in red deer. (3/2516)

Sexual dimorphism results from dichotomous selection on male and female strategies of growth in relation to reproduction. In polygynous mammals, these strategies reflect sexual selection on males for access to females and competitive selection on females for access to food. Consequently, in such species, males display rapid early growth to large adult size, whereas females invest in condition and early sexual maturity at the expense of size. Hence, the magnitude of adult size dimorphism should be susceptible to divergence of the sexes in response to environmental factors differentially influencing their growth to reproduction. We show that divergent growth of male and female red deer after 32 years of winter warming and 15 years of contemporaneously earlier plant phenology support this prediction. In response to warmer climate during their early development, males grew more rapidly and increased in size, while female size declined. Conversely, females, but not males, responded to earlier plant phenology with increased investment in condition and earlier reproduction. Accordingly, adult size dimorphism increased in relation to warmer climate, whereas it declined in relation to forage quality. Thus, the evolutionary trajectories of growth related to reproduction in the sexes (i) originate from sexual and competitive selection, (ii) produce sexual size dimorphism, and (iii) are molded by environmental variation.  (+info)

Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate. (4/2516)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (5/2516)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases. (6/2516)

Many potential human health effects have been hypothesized to result either directly or indirectly from global climate change. Changes in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases are some of the most widely cited potential effects of climate change, and could have significant consequences for human health as well as economic and societal impacts. These changes in disease incidence would be mediated through biologic, ecologic, sociologic, and epidemiologic processes that interact with each other and which may themselves be influenced by climate change. Although hypothesized infectious disease effects have been widely discussed, there have not yet been thorough quantitative studies addressing the many processes at work. In part this is because of the complexity of the many indirect and feedback interactions or mechanisms that bear on all aspects of the climate issue. It also results from the difficulty of including the multitude of always-changing determinants of these diseases. This paper proposes a framework for an integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases. The framework allows identification of potentially important indirect interactions or mechanisms, identification of important research gaps, and a means of integrating targeted research from a variety of disciplines into an enhanced understanding of the whole system.  (+info)

Malaria reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon region. (7/2516)

Epidemic malaria has rapidly emerged in Loreto Department, in the Peruvian Amazon region. Peru reports the second highest number of malaria cases in South America (after Brazil), most from Loreto. From 1992 to 1997, malaria increased 50-fold in Loreto but only fourfold in Peru. Plasmodium falciparum infection, which has increased at a faster rate than P. vivax infection in the last 3 years, became the dominant Plasmodium infection in the highest transmission areas in the 1997 rainy season. The vector Anopheles darlingi has also increased during this epidemic in Loreto. Moreover, chloroquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine drug-resistant P. falciparum strains have emerged, which require development of efficacious focal drug treatment schemes.  (+info)

Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately. (8/2516)

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States.  (+info)

Get this from a library! Climatic effects on pavement and geotechnical infrastructure : proceedings of the International Symposium on Climatic Effects on Pavement and Geotechnical Infrastructure 2013, August 4-7, 2013, Fairbanks, Alaska. [Jenny Liu, (Civil engineer); Construction Institute.;]
Local Climate Information for Milwaukee and Madison. Daily: Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport Issued: 10/29/2020 03:28:22 PM ...
Temperate Climate refers to climates between Polar and Tropical. However, there is a gradual change from polar to tropical climates across the middle latitude temperate zones. Normally, in the northern hemisphere, the northern portions of the temperate zone feature Boreal, Continental, and Oceanic climates, while the southern portions of the temperate zone are often Mediterranean and humid subtropical climates. These different climates all fall within the temperate zone which has a basic definition as being any climate with a mean temperature above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the coldest month. Obviously winter temperatures will be more mild in southerly portions and colder in the more northerly portions of the northern temperate zone and vice-versa in the southern temperate zone. From a floristic standpoint, each of these climate zones have generally temperate vegetation. There is however, an obvious change in flora from the far northern portions of the temperate zone ...
Join the Climate Adaptation Forum as their guest speakers discuss Creating Connections: Resilience and Equity in Transportation.. Transportation infrastructure is some of the most expensive to build and maintain, especially in the face of the climate crisis. Everything from public transportation to roads and bridges to the port are deeply impacted by sea level rise, extreme storms and even sweltering heat. Join the Climate Adaptation Forum as we explore initiatives around the country to improve transportation resilience and the resilience of the communities that rely on this infrastructure to get around. We will hear from experts at multiple levels of government who are thinking creatively about how to protect our infrastructure and how to make it responsive to changing needs.. Registration is required. For more information on speakers and a detailed agenda, please visit the event webpage.. ...
Areas with subpolar oceanic climates feature an oceanic climate but are usually located closer to polar regions. As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates. Snowfall tends to be more common here than in other oceanic climates. Subpolar oceanic climates are less prone to temperature extremes than subarctic climates or continental climates, featuring milder winters than these climates. Subpolar oceanic climates feature only one to three months of average monthly temperatures that are at least 10 °C (50 °F). As with oceanic climates, none of its average monthly temperatures fall below -3.0 °C (26.6 °F) or 0 °C depending on the isotherm used. Typically, these areas in the warmest month experience daytime maximum temperatures below 17 °C (63 °F), while the coldest month features highs near or slightly above freezing and lows just below freezing. It typically carries a Cfc designation, though very small areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and parts of ...
Cold semi-arid climates (type BSk) tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid ...
Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climates influence on you and society. People who are climate science literate know that climate science can inform our decisions that improve quality of life. They have a basic understanding of the climate system, including the natural and human-caused factors that affect it. Climate science literate individuals understand how climate observations and records as well as computer modeling contribute to scientific knowledge about climate.
Hosted by Metro on August 21st, 2013, the Climate Adaptation Planning for Transit and Fleet Operators webinar was the final outreach component of the FTA Climate Adaptation Pilot. The goal was to build upon the roundtable event, and to provide resources on both mitigation and adaptation strategies ...
Timing of cirque formation and the climate necessary to initiate glaciation are fundamental to the understanding of the landscape of the northern Scandinavian mountains. Empty cirques in the Rassepautasjtjakka massif are located near a glaciated area and thus appear near the glaciation limit. In order to investigate the climate conditions necessary for glacier formation in the cirques, we applied a spatially distributed temperature index melt model. After calibration under present climate conditions, the model was run with different combinations of increased initial winter snow cover and lowered summer air temperatures to assess the climate conditions needed for snow to survive summer and hence form a base for glaciation. Results indicate that a significant increase in precipitation or decrease in summer air temperature or a combination of both is necessary to initiate glaciation. Thus current climate conditions are far from favorable for glaciation. If summer temperature is decreased by ...
Cold semi-arid climates (type BSk) tend to be located in temperate zones or elevated portions in subtropical zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid ...
Solar Influences on Holocene Climate: A review of what is known about the potential climatic effects of solar variability and observed climate variability throughout the Holocene suggests that the former may have been responsible for the latter, and that solar variability may have played a greater role in the warming of the past century than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change would like people to believe. Jet Aircraft Contrails Reduce the Diurnal Amplitude of Earths Surface Air Temperature: A model study of the climatic effects of jet aircraft contrails suggests that they tend to cool the earths surface during the day and warm it at night.. Ship Emissions Perturb Radiation Balance Over the Sea: A data-plus-model approach to evaluating the climatic consequences of ship emissions suggests that they have a modest cooling effect on the planet.. Solar Forcing of Climate Change: In reviewing what is known about relationships between the abundance of cosmogenic isotopes (14C and 10Be) and ...
Before interpreting the temporal variability in any climate proxy record we first need to study the reproducibility of the measured signal. One way of doing this is to compare variations in nearby records that were subject to the same history of the target climate variable, such as local temperatures. In simple terms, features that appear only in individual records most likely represent non-climate variability, whereas those that reproduce across multiple proxy records potentially represent variations in climate. Such a comparison provides an upper limit on the climate information contained in the record.. Reproducibility is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a reconstructed signal to be inferred as climatic in origin. Spatially coherent variability can also be caused by environmental changes independent of the variable of interest. For example, changes in ocean circulation might cause large-scale changes in water masses that affect the preservation of marine climate proxies and thus ...
( team of researchers with affiliations to several universities in the U.S. has helped uncover the frequency of El Niño events during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age by obtaining Eastern ...
Large-scale shifting of the weight of the atmosphere between mid- and high latitudes creates climate patterns known as the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. These patterns have a big influence on winter weather in the Eastern U.S.
The idea of a National Climate Service has circulated at NOAA since the late 1970s, but data-gathering efforts remain spread over many programmes and agencies. NOAA draws on a host of different observing systems, including satellites, instruments that measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, and ocean buoys that monitor water temperature and salinity. NOAAs National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC, keeps archives of long-term climate records, and regional NOAA centres work on climate research problems specific to their geographical area. Outside NOAA, the US Geological Survey collects stream flow data, and the US Department of Agriculture monitors snowpack melt. There is so much information floating around on climate change that it is difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff, says Larry Larson, executive director of the Association of State Floodplain Managers in Madison, Wisconsin. Forest and shoreline managers, utility companies, insurance companies and policy-makers are all looking ...
Ill be heading to Geneva this coming Sunday to attend the World Meteorological Organisations third World Climate Conference. The conference, which runs from August 31 until September 4, takes climate prediction as its theme, and aims to establish an international framework to guide the development of climate services, linking climate predictions with climate-risk management and adaptation. This should an interesting opportunity to look in more depth at the issue of whether climate prediction is indeed scientifically feasible and if so, at what it will take to move from climate projections to predictions. Read more. ...
Earlier we added this to the list, now here is the description of the excuse. Basically what they are saying is that natural climate variability has overtaken the posited powerful effects of CO2 on climate.. From the EUs JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE Last decades slow-down in global warming enhanced by an unusual climate anomaly:. A hiatus in global warming ongoing since 2001 is due to a combination of a natural cooling phase, known as multidecadal variability (MDV) and a downturn of the secular warming trend. The exact causes of the latter, unique in the entire observational record going back to 1850, are still to be identified, according to a JRC article which analysed the phenomena.. The earth hasnt warmed at the same pace during the 20th century. The noticeable temperature increases during some periods interspersed with fairly stable or decreasing levels during others have been explained as a combination of secular global warming (likely manmade) and natural climate variability. We are currently, ...
The December 2004 issue of BAMS contains an article warning of the threats of abrupt climate change (Epstein and McCarthy 2004, hereafter EM04). The article seeks to raise awareness of the risks of an abrupt change in climate related to human influences on the climate system, but, in doing so it repeats a common factual error. Specifically, it identifies the recent growth in economic damages associated with weather and climate events, such as Hurricanes Mitch and Jeanne and tornadoes in the United States, as evidence of trends in extreme events, arguing the rising costs associated with weather volatility provide another derived indicator of the state of the climate system . . . the economic costs related to more severe and volatile weather deserves mention as an integral indicator of volatility. Although the attribution of increasing damages to climate changes is but one of many assertions made by EM04, the repetition of this erroneous claim is worth correcting because it is not consistent ...
Use the Climate-,Local link (on the left sidebar of most of our web pages) to view current climate products. Those products include the Daily Climate Report (CLI), Preliminary Climatology Data (CF6), Record Event Report (RER), Monthly Weather Summary (CLM) and the Regional Summary (RTP). Archived climate products from 2002 to the present are available on this page ...
Hundreds of millions of urban dwellers are at risk from the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Climate adaption means anticipating those adverse effects and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that when well planned, early climate adaptation action saves money and lives later on. Adaptation strategies are needed at all levels of urban administration; local, regional, national, EU ...
Welcome to the Bureaus online home of the Australian Climate and Weather Extremes Monitoring System. This website provides comprehensive and timely information about climate and weather extremes of temperature and rainfall. Weather and climate extremes can have significant social, environmental and economic costs, with heat waves and floods prime examples. One of the greatest impacts of climate variability and climate change occurs through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. This system has been designed to provide a better basis for monitoring such changes, so that we will be better able to understand, prepare for and adapt to future changes in extreme events. ...
Fire is an intrinsic element of many forest ecosystems; it shapes their ecological processes, determines species composition and influences landscape structure. However, wildfires may: have undesirable effects on biodiversity and vegetation coverage; produce carbon emissions to the atmosphere; release smoke affecting human health; and cause loss of lives and property. There have been increasing concerns about the potential impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires. Climate change can alter factors that influence the occurrence of fire ignitions, fuel availability and fuel flammability. This review paper aims to identify tools and methods used for gathering information about the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires, forest fuels and the probability of fires. Tools to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires include: remote sensing, dynamic global vegetation and landscape models, integrated fire-vegetation models, fire danger rating systems,
Identifying the effect of climate on societies is central to understanding historical economic development, designing modern policies that react to climatic events, and managing future global climate change. Here, I review, synthesize, and interpret recent advances in methods used to measure effects of climate on social and economic outcomes. Because weather variation plays a large role in recent progress, I formalize the relationship between climate and weather from an econometric perspective and discuss their use as identifying variation, highlighting tradeoffs between key assumptions in different research designs and deriving conditions when weather variation exactly identifies the effects of climate. I then describe advances in recent years, such as parameterization of climate variables from a social perspective, nonlinear models with spatial and temporal displacement, characterizing uncertainty, measurement of adaptation, cross-study comparison, and use of empirical estimates to project the ...
The identification of properties that contribute to the persistence and resilience of ecosystems despite climate change constitutes a research priority of global relevance. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess the relative sensitivity of ecosystems to climate variability, one property of resilience that builds on theoretical modelling work recognizing that systems closer to critical thresholds respond more sensitively to external perturbations. We develop a new metric, the vegetation sensitivity index, that identifies areas sensitive to climate variability over the past 14 years. The metric uses time series data derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index, and three climatic variables that drive vegetation productivity (air temperature, water availability and cloud cover). Underlying the analysis is an autoregressive modelling approach used to identify climate drivers of vegetation productivity on monthly timescales, in addition to
Amawom, Nigeria - Current weather, an hourly forecast for today, tomorrow, detailed 10-day weather forecast and long range monthly outlook. Climate information with charts. Country: Nigeria, City: Amawom.
It seems this was part of the coordinated effort Wednesday also that saw the AAAS announcement yesterday on what we know which has been thoroughly shredded as nothing more than a climate alarmism agit prop and listed by a prominent climatologist as an embarrassment to the scientific community. IPCC author and economist Dr. Richard Tol said AAAS reasons from authority and naturalist fallacy, and mangles the economics and statistics too.. So, with that in mind, here is the press release from the White House: Climate Data Initiative Launches with Strong Public and Private Sector Commitments. Across the country, state and local leaders are on the front lines of climate change-and it is impossible for them to ignore the consequences. In 2012 alone, extreme weather events caused more than $110 billion in damages and claimed more than 300 lives.. While no single weather event can be attributed to climate change, we know that our changing climate is making many kinds of extreme events more ...
As world leaders gather in Madrid for the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25), they must address more than future targets for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.
Scientists use very fast supercomputers to run Global Climate Models (GCMs). GCMs are a good tool to use to better understand Earths climate. We know that climate is not the same everywhere in the world. In some parts of the world it is pretty easy to model the climate. In other places, it is much more tricky to model the climate. It turns out that theSoutheast Pacific, near the west coast of South America, is one of those tricky places ...
The international journal Climate Dynamics provides for the publication of high-quality research on all aspects of the dynamics of the global climate ...
President Donald Trumps first budget proposal took a big swing at the centers, proposing to cut their numbers in half and reduce their budget by a third. But the Trump administration didnt try to eliminate them outright as it has many other Obama climate change initiatives. The key to their resilience is that they dont focus on the kinds of climate science that the Trump administration likes least - research into the human role in climate change and how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Now supporters of the Climate Science Centers believe theres hope the centers will ride out the Trump administration.. Even in this administration, theres a recognition that we still need to prepare for increased flooding and drought and the knock-on effects of climate change, says Bruce Stein, chief scientist of the National Wildlife Federation. Thats why the Trump administrations budget also proposed adding the word adaptation to the centers name: Climate Adaptation Science Centers. We believe that ...
However, even scientists skeptical of global warming alarmism tend to think that human activity is indeed the cause of this increase.3 Remember, the global warming debate is ultimately not about whether atmospheric CO2 is increasing. Nor is it really a debate about whether or not humans are primarily responsible for the increased CO2. Nor is it even a debate about whether or not an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would result in an eventual temperature increase. It would, but this increase would be very slight. The real debate is whether or not climate feedbacks would either enhance or impede the warming, once started. In other words, does our climate self-correct to avoid climate extremes, or can small changes to the climate system bring about a climate catastrophe?6 Biblically, we would expect the Earths climate system to self-correct, since God promised a degree of climate stability since the Genesis Flood (Genesis 8:22 ...
Many people hold the mistaken belief that reconstructions of past climate are the sole evidence for current and future climate change. They are not. However, they are very interesting and useful for all sorts of reasons: for modellers to test out theories of climate change, for geographers, archaeologists and historians to examine the impact of climate on past civilizations and ecosystems, and for everyone to get a sense of what climate is capable of doing, how fast it does it and why. As a small part of that enterprise, the climate of the medieval period has received a very high (and sometimes disproportionate) profile in the public discourse - due in no small part to the mistaken notion that it is an important factor for the attribution of current climate change. Its existence as a period of generally warmer temperatures (at least in the Northern hemisphere) than the centuries that followed is generally accepted. But the timing, magnitude and spatial extent are much more uncertain. All ...
Page 0 The Mobilization for Climate Justice is a North America-based network of organizations and activists who have joined together to build a North American climate justice movement that emphasizes non-violent direct action and public education to mobilize for effective and just solutions to the climate crisis. The Mobilization for Climate Justice invites communities, organizations and activists across North America to join us in organizing mass action on climate change on November 30, 2009 (N30). N30 is significant because it both immediately precedes the upcoming UN Climate Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) and is the ten-year anniversary of the successful shut down of the WTO in Seattle, when activists worldwide came together to demonstrate the power of collective action. The Copenhagen climate meetings will be a major focus for international mass actions this November and December, and the MCJ is linked to these efforts as well.
The second issue of the WHS newsletter is now available here. ( Online registration has began and profiles of some of the keynote speakers. The Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina will host a panel on Climate Change and Health.. With reference to the impact of climatic change on parasitic diseases the Colombian Academy of Medicine informs us that a symposium is being organized at the XX Congress of the Latin American Federation of Parasitology in Bogotá, Colombia from 27 September to 1 October 2011. Topics covered will include: Climatic and non-climatic factors affecting tick borne diseases emergence and spread in Europe, Impact of climatic change on transmisssion of Ascaris lumbricoides and Distribution of Leishmaniasis. More information is available here. An IAMP sponsored workshop on Scientific Writing will be held next week in Paris at the Académie des Sciences & Académie Nationale de Médecine. The aim is to ...
1. Introduction. Climate from geological epoch has been changing with time and it is reasonable to assume that it will change. Recently, the severe drought conditions have disrupted human societies in Bundelkhand region of central India and got the attention of India on reality of climate variability and its significance. The information on annual and seasonal rainfall of a region is useful to design water harvesting structure for agricultural operations, field preparation, seeding, irrigation, fertilizer application and overall in field of crop planning [1] [2] . Climatic variability, particularly rainfall is the major factor influencing the agricultural productivity and sustainability in the tropics [3] . Around 60% of the Indian agriculture is rain-dependent, distress-prone and vulnerable to climate. Constant increase in green house gas concentrations, since pre-industrial times, has led to positive radiative forcing of the climate, tending to warm the surface. The fourth assessment report of ...
Dow Jones Industrial Average, which is based on the stock prices of 30 companies, is used to represent the fluctuations in the stock market as a whole, climate indices are used to represent the essential elements of climate. Climate indices are generally identified or devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. Because the climate indices are generally determined from measurements made in a localized area, they can have impacts in other areas around the globe, through processes sometimes called teleconnections.. References: ...
by Judith Curry Are values of equilibrium climate sensitivity | 4.5 C plausible? For background, see these previous posts on climate sensitivity [link] Here are some possibilistic arguments related to climate sensitivity. I dont think the ECS example is the best one to illustrate these ideas [see previous post], and I probably wont include this…
Abstract. Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect ...
Temperature variability in the Southwest US is investigated using skew-normal probability distribution functions (SN PDFs) fitted to observed wintertime daily maximum temperature records. These PDFs vary significantly between years, with important geographical differences in the relationship between the central tendency and tails, revealing differing linkages between weather and climate. The warmest and coldest extremes do not necessarily follow the distribution center. In some regions one tail of the distribution shows more variability than does the other. For example, in California the cold tail is more variable while the warm tail remains relatively stable, so warm years are associated with fewer cold extremes but not necessarily more warm extremes. The opposite relationship is seen in the Great Plains. Changes in temperature PDFs are conditioned by different phases of El Nino-La Nina (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). In the Southern Great Plains, La Nina and/or negative PDO ...
The failure of the Madrid climate negotiations, the Cop25, was not really unexpected. Even today, very few people, be they politicians or citizens, understand the risks of whats happening, and those who do are accused of alarmism. But how long can we carry on as if nothing is happening? What do we risk if we do nothing?. The answer is that we risk much more than we can afford. Many studies tell us this, among others also a recent article published in Nature titled Climate tipping points - too risky to bet against. Even without going into the details, the title is clear enough to understand that the matter is becoming dramatic. But why so much concern among scientists?. We can summarize the problem in one short sentence: the Earths climate is unstable. It is something that is emerging with ever greater force from all studies in climate science. Of course, the fact that the climate always changes is a favorite argument of those who deny climate science. Their reasoning is: the climate has ...
Our climate is changing because of distinctive variables affecting earth at large. The need of measuring stations in numerous remote regions and particularly over the endless sea zones implies that satellites are the only way to assemble information on Essential Climate Variables - ECVs. By utilizing Earth observation strategies from space, we can screen global natural change not possible with other procedures. , monitoring, prediction, and related administrations depend on exact perceptions of the climate, land, and sea, adequately tested universally and over adequately long time periods. Satellite estimations have given coordinate observational proves that later increases in greenhouse gas concentrations have created the anticipated changes to the active energy transmitted by the Earth. However, while they play a basic part in assessing and improving the models used to make future climate projections required by policymakers they are not however of sufficient exactness to absolutely set up ...
Guest post by Bart Verheggen, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change , Energy research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN). The impacts of aerosols on climate are significant, but also very uncertain. There are several reasons for this, one of which is the uncertainty in how and how fast they are formed in the atmosphere by nucleation. Here, in part I, Ill review some of the basic processes that are important in determining the climate effects of aerosols, focusing in particular on their formation. This is also relevant in order to better understand -and hopefully quantify- the hypothetical climate effects of galactic cosmic rays which Ill discuss in a follow-up post.. Background. Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere (but not including water droplets or ice crystals). They can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere (primary aerosols like dust), or they can be formed in the atmosphere by condensation (secondary aerosol like sulfates). Almost all of ...
The objective of this paper is to utilize images of spatial and temporal fluctuations of temperature over the Earth to study the global climate variation. We illustrated that monthly temperature observations from weather stations could be decomposed as components with different time scales based on their spectral distribution. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filters were applied to smooth and interpolate gridded temperature data to construct global maps for long-term (≥ 6 years) trends and El Nino-like (2 to 5 years) movements over the time period of 1893 to 2008. Annual temperature seasonality, latitude and altitude effects have been carefully accounted for to capture meaningful spatiotemporal patterns of climate variability. The result revealed striking facts about global temperature anomalies for specific regions. Correlation analysis and the movie of thermal maps for El Nino-like component clearly supported the existence of such climate fluctuations in time and space.
Yesterday, when President Obama and EPA administrator Gina McCarthy explained the importance of newly released rules on carbon pollution, they showed evidence of a growing trend we are monitoring at Climate Interactive: adopting a multiple benefits framework to address climate change. (We call it multisolving.) In addition to reductions in carbon pollution, they articulated the health, justice, and economic benefits they expect from the new policy.. As we research the multiple benefits of action on climate change, weve seen this way of thinking on display more and more often in the past year. We see growing awareness that actions to protect the climate can help improve peoples health and communities economic vitality at the same time.. So as I watched yesterdays announcement alongside climate advocates nationwide, and as I reviewed the supporting online materials about the Clean Power Plan, I was looking carefully at two things: (1) how much does the administration emphasize the multiple ...
This article appeared in the Daily Gleaner, Friday, January 24, 2020. How long before climate emergency gains traction?. Fredericton is under pressure to join the many hundreds of Canadian municipalities and federal government that have declared a climate emergency.. A Climate Emergency declaration is a piece of legislation or directive putting a government or organization on record in support of emergency action to restore a safe climate. (Climate Mobilization 2020). With few indications of leadership at the provincial level in this province, local governments are being pushed to take the strongest possible action towards mobilization. So far Bathurst, Saint John, Moncton and Edmundston have done this. Are the declarations of climate emergency symbolic, without teeth? That depends on how much people hold Council members to account to living up to their words.. Declaring a climate emergency is the first step towards shifting governments into emergency mode to address this global crisis. The ...
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis are seasonal rodent-borne infections in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The occurrences of HFRS and leptospirosis are influenced by climatic variability. However, few studies have examined the effects of local climatic variables on the development of these infections. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of HFRS and leptospirosis in Korea. Daily records on human cases of HFRS and leptospirosis between January 2001 to December 2009 were analyzed. The associations of climatic factors with these cases in high incidence provinces were estimated using the time-series method and multivariate generalized linear Poisson models with a maximal lag of 12 weeks. From 2001 to 2009, a total of 2912 HFRS and 889 leptospirosis cases were reported, with overall incidences of 0.67 and 0.21 cases per 100,000, respectively, in the study areas. The increase in minimum temperature (1 °C) at a lag of 11 weeks
One of the most challenging tasks of climate science is to determine climate sensitivity. It is often defined as the equilibrium response of the global mean surface temperature to the doubling of atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately, currently available models have sensitivities that vary across a wide range. According to the report of the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment (1), about two-thirds of the current climate models have sensitivities that range between 2 °C and 4.5 °C. Although this range is itself large, the sensitivities of one-third of the models lie outside of this range. The need to reduce this sizable uncertainty is one of the important reasons it is urgent to understand and reliably quantify the mechanisms that determine climate sensitivity.. Climate sensitivity is inversely proportional to the strength of the radiative feedback that operates on the global-scale perturbation of surface temperature. Here, we describe our attempt to estimate the ...
Those of us who have hoped for a magical, Big Bang, or global agreement on Climate Change, may feel disappointed at Christiana Figueress (Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) conclusion that we cannot have one. Certainly, the past attempts at Climate Change negotiations among the world powers have been dismal. So much so that were happy countries are still talking to each other about Climate Change at all-regardless of what they say. Progress on Climate Change, according to Figueres, will be incremental. (From Global Meltdown: Christiana Figueres, Climate One.) Incremental progress, a rate comfortable to nations around the world, sounds comforting, until you realize the intractability of this issue. That once-in-a-thousand-year heat wave that hit France in 2003 and killed 15,000 people is predicted by climate models to occur every other year by the 2040s. (Read The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a ...
The results of the work by Ko et al,1 combined with past such studies, also have potentially critical relevance to the challenge of climate change that faces all nations of the world. The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report5 has concluded, in the most definitive terms yet, that global climate change is occurring, stating that: Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. The fact that the man-made contribution to the climate change pollutants is largely caused by the same activity that causes the air pollution discussed by Ko et al indicates that, if a city, state, or nation acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the air pollution caused by them, it will reap not only the climate change benefits but also the localised health benefits associated with that reduction in air pollution. ...
Climate change has become a major challenge globally. Human activities have several direct and indirect impacts on health. In Nigeria, the impacts of climate change are more devastating due to their vulnerability and low coping capability. Studies on the impacts of climate change on health risks in Nigeria are scare. With this rationale, this study investigates the effects of climate change on health risks in Nigeria. Evidence abounds that climate change impacts in Nigeria arise from climate change-related causes such as increase in temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, extreme weather events and, especially, increased health risks. Health risks such as cerebra-spinal meningitis, cardiovascular respiratory disorder of elderly, skin cancer, malaria, high blood pressure and morbidity were identified as the direct consequences of climate change. The study concluded that government should raise awareness on adverse effects of climate change which is common among vulnerable groups, like women, children and
800) 877 8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In cooperation with NOAA and other Federal, State, and tribal partners, we are soliciting public comments on the draft National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The adverse impacts of climate change transcend political and administrative boundaries. No single entity or level of government can safeguard wildlife and society against the effects of climate change. When finalized, this draft Strategy will present a unified approach reflecting shared principles and science-based practices for reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants, habitats, and our natural resource heritage. The Strategy will provide a basis for sensible actions that can be taken now, in spite of the uncertainties that exist about precise impacts of climate change. It also will provide guidance about what further actions are most likely to promote natural resource adaptation to climate change, and will describe mechanisms ...
SAN JOSÉ, Apr 9 2014 (IPS) - There are few experiences more frustrating than a delay in travel plans caused by bad weather. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this may be something we will have to get used to in the future.. In March 2014, the IPCC released the 5th assessment of the impacts, adaptation strategies, and vulnerabilities related to global climate change. The report makes it clear that travelling in the future will become more of an ordeal.. Extreme weather events related to climate change, such as heat waves, storms and coastal flooding, are predicted to increase in frequency with only a 1°C increase in average global temperature - and current trends indicate even higher rises in average temperature. Besides the more serious effects, this is a recipe for more travel delays, larger numbers of travellers stranded and a greater overall risk associated with travelling.. And the news gets worse if your destination involves beaches or coral reefs.. As ...
Based on current global climate anomaly conditions and forecasts, El Niño is likely to develop during late 2014 and persist into early 2015. The expected effects on regional weather patterns include persistent high temperatures and drought in some areas, and heavy rainfall and flooding in others. This may enhance populations of particular vectors and the transmission of various infectious diseases in human and animal populations.. Although local weather conditions mediate part of ENSOs influence on infectious disease transmission (teleconnections), incorporating ENSO indicators into disease risk predictions offers advantages. ENSO forecasts typically can anticipate local weather effects several months before they manifest, providing lead-time for public health risk communication, enhancement of disease and vector surveillance programs, provisioning of clinical resources (for example, vaccines and diagnostics), and other preparedness measures. Also, a large-scale climate phenomenon such as ...
How will the current risk areas be affected by climate change? This depends on the underlying assumptions regarding the future course of global climate change on which ones calculations are based. The researchers in Bayreuth and Stockholm used two different climate change scenarios. One of the two scenarios assumes that climate change will progress moderately and that the IPCC target of 2 degrees Celsius per year will only be slightly missed. The average global temperature would increase by 2.6 degrees Celsius by the year 2100 compared to pre-industrial times. On this assumption, the calculations point to a general trend that will make the climate conditions around the world more favourable for Chikungunya infections.. By contrast, the second scenario assumes that climate change will be left unchecked to a large extent. Here the average global temperature would increase by around 4.6 degrees Celsius by the year 2100 compared to pre-industrial times. In this case, the regions at high risk of ...
There has been an overall decline in copepod populations across the North Atlantic over the past few decades. Reasons for these declines are unclear, and several major species, including the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis, have maintained stable populations at station L4 in the western English Channel. To identify the factors contributing to this stability, we conducted a 1-year intensive study of O. similis at L4 over 2017-2018, a period of high climatic variability. For context, dominant frequency state analysis was applied to the 30-year L4 time series to derive the baseline dynamics of the Oithona spp. population. The Oithona spp. baseline demonstrated stable densities and a bimodal annual cycle. These dynamics, as well as those of reproductive output and phaenological timings, were upheld in 2017-2018, indicating resilience to climatic variability. During 2017-2018, all life stages of O. similis were relatively scarce in the top 2 m of the water column, despite the presence of abundant food.
141 Kahya, E., & Dracup, J. A. (1993). U.S. Streamflow Patterns in Relation to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Water Resources Research 29 (8), 2491 2503. Kaplan, A., Cane, M., Kushnir, Y., Clement, A., Blumenthal, M., & Rajagopalan, B. (1998). Analyses of Global Sea Surface Temperature 1856 1991. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (18), 567 589. Kardioglu, M., Tulunay, Y., & Borham, Y. (1999). Variability of Turkish Precipitation Compared to El Nino Events. Geophysical Research Letters 26 (11), 1597 1600. Kennedy, A. M., Garen, D. C., & Koch, R. W. (2009). The association between climate teleconnection indices and Upper Klamath seasonal streamflow: Trans Nino Index. Hydrological Processes 23 973 984. doi:10.1002/hyp.7200 Kock, R.W., & Fisher, A.R. (2000). Effects of Inter annual and Decadal scale Climate Variability on Winter and Spring Streamflow in western Oregon and Washington. Pro ceedings of the Western Snow Conference (pp. 1 11). Port Angeles, Washington. Martinez, C. J., Risko, S. L., ...
Abstract. Climate, fire and soil nutritional limitation are important elements that affect the vegetation dynamics in areas of forest-savanna transition. In this paper, we use the dynamic vegetation model INLAND to evaluate the influence of climate variability, fire and phosphorus limitation on the Amazon-Cerrado transitional vegetation structure and dynamics. We assess how each element affects the net primary production, leaf area index and biomass and compare the simulations of aboveground biomass to observed biomass map. We used two climate datasets - the 1960-1990 average seasonal climate and the 1948 to 2008 interannual climate variability, two regional datasets of total soil P content in soil, based on regional (field measurements) and global data and the INLAND fire module. Our results show that climate interannual variability, phosphorus limitation and fire occurrence gradually improve simulated vegetation types and these effects are not homogeneous along the latitudinal/longitudinal ...
Dear colleagues The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just released a new report about climate changes Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation IPCCs WGII report. The report finds that climate change has detrimental effects on every continent, it warns about food and water shortages, rising sea levels, and serious impacts on human health and shows that current emission trends mean that the world will start exceeding limits to adaptation in both natural and human systems. For the first time the IPCC health chapter has a dedicated section to gender and covers the co-benefits of mitigating against climate change and improving health. These co-benefits include reducing local pollution and emissions of climate altering pollutants from energy production through shifting to renewables, better combustion and energy efficiency, shifting diets in rich countries to less animal products, redesigning communities to promote active transport and providing access to reproductive health ...
The potential withdrawal of the United States from the Paris climate agreement has broad implications for society and the environment. While much attention has concentrated upon melting glaciers, rising sea levels and conflicts over scarce resources, another area represents a major cause for concern: human health. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global climate change has direct health impacts tied to changes in the frequency of extreme weather events including heat, drought and intense rain. Additionally, increasing temperatures alter ecosystem dynamics, making it easier for mosquitoes and other organisms to come into contact with human populations and spread infectious disease (Smith et al. 2014).
Solve a big problem and get a big reward. Thats how our market economy works. The granddaddy of problems in the 21st century is climate disruption. Our increasingly unstable climate brings unacceptable economic and social risks. Solving that problem means massive global investment in low-carbon energy technologies and infrastructure. The potential rewards are massive.. The threat of climate disruption is clear. The IPCCs (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) recent report - their Fifth Assessment - is but the latest in a series of increasingly urgent warnings from our most august institutions. The Royal Society, the US National Academies of Science, the International Energy Agency, NASA, the Pentagon - all confirm business as usual takes us to a dangerous place. We can no longer stop climate disruption, but we can slow it down - reducing the costs of adaptation: more extreme weather; increasing frequency of floods and droughts; rising ocean levels; food scarcity. The solution is to ...
Posted on 03/22/2014 9:47:13 AM PDT by Oldeconomybuyer. Junk Science: Climate change deniers, as global warm-mongers call those who think empirical evidence is more reliable than computer models, may soon count among their number a 50,000-strong body of physicists. At the risk of being accused of embracing what alarmists call the flat-earth view of climate change, the American Physical Society has appointed a balanced, six-person committee to review its stance on so-called climate change that includes three distinguished skeptics: Judith Curry, John Christy and Richard Lindzen. Their credentials are impressive. Christy is director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama, Huntsville, and was a lead author of the 2001 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Curry is a professor and chairwoman of the School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Lindzen, an Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT from 1983 to 2013, ...
This project compiled, synthesized, and communicated tailored climate change information to NE CASC stakeholders, including Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC), state and federal agencies, and tribal communities. Our mission is to make climate science actionable by getting to know our stakeholders and the decisions they face, and delivering climate information that is directly relevant to their decisions and priorities. Our project team served as a resource to answer individual inquiries related to climate model projections in order to aid climate change adaptation. Additionally, our team contributed to the development of a synthesis document to help the Midwest and Northeast states prepare their threatened wildlife for climate change through their State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs). Other efforts included assisting tribal communities to prepare their landscapes and economies for future climate, as well as helping planners in the region adapt and adjust their infrastructure for the ...
Europe is experiencing wide-ranging changes in average climate and in weather extremes. The magnitude and pace of global climate change in the future depends on the development of society and economies on a global scale. These changes are captured in global socio-economic and climate scenarios. Socio-economic scenarios provide plausible descriptions of possible future states of the world based on the choices made by society - they are not predictions. Global socio-economic scenarios inform greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, which are used by global climate models to provide projections of future climate change at a global scale. These projections can be downscaled, using regional climate models or statistical downscaling techniques, to calculate more detailed climate projections for Europe.. The Global Framework for Climate Services enables better management of the risks of climate variability and change through the development of science-based climate information and prediction, and its ...
Recently, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt and Energy Secretary Rick Perry have called for the establishment of an adversarial Red Team/Blue Team (RT/BT) process to assess the credibility of key findings of climate science. These highly publicized requests echo earlier calls for an RT/BT process by New York University physicist Steven Koonin. The underlying premise is that previous assessments of climate science are untrustworthy, self-serving, underestimate key uncertainties, and lack participation from critical voices. The implicit message in RT/BT requests is simple: only the current administration can conduct a fair and unbiased assessment of climate science.. Both the underlying premise and the implicit message are wrong. Climate science has been reviewed for decades, by the national academies of dozens of countries, relevant professional societies, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and many other entities with real domain expertise. Review processes are arduous. They typically ...
AIR: The Intersection of School Climate and Social and Emotional Development. A deep dive into SELs role in school climate, including SEL frameworks, needs of schools, and measurement. You can use this resource if you are interested in the natural alignment between school climate and SEL programs.. AIR: Measuring School Climate. A review of school climate evaluation systems as a method of assessing school principal performance employing school climate surveys in a novel way.. AIR: Ten Key Ideas for Social Emotional Learning School Climate. Useful if you are seeking actionable steps to build a foundation of mutual support for SEL and school climate.. National School Climate Council: National School Climate Standards. Five standards with indicators and subindicators to improve and promote positive school environments.. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: School Climate and Social and Emotional Learning: The Integration of Two Approaches. A discussion of the mutually beneficial relationship between ...
Climate change is one of the most significant challenges to the Caribbeans future prosperity. The impacts of climate change on economically important sectors such as tourism, agriculture and fishing threaten Caribbean nations ability to achieve their economic and social development goals. By 2050, the costs to the region are expected to reach US$22 bn each year; this represents 10% of regional gross domestic product, based on 2004 figures. Paying for recovery efforts after natural disasters causes significant budgetary pressures and diverts funds from other pressing development issues such as health and education. However, responding to climate challenges is highly complex. Climate change has cross-cutting impacts that span sectors and spatial scales, and involves multiple stakeholders. Delivering effective climate change adaptation is therefore a question of governance.. Bottom-up, community-level approaches are important in meeting the challenges that climate change poses, but in isolation ...
Observed Climate Data. Q. Should I take 1961-90 or 1990 as my baseline?. A. IPCC have usually taken the year 1990 as the baseline year for the presentation of emissions scenarios and for calculations of future climate and sea-level change. 1990 has also been adopted by the UN FCCC in their definition of emissions reductions targets. Choosing a single year as a baseline is appropriate for some applications, but not for others.. With regard to climate, for example, a single year is not appropriate to use as the baseline. Climate variability means that a single year may be unusually warm or cold or dry or wet and does not therefore make a useful reference point for measuring climate change. More common in climatological applications is the use of the average climate over a 30-year period to define the reference or baseline climate. A 30-year climatic average smoothes out many of the year-to-year variations in climate, while the individual 30 years of such a period captures much of the ...
1] The impact of extreme sea ice initial conditions on modelled climate is analysed for a fully coupled atmosphere ocean sea ice general circulation model, the Hadley Centre climate model HadCM3. A control run is chosen as reference experiment with greenhouse gas concentration fixed at preindustrial conditions. Sensitivity experiments show an almost complete recovery from total removal or strong increase of sea ice after four years. Thus, uncertainties in initial sea ice conditions seem to be unimportant for climate modelling on decadal or longer time scales. When the initial conditions of the ocean mixed layer were adjusted to ice- free conditions, a few substantial differences remained for more than 15 model years. But these differences are clearly smaller than the uncertainty of the HadCM3 run and all the other 19 IPCC fourth assessment report climate model preindustrial runs. It is an important task to improve climate models in simulating the past sea ice variability to enable them to make ...
There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitations will be accompanied by warmer temperatures, although climate shifts may also affect the current synchronicity between host cambium activity and pathogen colonization rate. A summary of observed and predicted climate changes, as well as of direct effects of climate change on pathosystems, is provided. Prediction and management of climate change effects on plant health are complicated by indirect effects and the interactions with global change drivers. Uncertainty in models of plant disease development ...
At this point, even if you dont believe humans have anything to do with these extreme weather events which have grown progressively worse, the fact is that the climate is no longer falling within historic parameters from the records that have been kept over the last 116 years. An epic climate event is underway and there are 7 billion people in its path. Our leaders and the captains of industry act as if they are powerless to do anything about it, much less alter our dependence on fossil fuels. In fact, were scrambling to the thawing Arctic to exploit more carbon-rich resources to cook. Nearly all scientists acknowledge that the release of CO2 from humankinds burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution is the primary factor in todays abnormal weather events. And recently, even former Koch-funded climate scientist deniers are changing their tune on the reality of anthropogenic climate change. Its worth repeating the mind-blowing computation that we, the industrialized world, ...
At the core of the Ecology Centers local climate work, there is an understanding of the science and a strong belief that each individual can make a difference. Climate solutions require innovation, and innovation usually starts on a small scale -- like right here in our own backyard.. The Ecology Centers work on climate change and greenhouse gas reduction is strategic, comprehensive, and innovative. Recognizing that local, individualized action is critical to addressing the climate crisis, we started this work with Ann Arbor 350, a project to organize residents to support policies and programs throughout the state that reduces our overall carbon footprint. While Ann Arbor 350 is no longer in operation. Now, we are coordinating the A2 Climate Partnership to implement Ann Arbors Climate Action Plan.. Ann Arbors Climate Action Plan was first created in 2012. While much work has been done, there is a lot of work left to do. ...
Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the worlds mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N -30°S). We analysed decadal-scale trends and s
The Global Climate Change Specialist will provide technical support and advice to USAID field missions and bureaus with strategy development, design, performance monitoring and evaluation of USAID-sponsored climate change programs, particularly those related to climate change adaptation and integration. S/he will be responsible for improving indicators, tools, and guidance related to monitoring the results of USAID climate change programs, in particular climate change adaptation and integration programs. The Specialist will provide quality control on performance reporting, help maintain a system of consolidating performance data, and analyze data for management and communications purposes. S/he will coordinate the collection of contextual data relevant to USAID climate change programs. The Specialist will interact regularly with field missions, provide regular updates on performance monitoring guidance to the field, coordinate with other donor agencies, and help improve and deliver training on ...
Increasingly, climate change impact assessments rely directly on climate models. Assessments of future water security depend in part on how the land model components in climate models partition precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff, and on the sensitivity of this partitioning to climate. Runoff sensitivities are not well constrained, with CMIP5 models displaying a large spread for the present day, which projects onto change under warming, creating uncertainty. Here we show that constraining CMIP5 model runoff sensitivities with observed estimates could reduce uncertainty in runoff projection over the western United States by up to 50%. We urge caution in the direct use of climate model runoff for applications and encourage model development to use regional-scale hydrological sensitivity metrics to improve projections for water security assessments. Model estimates of future hydroclimate are uncertain, especially at the regional scale. This Perspective argues that constraining model runoff and
Description. From Joseph Romm, Chief Science Advisor for National Geographics Years of Living Dangerously series and one of Rolling Stones 100 people who are changing America, Climate Change offers user-friendly, scientifically rigorous answers to the most difficult (and commonly politicized) questions surrounding what climatologist Lonnie Thompson has deemed a clear and present danger to civilization. New questions about climate change addressed in this guide include: - Analysis of the Paris climate agreement, including the United States withdrawal - Implications of the clean energy revolution, from solar and wind power to batteries and electric cars - The latest on climate science, including updates on efforts to stem or slow climate change - Insights into what Donald Trumps presidency means for climate action in the US and internationally As the global response to climate change continues to evolve, Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know® offers smart, unbiased answers to the ...
The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) constitutes a major source of potential predictability in the tropics. The majority of past seasonal prediction studies have concentrated on precipitation anomalies at the seasonal mean timescale. However, fields such as agriculture and water resource management require higher time frequency forecasts of precipitation variability. Regional climate models (RCMs), with their increased resolution, may offer one means of improving general circulation model forecasts of higher time frequency precipitation variability. Part I of this study evaluated the ability of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric model (RCA), forced by analysed boundary conditions, to simulate seasonal mean precipitation anomalies over the tropical Americas associated with ENSO variability. In this paper the same integrations are analysed, with the focus now on precipitation anomalies at subseasonal (pentad) timescales. RCA simulates the climatological annual cycle of pentad-mean ...
Science forms the core of our understanding of the rapidly unfolding climate crisis, as well as the foundation upon which the world can and must build solutions.. Since 2012, the UN Foundation has supported the premiere global climate science body-the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-to build and execute a communications strategy capable of breaking into the mainstream conversation. The IPCCs reports, and our work to communicate them to the public, are indispensable in informing both broad public understanding of the risks we face as well as the decisions that policymakers and elected officials need to make around the world. As we saw with the 2018 Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, the IPCC has the power to permanently shift the global climate conversation through science.. ...
The increasing urgency for developing effective adaptation responses to climate change suggests several research areas: enhancing existing climate risk management, more effective representation of the processes by which key climate drivers impact on agriculture, assessing the effectiveness of adaptation options, understanding likely adoption rates and how to improve these, and developing more resilient agricultural systems.. Agriculture in many regions remains sensitive to climate variability, and the capacity to manage this risk is variable (e.g., ref. 32). Given that climate change will be expressed via changes in variability at several temporal ranges, enhancing the capacity to manage climate risk is a core adaptation strategy (e.g., refs. 10 and 48). Developing this capacity involves increasing the climate knowledge of decision makers so they become more cognizant of climate impacts on their systems and of how to use management options to intervene, thereby reducing negative impacts and ...
Annually resolved coral delta O-18 and Sr/Ca records from southwestern Puerto Rico are used to investigate Caribbean climate variability between 1751 and 2004 C. E. Mean surface ocean temperatures in this region have increased steadily by about 2 degrees C since the year 1751, with Sr/Ca data indicating 2.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C and delta O-18 data indicating 2.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Coral geochemical records from across the tropics demonstrate that regional variability is important for understanding climate variations at centennial time scales. A strong multidecadal salinity signal in the oxygen isotope data correlates with observed multidecadal temperature variations in the Northern Hemisphere. Instrumental wind and precipitation data indicate that the most recent coral isotopic variations are caused by expansion and contraction of the steep regional salinity gradient, forced by trade wind anomalies through meridional Ekman transport. The timing of the fluctuations suggests that the ...
Agder, Norway. In May 2009, a scientific commission declared that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. In June 2015, a second scientific commission concluded that tackling climate change could be the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century.. Both commissions were organized from London, by University College London and one of the top medical journals, The Lancet. This work now continues through a new collaboration launched in November to develop indicators for health and climate change and then to track them until 2030: The Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change.. Norway, as one of the healthiest countries in the world with a long-standing interest in climate change, could have a strong role in global health and climate change research. Yet the topic remains a gap to be filled.. The Lancet Countdown project comprises five groups, the first of which is the health impacts of climate change. These impacts are frequently ...
This post comes from Chantal Bilodeaus Artists and Climate Change Blog. When someone asked me recently what kind of photography I do, my response climate change photography elicited this comment: Oh, you mean chasing glaciers? He was referring, of course, to the documentary film Chasing Ice about still photographer James Balogs Extreme Ice Survey, which provides hauntingly beautiful visual proof of one of the (many) impacts of climate change.. I found myself explaining to this dinner party acquaintance that climate change photography is not limited to melting glaciers or stranded polar bears. Ideally, climate change photography should focus on all aspects of climate change - causes, impacts, mitigation and adaptation. Then he asked me what mitigation was…. Thats when I realized I had some homework to do. I needed a simple definition of climate change photography, one that would resonate with the masses. In short, I needed to develop a 30-second elevator pitch to describe what I do and ...
Read Prognosis of the impact of global climate change on zonal ecosystems of the Volga River Basin, Russian Journal of Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the popular, scientific, and politically directed press, and in all kinds of media, e.g., television debates, fictional films, pseudoscientific programs, and animations for children, global climate change is presented as a future reality as a result of human activity. The contrary perspectives on global climate as a global climate stability or a global climate that is independent of human activity, and global climate dependency on other-than-human (e.g., lunar or solar) activities have not been presented in official press, and have been suppressed in popular and
As a natural scientist Mauritsen is driven by a desire to understand how the climate system works. In this regard less uncertainty around climate sensitivity could help, for instance, confirm and reject competing hypotheses on cloud feedbacks and help unravel the role of aerosol particles in driving climate change. The current level of uncertainty leaves too much room for interpretation. To this end, he wants to employ a holistic approach involving both recent observations, pre-historic climate change indicators (proxies), high-resolution satelite imagery and high-resolution computer simulations. To tie the results together he will develop a hierarchy of climate models that incorporate various scientific hypotheses, such as the iris-effect, which can be tested on the observational data. Mauritsen and many of his scientist colleagues hope that, with such and other complementary efforts, they will reduce the uncertainty in climate sensitivity substantially already within the next five to ten years ...
There is an old trick for remembering the difference between stalactites and stalagmites in a cave: Stalactites hold tight to the ceiling while stalagmites might one day grow to reach the ceiling. Now, it seems, stalagmites might also fill a hole in our understanding of Earths climate system and how that system is likely to respond to the rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since preindustrial times.. Many existing historical climate records are biased to the high latitudes- coming from polar ice cores and North Atlantic deep ocean sediments. Yet a main driver of climate variability today is El Niño, which is a completely tropical phenomenon. All of this begs the question: How do we study such tropical climate influences? The answer: stalagmites.. Stalagmites are the ice cores of the tropics, says Jess Adkins, professor of geochemistry and global environmental science at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He and geochemist Kim Cobb of the Georgia Institute of ...
At the first Log Lunch of the spring semester, Katy Hall, associate professor at Williams-Mystic, and Natalie DiNenno 18 presented Americas Vanishing Coastline: Climate Adaptation and Decision-Making in Southern Louisiana. The presentation was adapted from research DiNenno conducted for Halls marine policy class when she attended Williams-Mystic in spring 2017.. In the talk, Hall and DiNenno gave an overview of the land loss that is currently occurring in Louisiana. In an area that is already subsiding, climate change exacerbates sea level rise, flooding, and storm surge. With no future action, Louisiana could lose up to 2,250 square miles of coastal land in the next 50 years. The options for action are, however, limited. In accordance with the federal Coastal Zone Management Act, Louisiana has developed a Coastal Master Plan, the most recent version of which was approved in 2017. The $50 billion plan lays out projects that are intended to restore, build and maintain land. But as Hall and ...
March 6, 2014 - The National Weather Services Climate Prediction Center has issued an El Niño watch, which means an El Niño may develop this summer or fall. El Niño brings warmer than average ocean surface temperatures across the central and eastern Pacific, which affects the jet stream across North America. Because the jet stream controls storm patterns, this can determine if an area will be drier or wetter than average.. Although El Niño has the most notable effects during the winter season, it also affects weather patterns during the summer. Past research shows that the high plains, including the Black Hills area, tends to be wetter than average from April to October of an El Niño year. Not all El Niños produce this pattern, but there is an enhanced chance of wetter weather across the Black Hills area if an El Niño occurs. Sometimes the wet weather doesnt develop until mid summer, which may happen this year as El Niño may develop slowly. The increased moisture and storminess would ...
Posted on 07/14/2012 7:40:59 AM PDT by Oldeconomybuyer. Rising temperatures caused by climate change may lead to reduced milk production among cows in the southern United States, a new study suggests. University of Washington researchers analyzed climate and dairy industry data and concluded that the effects of climate change on milk production by Holstein cows through 2080 will vary across the United States due to major regional differences in humidity and swings between day and night temperatures. The study concluded that regions that are currently experiencing the greatest losses [in milk production] are also the most susceptible: They are projected to be impacted the most by climate change. Study author Yoram Wanker summed up the findings this way: Cows are happy in parts of Northern California and not in Florida. The study was scheduled for presentation Thursday at the Conference on Climate Change at the University of Washington, in Seattle. The data and conclusions of research ...
The drastically changing climate system plays a critical role in modulating emission and distribution conditions of air pollutants including greenhouse gases, aerosols, and tracer gases, while these air pollutants exert significant feedback to the climate system through multiple biogeophysical, biogeochemical, and hydrological pathways. These interactions occur at different spatial and temporal scales that increase the difficulty for a clear and comprehensive understanding. To shed light on complex interactions between climate variability and air pollution, we used statistical and numerical modeling approaches to investigate the interactive relationship between climate variability and air pollution in the context of severe haze pollution in China and large wildfires worldwide. We identified the key climatic and meteorological forcing factors to the spatial and temporal variations of the two typical air pollution events including severe haze in China during the winter season and biomass burning ...
The researchers say that in the near future more bird species may be imperiled by deforestation than by the change of their habitat due to climate change. But together these two factors will be devastating for bird populations.. This is akin to killing two birds with one stone, says Wilcove of Princeton. Deforestation drives tropical species to extinction and also contributes to global climate change. Climate change, in turn, drives temperate species to extinction. The good news is that by halting deforestation we can protect both tropical and temperate birds.. The researchers say a vastly expanded network of wildlife reserves in the tropics, coupled with more ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and monitor the biodiversity impacts of climate change, will be needed to minimize global extinctions.. The tragic irony here is that the protection of tropical forests is also one of the strongest buffers against future climate change, says Andrew Dobson, the third author of the ...
ndia has taken on a major leadership role in fighting climate change when others are failing, UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres has said.. We have a very solid commitment to climate action, Guterres said on Friday.. We cannot be defeated by climate change and we are not yet winning this battle and the biggest victims of climate change are the developing countries that are members of the Group of 77 (G77).. In a moment when others are failing, he said of the largest economies in the world, the two largest economies of the G77 are strongly committed to the leadership in climate action and I refer to China and India.. He said he saw India and China assuming the leadership in climate action to make sure that we dont suffer the dramatic and devastating impact of climate change, he added.. Guterres was speaking at a ceremony at which Egypt took over the leadership of the G77 from Ecuador.. G77 is a coalition of developing countries that works collectively on development and ...
... is twinned with: Wuhan Chalcis has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), closely bordering a ... "ATHENS (NAT.OBS.) Climate". Retrieved 13 January 2018. "Eubœia" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 8 (9th ed.), 1878, pp. ... semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. List of Catholic dioceses in Greece "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - ...
... the park experiences a more mild climate than Banff. Based on the climate and geography, the park has been divided into ... An emerging drier climate, and forest fires, are resulting in the Interior Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone expanding into the ... The park experiences a continental climate which is characterized by brief, cool summers and long snowy winters, but is ... B.D. Walker and P.L. Achuff (1984). "Climate". Ecological Land Classification of Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. I: ...
Most of the central portion of the country experiences a cool, temperate climate year-round. In the south, a hot, humid climate ... In the severe climate of the north, there is only about 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of annual precipitation-primarily snow. In the ... The climate is humid and subtropical in the southern plains and foothills, temperate in the inner Himalayan valleys of the ... Climate. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.CS1 maint: postscript (link) Robert L. ...
"Climate". Retrieved 2020-03-18. "Tobago's Reefs - Buccoo Reef Trust". Retrieved 2020-03-18. Hassanali, ... "Tobago's coral bleaching alert makes it clear there is 'no alternative' to fighting the climate crisis · Global Voices". Global ...
By Köppen climate classification, the flatter parts of eastern Austria has a warm temperate humid climate (Cfb), the west and ... "Climate". Austria. Retrieved 2020-10-26. "Southern Europe: The Alps of northern Italy, southern France, Switzerland, and ... central foothills have a humid snow climate (Dfb), and the mountainous areas are classified as subarctic (Dfc), tundra (ET), or ...
... climate; agriculture and commercial products; geology, zoology, and botany; mineralogy, mines, and mining processes; ...
The climate of Arantina is characterized, according to the IBGE, as tropical (type Cwb according to the Köppen climate ... "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Retrieved 22 July 2013. "Climate". Brazilian Government (in Portuguese ... "Brazil - Climates". IBGE Library (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2013. " ...
... has a tropical wet and dry climate with hot, dry summers and mild to cool winters. Summer lasts from March to June, ... "Climate". Government of Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Microsoft Word - CSP ...
"Climate". Canadian Climate Normals 1981−2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 17 July 2016. "Daily Data Report for January 1930 ... Meadow Lake experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) that falls just short of being classified as a ... "Meadow Lake 2". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 17 July 2016. "Meadow Lake". Canadian Climate Data. ... "Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2009-09-06. "2016 Census Profile". Statistics Canada. ...
Stewart, Alex; Alexander Stewart (2004). "Climate". Kilimanjaro: A Trekker's Guide. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 1-85284-413-2 ...
... climate; volcanoes; relationships among plants, animals, and mankind; evolution; and the beauty of nature. In the second part, ...
The mountain blanket bogs formed around 4,000 years ago as a result of a combination of climate change and human activity. ... A change in the climate to wetter and milder weather left the ground waterlogged and leached nutrients from the soil, leading ... "Climate". Wicklow Mountains National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Nairn & Crowley 1998, p ... In common with the rest of Ireland, the Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate oceanic climate with mild, damp summers and ...
The climate of the city is characterized as a humid subtropical climate with seasonal monsoons with ample rainfall evenly ... "Climate". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 臺灣地區鄉鎮市區級以上行政區域
Climate. 6 (4): 88. doi:10.3390/cli6040088. Danielson, M.; Ekenberg, L.; Ekengren, A.; Hökby, T.; Lidén, J. (2008). "Decision ...
Housing discrimination has led to climate differences between neighborhoods. A study found that formerly redlined neighborhoods ... Climate. 8 (1): 12. doi:10.3390/cli8010012. Shindell, Drew; Zhang, Yuqiang; Scott, Melissa; Ru, Muye; Stark, Krista; Ebi, ...
"Climate". Retrieved 2018-12-19. Extreme Temperatures Around the World - world highest lowest temperatures ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "The 6 climate zones of China". ClimateList. Retrieved 2018-12-19. Krishna, K. R. (2015-01-28 ... is one of the few locations in China with a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc),) with long, severe winters, and short, warm summers ...
As a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere speeds up the effects of climate change. As automobile use increases ... The flat topography and temperate climate of the Netherlands benefits active mobility, which has been supported by government ... Brand, Christian (2021). "The climate change mitigation effects of daily active travel in cities". doi:10.1016/j.trd. ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Brand, Christian (2021). "The climate change mitigation impacts of active travel: ...
The province has a monsoonal climate, with a cool season from November to March, a hot season from March to May, and a rainy ... "Climate". Tourism of Cambodia. 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2008. "SEA-USER News". Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. " ... "Welcome".[permanent dead link] "Cambodia: Changing Climate Leads to Increase in Malaria and Other Diseases". Oxfam ... this increase has been attributed to changes in climate. Malaria is hyperendemic in Kratié's forests. The provincial infant ...
"Climate". CHELSA climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (Version 1.1). World Data Center for ... Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. doi:10.1594/wdcc/chelsa_v1_1. Panagos, Panos; Liedekerke, Marc Van; Jones, Arwyn; Montanarella, Luca ( ...
Under the Köppen climate classification, Aloor features a tropical monsoon climate. The region lies in the southwestern coastal ... "Climate". Kerala Government. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged ... state of Kerala, resulting in a tropical climate; there are only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, and ...
"Ventnor Climate". YR.NO. Retrieved 9 November 2011. "St Catherines Pt. Climate". UK Meteorological Office. Retrieved 11 April ... The climate and habitats in Ventnor support species that are rare in the UK, including some that are particularly associated ... "Ventnor's special micro-climate is helping to secure national stocks of a plant belonging to the Pineapple family". Isle of ... Ventnor and the Isle of Wight have a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The Met Office maintains a weather ...
"Australian Climate Averages - Climate classifications". "Climate statistics for 'GEELONG SEC' 1870-1970". ... "Weather/Climate/Light". Film Geelong website. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-24. "Climate". ... It has a temperate oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen climate classification) with dominant westerly winds, variable clouds, ... "Climate Averages for AVALON AIRPORT". Bureau of Meteorology website. Retrieved 25 December 2007. "vic_aarf.gif (640x600 pixels ...
Hittell, John Shertzer (1869). The resources of California: comprising agriculture, mining, geography, climate, &c., and the ... The natural wealth of California: comprising early history; geography, topography, and scenery; climate; agriculture and ...
However, the climate of the Gobi is one of great extremes, combined with rapid changes of temperature of as much as 35 °C (63 ° ... "Climate". The Gobi Desert. B Ford, Too Big to Walk (London 2018) p. 216 Keqin, Gao; Norell, Mark A. (2000-03-01). "Taxonomic ... This is mostly due to the climate conditions before the growing season, which influence the rate of evapotranspiration and ... The Gobi, broadly defined, can be divided into five distinct dry ecoregions, based on variations in climate and topography: ...
Global climate change: Increased seasonal rainstorms (various extreme weather effects). Cities in Niger have poor planning and ... Roudier, P.; Ducharne, A.; Feyen, L. (2014-07-31). "Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review". Hydrology and ... Assessing the effects of urban development and climate change on flooding in the Greater Port-Harcourt watershed, Niger Delta, ... Climate. 6 (3): 59. doi:10.3390/cli6030059. ISSN 2225-1154. "Lester, Maya Elizabeth Jane, (born 22 Aug. 1974), QC 2016", Who's ...
World Climate. Lemolo Lake 3 NNW Weather Station. Retrieved 8 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Lemolo Lake ...
Climate change mitigation Climate change mitigation scenarios Energy modeling Energy Modeling Forum, and in particular EMF22 ... The DDPP rejects an incrementalist approach to climate protection. Instead, meeting the climate change mitigation challenge (as ... Gillis, Justin (1 December 2015). "A Path Beyond the Paris Climate Change Conference". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-12-01 ... Climate Policy. 16 (S1): S1-S6. doi:10.1080/14693062.2016.1179620. The PDF is open access. Pye, Steve; Bataille, Chris (2016 ...
Under the Köppen climate classification Goryachy Klyuch has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). The rainfall is significant ... "Climate-data". Retrieved October 14, 2013. "Climatebase". Retrieved June 9, 2012. Управление по взаимодействию с органами ...
... creating the new Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. Australia portal Global Warming portal Climate change in ... Following the 2007 federal election, the functions of AGO were split between the new Department of Climate Change and the ... "Climate Australia". Retrieved 19 February 2021. Official website Archive v t e v t e. ... managed Australia's response to climate change, and provided government-sanctioned information to the public. Writer Guy Pearse ...
The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers. Samos' relief is dominated ... "Samos Climate". Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 15 October ... Samos has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild winters and hot summers. In classical antiquity, the island was a ... "Climate Data for Samos". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012. "Samos (island, Greece) - ...
... providing clear information to help people make sound decisions about the climate. ... Climate Central bridges the scientific community and the public, ... Climate Science Data-driven research and reporting that makes ... Members of the Climate Central staff and board are among the most respected leaders in climate science. Staff members are ... Climate Central surveys and conducts scientific research on climate change and informs the public of key findings. Our ...
... is one of the key summits in the international calendar and has been driving climate action forward since it ... About The Climate Group. The Climate Groups mission is to accelerate climate action to achieve a world of under 2°C of global ... About Climate Week NYC. Climate Week NYC is the time and place where the world gathers to showcase amazing climate action and ... Climate Week NYC Media Portal This year we have introduced a Climate Week Media Portal - you can log in here to find all the ...
Debate around climate change frequently hinges on religion, particularly Evangelicalism. To many scientists and scholars, ... How climate change became a question of faith Debate around climate change frequently hinges on religion, particularly ... Citing analysis from thousands of studies, the nations climate assessment offers not just a dire warning about what climate ... Test your knowledge Climate change: Is your opinion informed by science? Take our quiz! By Bryan Cronan Staff writer ...
Current news and data streams about global warming and climate change from NASA. ... Play and Learn: Climate Kids NASAs Climate Kids website brings the exciting science of climate change and sustainability to ... Climate Time Machine Travel through Earths recent climate history and see how increasing carbon dioxide, global temperature ... What is Climate Change?. Evidence. How do we know climate change is real? ...
Climate change Changes in the earths climate are having substantial effects on forest ecosystems and may reduce the ability of ... Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science. The Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science develops synthesis products, ... NIACS leads the USDA Northern Forests Climate Hub, which part of the broader network of USDA Climate Hubs ...
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The Forest Service & Climate Change. U.S. Forest Service Chief Tom Tidwell. Climate change is one of the great challenges of ... Many of you already know a lot about climate change and are familiar with the concepts and consequences. For some of you, this ... Message from U.S. Forest Service: One of the most significant issues the Forest Service faces is the effects of climate change ...
Climate models[edit]. See also: Climate model and Climatology. Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the ... Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates. Climate change may occur over long and short ... Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.[9] ... "Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-05-14.. *^ "Climate averages". Met Office. ...
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... is dedicated to publishing the most significant research across the physical and social sciences on the ... impacts of global climate change and its implications for the economy, policy and the world at large. ... Climate and epidemiological models estimate that reducing aerosols in a warmer climate can enhance atmospheric ventilation, ... Nature Climate Change is making changes to our article formats to streamline our content and more clearly denote original ...
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... is dedicated to publishing the most significant research across the physical and social sciences on the ... impacts of global climate change and its implications for the economy, policy and the world at large. ... Climate change beliefs and perceptions Belief in climate change is shaped by complex factors. See research on how political ... Climate connections The climate crisis highlights just how connected the world is. But understanding the changes cascading ...
Climate restoration enhances legacy climate goals (stabilizing earths climate) to include ensuring the survival of humanity by ... Worldward Foundation for Climate Restoration Global Coalition for Climate Restoration Lindsey, Rebecca (2020-08-14). "Climate ... "limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change". Advocates of climate restoration accept that climate change has ... Play media Climate restoration is the climate change goal and associated actions to restore CO 2 to levels humans have survived ...
These include humid subtropical climate, Mediterranean climate, oceanic, and continental climate. These are the climates that ... Subpolar oceanic climates are less prone to temperature extremes than subarctic climates or continental climates, featuring ... "Latitude & Climate Zones". The Environmental Literacy Council. Retrieved 15 July 2017. "Patterns of Climate". Weather-climate. ... tundra and ice cap climate). Areas with subpolar oceanic climates feature an oceanic climate but are usually located closer to ...
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This includes climatology, climate change impacts, climate change management, climate change policy, regional climate studies, ... Springer Climate is an interdisciplinary book series dedicated to climate research. ... This includes climatology, climate change impacts, climate change management, climate change policy, regional climate studies, ... Springer Climate is an interdisciplinary book series dedicated to climate research. ...
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To plot your own charts or maps of various climate data for particular areas across the country, try using NCDCs U.S. Climate ... The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) also has many types of available data. Take a look at their Monitoring and Data Index page. ... During periods where there is a neutral phase of El Niño or La Niña events and related climate impacts are less evident with ... There are many other types of specific climate data from the various products listed on the left selection menu with this tool ...
The Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change seems to have had enough of your bullshit and there are no words minced in its ... IPCC found: Warming of climate is unequivocal with many of the observed changes unprecedented over decades to millennia; The ... a group of Iowa scientists popped by the state capitol here a couple of weeks ago to talk about the effects of climate change ... but we would not blame climate change, not in the real sense of actually doing anything about it. Anyway, youve now got smart ...
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  • January 28, 2020 - During this year's Christmas Bird Count on Key West, the impacts of climate change were impossible to ignore. (
  • The impacts of climate change will magnify these pressures and accelerate coastal erosion. (
  • Most of the country s tourism plant is in its coastal habitat, making the product extremely vulnerable to the impacts of Climate Change. (
  • The impacts of Climate Change can impact the country s famed Queen Conch and the Spiny Lobster. (
  • While Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), including TCI, contributes less than 1% to Global Green House Gas Emissions, they bear the greatest burden to the multiple impacts of Climate Change. (
  • The impacts of climate change are particularly devastating for poor and vulnerable people especially dependent on their environment and natural resources for sustainable development. (
  • By 2050, according to the World Bank's recently launched "Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration" report, more than 143 million people in three regions , Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South Asia, could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change, such as water stress and crop failure. (
  • In its summary report on the impacts of climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated, "Taken as a whole, the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time. (
  • For specific information on the projected impacts of climate change in the United States, see the National Assessment Report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. (
  • We're winning, but we must move faster still to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. (
  • In today's environment, businesses can no longer ignore the physical, market and regulatory impacts of climate change. (
  • The Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change seems to have had enough of your bullshit and there are no words minced in its latest warning to us all. (
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (
  • Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (
  • Lomborg also misrepresents some conclusions of the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . (
  • The president is embracing climate change deniers so hardcore it would be comical if it weren't tragic. (
  • May 14, 2020 - A new regional project, Climate Adaptation and Resilience for South Asia, will help make agriculture, transport, and other pandemic-ravaged sectors more resilient to climate change. (
  • May 12, 2020 - The World Bank Board approved a $39.5 million project to help South Asia build resilience to climate threats by sharing regional knowledge, developing regional standards and guidelines for infrastructure, and promoting climate adaptation policies. (
  • December 12, 2019 - In Audubon's first foray into climate fiction, or cli-fi, we asked writers of compelling-and sometimes strange-fiction to imagine what climate chaos will bring for birds and people. (
  • As 2019 comes to a close, Congress has one more chance to pass legislation that will help fight climate change. (
  • Nov. 11, 2019 - The World Bank's South Asia Regional Climate Adaptation and Resilience Program (SARCAR) is equipping governments with data and evidence to tackle climate change threats. (
  • CP covers all temporal scales of climate change and variability, from geological time through to multidecadal studies of the last century. (
  • Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. (
  • Model ensembles show that the observed trend can arise from internal variability but their gradient weakens in the long term, causing more climate warming. (
  • You should also keep in mind that other factors may influence the large-scale circulations and weather patterns, contributing to the climate variability for a particular period. (
  • During periods where there is a neutral phase of El Niño or La Niña events and related climate impacts are less evident with potentially more average conditions, other smaller scale examples of climate variability including the AO become more significant in providing outlooks for future conditions. (
  • One of the greatest impacts of climate variability and climate change occurs through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. (
  • The Copernicus Climate Change service aims to respond to environmental and societal challenges associated with climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. (
  • This page is produced with the support of Managing Climate Variability - a consortium of primary industry research and development corporations. (
  • After harmonizing statistical specifications and standardizing estimated effect sizes within each conflict category, we carry out a hierarchical meta-analysis that allows us to estimate the mean effect of climate variation on conflict outcomes as well as to quantify the degree of variability in this effect size across studies. (
  • Some of the leading figures from the world of business will also come together to make a series of announcements and commitments in an urgent bid to accelerate climate action and achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. (
  • Through our ground breaking OneNYC strategy and our ambitious 1.5˚C Plan, we've committed our city to hit the highest goals of the Paris climate agreement. (
  • The Trump administration tried to remove the phrase "climate change" from an international statement on Arctic policy while Senate Republicans refused to take up a bill on the Paris climate agreement. (
  • What Paris Climate Deal? (
  • Was The Paris Climate Deal A Success? (
  • In Paris, the climate conference tackles another global threat. (
  • John Kerry, one of the leading architects of the Paris climate agreement, is getting one more chance to lead the fight against climate change after President-elect Joe Biden named the longtime senator and former secretary of state as climate envoy for national security. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - President Donald Trump railed against the Paris climate accord on Sunday, telling world leaders at a virtual summit that the agreement was designed to cripple the U.S. economy, not save the planet. (
  • And nations around the world are committed to delivering on a landmark global plan to curb climate change, known as the Paris Agreement . (
  • There is still a gap between what countries pledged to do in the Paris Agreement and what scientists say is needed to avert climate catastrophe. (
  • The Paris Agreement is the world's collective response to addressing climate change in the years to come. (
  • 1. The Paris Climate Conference (COP21)  France will host the 21st United Nations Climate Conference (COP21 Paris) on Nov30- Dec11, 2015, in Paris. (
  • 5 billion After the United States withdrew from the Paris climate agreement, we responded by issuing a US$1 billion green bond for environmental projects, bringing our total commitment to US$2.5 billion. (
  • At the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference, delegates from 196 countries signed the Paris Agreement aimed at reducing carbon emissions and thus halting the destructive effects of global warming. (
  • The Paris agreement is significant in terms of politics and economics, but religious leaders have also voiced support of the agreement, and clearly a move is underway to make climate change and environmental responsibility an integral part of contemporary religious life and practice. (
  • In the buildup to the November 30-December 11 United Nations climate summit in Paris (21st Conference of the Parties: COP21), climate alarmists are determined to end intellectual debate over the enhanced greenhouse effect, strong arm private-sector parties into belief and activism, and hand billy clubs to 195 world governments. (
  • Residential street trees are affected by stresses such as pests and diseases, increased temperatures, and extreme weather events that can be compounded by climate change. (
  • A new community science program explores how North American birds are responding to climate change. (
  • Explore how birds are responding to climate change. (
  • New York's most famous buildings will go green on the eve of the Opening Ceremony of Climate Week NYC, Sunday September 23, 2018. (
  • Event attribution methods estimate that two extreme mass-loss years in the New Zealand Southern Alps, 2011 and 2018, were at least six and ten times more likely with anthropogenic climate warming. (
  • A first peer-reviewed article about climate restoration was published in April 2018 by the Rand Corporation. (
  • An independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public. (
  • Our scientists publish and our journalists report on climate science, energy, sea level rise. (
  • Every four years, the nation's scientists from myriad federal agencies come together to release a comprehensive report synthesizing the current state of climate science. (
  • Though to many scientists and scholars, the pitting of climate science and religion against each other is a smokescreen, and an oversimplification. (
  • and whereas declaring a goal of restoring a safe and healthy climate will encourage scientists to research the most effective ways to restore safe CO2 levels, stop sea-level rise, and restore a safe and healthy climate for future generations. (
  • What if there were an organic technology that could cut greenhouse emissions in half and literally suck down and sequester carbon dioxide in living soil - bringing the total amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere down to 350 ppm - the level scientists warn us we must acheive in order to avert a climate catastrophe? (
  • In the face of those who continue to deny climate change, 375 leading scientists who are members of the National. (
  • As it happens, a group of Iowa scientists popped by the state capitol here a couple of weeks ago to talk about the effects of climate change on this state, which does not yet have any beachfront property to worry about, although we may be able to surf Ottumwa sometime in the future, if the UN panel is correct. (
  • This solution is supported by leading climate scientists and economists as an effective, efficient approach. (
  • All posts are written or reviewed by Earth and climate scientists. (
  • BERLIN (AP) - A "climate guardian" satellite set for launching this weekend will greatly help scientists keep track of the rise in sea levels, one of the most daunting effects of global warming, a senior official at the European Space Agency said Friday. (
  • When I tagged along with one of the leading global warming "skeptics" at the international climate talks in Copenhagen last November, I attended a strategy session on how to capitalize on the thousands of e-mails that had been stolen from climate scientists just weeks before. (
  • Some of the leading scientists on the Essential Climate Variables explain just what they are measuring within their project, why they need it and what it is good for. (
  • Scientists use climate indices in their attempt to characterize and understand the various climate mechanisms that culminate in our daily weather. (
  • Using historical and natural records, scientists have been able to measure the Earth's past climate. (
  • As scientists continue to challenge and improve the quality and understanding of climate records and models, skepticism by scientists conducting such research is alive and well. (
  • Combined with innovations in clean energy and other efforts to decarbonize the world's economies, natural climate solutions offer some of our best options in the response to climate change. (
  • An Asia-Pacific climate change agreement was a milestone because it marked the first time the world's biggest polluters had pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions, Australia's Prime Minister said on Sunday. (
  • The unique contribution of Laudato Si' is that it is a big and bold statement that is seeking to make the environment a focal point of religious and theological reflection, a dramatic move that may keep the world's attention focused on climate change and environmental responsibility in a more long-term, sustainable way. (
  • On October 23rd, ninety-two of the world's largest banks will meet in São Paolo, Brazil to discuss policies on the climate and Indigenous People's rights to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC). (
  • Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. (
  • The Thornthwaite system, [4] in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and how climate change affects it. (
  • This causes the climate to have cool summers and cool (but not cold) winters, and relative humidity and precipitation evenly distributed along the year. (
  • Climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among other effects, that occur over several decades or longer. (
  • The central southern area of the interior plains has a typical continental climate-very cold winters, hot summers, and relatively sparse precipitation. (
  • Climate change refers to any major and sustained change in factors affecting the global climate system, such as surface and ocean temperatures, precipitation patterns, and atmospheric conditions. (
  • The challenges posed by climate change, such as more intense storms, frequent heavy precipitation, heat waves, drought, extreme flooding, and higher sea levels could significantly alter the types and magnitudes of hazards faced by communities and the emergency management professionals serving them. (
  • Join Canada's Energy [R]evolution and support renewable energy to fight climate change. (
  • Broadcasting September 16-17, we will be exploring 24 reasons to be hopeful about solving the climate crisis. (
  • There is no climate crisis, there's weather and climate all around the world, and in fact carbon dioxide is the main building block of all life," Patrick Moore said as a guest on 'Fox & Friends' on Tuesday. (
  • U.S. forests are in crisis as climate change, pests and pathogens all pose threats to its native trees. (
  • Learn how the climate crisis impacts our health, our weather, our food supply, and our coastal cities - and what we can do to help reverse it. (
  • Schools can take a systems-thinking approach to engage in evidence-based science investigations in efforts to reduce their overall carbon footprint and, through collaboration, design resilience and mitigation solutions to the climate crisis. (
  • EPA is restoring the role of science in addressing the climate crisis. (
  • C2025 works to enable the continued and sustained growth of social movements effecting change and fighting the climate crisis. (
  • Rebuild Maryland is committed to fostering, cultivating and preserving a culture of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion so that all Marylanders can participate in combating the climate crisis. (
  • The current mitigation pathway leaves the risk that conditions will go beyond adaptation and abrupt climate change will be upon us. (
  • This interdisciplinary program provides the latest publications on monitoring, modeling, risk analysis, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, and is intended for academic researchers and professional organizations, as well as governmental bodies. (
  • I then describe advances in recent years, such as parameterization of climate variables from a social perspective, nonlinear models with spatial and temporal displacement, characterizing uncertainty, measurement of adaptation, cross-study comparison, and use of empirical estimates to project the impact of future climate change. (
  • The TCI government is seeking to include climate change adaptation strategies into the disaster management system of the Turks and Caicos Islands in a region-wide collaborative effort that is expected to prepare vulnerable Caribbean nations for the effects of climate change. (
  • The service will give access to information for monitoring, predicting and attributing climate change and will help improve adaptation and mitigation policies. (
  • Together with the IUCN Regional Office for Mesoamerica, the ELC has been implementing a project entitled "Climate Change Governance Capacity: Building regionally and nationally tailored ecosystem-based adaptation in Mesoamerica" in Costa Rica, Panama, El Salvador and Mexico since 2010. (
  • Major progress has been made in the past years on field demonstration of climate change adaptation measures in project countries. (
  • These data can be used to document changes over place and time, monitor vulnerable areas, and evaluate the results of local climate-adaptation strategies. (
  • CRE shares NEP examples to help other coastal managers, and provides technical guidance and assistance about climate change adaptation. (
  • Find resources for the water utility sector to adapt to climate change by promoting a clear understanding of climate science and adaptation options. (
  • In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. (
  • In temperate climates, not only do latitudinal positions influence temperature changes, but sea currents, prevailing wind direction, continentality (how large a landmass is), and altitude also shape temperate climates. (
  • The Köppen climate classification defines a climate as "temperate" when the mean temperature is above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the coldest month. (
  • However, other climate classifications set the minimum at 0 °C (32.0 °F). The north temperate zone extends from (approximately 23.5° north) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude). (
  • In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on monthly temperatures, the coldest month, and rainfall. (
  • These are the climates that are typically found toward the more equatorial portion of the temperate zone between 23.5° and 35° north or south, and thus are far more influenced by the tropics than any other temperate climate type, usually having warmer temperatures over the year, longer summers and mild, short winters. (
  • These climates occur in the middle latitudes, between approximately 23.5° and 66.5° north, and 23° and 66.5° south, and are the ones with the most equal influence from the equator and the poles, and the most prototypical temperate climates with the typical distinct four-season pattern. (
  • These climates are frequently cloudy, and are fairly milder both in winter and summer in comparison to other temperate climates. (
  • The annual climate ranges from months of dry temperate weather during winter to humid subtropical weather interspersed with drier periods of hot weather during summer. (
  • NASA's Climate Kids website brings the exciting science of climate change and sustainability to life, providing clear explanations for the big questions in climate science. (
  • Climate Ride is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that organizes life-changing charitable events to raise awareness and support sustainability, active transportation, and environmental causes. (
  • Designed to inspire, participants have the opportunity to meet and network with individuals doing great work in the sustainability, green energy, climate, conservation, and active transportation fields. (
  • That's odd," the senator said, noting that there are frequent stories in numerous news outlets about what he called "the immediate and drastic results of climate change on species' diversity, on human sustainability, on deaths from air pollution, on all kinds of things. (
  • Addressing this challenge, the ELC and the IUCN Eastern and Southern African Regional Office in conjunction with authorities and stakeholders at a national level in Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia undertook an effort in building national capacity to adapt biodiversity and natural resource laws and governance to climate change, as well as to identify and enhance synergies in international biodiversity and natural resource law and policy. (
  • We can help species adapt to our changing world by ensuring that our own responses to climate change factor in the health and wellbeing of the habitat and resources on which they depend. (
  • We conclude by highlighting remaining challenges in this field and the approaches we expect will be most effective at solving them, including identifying mechanisms that link climate to conflict, measuring the ability of societies to adapt to climate changes, and understanding the likely impacts of future global warming. (
  • The crops, natural vegetation, and domesticated and wild animals (including seafood) that sustain people in a given area may be unable to adapt to local or regional changes in climate. (
  • the countries most vulnerable to global warming's most serious side effects are among the poorest and least able to pay for the medical and social services and technological solutions that will be needed to adapt to climate change. (
  • To stay healthy and vigorous, our National Forests and Grasslands will need to adapt quickly to the changing climate. (
  • Organic agriculture provides management practices that can help farmers adapt to climate change through strengthening agro-ecosystems, diversifying crop and livestock production, and building farmers' knowledge base to best prevent and confront changes in climate. (
  • Cal-Adapt isn't pulling punches on the climate controversy. (
  • Humid subtropical climates generally have long, hot and humid summers with convective showers in summer and a peak seasonal rainfall in the hottest months. (
  • Winters are normally mild in the humid subtropics, and warm ocean currents normally are found in coastal areas with humid subtropical climates. (
  • In some areas with a humid subtropical climate (most notably southeast China and North India), there is an even sharper wet-dry season, called subtropical monsoon or Cwa. (
  • Mediterranean climates, opposite to the humid subtropical and monsoonal climates, have a dry summer, with rainfall in the winter and cooler months. (
  • These are variants of the subtropical climates found in high altitude plateaus or montane systems either in the tropics or subtropics, they have characteristically mild temperatures year-round, featuring the four seasons in the subtropics and no marked seasons in the tropics, the latter usually remaining mild to cool through most of the year. (
  • As it is already too late to rely entirely on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to safeguard biodiversity and livelihoods from climate impacts, governments and institutions will need to develop adaptive capacity in order to ensure resilience of humans and natural resources. (
  • The framework of this study distills nature's full climate potential into 20 mitigation pathways. (
  • In 2000, forty land-use and forestry projects had been implemented in order to contribute to climate change mitigation. (
  • All of our work to address climate change will, of course, mean that we need more people and resources on our side. (
  • In a follow-up article, I will address a frequently overlooked tool for helping to address climate change. (
  • Abruzzo also said that Pennsylvania is doing "its fair share" to address climate change, and that he does not believe there is anything else the DEP should do, under his tenure, to combat it. (
  • The two-week COP21 United Nations climate change conference began Monday. (
  • in November, a group of academics, advisors and expert analysts convened to discuss the implications of the United Nations climate conference (COP21). (
  • Changes in the earth's climate are having substantial effects on forest ecosystems and may reduce the ability of forests to provide important environmental benefits. (
  • The Northern Forests Climate Hub assists natural resource managers, woodland owners, and others interested in forests to integrate climate change information into planning, decision making, and management activities. (
  • Tools to help professionals consider the potential effects of climate change on forests, and to design actions that can help ecosystems cope under changing conditions. (
  • Already, freshwater supplies are shrinking, agricultural yields are dropping, our forests are burning, and rising oceans are more acidic-all, in part, due to a warming climate. (
  • We need to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century to keep global temperature increases under 2°C. While most efforts toward this goal have been focused on reducing fossil fuel use, new science shows that natural climate solutions-based on the conservation, restoration and management of forests, grasslands and wetlands-can deliver up to a third of the emission reductions needed by 2030. (
  • The pathways span three biomes-forests, grasslands (including agricultural lands and rangelands) wetlands (including peatlands, seagrass and mangroves) and climate reduction practices based on conservation, restoration and land management. (
  • The Forest Service is incorporating the best ecological and climate science into its management to ensure that National Forests continue to produce the benefits that the American people enjoy. (
  • Healthy forests and grasslands will also help mitigate climate change by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in plants and soils. (
  • How does climate change affect forests and grasslands? (
  • Climate and weather drive the ebb and flow of life, making rivers run, crops grow, and forests flourish. (
  • In addition, NYC & Company, who are supporting Climate Week NYC and helped light the skyline green, have provided space for a major marketing campaign across New York City, including advertisement on LinkNYC screens that raise awareness of what people can do to take climate action. (
  • Here in New York, we're taking bold action on climate. (
  • The Climate Group's mission is to accelerate climate action to achieve a world of under 2°C of global warming. (
  • Climate Week NYC is the time and place where the world gathers to showcase amazing climate action and discusses how to do more. (
  • Join us for 24 Hours of Reality, the fourth annual live-streaming multimedia event dedicated to sparking action on climate change. (
  • Go to to find out why we're so optimistic about the future, and help us ensure that progress is our new reality by signing up to dedicate a day for climate action in the next year. (
  • Actors are wearing green ribbons to the Emmys in support of climate action. (
  • Synergistically addressing local and global environmental damages rather than optimizing a specific aspect of the policy conundrum helps to effectively foster climate action in road transport while maintaining public acceptance and socially fair outcomes. (
  • Anticipating the need to act swiftly and dramatically, TNC in Nevada added capacity for staff dedicated entirely to climate action. (
  • Eco-Schools USA's School-Based Carbon Calculator worksheet allows students to enter data from the school's climate change audit, calculate carbon emissions before and after taking action, and provide visual tools in the form of charts and graphs to be utilized during classroom instruction and to illustrate classroom and/or school success. (
  • 1. To get started, preview the sample action plan for the Climate Change pathway. (
  • This week President Donald Trump signed an executive order undoing climate action regulations like the Clean Power. (
  • If you've been thinking there should be a march for climate action after the success of the Women's March on. (
  • Two organizations backed by Hollywood star power recently announced a partnership to pursue climate action. (
  • Sutherland Climate Action Network helps raise awareness about climate change and promotes strong action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across Sutherland Shire, New South Wales, Australia and the world. (
  • People around the world are calling on leaders to take action on climate change. (
  • The good news is that America's leading businesses, along with our city and state leaders, are taking the lead on climate action. (
  • Without urgent action, climate change impacts could push an additional 100 million people into poverty by 2030. (
  • Without urgent action to reduce vulnerability, provide access to basic services, and build resilience, climate change impacts could push an additional 100 million people into poverty by 2030 . (
  • Climate action is a vast opportunity for sustainable global development, with investment potential in the trillions of dollars and the ability to drive innovation and create green industries and new jobs. (
  • On December 14, at the University of Maryland College Park campus, a coalition of advocacy groups large and small - faith leaders, labor activists, environmental groups, and others - will be hosting an exciting one-day conference called Rebuild Maryland: Climate Action Summit. (
  • This form was created inside of Chesapeake Climate Action Network. (
  • Because the fact is that if we don't take action in a timely fashion at the scale that we need, climate has the potential to wipe out the progress we have made over the past 20 years in economic development, in social development and in environmental protection. (
  • Greenpeace pressures the Canadian government and mobilizes citizens to demand action on climate change. (
  • People have measured the Earth's temperature and amount of rainfall since the mid-1800s, providing a snapshot of the climate for the last 150 years. (
  • They occur mostly at the western edges and coasts of the continents and are bounded by arid deserts on their equatorward sides that cause the dry season of summer, and oceanic climates to the poleward sides that are influenced by cool ocean currents and air masses that bring the rainfall of winter. (
  • This website provides comprehensive and timely information about climate and weather extremes of temperature and rainfall. (
  • Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or wind patterns lasting for many years. (
  • Members of the Climate Central staff and board are among the most respected leaders in climate science. (
  • Guided by science, our journalists tell compelling stories of climate change impacts and solutions. (
  • Data-driven research and reporting that makes climate science local and advances understanding of climate change impacts. (
  • That fear likely stems from a general skepticism of climate science that runs through the Trump administration. (
  • It's the most comprehensive and up to date report on climate science in the world at this point," says Katharine Hayhoe, an atmospheric scientist at Texas Tech University who was one of the authors of the report. (
  • Climate change: Is your opinion informed by science? (
  • That message conflicts with ideas put forth by many members of the Trump administration, which has taken a more skeptical view of climate science. (
  • Climate science has been very deliberately framed as an alternate religion," says Dr. Hayhoe, who also directs Texas Tech's Climate Science Center and is an Evangelical who has engaged deeply with faith communities around the issue of climate science. (
  • The dispute over Darwin planted a seed, and the evolution argument set the groundwork for the current climate science argument," says Michael Altman, professor of religious studies at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. (
  • But once it became an issue of global climate change, Ms. Vox notes that evangelists like the bestselling author Hal Lindsey denounced climate science as a scam "being used to to consolidate the governments of the world into a coalition that may someday facilitate the rise of the Antichrist. (
  • Targeting upper-elementary-aged children, the site includes interactive games, hands-on activities, and engaging articles that make climate science accessible and fun. (
  • Examine Earth processes, witness dramatic geological forces at work, and discuss the science of global climate change with local researchers. (
  • We propose a new approach to apply network analysis to climate science. (
  • Pledge to stand with Audubon as we call on the administration to listen to science and work toward climate solutions. (
  • EPA tracks and reports greenhouse gas emissions, leverages sound science, and works to reduce emissions to combat climate change. (
  • In this column, the Earth Observatory offer answers to some of the questions people ask us about the science of global warming and climate change. (
  • We have also included some questions and answers about climate science topics that people often misunderstand. (
  • When there are discrepancies between what the models predict and what is measured, critics seize on those discrepancies to cast doubt on climate science. (
  • One man who is in no doubt about the science and has been shouting about climate change for decades is the former Vice President of America, Al Gore. (
  • At this critical juncture in combating the worldwide threat of climate change, universities have vital leadership roles to play both as homes to climate science and as educators of tomorrow's innovators. (
  • He said he believed Abruzzo, a longtime prosecutor who later served as a deputy chief of staff to Corbett, had "no obvious experience in environmental protection, and that manifests itself in things like not knowing the science behind climate change. (
  • Private land owners and can respond to the risks of climate change on their lands. (
  • Our pragmatic business approach helps clients to respond to the physical risks of climate change, as well as to operate in new markets and regulatory environments related to carbon and renewable energy. (
  • A Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element (e.g. temperature) over a 30-year period. (
  • Climate change has altered the vertical structure of atmospheric temperature. (
  • The east-west gradient in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature has strengthened, but models suggest the opposite in past and future climates. (
  • These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. (
  • 2. What the climate experts say about climate change & what's driving it (IPCC Working Group 1) Conclusions from climate experts:  The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data show a warming of 0.85 °C, over the period 1880-2012. (
  • Expert Chris Merchant of the University of Reading, UK, explains the importance of sea surface temperature as an Essential Climate Variable to understand our changing world. (
  • Sen. Daylin Leach (D., Montgomery) asked Acting DEP Secretary E. Christopher Abruzzo whether he believed in climate change, and whether he thought humans have contributed to the earth's temperature rising. (
  • Scenarios were the focus of discussion at the TCFD & BoE Conference on Climate Scenarios, Financial Risk and Strategic Planning which took place in London on October 31 and November 1, 2017. (
  • The CCL NH chapters are our local effort in New Hampshire to help build the political will to enable Citizens' Climate Lobby's goal to protect our climate and our future by enacting federal Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation in 2017. (
  • Christina Voigt, Chair of the WCEL Climate Change Specialist Group, speaking during "Law Day" at UNFCCC/CoP-23 on 12 November 2017 in Bonn (Germany). (
  • In 2015, Harvard joined 318 institutions of higher education in signing the American Campuses Act on Climate Pledge and reaffirmed this commitment in 2017 . (
  • This page presents a general overview of Earth's climate system. (
  • An introduction to how Earth's climate can change is found at Climate change , and discussion of the current warming of the climate system is presented at global warming . (
  • Climate restoration enhances legacy climate goals (stabilizing earth's climate) to include ensuring the survival of humanity by restoring CO 2 to levels of the last 6000 years that allowed agriculture and civilization to develop. (
  • 18. I've had a conversation with someone about our school's climate. (
  • These states have suffered the most billion-dollar weather and climate disasters since 1980. (
  • The World Bank works with partners, including the South Asia Water Initiative and the Program for Asia Resilience to Climate Change , providing technical assistance and analytical support to develop hydromet services and early-warning systems for disasters. (
  • Climate change is a fact and one of its numerous consequences is a change in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events that can trigger disasters. (
  • Countries and communities around the world are already experiencing stepped-up climate change impacts - including droughts, floods, more intense and frequent natural disasters, and sea-level rise - and the most vulnerable are being hit the hardest. (
  • Regardless of why the climate is changing, emergency managers have to be poised to respond to disasters and support preparedness efforts nationwide. (
  • The oceanic climates are created by the onshore flow from the cool high latitude oceans to their west. (
  • Many lines of evidence demonstrate that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are primarily responsible for the observed climate changes in the industrial era, especially over the last six decades. (
  • If current levels of greenhouse gas emissions are pumped into the Earth's atmosphere for the rest of the 21st century, today's children will live in climates not seen for millennia. (
  • BRUSSELS (AP) - Greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union have been reduced by 24% compared to 1990 levels, according to the bloc's annual climate report, but the EU said Monday it still needs to intensify efforts to keep to its target of making Europe the first climate-neutral continent by. (
  • Natural climate solutions are conservation, restoration and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage or avoid greenhouse gas emissions in landscapes and wetlands across the globe. (
  • Evidence has shown that rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have contributed to climate change. (
  • An international conference on climate has been informed that 'limiting the worldwide use of fossil fuels will cost almost Pounds sterling 200 billion over the next 20 years' ('Nations fail to agree on measures to limit greenhouse effect', This Week, 18 November). (
  • Lower greenhouse gas emissions for crop production and enhanced carbon sequestration, coupled with additional benefits of biodiversity and other environmental services, makes organic agriculture a farming method with many advantages and considerable potential for mitigating and adopting to climate change. (
  • For decades, WWF has engaged with millions of Americans, leading businesses, and government leaders to prepare for inevitable change and reduce the emissions that drive climate change. (
  • This playbook showcases five innovative pathways for reducing emissions and climate impacts. (
  • Climate and epidemiological models estimate that reducing aerosols in a warmer climate can enhance atmospheric ventilation, reduce particulate matter exposure and offset warming-driven deaths. (
  • The endpoint goal of climate restoration is to generally maximize the probability of survival of our species and civilization by restoring Atmospheric CO2 levels. (
  • Read our case studies to learn more about natural climate solutions in different geographies and land-use sectors. (
  • Natural climate solutions are vital to ensuring we achieve our ultimate objective of full decarbonization and can simultaneously boost jobs and protect communities in developed and developing countries. (
  • Watch a short video that explains how natural climate solutions work. (
  • Our features writer John Upton talks our Zillow report, the National Climate Assessment, and more with NBC10 Philadelphia's Rosemary Connors. (
  • It's become a routine affair, with a predictable process involving extensive analysis of studies, numerous drafts, and eventual approval from the White House before the public release of the latest National Climate Assessment. (
  • Last Friday the National Climate Assessment Report was quietly unveiled. (
  • Because of its great latitudinal extent, Canada has a wide variety of climates. (
  • Explore preparedness actions each state is taking in relation to their current and future changes in climate threats. (
  • GENEVA (AP) - Climate change is increasingly damaging the U.N.'s most cherished heritage sites, a leading conservation agency warned Wednesday, reporting that Australia's Great Barrier Reef and dozens of other natural wonders are facing severe threats. (
  • Global biodiversity faces severe threats from climate change in the form of rising temperatures, floods, droughts, severe weather incidents, deforestation and desertification. (
  • Climate change and the threats of nuclear energy are real. (
  • EPA's climate change website is back, with more content to come. (
  • Communities are redesigning their roads, buildings, airports, and railroads to make them climate resilient. (
  • Making the right choices in favor of infrastructure that is climate resilient and locks in a low carbon development pathway is critical and urgent. (
  • An all-out effort to reforest land across the United States could plant trees on another 133 million acres to help soak up carbon dioxide and limit global climate change. (
  • The Graun says Climate change experts said the data set was the most ambitious effort so far to hold individual carbon producers, rather than governments, to account. (
  • to accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the energy matrix doesn't just have positive climate change implications, it transports us into the cutting-edge future of a low-carbon economy. (
  • Trees are the original carbon-sequestration tech, and new research continues to open our eyes to their promise as allies in the effort to halt climate change. (
  • In addition to helping clients respond to regulatory and market drivers, as well as to the impact of climate change on infrastructure and supply chains, our teams can help clients benefit from opportunities related to new carbon markets and renewable energy market drivers. (
  • On land and in the water, climate change affects all ecosystems . (
  • Concern about how climate change affects food security usually focuses on agriculture in resource-poor countries. (
  • Actor Leonardo DiCaprio is taking President-elect Donald Trump to task on the topic of climate change. (
  • President Trump, who once called climate change a hoax, said that he doesn't believe the findings of potentially devastating impacts. (
  • For me, its essence lies in its remarkable journey toward climate resilience. (
  • Started in 2010 to fund 10 grantees, CDC's Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative is now helping 18 grantees around the nation use the five-step Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework to identify likely climate impacts in their communities, potential health effects associated with these impacts, and their most at-risk populations and locations. (
  • Tracking data may be used to inform decision-making and policies that can help local communities assess vulnerabilities, estimate the burden, and build overall resilience against the effects of a changing climate. (
  • The page is intended for anyone interested in learning more about our resources and other federal government resources to support climate preparedness and resilience. (
  • Taking place between September 24-30, in New York City, this is the 10th annual Climate Week NYC, run by The Climate Group in coordination with the United Nations and the City of New York. (
  • Senators say United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change treats Palestine as a state, and U.S. law bars any expenditures. (
  • It is definitely the case that climate skepticism is most likely among white US Evangelicals," says Willis Jenkins, professor of religious studies at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. (
  • That's not due to climate skepticism, which is now less pervasive than it used to be. (
  • In his Outlook essay ' Chill Out ,' Bjorn Lomborg rightly notes that skepticism about climate change is no longer focused on whether it the earth is getting warmer (it is) or whether humans are contributing to it (we are). (
  • NASA's Global Climate Change website hosts an extensive collection of global warming resources for media, educators, weathercasters and public speakers. (
  • Global cooling or global warming from any human influence on global climate was intolerable, the hidden assumption being that nature was optimal. (
  • As global temperatures rise and weather patterns become more erratic, the intersection between climate change and agriculture is crucial to understanding the role agriculture plays in contributing to and mitigating global warming. (
  • Identifying the effect of climate on societies is central to understanding historical economic development, designing modern policies that react to climatic events, and managing future global climate change. (
  • Undernutrition is identified as the largest health impact of climate change in the 21st century. (
  • This was followed by the Congressional Climate Emergency Resolutions (S.Con.Res.22, H.Con.Res.52) which "demands a national, social, industrial, and economic mobilization of the resources and labor of the United States at a massive-scale to halt, reverse, mitigate, and prepare for the consequences of the climate emergency and to restore the climate for future generations. (
  • Citing analysis from thousands of studies, the nation's climate assessment offers not just a dire warning about what climate change may bring in future years, but a detailed account of effects that are already occurring and of human contributions to those changes. (
  • One of the most significant issues the Forest Service faces is the effects of climate change on the Nation's natural resources. (
  • Across 64 countries, education has positive effects on climate change beliefs, and interactions with ideology are more nuanced and contextual. (
  • Alaska's Native people live in an intimate relationship with the land, share traditional knowledge spanning centuries, and are experiencing the effects of climate change directly and severely. (
  • Here, I review, synthesize, and interpret recent advances in methods used to measure effects of climate on social and economic outcomes. (
  • Because weather variation plays a large role in recent progress, I formalize the relationship between climate and weather from an econometric perspective and discuss their use as identifying variation, highlighting tradeoffs between key assumptions in different research designs and deriving conditions when weather variation exactly identifies the effects of climate. (
  • Climate change, alongside numerous other pressures, is having unprecedented effects on water resources both globally and locally. (
  • There are many things you can do to help reduce the effects of climate change. (
  • While all communities are vulnerable to health effects associated with climate change, not everyone is equally at risk. (
  • Climate Central surveys and conducts scientific research on climate change and informs the public of key findings. (
  • Climate of the Past (CP) is a not-for-profit international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of research articles, short communications, and review papers on the climate history of the Earth. (
  • See research on how political ideology, education, and experience impact the stability and accuracy of climate change knowledge and beliefs. (
  • Springer Climate is an interdisciplinary book series dedicated to climate research. (
  • In polling by the Pew Research Center in November 2008, fully half the respondents thought the two parties would cooperate more in the coming year, versus only 36 percent who thought the climate would grow more adversarial. (
  • The University's first efforts to assess the social and academic climate occurred in 2004 when the President's Commission on Women, in collaboration with the Office of Institutional Research, surveyed the UK student body on various aspects of campus life. (
  • The project is to develop climate change governance capacity in the water sector through applied research, awareness-raising and increased public participation. (
  • Until recently, neither climate nor conflict have been core areas of inquiry within economics, but there has been an explosion of research on both topics in the past decade, with a particularly large body of research emerging at their intersection. (
  • In this review, we survey this literature on the interlinkages between climate and conflict, by necessity drawing from both economics and other disciplines given the inherent interdisciplinarity of research in this field. (
  • Once available, the data will be archived and made freely accessible to climate research and modelling communities worldwide. (
  • President Drew Faust outlined Harvard's commitment to continued focus on climate change via research, teaching and learning in a 2014 message to the Harvard community , and also in a Huffington Post op-ed with Stanford president John Hennessey. (
  • Amsterdam, 1 August 2014 - More than 300 days after it was illegally boarded following a high profile peaceful protest against Arctic oil drilling, the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise has finally departed Murmansk, Russia en route for its home. (
  • As a senior scientist for the National Audubon Society, Bateman's work focuses on helping birds survive climate change. (
  • Researchers are studying the best ways to lessen climate change and reduce its impact on our health. (
  • For climate measurements prior to this, researchers must obtain measurements from indirect sources, including core samples from ice, sediment, and trees. (
  • Mathematica researchers analyzed data on school safety, engagement, and climate for more than 340,000 students in more than 700 New York City middle schools from a survey taken annually from 2007 to 2010. (
  • Studies focusing mainly on present and future climate are not within scope. (
  • and (ii) validating GCMs and EaSMs with respect to their faithful representation of current climate, including the correct sensitivity, as well as to the robustness of future-climate projections using powerful numerical and visualization tools. (
  • They are investing in clean renewable energy and locking in cheaper energy prices-and creating jobs, strong communities, and a more stable climate in the process. (