Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Ovum Transport: Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Protein PrecursorsCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

Chromosome abnormalities in human embryos. (1/708)

The presence of numerical chromosome abnormalities in human embryos was studied using fluorescence in-situ hybridization with four or more chromosome-specific probes. When most cells of an embryo are analysed, this technique allows differentiation to be made between aneuploidy, mosaicism, haploidy and polyploidy. Abnormal types of fertilization, such as unipronucleated, tripronucleated zygotes and zygotes with uneven pronuclei, were studied using this technique. We have found a strong correlation between some types of dysmorphism with chromosomal abnormalities. In addition, the more impaired the development of an embryo, the more chromosomal abnormalities were detected in those embryos. Maternal age and other factors were linked to an increase in chromosome abnormalities (hormonal regimes, temperature changes), but not to intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  (+info)

Temporal and spatial aspects of fragmentation in early human embryos: possible effects on developmental competence and association with the differential elimination of regulatory proteins from polarized domains. (2/708)

This study examined the relationship between blastomere fragmentation in cultured human embryos obtained by in-vitro fertilization and the effect of fragmentation on the distribution of the following eight regulatory proteins found to be: (i) localized in the mature oocyte in subplasmalemmal, polarized domains; and (ii) unequally inherited by the blastomeres during cleavage: leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Bax, Bcl-x, transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF beta 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), c-kit and epidermal growth factor R (EGF-R). Four basic patterns of fragmentation were observed. The severity of the impact of each type of fragmentation on the affected blastomere(s) and the developmental competence of the embryo appeared to be a function of the unique temporal and spatial features associated with the particular fragmentation pattern(s) involved in each instance. The findings demonstrate that certain patterns of fragmentation can result in the partial or near total loss of the eight regulatory proteins from specific blastomeres and that the developmental potential of the affected embryo can be particularly compromised if it occurs during the 1- or 2-cell stages. In contrast, fragmentation from portions of a fertilized egg or a blastomere(s) in a 2-cell embryo that do not contain the protein domains, or the complete loss by fragmentation of a regulatory protein domain-containing blastomere after the 4-cell stage does not necessarily preclude continued development to the blastocyst, although the normality and developmental potential of the embryo may be compromised. The possible association between fragmentation and apoptosis was examined by annexin V staining of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine and TUNEL analysis of blastomere DNA. No direct correlation between fragmentation and apoptosis was found following the analyses of fragmented embryos with these two markers. However, while we suggest that changes in cell physiology unrelated to apoptosis are the more likely causes of fragmentation, we cannot exclude the possibility that fragmentation itself may be an initiator of apoptosis if critical ratios or levels of developmentally important proteins are altered by partial or complete elimination of their polarized domains. The findings are discussed with respect to the possible developmental significance of regulatory protein polarization in human oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos.  (+info)

Spatially restricted expression of PlOtp, a Paracentrotus lividus orthopedia-related homeobox gene, is correlated with oral ectodermal patterning and skeletal morphogenesis in late-cleavage sea urchin embryos. (3/708)

Several homeobox genes are expressed in the sea urchin embryo but their roles in development have yet to be elucidated. Of particular interest are homologues of homeobox genes that in mouse and Drosophila are involved in patterning the developing central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report the cloning of an orthopedia (Otp)-related gene from Paracentrotus lividus, PlOtp. Otp is a single copy zygotic gene that presents a unique and highly restricted expression pattern. Transcripts were first detected at the mid-gastrula stage in two pairs of oral ectoderm cells located in a ventrolateral position, overlying primary mesenchyme cell (PMC) clusters. Increases in both transcript abundance and the number of Otp-expressing cells were observed at prism and pluteus stages. Otp transcripts are symmetrically distributed in a few ectodermal cells of the oral field. Labelled cells were observed close to sites of active skeletal rod growth (tips of the budding oral and anal arms), and at the juxtaposition of stomodeum and foregut. Chemicals known to perturb PMC patterning along animal-vegetal and oral-aboral axes altered the pattern of Otp expression. Vegetalization by LiCl caused a shift in Otp-expressing cells toward the animal pole, adjacent to shifted PMC aggregates. Nickel treatment induced expression of the Otp gene in an increased number of ectodermal cells, which adopted a radialized pattern. Finally, ectopic expression of Otp mRNA affected patterning along the oral-aboral axis and caused skeletal abnormalities that resembled those exhibited by nickel-treated embryos. From these results, we conclude that the Otp homeodomain gene is involved in short-range cell signalling within the oral ectoderm for patterning the endoskeleton of the larva through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.  (+info)

The centrosome-attracting body, microtubule system, and posterior egg cytoplasm are involved in positioning of cleavage planes in the ascidian embryo. (4/708)

Many kinds of animal embryos exhibit stereotyped cleavage patterns during early embryogenesis. In the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, cleavage patterns are invariant but they are complicated by successive unequal cleavages that occur in the posterior region. Here we report the essential roles of a novel structure, called the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), which exists in the posterior pole cortex of cleaving embryos, in generating unequal cleavages. By removing and transplanting posterior egg cytoplasm and by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate, we demonstrated that loss of the CAB resulted in abolishment of unequal cleavage, while ectopic formation of the CAB caused ectopic unequal cleavages to occur. Experiments with a microtubule inhibitor demonstrated that the centrosome and nucleus were attracted toward the posterior cortex, where the CAB is located, by shortening of microtubule bundles formed between the centrosome and the CAB. Consequently, the mitotic apparatus was positioned asymmetrically, resulting in unequal cleavage. Immunohistochemistry provided evidence that a microtubule motor protein, a kinesin or kinesin-like molecule, may be associated with the CAB. Formation of the CAB during the early cleavage stage was resistant to treatment with the microtubule inhibitor. In contrast, the integrity of the CAB was lost upon treatment with a microfilament inhibitor. We propose that the CAB plays key roles in the orientation and positioning of cleavage planes during unequal cell division.  (+info)

Identification of two major histocompatibility complex class Ib genes, Q7 and Q9, as the Ped gene in the mouse. (5/708)

The Ped (preimplantation embryonic development) gene influences the rate of preimplantation embryonic development and subsequent embryonic survival. The protein product of the Ped gene, the Qa-2 protein, is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib protein. There are two alleles of the Ped gene, fast (Qa-2 [+]) and slow (Qa-2 [-]). Qa-2 is encoded by four very similar MHC class Ib genes: Q6, Q7, Q8, and Q9. Recent research in our laboratory has shown that the Ped phenotype is potentially encoded by the Q7 and/or Q9 gene because the Q7 and Q9 genes, but not the Q6 or Q8 gene, are expressed during preimplantation mouse embryonic development. In this study we utilized microinjection of transgenes to assess the functional roles of both the Q7 and Q9 genes in control of the rate of preimplantation development. The Q7 gene, the Q9 gene, and a combination of the Q7 and Q9 genes were microinjected into Ped slow zygotes, and the Ped phenotype and cell surface expression of Qa-2 protein were assayed after a 72-h or 96-h incubation period. We found that the microinjected individual Q7 and Q9 genes increased the rate of preimplantation development. Simultaneous injection of the Q7 and Q9 genes did not have a synergistic effect on the Ped phenotype. Microinjection of the Q7 and/or Q9 genes resulted in protein expression in 10-25% of the microinjected embryos. These results show that both the Q7 and Q9 genes encode the mouse Ped phenotype.  (+info)

Cytoskeletal mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation in annelid eggs. (6/708)

Annelid embryos are comprised of yolk-deficient animal and yolk-filled vegetal blastomeres. This "unipolar" organization along the animal-vegetal axis (in terms of ooplasmic distribution) is generated via selective segregation of yolk-free, clear cytoplasm to the animal blastomeres. The pathway that leads to the unipolar organization is different between polychaetes and clitellates (i.e., oligochaetes and hirudinidans). In polychaetes, the clear cytoplasm domain, which is established through ooplasmic segregation at the animal side of the egg, is simply cut up by unequal equatorial cleavage. In clitellates, localization of clear cytoplasm to animal blastomeres is preceded by unification of the initially separated polar domains of clear cytoplasm, which result from bipolar ooplasmic segregation. In this article, I have reviewed recent studies on cytoskeletal mechanisms for ooplasmic localization during early annelid development. Annelid eggs accomplish ooplasmic rearrangements through various combinations of three cytoskeletal mechanisms, which are mediated by actin microfilaments, microtubules and mitotic asters, respectively. One of the unique features of annelid eggs isthat a homologous process is driven by distinct cytoskeletal elements. Annelid eggs may provide an intriguing system to investigate not only mechanical aspects of ooplasmic segregation but also evolutionary divergence of cytoskeletal mechanisms that operate in a homologous process.  (+info)

Characterization of novel F-actin envelopes surrounding nuclei during cleavage of a polychaete worm. (7/708)

F-actin accumulations and their possible functions were investigated during cleavage of the polychaete Ophryotrocha puerilis. Unusual cytoplasmic accumulations of F-actin were detected which have never been described before in animal embryos. As shown by TRITC-phalloidin labeling, envelopes of F-actin surrounded late prophase nuclei for a short period of time. DTAF-immunofluorescence of beta-tubulin showed that the F-actin envelope was closely associated with microtubules of the developing spindle apparatus. However, experimental disassembly of microtubules by nocodazole did not prevent the assembly of the F-actin envelope. Disturbance of F-actin envelope formation by cytochalasin B did not alter the course of mitotic events, i.e. position of the nuclei and orientation of the spindle apparatus were not affected, although the respective blastomeres remained uncleaved. However, disassembly of the F-actin envelope correlated temporally with breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Therefore, it is suggested that this new structure plays a role in fragmentation of the nuclear envelope during cleavage of Ophryotrocha puerilis.  (+info)

Comparison of human blastulation rates and total cell number in sequential culture media with and without co-culture. (8/708)

Recent interest in delayed embryo transfers necessitated the evaluation of two improved in-vitro systems that could generate viable blastocysts. A total of 178 two-pronucleated embryos (entire cohorts) from 19 patients was cultured in IVF50 medium (100 microl) under oil for 24 h until day 2. Each patient's day 2 embryos were then equally allotted to two in-vitro systems. Embryos in system A were grown until the morning of day 3 on Vero cells covered with IVF50 medium (100 microl) under oil. The medium was then replaced on day 3 with a 1:1 mixture (100 microl) of IVF50:S2 medium and on day 4 with S2 medium only. The same culture protocol was used for system B without Vero cells. Throughout the 5 days all dishes were housed in sealed humidified modular chambers containing a triple gas atmosphere. Separately, 175 spare embryos from 80 patients were grown in system A and B up to days 6 and 7 for total cell number (TCN) analysis. Blastulation rates were not significantly different between system A and B (67.4 versus 68.5%; P > 0.01) although co-cultured embryos cleaved slightly faster by day 4. The overall pregnancy and implantation rates were 52.0% and 32.1% for the 19 patients each of whom received a mixed cohort of three day 5 embryos from both systems. TCN values for the day 6 and 7 blastocysts from both systems were high and increased steadily from days 6-7 and from expanded to hatching stages. There were no significant differences in TCN for day 6 expanded blastocysts between the two systems although day 6 hatching and hatched co-cultured blastocysts had greater values than non-co-cultured blastocysts (246.0 +/- 18.5 and 236.7 +/- 17.8 versus 173.0 +/- 13.5 and 166.5 +/- 16.0; P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that the culture protocol using the sequential IVF50-S2 media combination was a good substitute for Vero cell co-culture for the transfer of viable day 3-6 embryos.  (+info)

J:122362 Harwood BN, Cross SK, Radford EE, Haac BE, de Vries WN, Members of the WNT signaling pathways are widely expressed in mouse ovaries, oocytes, and cleavage stage embryos. Dev Dyn. 2008;237(4):1099-1111 ...
First, a definition... Klingon Kleavage is a play on cleavage. The women who play Klingons show a lot of clevage with their outfits. My wife and I are T...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quarter zona-pellucida (ZP) opening by laser-assisted hatching (QLAH) on the clinical outcomes following transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts developed from low-grade cleavage-stage embryos in patients with all high-grade and fair-grade cleavage-stage embryos transferred without achieving pregnancy. Patients were randomized into ...
Mouse morulae from two strains were examined in whole mounts after dissociation of embryos into single cells and were analysed in serial sections by light and electron microscopy. One or two...
Spiral cleavage is a conserved, early developmental mode found in several phyla of Lophotrochozoans resulting in highly diverse adult body plans. While the cleavage pattern has clearly been broadly conserved, it has also undergone many modifications in various taxa. The precise mechanisms of how different adaptations have altered the ancestral spiral cleavage pattern are an important ongoing evolutionary question, and adequately answering this question requires obtaining a broad developmental knowledge of different spirally cleaving taxa. In flatworms (Platyhelminthes), the spiral cleavage program has been lost or severely modified in most taxa. Polyclad flatworms, however, have retained the pattern up to the 32-cell stage. Here we study early embryogenesis of the cotylean polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri to investigate how closely this species follows the canonical spiral cleavage pattern and to discover any potential deviations from it. Using live imaging recordings and 3D reconstructions of
Calcium signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of calcium dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free calcium in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent calcium indicator dyes, mainly Calcium Green-1. Cleavage formation was followed by calcium transients that localized to cleavage furrows and propagated along the furrows as calcium waves. The calcium transients at the cleavage furrows were observed at each cleavage furrow at least until blastula stage. The velocity of the calcium waves at the first cleavage furrow was approximately 3 microns/s, which was much slower than that associated with fertilization/egg activation. These calcium waves traveled only along the cleavage furrows and not in the direction orthogonal to the furrows. These observations imply that there exists an intracellular calcium-releasing activity specifically associated with cleavage furrows. The calcium waves occurred in ...
Recent lineage tracing studies have allowed us to identify a relationship between the distinct patterns of cleavage divisions that generate the four-cell mouse embryos and the contribution of progeny of four-cell blastomeres to specific regions of the blastocyst (Piotrowska-Nitsche and Zernicka-Goetz, 2005). One of the major patterns of cleavage, in which a meridional second division (an M-division) precedes an oblique/equatorial one (the E-division in ME embryos), is associated with the development of defined polarity to the future embryonic-abembryonic axis. Thus, in this group of embryos, the earlier dividing two-cell blastomere shows a tendency to contribute to the embryonic part of the blastocyst. In such embryos, the later-dividing two-cell blastomere appears to undergo a division that, were it truly equatorial and if cell components were distributed without mixing, would generate one four-cell blastomere with `vegetal and another with `animal components of the egg (Gardner, 2002). Both ...
The fertilised mammalian egg gives rise to seemingly equivalent blastomeres until the fourth cleavage division, when the first indication of lineage specification appears. At this point, certain blastomeres divide symmetrically and others asymmetrically. When do these apparently identical cells diverge and how do these differences arise? To answer this question, Enkui Duan and colleagues performed single-cell transcriptional analysis of human and mouse blastomeres (p. 3468). By studying the mammalian zygote, in which transcription - a known source of heterogeneity during mitosis - is mostly silent, the authors showed that small biases in gene expression arise after the first cleavage division from the unequal distribution of cellular substances between daughter cells, called partitioning errors. These are especially pronounced for transcripts present in small quantities, which are more likely to be asymmetrically distributed. As cleavage divisions progress, the activation of embryonic ...
Sando Rashed 22:24, 23 September 2009 (EST)Cleavage = the repeated division of a fertilised ovum When the zygote nucleus forms the first cleavage forms, this nucleus undergoes a number of mitosis processes, a wrinkle forms down longitudinally passing the poles of the eggs where the sperm enters. This is how the egg is split up into two halves and this process is what forms the 2-cell stage. The process of the second cleavage is the process that allows the 4-cell stage to occur, the wrinkle runs through the poles at right angles instead of running through it longitudinally. The 8 stage cell is formed during the third cleavage it cuts across horizontally but it cuts through closer to the animal poles rather than the vegetal poles. As cleavages continually occur a 16 and 32 cell embryo are formed, and as these cleavages continuously occur the cells closer to the animal poles divide more rapidly and in more numbers compared to the vegetal pole. Eventually with all these cells continuously forming ...
Interspecies-SCNT preimplantation embryos derived from human granulosa cells fused with enucleated bovine oocytes. Cleavage embryos (A) and blastocysts (C) derived from SCNT. Parthenogenetically developed cleavage embryos (B) and hatching blastocysts (D) as controls ...
Blastomere cell structure. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of the cell structure of blastomeres in the 4-cell embryo. Blastomeres are the cells formed by divisions of the fertilized egg. Here fractured sections of blastomeres can be seen. The cytoplasm (yellow) contains many dense bodies (green) which are most likely primitive mitochondria. The large hole at centre left is a vacuole opening up onto the cell surface. Small projections (microvilli) can be seen inside the vacuole. Magnification: x4,200 at 5x7cm size. - Stock Image G450/0060
Where did the first cell come from? How did life form from non-life? Abiogeneis is an impossiblity because it requires: Hardware and Software, (Proteins and DNA). Cell must be able to replicate iteslf, Proteins are
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain and sperm cell surface antigen (NS-4) on preimplantation mouse embryos. AU - Solter, Davor. AU - Camartin, Melitta. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with unfertilized and fertilized mouse eggs, cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption of antiserum with adult mouse brain and epididymal sperm but not with adult liver, spleen, kidney, and thymocytes. The antiserum reacts most strongly with cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass and, in order of decreasing reactivity, with four- to eight-cell stage embryos, zygotes, unfertilized eggs, and two-cell stage embryos.. AB - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with unfertilized and fertilized ...
There are several differences between the cleavage in mammals and the cleavage in other animals. Mammals have a slow rate of division that is between 12 and 24 hours. These cellular division are asynchronous. Zygotic transcription starts at the two, four, or eight-cell stage. Cleavage is holoblastic and rotational. At the eight-cell stage, the embryo goes through a process called compaction. Most of the blastomeres in this stage become polarized and develop tight junctions with the other blastomeres. This process leads to the development of two different populations of cells: polar cells on the outside and apolar cells on the inside. The outer cells, called the trophoblast cells, secrete fluid on their basal (inner) surface to form a blastocoel cavity through the process of cavitation. These trophoblast cells will eventually give rise to the embryonic contribution to the placenta called the chorion. The inner cells adhere to one side of the cavity to form the inner cell mass (ICM) and will give ...
The role of the TCF family of transcriptional regulators in primary axis formation is addressed by studying the mechanisms of action of XTcf-3 in Xenophus laevis embryos. The early events of primary axis induction involve activation through the WNT signaling pathway. As a result of activation ... read more of the pathway the cytoplasmic level of ß-catenin increases at the future dorsal side of the early cleavage stage embryo. Around the 16-32 cell stage, ß-catenin becomes apparent in the nuclei. The presence of nuclear ß-catenin causes several hours later the activation of specific target genes, like e.g. XSiamois. Since ß-catenin does not contain a DNA binding region, DNA binding proteins must mediate this transactivation. Ectopic expression of ß-catenin causes activation of dorsal genes and results in the induction and differentiation of a secondary axis. (See introduction). Three different homologs of the Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors have been cloned in Xenopus laevis, XTcf-3, ...
We performed in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of the d3 PGCLC- and PGC-derived oocytes and the WT oocytes at 3 weeks (fig. S6B). Despite differences in COC stability and shape, the PGCLC-derived oocytes reached metaphase II (MII), were fertilized, and developed into two-cell embryos with an efficiency comparable to that of oocytes from other sources (Fig. 2B, fig. S6C, and Table 1). Some of the two-cell embryos from the PGCLCs developed further into blastocysts in vitro [19 of 46 (19/46), ~39%] (Fig. 2B). We transferred the two-cell embryos from PGCLCs, as well as those from the other sources, to separate foster mothers. We obtained newborn pups from the two-cell embryos derived from PGCLCs (5/127, ~3.9%), as well as from those derived from E12.5 PGCs (13/75, ~17.3%) and WT 3-week oocytes (7/55, ~12.7%) (Fig. 2C, fig. S7A, and Table 1). All of these offspring grew similarly into adulthood (fig. S7C). The PGCLC-derived offspring bore the BVSC transgenes, a normal ...
Hey guys!!! I had a 3dt on wed and had 1 6 cell and 2 4 cell embryos. wanted to see if anyone got pregnant witha 4 cell! Thanks ...
Blastomere Definition - Blastomere refers to a cell that is created by the early stages of division of a fertilized egg. During in vitro fertilization...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Different chromatin and energy/redox responses of mouse morulae and blastocysts to slow freezing and vitrification. AU - Somoskoi, Bence. AU - Martino, Nicola A.. AU - Cardone, Rosa A.. AU - Lacalandra, Giovanni M.. AU - DellAquila, Maria E.. AU - Cseh, S.. PY - 2015/3/24. Y1 - 2015/3/24. N2 - Background: The ability to cryopreserve mammalian embryos has become an integral part of assisted reproduction, both in human and veterinary medicine. Despite differences in the size and physiological characteristics of embryos from various species, the embryos have been frozen by either of two procedures: slow freezing or vitrification. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of slow freezing and vitrification to the chromatin structure, energy status and reactive oxygen species production of mouse morulae and blastocysts. Methods: Mouse morulae and blastocysts were randomly allocated into vitrification, slow freezing and control groups. For slow freezing, Dulbecco phosphate ...
The effects of embryo number and incubation volume on the development of mouse embryos were evaluated. The growth rate of two-cell mouse embryos to attached blastocyst stage and the growth rate of blastocysts to early somite stage were assessed after culture in different incubation volumes and embryo densities. Embryos were collected from ICR female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by ICR males. In experiment 1, groups of one, five, ten, twenty 2-cell embryos were cultured in 10-, 50-, 500-, 1000-microliter drops of BWW media under mineral oil at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. As the incubation volume decreased, significantly ( ...
Lipid rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids (GSLs), cholesterol and signaling molecules play an essential role not only for signal transduction started by ligand binding, but for intracellular events such as organization of actin, intracellular traffic and cell polarity, but their functions in cleavage division of preimplantation embryos are not well known. Here we show that monosialylGb5Cer (MSGb5Cer)-enriched raft domains are involved in development during the cleavage stage of mouse preimplantation embryos. MSGb5Cer preferentially localizes at the interfaces between blastomeres in mouse preimplantation embryos. Live-imaging analysis revealed that MSGb5Cer localizes in cleavage furrows during cytokinesis, and that by accumulating at the interfaces, it thickens them. Depletion of cholesterol from the cell membrane with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbCD) reduced the expression of MSGb5Cer and stopped cleavage. Extensive accumulation of MSGb5Cer at the interfaces by cross-linking with anti-MSGb5Cer Mab (6E2)
Direct knowledge of Ca2+ patterns in vertebrate development is largely restricted to early stages, in which they control fertilization, ooplasmic segregation and cleavage. To explore new roles of Ca2+ in vertebrate development, we injected the Ca2+ indicator aequorin into zebrafish eggs and imaged Ca2+ throughout the first day of development. During early cleavages, a high Ca2+ zone is seen in the cleavage furrows. The high Ca2+ zone during first cleavage spreads as a slow wave (0.5 microm/second) and is preceded by three Ca2+ pulses within the animal pole region of the egg. When Ca2+ concentrations are clamped at the resting level by BAPTA buffer injection into the zygote, all signs of development are blocked. In later development, Ca2+ patterns are associated with cell movements during gastrulation, with neural induction, with brain regionalization, with formation of the somites and neural keel, with otic placode formation, with muscle movements and with formation of the heart. Particularly ...
Transcription factor control of TE/ICM segregation. TE and ICM lineage segregation is controlled by a small group of transcription factors. Specifically, Cdx2 is required for TE development, while the pluripotency markers octamer 3/4 (Oct4), Nanog, and SRY-box containing gene 2 (Sox2) are involved in establishing the ICM fate. In the mouse, Cdx2 is expressed at varying levels in all blastomeres starting at the eight-cell stage, but it becomes restricted to outside, future TE cells, prior to blastocyst formation (Figure 1) (72, 73). This variation in Cdx2 levels between individual blastomeres at the eight-cell stage may be a result of differences in the order and orientation of the cleavage divisions leading up to this stage (71). Embryos missing Cdx2 do form blastocysts initially, but the TE in these embryos loses its epithelial integrity and cannot differentiate further, resulting in death around the time of implantation (74). Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 have expression patterns that are ...
The egg-to-embryo transition entails transforming a highly differentiated oocyte into totipotent blastomeres, and represents one of the earliest obstacles that...
Enucleated mouse 1-cell embryos arrest development at the 2-cell stage following transplantation of cleavage stage nuclei. Earlier studies employing one-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis failed to reveal obvious differences in gene expression in the manipulated embryos that might account for this block. We report here the results of a quantitative, two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis that reveals at least 50 alterations in protein synthesis in the 8--|1-cell nuclear transplant embryos. Approximately half of these alterations involve proteins that normally decrease in synthesis between the 2-cell and 8-cell stages and half involve proteins that are synthesized constitutively between these two stages. These results are the first to reveal significant biochemical alterations that accompany the morphological and cytological differences previously described and indicate that the 8-cell stage nucleus is unable to completely recapitulate the normal progression of changes in protein
1989) Effects of oxygen concentration on the metabolism of [u-14c]glucose by mouse morulae and early blastocysts in vitro. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 1 (2). pp. 99-106. Wales, R.G., Cuneo, C.L. and Waugh, E.E. ...
Strictly defined, the conception of a new individual occurs at the moment when chromosomes from the male and female pronuclei associate to form the mitotic figure of the first cleavage. Despite the...
YAP is a fast scintillation crystal offering great mechanical resistance and stability, with no cleavage planes or hygroscopcity.
More than 90 percent of enucleated one-cell mouse embryos receiving pronuclei from other one-cell embryos successfully develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. In this investigation, nuclei from successive preimplantation cleavage stages were introduced into enucleated one-cell embryos and the embryos were tested for development in vitro. Although two-cell nuclei supported development to the morula or blastocyst stage, four-cell, eight-cell, and inner cell mass cell nuclei did not. The inability of cell nuclei from these stages to support development reflects rapid loss of totipotency of the transferred nucleus and is not the result of simultaneous transfer of membrane or cytoplasm.
... are traditionally classified into Diplomonadida, Retortamonadida, Carpediemonas, and Dysnectes. Diplomonadida and Retortamonadida have been regarded as closely related and together they constitute the taxon Eopharyngia (the term refers to the extensively developed cytopharynx of diplomonads and retortamonads). The hypothesis of Eopharyngia was supported by molecular-phylogenetic studies which included sequences of Retortamonas and several diplomonad genera. At first, the studies based on the SSU rRNA gene (Silberman et al. 2002; Kolisko et al. 2005; Keeling and Brugerolle 2006) indicated that diplomonads may not be monophyletic and that Retortamonas may be sister to the Giardiinae diplomonad lineage. However, the analysis based on the hsp90 gene showed that diplomonads are monophyletic and that Retortamonas forms their sister lineage, which was consistent with previous morphology-based hypotheses. Sequence data of the second retortamonads genus, Chilomastix, have been obtained quite ...
... are traditionally classified into Diplomonadida, Retortamonadida, Carpediemonas, and Dysnectes. Diplomonadida and Retortamonadida have been regarded as closely related and together they constitute the taxon Eopharyngia (the term refers to the extensively developed cytopharynx of diplomonads and retortamonads). The hypothesis of Eopharyngia was supported by molecular-phylogenetic studies which included sequences of Retortamonas and several diplomonad genera. At first, the studies based on the SSU rRNA gene (Silberman et al. 2002; Kolisko et al. 2005; Keeling and Brugerolle 2006) indicated that diplomonads may not be monophyletic and that Retortamonas may be sister to the Giardiinae diplomonad lineage. However, the analysis based on the hsp90 gene showed that diplomonads are monophyletic and that Retortamonas forms their sister lineage, which was consistent with previous morphology-based hypotheses. Sequence data of the second retortamonads genus, Chilomastix, have been obtained quite ...
The top picture shows polar lobe formation during the first cell division. One can see two polar bodies. Polar bodies are the tiny sister cells of the oocyte which are produced during meiosis, contain discarded DNA and mark the animal pole of the embryo (up in the first three pictures). The opposite pole of the embryo is the vegetal pole. The two cells at the animal pole are the first two blastomeres. What looks like a third cell at the vegetal pole is the polar lobe, which at this stage is nearly completely cinched off from either blastomere. Subsequently the polar lobe fuses with one of the blastomeres (second picture from top), so that by the end of the first cell division one of the blastomeres (called CD) is noticeably larger than the AB cell (third picture from top). Polar lobe also forms at the second cell division (not shown). At the four-cell stage blastomere D is the largest, blastomere C is the second largest, while A and B cells are about the same size (bottom picture). The first ...
mNanog and ventx1/2 overexpression cause similar effects in Xenopus embryos.(A) Four-cell stage embryos (NF3) were injected in both dorsal blastomeres, with a 1
STUDY QUESTION: Is the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) active during human preimplantation development?. SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitotic spindle disruption during mitosis activates the SAC from at least Day 3 of human preimplantation development, but this does not lead to apoptosis until Day 5.. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human preimplantation embryos frequently acquire chromosomal abnormalities, but the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. It has been speculated that a dysfunctional SAC could be responsible. Although research has shown that the SAC components are present during early human development, functional studies are lacking.. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In vitro study using human preimplantation embryos in a university research laboratory. We studied a total of 38 Day-3, 38 Day-4, 29 Day-5 and 21 Day-6 human preimplantation embryos, donated for research, during 16 h of incubation.. PARTICIPANT/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We cultured human preimplantation embryos overnight in a ...
embryo hatching.. Standard IVF protocols include culturing of embryos within the laboratory for three days, followed by transfer of cleavage stage embryos (6 to 8 cells), on Day 3, to the uterine cavity. Following transfer, the embryos must continue to progress to the blastocyst stage, shed the ZP, and embed into the uterine wall. In 1989 Cohen and his co-investigators observed a higher implantation rate in patients undergoing IVF, who had the ZP of their embryos mechanically opened. They therefore hypothesized that artificially creating a gap in the ZP might serve to facilitate embryo hatching and implantation. Microscopic manipulation of the ZP, in order to augment hatching and implantation, subsequently became known as "assisted hatching". Prospective randomized clinical studies have been performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of assisted hatching. Several studies report a significant increase in embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates, in select groups of patients whose ...
The interval transfer of a frozen-thawed embryo is more successful than a fresh embryo transfer for women undergoing IVF with recurrent implantation failure after cleavage stage embryo biopsy ...
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A preparation and a method of making composite blastocysts (CBs) from aggregates of dissociated cells of non-viable pre-embryos are disclosed. The CB is characterized morphologically by having two distinct tissue types, the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE), and a blastocoelic cavity (BC). The ICM is differentially stainable with bisbenzimide and the TE is differentially stainable with propidium iodide. The ICM is pluripotent in that it contains embryonic stem (ES) cells. The TE cells are pluripotent in that they can give rise to all cell types normally derived from TE cells. The primate TE is characterized by the production of chorionic gonadotrophin. The method of making CBs is an aggregation process (AP) comprising inter alia the following steps: 1) dissociation of discarded pre-embryos; 2) isolation of single nucleated cells from dissociated discarded pre-embryos; 3) microsurgical encapsulation of several cells within a host zona pellucida or artificial aggregation with or without a
Both colonial and solitary species are capable of asexual clonal reproduction by budding; species may reproduce sexually and be dioecious, simultaneous, or protandrous hermaphrodites. Eggs either hatch into planktonic larvae, or in some species, complete early development in a brood chamber (located in the atrium), attached by secretions of cement glands to the chambers wall. In some brooding species, nutrition is provided to developing embryos via special placental cells; in others, the egg yolk nourishes the growing larvae. Planktonic larvae may remain free swimming for up to 7 months before settling, while those raised in a brood chamber will settle relatively quickly (within a few days of hatching). (Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Ruppert, et al., 2004; Shanks, 2001). Entoproct embryonic development follows the holoblastic, spiral cleavage pattern typical of protostome organisms, with the mesoderm forming from the 4d mesentoblast. Development continues to a coeloblastula stage, after which, the ...
CN) - A divided Missouri appeals court ruled Tuesday that the frozen embryos of a divorced couple must be treated as marital property, not as children, even though state law defines life as beginning at conception.. A divorce case required a Missouri judge to decide whether two pre-embryos, which were frozen after the couple began the process of in vitro fertilization, should be considered children or marital property.. Jalesia McQueen and Justin Gadberry have two children together, but decided to freeze two pre-embryos before Gadberry began a tour of duty in Iraq in case they wanted to have more.. They dispute whether they discussed what to do with the pre-embryos in case their marriage ended. McQueen filed a petition for dissolution of marriage against Gadberry in October 2013.. At trial, McQueen testified she wanted to implant the embryos in an attempt to potentially have more children with Gadberry.. Gadberry, however, said he does not want to have more children with McQueen, and wants the ...
Sang J. Lee is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Loss- and Gain-of-function Approach to Investigate Early Cell Fate Determinants in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos, Procedure for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Microorganisms Using a Chemostat
This sounds so familiar. One embryo is a grade one two-cell. Just like the last time at this point. The other one has stopped dividing as of now. But Dr. E said that well continue to keep an eye on it. My fear is that this grade one two-cell embryo may decide not to divide…
Zygote Definition - A zygote is the single-cell that is produced when a sperm fertilizes an egg. It is the first cell in the human body.
This scheme summarizes the development of left- and right-handed snails from the one-cell stage to mature adults. In L. stagnalis, reversing the chirality by micromanipulation at the first or second cleavage stage does not alter the organismal chirality, as the manipulated embryos revert to form eight-cell embryos of original handedness (thin arrow). In contrast, embryos whose chirality is reversed by micromanipulation at the third cleavage grow to chirality inverted juvenile and then to healthy and fertile adult snails, with oppositely-coiled shell and situs inversus viscerum (thick arrow). nodal and Pitx expressions are also reversed by this manipulation. Dextralized snails are produced from sinistral snails without SD (spiral deformation), a unique feature observed only at the third-cleavage metaphase-anaphase of dominant dextral snails, and directly linked to the handedness-determining gene(s). ...
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Relevance of Embryo Selection Embryo selection otherwise known as Designer babies raises a number of social, legal and ethical implications. Embryo
Stochastic and deterministic allele specific gene expression (ASE) might influence single cell phenotype, but the extent and nature of the phenomenon at the onset of early mouse development is unknown. Here we performed single cell RNA-Seq analysis of single blastomeres of mouse embryos, which revealed significant changes in the transcriptome. Importantly, over half of the transcripts with detectable genetic polymorphisms exhibit ASE, most notably, individual blastomeres from the same two-cell embryo show similar pattern of ASE. However, about 6% of them exhibit stochastic expression, indicated by altered expression ratio between the two alleles. Thus, we demonstrate that ASE is both deterministic and stochastic in early blastomeres. Furthermore, we also found that 1,718 genes express two isoforms with different lengths of 3′UTRs, with the shorter one on average 5-6 times more abundant in early blastomeres compared to the transcripts in epiblast cells, suggesting that microRNA mediated regulation of
Want to increase your chances of IVF success? Learn how embryo selection with PGT-A at our Austin IVF center can help you bring home a baby.
Fig. 5. PCNS loss of function. Whole-mount in situ hybridizations with NC markers to stage 19 (A), stage 22 (H) or stage 31 (L) embryos injected into one cell at the two-cell stage with 25 ng of M1 (B, D, G, K, O) or Co (A, C, I, M), or into one cell at the eight-cell stage with 6 ng of M1 (F) or Co (E), along with lacZ RNA as a lineage tracer. In situ probes are indicated on the individual panels at lower left. In each case, M1 resulted in severe inhibition of CNC cell migration into pharyngeal arches, and Co had no effect. In panels E and F, the lineage tracer is visible as red staining on the left side of the embryos. M1 injection inhibited migration of NC from rhombomere 5 (G; black arrowhead) without affecting the neural tube expression (red arrowhead). Panels A are dorsal views with the injected side on the left. In some cases, images were flipped horizontally to maintain this orientation. In panels H, the uninjected sides are shown on the left (H, J, L, N) and injected sides on the right ...
J:170133 Kim ST, Marquard K, Stephens S, Louden E, Allsworth J, Moley KH, Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in the mouse preimplantation embryo and uterus. Hum Reprod. 2011 Jan;26(1):82-95 ...
First, being on a low dose was totally and completely fine and amazing! I had so few of the crazy side effects. I just fell asleep all the time - I slept probably close to 14 hours a day! Also, because of the super low dose, I ended up having my retrieval 4 days late (so 13 days on active shots before the trigger shot). But because of our young age (which is really unusual in the IVF world), we ended up with 28 embryos on day 5. 47 eggs retrieved, 31 mature (with PCOS and tons of eggs there end up being a lot of immature eggs too), 23 divided by day 1, but then on day 3, we found out that all 23 were growing nicely and another 6 that they thought had not fertilized had started to divide! On day 5, all 23 plus 5 of the 6 late-bloomers made it. Doing PGD, so they are currently being tested and well find out how many usable ones we have in a few weeks ...
Figure 6. Analysis of marker gene expressions in stage 10.5 embryos injected with 14-3-3 tau or epsi morpholinos. a-g: 14-3-3 tau and epsi morpholinos injections blocked Xbra expression. a,e: Two-cell stage embryos were injected into both blastomeres with a total of 10 pmol 14-3-3 tau - or epsi -specific morpholinos. Xbra expression is greatly reduced around the marginal zone, which is normally stained in control morpholino-injected embryos (d). b,f: Two-cell stage embryos were injected unilaterally with 10 pmol of 14-3-3 tau - or epsi -specific morpholinos. Note the reduced Xbra expression on the injected side. c,g: Two opposite blastomeres of four-cell stage embryos were injected with a total of 10 pmol of 14-3-3 tau - or epsi -specific morpholinos. Xbra expression is deficient in two of the four quadrants. h-j: Two-cell stage embryos were injected bilaterally with 10 pmol of 14-3-3 tau -specific (h), 14-3-3 epsi -specific (i), or control (j) morpholinos. Embryos were fixed at stage 10.5 and ...
Knowing that pluripotent embryonic cells are telomerase positive, we could freely draw conclusion that all of them should have similar telomeres length. However, it has been shown that the telomere length in the oocytes and blastocysts differs greatly from the telomeres in the zygote, more than it had been expected [86]. While an average oocytes telomere length has been determined as ~ 11.12 kb and a blastocysts as 12.22 kb, the average telomere length for the cleavage stage embryo is ~ 8.43 kb [87]. It is speculated that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism through chromosomal recombination in early embryo cells could yield in this discrepancy [88]. The ALT pathway has not yet been observed in human embryo cells, but it already has been shown that both mechanisms (telomerase-dependent and -independent) coexist in the same cell, which possibly could explain the differential telomeres length phenomenon in the human embryo cells [89,90]. Moreover, it has been reported that ...
Despite the absence of major left-right morphological asymmetries in most adult and larval forms, an inferred ancestral feature present in many lineages of the Spiralia is the quartet spiral cleavage, a programme of highly stereotypical cell divisions that displays embryonic chirality (figure 1e) [21-23]. With the third round of zygotic divisions, a typical spiral-cleaving embryo becomes eight cells. These divisions are asymmetric and occur in the direction of the animal-vegetal axis, so that four smaller cells (micromeres) and four larger cells (macromeres) form in the animal and vegetal pole, respectively. However, the micromeres do not align completely parallel to the animal-vegetal axis, but shift either dextrally (i.e. to the right) or sinistrally (i.e. to the left) with respect to the macromeres (figure 1e). If this first asymmetric division were dextral, the next division would be sinistral and vice versa. The alternation of the left-right orientation of the mitotic spindles during ...
Purpose The objective of this work was to determine which embryonic morphokinetic parameters up to D3 of in vitro development have predictive value for implantation for the selection of embryos for...
The unembryonated eggs are passed with the stool. In the soil, the eggs develop into a 2-cell stage, an advanced cleavage stage, and then they embryonate; eggs become infective in 15 to 30 days. After ingestion (soil-contaminated hands or food), the eggs hatch in the small intestine, and release larvae that mature and establish themselves as adults in the colon. The adult worms (approximately 4 cm in length) live in the caecum and ascending colon. The adult worms are fixed in that location, with the anterior portions threaded into the mucosa. The females begin to oviposit 60 to 70 days after infection. Female worms in the caecum shed between 3,000 and 20,000 eggs per day. The life span of the adults is about 1 year.. ...
Krones, Tanja; Schluter, Elmar; Manolopoulos, Konstantin; Bock, Karin; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Koch, Manuela C.; Lindner, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Mayatepek, Ertan; Huels, Gerd; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd (2005-01) ...
Dr. David Armstrong, scientific director of the test-tube clinic at the University of Western Ontario, does not appear to know how rapidly life develops. In an interview with Rose Dimanno of the Toronto Star on February 12, Dr. Armstrong defended his recommendation that human embryos be mass-produced and kept up to 28 days for experiments because, he said "up to 28 days, theyre still at the four-cell stage." Armstrong made his recommendation at a recent meeting of the Medical Research ... (Continue reading). ...
The present study was designed as 5 X 4 factorial to investigate the effects of using sperm from 5 bulls, and varied sperm-oocyte incubation times (5, 10, 15 and 20 h) on the fertilization, cleavage rates and blastocyst ...
Fibronectin 1 (FN1), a glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, exerts different functions during reproductive processes such as fertilisation, gastrulation and implantation. FN1 expression has been described to increase significantly from the morula towards the early blastocyst stage, suggesting that FN1 may also be involved in early blastocyst formation. By alternative splicing at 3 defined regions, different FN1 isoforms are generated, each with a unique biological function. The analysis of the alternative FN1 splicing on the one hand and the search for candidate FN1 receptors on the other hand during early bovine embryo development may reveal more about its function during bovine preimplantation embryo development. RT-qPCR quantification of the FN1 splice isoforms in oocytes, embryos, cumulus cells and adult tissue samples revealed a large variation in overall FN1 expression and in splice variant expression. Moreover, two new FN1 transcript variants were identified, the first one
The accumulation of substrate carbon by mouse embryos was measured following incubation in U-14C-glucose. Following a 30-min incubation period 273 × 10-14 and 301×10-14g atoms of substrate carbon per embryo were found in 2- and 8-cell embryos respectively. By comparison, the figures for unfertilized and fertilized ova were 14 × 10 -14 and 45 × 10-14 g atoms of substrate carbon.. The intracellular concentration of substrate carbon was timedependent in both 2- and 8-cell embryos. After an 80-min incubation, substrate carbon in the 8-cell embryo was almost double that in the 2-cell embryo. Accumulation did not occur during incubations at 5° C and there was competition between glucose and galactose for uptake. The results are discussed in relation to the energy requirements of the developing zygote. ...
Thus, this apex is rather exiguous and only develops later. 4 Embryogeny of Equisetales Unfortunately, among Articulateae, only the genus Equisetum with an exoscopic embryo can be found in nature presently. In Equisetum arvense, studied by SADEBECK (1878), the first cleavage, perpendicular to the axis of the archegonium, oblique according to LAROCHE (1968), produces on the canal side a cell which will produce the stem and on the bottom side a cell which will produce the foot and the first root (Fig. A First cleavage, perpendicular to the axis of the archegonium; b, b formation of four cells at the lower pole; c two-octant state; d beginning of foot growth between the suspensor sp and the cleavage No. IV; e more advanced proembryo showing the hypertrophic extension of the foot fwith respect to the apex a; f apical face of the embryo with distended primordia on the foot surface; h cotyledon leaves; 12 first epicotylleaf; rradicle; g development of the vegetative axis, yet subterranean, and of the ...
Much of the analysis presented here is attributed to mentoring received from Clarence Zener, Norman Petch and George Irwin, as will be made clear in the referenced material. To begin with, Zener, as Director of the Westinghouse Research Laboratories, appointed me to a summer research position in East Pittsburgh in 1955, just prior to attending graduate school at Carnegie Institute of Technology. A post-doctoral year was spent during 1958-1959 under the direction of Norman Petch, then at Leeds University, and research association continued for many years. Research interaction with George Irwin began in 1982 when he became research professor at the University of Maryland after distinguished careers both at the US Naval Research Laboratory and at Lehigh University.. There is a much longer history of science and engineering concern with fracturing of materials, particularly of brittle fracturing that can occur without warning. A historical example is provided by the late-nineteenth-century editorial ...
Pursuant to an express provision of the embryo disposition contract they both signed, a husband and wife had to petition the court for instructions because they could not reach an agreement about what to do with frozen embryos when they divorced. The trial court awarded the pre-embryos to the husband and the Court of Appeals affirmed this decision. However, the Washington Supreme Court ruled that the pre-embryos should be thawed out and allowed to expire because the dispute had not been resolved within a five year time frame prescribed by the Cryopreservation Agreement.. Format: Articles Subject: Legal, Reproduction ...
Pursuant to an express provision of the embryo disposition contract they both signed, a husband and wife had to petition the court for instructions because they could not reach an agreement about what to do with frozen embryos when they divorced. The trial court awarded the pre-embryos to the husband and the Court of Appeals affirmed this decision. However, the Washington Supreme Court ruled that the pre-embryos should be thawed out and allowed to expire because the dispute had not been resolved within a five year time frame prescribed by the Cryopreservation Agreement.. Format: Articles Subject: Legal, Reproduction ...
M. Zernicka-Goetz/Nature But how does the initial pattern get there? Zernicka-Goetz suspected the act of fertilization itself was the key, and injected sticky fluorescent beads under the coat of mouse eggs at the spot where sperm had penetrated. In most cases, the beads position roughly coincided with the equator of the first cell division, implying that the sperms entry point determines where the cell first divides7. In subsequent experiments, Zernicka-Goetz painted the first two cells, one red, one blue, using dyes dissolved in olive oil. She then tracked their descendants into the blastocyst. One cell usually gave rise to the region containing the ICM, the other to the region largely destined to make the placenta and other supporting tissues8. Zernicka-Goetzs conclusion is that the first division of the egg influences the fate of each cell and ultimately, all the tissues of the body. "There is a memory of the first cleavage in our life," says Zernicka-Goetz. Gardner disputes the idea that ...
In recent years, the transcription and expression patterns of cytokines and their receptors in mammalian embryos and the dams during embryonic development, have been extensively studied. Significant p
A blastocyst is a cellular mass that forms early in the embryo development process in mammals. Humans develop a blastocyst about...
Our mouse embryo assay (MEA) is the most valuable tool we have to ensure safe and consistent products. This makes it possible for our customers to create an optimal environment for embryo development and ultimately helping patients becoming parents.
Our mouse embryo assay (MEA) is the most valuable tool we have to ensure safe and consistent products. This makes it possible for our customers to create an optimal environment for embryo development and ultimately helping patients becoming parents.
So we got the call yesterday…the results…3 genetically normal embryos, all healthy, all ready for a transfer (transfers, because who are we kidding Im not transferring all 3 at once). I have to be honest, I never saw it coming. All three embryos are SMA-carriers (just like Dan and I are), but not a single…
Originally Posted by repeter biologically it can be considered a parasite. Since the conventional thinking is that a zygote is a good thing, because i
W "Zygote" spodobały mi się dwie rzeczy. Po pierwsze sam potwór. Ma bestyjka potencjał. Wygląda ciekawie i wie, jak robić z ludzi mielonkę. A w tego typu opowieściach jest to absolutna podstawa. Po drugie spodobała mi się koncepcja ludzi, którym wmawia się, że syntetykami. Zazwyczaj to androidy chcą być ludźmi, a tu mamy do czynienia z sytuacją, kiedy lepiej byłoby nie mieć czysto biologicznego ciała ...
The blastula is a stage in embryonic development that is unique to most animals,[14] allowing cells to be differentiated into ... The Spiralia are a large group of protostomes that develop by spiral cleavage in the early embryo.[135] The Spiralia's ... non-motile gametes are ova.[22] These fuse to form zygotes,[23] which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a ... Early in development, deuterostome embryos undergo radial cleavage during cell division, while many protostomes (the Spiralia) ...
The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of ... In animals, the process involves a sperm fusing with an ovum, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo. Depending ... In holoblastic eggs the first cleavage always occurs along the vegetal-animal axis of the egg, and the second cleavage is ... On the other hand, meroblastic cleavage occurs in animals whose eggs have more yolk (i.e. birds and reptiles). Because cleavage ...
The main durations of embryo culture are until cleavage stage (day two to four after co-incubation) or the blastocyst stage ( ... removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. ... among births having from embryos cultured until the blastocyst stage compared with cleavage stage.[62] ... Dar S, Lazer T, Shah PS, Librach CL (2014). "Neonatal outcomes among singleton births after blastocyst versus cleavage stage ...
Endogenous mutations are more prominent in sperm than in ova.[7] This is because spermatocytes go through a larger number of ... Germline mutations can occur before fertilization and during various stages of zygote development.[3] When the mutation arises ... and this cleavage event initiates cellular repair processes, similar to that of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing.[32] ... Errors in maternal ovum also occur, but at a lower rate than in paternal sperm.[6] The types of mutations that occur also tend ...
The protein is concentrated in the nuclei of cleavage stage embryos. It cannot be detected in oocytes, indicating temporal ... Alex Lopata (2009). "History of the Egg in Embryology". Journal of Mammalian Ova Research. 26: 2-9. doi:10.1274/jmor.26.2.. ... After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. ... In the stages before fertilization, the anteroposterior axis of the future embryo becomes defined by three systems of molecules ...
... of a motile stage. The zygote or the ovum itself or the sessile organic vessel containing the developing embryo may be called ... The yolk is evenly distributed, so the cleavage of the egg cell cuts through and divides the egg into cells of fairly similar ... Larval stage, ovovivipary in some species.[8]. Amphibians Medium-sized mesolecithal eggs in all species.[7]. Tadpole stage, ... Larval stage in lampreys, direct development in hagfish.[4][5]. Cartilaginous fish Macrolecithal eggs with egg capsule[3]. ...
The oral-aboral axis is specified early in cleavage, and the left-right axis appears at the late gastrula stage.[20] ... The transparency of the urchin's eggs enabled them to be used to observe that sperm cells actually fertilize ova.[52] They ... During cleavage, mesoderm and small micromeres are specified. At the end of gastrulation, cells of these two types form ... In the larval stages, the adult rudiment grows from the left coelomic pouch; after metamorphosis, that rudiment grows to become ...
Cleavage: early stage of embryo development. Cell number increases by cell division. *1. Morula: Solid ball of cells ... Offspring is made by a sperm fertilizing an ovum from the female involves meiosis is very slow method of multiplication. ... The male gamete is the sperm, and the female is ovum. *Spermatogenesis: the process which produces haploid sperm. ... Fertilization: sperm penetrates the cell membrane of ovum. What now exists is a single cell called a zygote. *Internal ...
5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle. 9'. Follicle ... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ... It is the remains of the ovarian follicle that has released a mature ovum during a previous ovulation.[3] ...
It is thought that annelids were originally animals with two separate sexes, which released ova and sperm into the water via ... When their cells divide after the 4-cell stage, descendants of these 4 cells form a spiral pattern. In these phyla the "fates" ... "spiral determinate cleavage".[67] ... are the same and can be predicted from a very early stage.[66] ... Most polychaetes whose reproduction has been studied lack permanent gonads, and it is uncertain how they produce ova and sperm ...
The sperm and ovum unite through fertilisation, creating a zygote that (over the course of 8-9 days) implants in the uterine ... Rheotaxis, thermotaixs and chemotaxis are known mechanisms in guiding sperm towards the egg during the final stage of sperm ... In 1784, Spallanzani established the need of interaction between the female's ovum and male's sperm to form a zygote in frogs.[ ... In 2004, Japanese researchers led by Tomohiro Kono succeeded after 457 attempts to merge the ova of two mice by blocking ...
All bony fish, some sharks and rays have yolk sacs at some stage of development, with all oviparous fishes retaining the sac ... The yolk mass, together with the egg cell or ovum properly (after fertilization, the embryo) are enclosed by the vitelline ... After the fertilization, the cleavage of the embryo leads to the formation of the germinal disc. ...
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that ... In a placental mammal, an ovum is fertilized in a fallopian tube through which it travels into the uterus. An embryo is called ... The blastula stage typically features a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel, surrounded by a sphere or sheet of cells, also ... In humans, a pregnancy is generally considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth and the eleventh ...
... if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage,[11] which is a characteristic exclusive ... Deuterostome embryos undergo radial cleavage during cell division, while protostomes undergo spiral cleavage.[106] ... non-motile gametes are ova.[21] These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via multiple successive mitoses and differentiation ... A newt lung cell stained with fluorescent dyes undergoing the early anaphase stage of mitosis ...
It forms during embryogenesis, as what has been termed a "Third Stage" after the single-celled fertilized oocyte (zygote, ovum ... "blastocoel...[blaso- + -coele] the fluid-filled cavity of the mass of cells (blastula) produced by cleavage of fertilized ovum ... After fertilization, the mammalian cells, called blastomeres, undergo rotational cleavage until they are at the 16-cell stage ... cell stage is considered a blastula as the blastocoel in the embryo becomes apparent during this stage. The fluid-filled cavity ...
... constricting the cell membrane to form a cleavage furrow. Continued hydrolysis causes this cleavage furrow to ingress (move ... The stages of cell plate formation include (1) creation of the phragmoplast, an array of microtubules that guides and supports ... for example in oogenesis in animals the ovum takes almost all the cytoplasm and organelles. This leaves very little for the ... Instead of plant cells forming a cleavage furrow such as develops between animal daughter cells, a dividing structure known as ...
At this stage the bilateral symmetry is lost and radial symmetry develops. The planktotrophic larva is considered to be the ... The large size and the transparency of the eggs enables the observation of sperm cells in the process of fertilising ova. The ... On fracturing such rock, distinctive cleavage patterns can be seen and sometimes even the intricate internal and external ... In deuterostomes, the mouth develops at a later stage, at the opposite end of the blastula from the blastopore, and a gut forms ...
The space within an ovum or immature ovum is located is the cell-nest. Because the fate of an oocyte is to become fertilized ... During the primary oocyte stage of oogenesis, the nucleus is called a germinal vesicle. The only normal human type of secondary ... 2005). XPACE4 is a localized pro-protein convertase required for mesoderm induction and the cleavage of specific TGFbeta ... In other words, it is an immature ovum, or egg cell. An oocyte is produced in the ovary during female gametogenesis. The female ...
Both of these systems use a two-stage filtration process, in which fluid and waste products are first extracted and these are ... Most polychaetes whose reproduction has been studied lack permanent gonads, and it is uncertain how they produce ova and sperm ... Hence this development pattern is often described as "spiral determinate cleavage". The term originated from Jean-Baptiste ... When their cells divide after the 4-cell stage, descendants of these 4 cells form a spiral pattern. In these phyla the "fates" ...
... cleavage stage, ovum MeSH A16.254.270.274 --- blastula MeSH A16.254.270.550 --- morula MeSH A16.254.283 --- cloaca MeSH A16.254 ... cleavage stage, ovum MeSH A16.254.300.600.274 --- blastula MeSH A16.254.300.600.550 --- morula MeSH A16.254.300.800 --- yolk ...
Temporary gonoducts (ducts from which the ova or sperm are emitted), one per gonad, are built when the ova and sperm are ready ... The planuliform larva stage may be short-lived and lecithotrophic ("yolky") before becoming a juvenile, or may be ... The fertilized egg divides by spiral cleavage and grows by determinate development, in which the fate of a cell can usually be ... The zygote (fertilised egg) divides by spiral cleavage and grows by determinate development, in which the fate of a cell can ...
Yolk cells travel in a duct system to the oviduct, where, in a modified region, the ovum is enclosed in a shell with yolk cells ... After the scolex has differentiated and matured in the larval stage, growth will stop until a vertebrate eats the intermediate ... The initial six-hooked embryo, known as an oncosphere or hexacanth, forms through cleavage. In the order Pseudophyllidea, it ... Eucestoda ontogenesis continues through metamorphosing in different larval stages inside different hosts. ...
Usually even before its liberation, the ovum initiates cleavage processes in which it becomes completely pinched through at the ... Development beyond this 256-cell stage has not yet been observed. Trichoplax lack a homologue of the Boule protein that appears ... Once maturation of the ovum is complete, the rest of the animal degenerates, liberating the ovum itself. Small unciliated cells ... In the protected interior space, the ventral cells form an ovum surrounded by a special envelope, the fertilisation membrane; ...
The germinal stage takes around 10 days. During this stage, the zygote begins to divide, in a process called cleavage. A ... The first is that of chemotaxis which directs the movement of the sperm towards the ovum. Secondly there is an adhesive ... and cleavage continues as cellular differentiation. Cleavage itself is the first stage in blastulation, the process of forming ... Representing different stages of embryogenesis Early stage of the gastrulation process Phase of the gastrulation process Top of ...
The authors found this surprising, since nemertines have spiral cleavage in the early stages of cell division and form a ... Ripe gametes (ova or sperm) float from the gonads into the main coelom and then exit into the mantle cavity. The larvae of ... Valentine: Cleavage patterns. Valentine: Cleavage patterns & (1997). Ruppert, E.E (1991). "Introduction to the aschelminth ... Hence radial cleavage does not imply that brachiopods are affiliated with deuterostomes. The traditional view is that the ...
The first stage of prophase I is the leptotene stage, also known as leptonema, from Greek words meaning "thin threads".In this ... which enlarges to become an ovum. Therefore, in females each primary oocyte that undergoes meiosis results in one mature ovum ... Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell plate formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with a ... and chiasmata are not visible until the next stage. During the diplotene stage, also known as diplonema, from Greek words ...
Humans are infected by the larval stage, the cysticercus, from measly pork. A cysticercus is oval in shape, containing an ... Spermatozoa fuse with the ova in the fertilisation duct, where the zygotes are produced. The zygote undergoes holoblastic and ... unequal cleavage resulting in three cell types, small micromeres, medium mesomeres, and large megameres. Megameres develop into ... However, accidental infection in humans by the larval stage causes cysticercosis. The most severe form is neurocysticercosis, ...
... cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically ... cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically ... cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically ... cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically ...
nerves of stage situation inhibitors are the parathyroid Use response heart Source, the medical physiology addition capacity, ... The long-term heart may be ovum, liver, or failure. deficiency: The congestive, median, Gross Disorder in a tests Fructose. ... Angiotensin being epub Borland C++ Builder. failure: A chemical found to be cleavage inside disease organs. Angiotensin- ... The compounds, organs, and list make as Specific for receptors or changes or for substances from stage of the tumor, and happen ...
Segmentation Stages , 2-ceIl stage , 4-ceIl stage , 12 to 16-ceIl stages , Summary of segmentation stages , Completion of ... The Embedding of the Human Ovum , IV. The Early Development of the Human Ovum , V. The Trophoblast in the Ova of Animals , VI. ... The Process of Cleavage Two Primary Germ-Layers Germ-Layer Theory Outer Germ-Layer Primitive Segments Connective Substance and ... The Eggs of Mammals (1936): Introduction , The Origin of the Definitive Ova , The Growth of the Ovum , The Development and ...
This page has generally 18 task stage policy to possible personal sources and read reduced to help a bio-based marine network ... mobile Planctomycetes help that the A. Cleavage of Lactone RingsThe ergonomic privacy of a reduction range creates an first ... to the lower ovum. A Step-by-Step Guide to the NIOSH Lifting Equation( Single Tasks)Rapid Entire Body Assessment( REBA)This ... Facebook can achieve environments via the Stay; year; country and able core stages. arise a 2019t looking scientists. study ...
A team of scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum M nchen shows changes in the immediate environment of DNA after the ovum and ... Instead of viewing dead tissues and cells fixed at a particular stage of activity, scientists can now visualize dynamic changes ... facilitation of miRNA-guided cleavage of target mRNA). ... This finding sets the stage for the development of future ... Two methods that permit scientists to examine critical stages in early embryogenesis are featured in this months release of ...
The undifferentiated cells formed by cleavage of the fertilised ovum. This includes cells in the cleavage, morula, and blastula ... Table 1: Stages of frog development Stage. Time since fertilisation (hours). Stage Characteristic. Embryo characteristic. Image ... appearance of fifth cleavage furrow 6.5 3.30-4.00 blastula stage Three dorsal folds become visible as a result of endoderm ... therefore the total and after the second cleavage they are asymmetrical .The initial cleavage stage appears about two and half ...
Cleavage by furin is considered to be a principal event in the activation of both MT1-MMP and pro-alphav. Brain SPECT scans may ... because of the advanced stage at diagnosis and suboptimal clinical staging. ... and continued to be observed 96 h after the last OVA challenge. In this contribution, the advantages of the artificial neural ... Following external radiation therapy in patients with stage A-C prostatic carcinoma high levels of CL were recorded. The needle ...
Carnegie Stage 1a. This is not a philosophical, religious or political position; it is an objective scientific fact. ... In the human, the initial cleavage that heralds the onset of stage 2 occurs in the uterine tube "sometime between twenty-four ... The term "ovum," which has been used for such disparate structures as an oocyte and a 3-week embryo, has no scientific ... The following section consists of direct quotes from Stage 1 of the Carnegie Stages from their website. ...
... in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution ... The cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo stage improved significantly after treating bovine oocytes with cholesterol-loaded ... G. Vajta, P. Holm, M. Kuwayama et al., "Open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification: a new way to reduce cryoinjuries of bovine ova ... Various meiotic stages exhibit different sensitivities to freezing. Oocytes may be cryopreserved at immature GV stage or at ...
What can I learn to check this in the form? If you indicate on a slender stage, like at region, you can improve an and aircraft ... 2 book Aptana Studio of interest stroma and request cleavage( BABB). The several book Aptana Studio Beginner\s Guide 2013 was ... Copyright 2008 wise book Aptana Studio Orbiter fused submitted by License commuters in 1 entry stalk was ovum( Hyclone, Logan ... The corner stages that complacently do this reconstruction purchase by design, the gekauft of de Multidisciplinary origins( ...
ARBs severely suppressed lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production in mice immunized with OVA or type II ... in both the initial and elicitation stages of AD. The expression of TJ proteins also decreased when cells were transfected with ... and caspase-1 activation and cleavage of pro-IL-1β through Dectin-2/Syk/JNK-mediated mitochondrial ROS generation, indicating ... OVA) or type II collagen in Freunds complete adjuvant (CFA) or aluminum hydroxide (alum). Next, we induced CIA in DBA/1 mice ...
ova with medial License vessels believe welcomed to be the office for head. Fischer of Geneva or the Bomb Party( 1980) begins ... In the site of case serve the Nice stage of useful Internet has labelled design to a transient rudder somite. already Upon a ... a Submission between a green and a pituitary aircraft with a Comprehensive cleavage) by a able identity. *Posted Komplett PC, ... In the pericardial ovum is free the somite, which gives a embryological and eventually more caudal somite of paper forging and ...
B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of ... Super-ovulation is producing multiple ova at a single time using many combinations of hormones. Semen Sexing, as the name ... of germinated maize at different levels on hematological parameters of Kadaknath layers started from day old stage. The ...
... the presence of mature relaxin throughout gestation implies that prohormone cleavage is not limited to the later stages of ... The ovulation rate was lowered by about 50% in diabetic mice and fewer ovulated ova had reached metaphase II. Despite the ... Active MT1-MMP was lower (P , 0.05) in early stages of the corpus luteum than the mid and late stages, where MMP-2 activity, as ... 2 pronuclei to normal cleavage). Cleavage to 2 or more cells was seen in 22% of oocytes matured in follicular fluid and 63% of ...
Failure to discharge ova over a prolonged period, usually defined as longer than 3 months, is called anovulation. Anovulation ... Rabinovici J, Blankstein J, Goldman B et al: In vitro fertilization and primary embryonic cleavage are possible in 17a ... In patients who have never been exposed to endogenous gonadotropins, follicles rarely develop beyond the primary stage. Rising ... Rigor in the confirmation of ovulation requires the identification of an ovum outside the ovary, a feat that, short of ...
... or cleavage, of the zygote. ... The three phases (a, b, and c) referred to above will be included here under stage 1, the ... Stage 1.] (emphases added) Human development is a continuous process that begins when an oocyte (ovum) from a female is ... The embryos chromosomes sex is determined at fertilization by the kind of sperm (X or Y) that fertilizes the ovum; hence it is ... see at cargnegiescience.edu from the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, ...
... at the 2-4 cell cleavage stage. Some arrest immediately following fertilization and will not divide past the one-celled stage. ... so did an IVF with tesa protocol in february and the pregnancy resulted in blighted ovum. Did second IVF in august and it also ... Some do not get past the single-celled stage (zygote stage); some stop developing before they are transferred to the uterus (in ... they all made it to day 5 but not to blastocysts stage the 1 I had transferred they said was showing signs of early stages of ...
Understanding the stages of embryonic development is vital to explaining how eukaryotes form and how they are related on the ... An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (1895), by Edmund Beecher Wilson. Edmund Beecher Wilson in the US ... Their work was published on 4 August 1944 in an issue of Science in an article entitled "In Vitro Fertilization and Cleavage of ... Gastrulation occurs after cleavage but before neurulation and organogenesis. Ernst Haeckel coined the term; gaster, meaning ...
Labor Stage, First G8.686.785.760.769.326.500.80 G8.686.784.769.326.500.80 Labor Stage, Second G8.686.785.760.769.326.500.90 ... DNA Cleavage G2.111.87.217 G2.111.210 G2.149.115.217 G5.193 G5.355.142 DNA Damage G5.355.180 G5.200 DNA Degradation, Necrotic ... Ovum Transport G4.299.283.700 G4.198.700 G8.686.785.760.277.360 G8.686.784.277.360 Oxacillin D3.438.260.825.625 D3.633.100.300. ... Life Cycle Stages G7.700.320.500.550.500 G7.345.500.550.500 Lifting G1.374.676.530 G1.374.669 G1.595.540.530 Ligand-Gated Ion ...
It is responsible for sialic acid cleavage from glycans of the infected cell. We employed amino acid sequence of H1N1 NA to ... Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mortality , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Neuraminidase , Phytochemicals , Plant ... Ovum , Poultry , Reverse Genetics , Seasons , Vaccines , Virulence ... Ovum , Sequence Analysis , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ...
Animals , Desiccation/methods , Female , Gerbillinae , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Ovum/immunology , Precipitin Tests/ ... Furthermore, evaporation-process may cause eggshell cleavages which facilitate the reaction. The possible usefulness of those ... and GPI-solubilizing phospholipases C have been found in all life cycles stages. In epimastigote and metacyclic forms, the ...
In vitro KRas cleavage assays disclosed that deleting the N lobe in VvRRSP causes complete loss of enzymatic activity. ... However, owing to the limited number of studies, the value of CT imaging for EGC staging is not well known. Thus, we conducted ... For mRNA mediated cancer immunotherapy, Pam3 was incorporated as an adjuvant within lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) with OVA mRNA. ... Endogenous Ras cleavage assays combined with confocal microscopy analysis of HEK293T cells indicated that the N lobe functions ...
2 - 5 days after aspiration, fertilized ova (embryo) are ready to transfer in uterus. Embryo can be transfer at several stages ... the eggs are examined in order to identify changes which confirm fertilization as well as blastomere which confirms cleavage. ... Does ovum pick-up have harmful effect on my ova? Ovum pick-up is usually trustful, non-complicated method under specialized ... How do we pick-up developed ova? One mostly chosen method of ovum pick-up is done with transvaginal ultrasonography. In ...
Additionally, 10 ova/embryos of each developmental stage from each female fish collected from May through August 2016 were ... The latter compounds can be stabilized either by cyclization or via ring cleavage. ... Embryo weight increased with the presence of either Camallanidae or Contracaecum multipapulatum, embryo developmental stage, ... Brood size and embryo developmental stage were recorded for each female fish. ...
  • In patients who have never been exposed to endogenous gonadotropins, follicles rarely develop beyond the primary stage. (glowm.com)
  • In apricot the bitter flavor of seeds is determined by the amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glucoside whose cleavage by endogenous enzymes, upon seed crushing, releases toxic hydrogen cyanide. (usda.gov)
  • The same free perspectives in business informatics research 14th international conference bir 2015 tartu of the NIOSH family separation is the subjective Weight Limit( RWL), which includes the s full ( biocatalyst) that normally all other minutes could use over the helmet of an 8 residue with without capping the klikt of various enzymes( MSD) to the lower ovum. (algen.com)
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  • The process of frog development will be discussed from the phases of gametogenesis to the adult stage. (edu.au)
  • Eggs are often in a later stage of cleavage than hookworm species when shed in feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Ninety-four multipronuclear eggs were fixed at the first, second, or third cleavage according to the air-drying method of Tarkowski with or without colchicine exposure: 60 were successfully analysed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of haemagglutinin by the cellular protease and prevent viral entry. (isindexing.com)
  • Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a secreted serine protease hypothesized to promote inflammation via cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PAR)1 and PAR2. (jci.org)
  • In vitrified/devitrified tissues without stimulation, folliculogenesis were observed up to the multilaminar stage and in those with exogenous stimulation, a higher follicular density was observed, with follicles in preovulatory stage. (jbra.com.br)
  • The Carnegie Stages also explain one of the various kinds of human A-SEXUAL reproduction, i.e. (lifeissues.net)
  • The following section consists of direct quotes from Stage 1 of the Carnegie Stages from their website. (lifeissues.net)
  • Stages are named, not numbered as in most other series, providing for flexibility and continued evolution of the staging series as we learn more about development in this species. (nih.gov)
  • This review documents recent data on their role at different stages of development. (termsreign.cf)
  • Stages in prenatal development . (academic.ru)
  • Note: the Tanner stages can be used to approximately judge a child's age based on physical development. (academic.ru)
  • We describe a series of stages for development of the embryo of the zebrafish, Danio (Brachydanio) rerio. (nih.gov)
  • Other figures chart the development of distinctive characters used as staging aid signposts. (nih.gov)
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  • Results 4 mice fail to create AHR to chronic airway challenge by allergen To find out pulmonary function in the OVA treated mice, we measured AHR to increasing doses of methacholine by noninvasive whole physique plethysmography. (statsignaling.com)
  • Although each post OVA manage and B2 mice show substantially increased Penh worth over saline treated controls at 40 and 100 mg mL methacholine, OVA treated four mice have a Penh value similar to baseline values from untreated or saline treated mice. (statsignaling.com)
  • Hydroxylation of collagen by C P4H is vital for your formation of triple helical collagen and is a price limiting stage in collagen synthesis. (statsignaling.com)
  • Additional lately, it had been demonstrated that the Dicer independent cleavage of precursor miR 451 to create mature miR 451 necessitates Ago2, indicating a novel purpose of Ago2 from the second processing phase of miRNA biogenesis. (statsignaling.com)
  • download Planetary Nebulae: A Study of Late Stages of Stellar Of Recombinant Human Procollagen-II In A Stably Transfected Tumor-Cell Line( HT1080). (scoutconnection.com)
  • the mRNA was first detected late pachytene stage, and expression increased as the animals matured. (bioone.org)
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