Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Ureohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which can include urease, urease accessory proteins, and other enzymes with similar functions.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can hydrolyze and confer resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
'Azā compounds' are a class of organic molecules containing at least one nitrogen atom in a five-membered ring, often found in naturally occurring substances and pharmaceuticals, with the name derived from the Arabic word "azZa" meaning 'strong' referring to the ring's aromatic stability.
A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.
A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.

In-vitro susceptibility of 1982 respiratory tract pathogens and 1921 urinary tract pathogens against 19 antimicrobial agents: a Canadian multicentre study. Canadian Antimicrobial Study Group. (1/262)

A total of 3903 pathogens from 48 Canadian medical centres were tested against 19 antimicrobial agents. Five agents showed activity against > or = 90% of all 1982 respiratory tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin, 90%; cefoperazone, 91%; ticarcillin/clavulanate, 92%; ceftazidime and imipenem, 93% each). Nine agents had > or = 90% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from respiratory tract infection (cefotaxime and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; aztreonam, ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone, 91% each; ceftazidime, 93%; ciprofloxacin, 97%; imipenem and netilmicin, 98% each). Similarly, five agents had activity against > or = 90% of all 1921 urinary tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; cefoperazone and netilmicin, 91% each; imipenem, 99%). Nine agents had > or = 95% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infection (ciprofloxacin, 95%; cefotetan, 97%; aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone and netilmicin, 98% each; imipenem, 99%). Seventeen agents had activity against > or = 95% of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates ranged from 2% to 91%.  (+info)

Once-daily, high-dose levofloxacin versus ticarcillin-clavulanate alone or followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate for complicated skin and skin-structure infections: a randomized, open-label trial. (2/262)

This study tested whether levofloxacin, at a new high dose of 750 mg, was effective for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs). Patients with complicated SSSIs (n=399) were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to 2 treatment arms: levofloxacin (750 mg given once per day intravenously [iv], orally, or iv/orally) or ticarcillin-clavulanate (TC; 3.1 g given iv every 4-6 hours) followed, at the investigator's discretion, by amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC; 875 mg given orally every 12 hours). In the clinically evaluable population, therapeutic equivalence was demonstrated between the levofloxacin and TC/AC regimens (success rates of 84.1% and 80.3%, respectively). In the microbiologically evaluable population, the overall rate of eradication was 83.7% in the levofloxacin treatment group and 71.4% in the TC/AC treatment group (95% confidence interval, -24.3 to -0.2). Both levofloxacin and TC/AC were well tolerated. These data demonstrate that levofloxacin (750 mg once per day) is safe and at least as effective as TC/AC for complicated SSSIs.  (+info)

In vitro study of clavulanic acid in combination with penicillin, amoxycillin, and carbenicillin. (3/262)

The activity of clavulanic acid alone and in combination with penicillin, amoxycillin, and carbenicillin was studied. Marked reductions in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for a wide spectrum of beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates were found. Of particular interest were the decreased MICs of penicillin for Bacteroides fragilis and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoea in the presence of the clavulanic acid. Beta-lactamase-producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and indole-negative Proteus also showed considerably increased susceptibility to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid. Two beta-lactamase-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained resistant to carbenicillin in the presence of clavulanic acid.  (+info)

Evaluation of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid versus ceftriaxone plus amikacin for fever and neutropenia in pediatric patients with leukemia and lymphoma. (4/262)

BACKGROUND: The empirical use of antibiotic treatments is widely accepted as a means to treat cancer patients in chemotherapy who have fever and neutropenia. Intravenous monotherapy, with broad spectrum antibiotics, of patients with a high risk of complications is a possible alternative. METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-label, randomized study of patients with lymphoma or leukemia who had fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy. Patients received either monotherapy with ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (T) or ceftriaxone plus amikacin (C+A). RESULTS: Seventy patients who presented 136 episodes were evaluated, 68 in each arm of the study. The mean neutrophil counts at admission were 217cells/mm(3) (T) and 201cells/mm(3) (C+A). The mean duration of neutropenia was 8.7 days (T) and 7.6 days (C+A). Treatment was successful without the need for modifications in 71% of the episodes in the T group and 81% in the C+A group (p=0.23). Treatment was considered to have failed because of death in two episodes (3%) in the T group and three episodes (4%) in the C+A group, and because of a change in the drug applied in one episode in the T group and two episodes in the C+A group. Overall success was 96% (T) and 93% (C+A). Adverse events that occurred in group T were not related to the drugs used in this study. CONCLUSION: In pediatric and adolescent patients with leukemia or lymphoma, who presented with fever and neutropenia, during chemotherapy, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid was as successful as the combination of ceftriaxone plus amikacin. It should be considered an appropriate option for this group of patients at high risk for infections.  (+info)

Susceptibilities of 540 anaerobic gram-negative bacilli to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-BRL 42715, amoxicillin-clavulanate, temafloxacin, and clindamycin. (5/262)

Agar dilution MIC testing of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-BRL 42715, amoxicillin-clavulanate, temafloxacin, and clindamycin against 496 beta-lactamase-producing anaerobic gram-negative rods revealed MICs for 90% of the strains tested of 256.0 (amoxicillin), 2.0 (amoxicillin-BRL 42715 and amoxicillin-clavulanate), and 4.0 (temafloxacin and clindamycin) microgram/ml. Amoxicillin, temafloxacin, and clindamycin inhibited all 44 beta-lactamase-negative strains (MICs for 90% of the strains tested, less than or equal to 2.0 micrograms/ml). BRL 42715 will not be developed, but temafloxacin merits clinical evaluation.  (+info)

Characterization of the Streptomyces clavuligerus argC gene encoding N-acetylglutamyl-phosphate reductase: expression in Streptomyces lividans and effect on clavulanic acid production. (6/262)

The argC gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus encoding N-acetylglutamyl-phosphate reductase (AGPR) has been cloned by complementation of argC mutants Streptomyces lividans 1674 and Escherichia coli XC33. The gene is contained in an open reading frame of 1,023 nucleotides which encodes a protein of 340 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 35,224 Da. The argC gene is linked to argE, as shown by complementation of argE mutants of E. coli. Expression of argC from cloned DNA fragments carrying the gene leads to high levels of AGPR in wild-type S. lividans and in the argC mutant S. lividans 1674. Formation of AGPR is repressed by addition of arginine to the culture medium. The protein encoded by the argC gene is very similar to the AGPRs of Streptomyces coelicolor, Bacillus subtilis, and E. coli and, to a lesser degree, to the homologous enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Anabaena spp. A conserved PGCYPT domain present in all the AGPR sequences suggests that this may be the active center of the protein. Transformation of S. clavuligerus 328, an argC auxotroph deficient in clavulanic acid biosynthesis, with plasmid pULML30, carrying the cloned argC gene, restored both prototrophy and antibiotic production.  (+info)

Broth microdilution testing of Haemophilus influenzae with haemophilus test medium versus lysed horse blood broth. Canadian Haemophilus Study Group. (7/262)

Broth microdilution testing of 702 community-acquired isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from across Canada was performed with both Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 3% lysed horse blood broth (LHB) (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) and haemophilus test medium (HTM). The prevalence of beta-lactamase production was found to be 26% with no regional variation. MICs determined with LHB tended to be higher than those with HTM, but interpretive errors due to these differences were observed only rarely with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 5), cefaclor (n = 8), and cefamandole (n = 3). The interobserver variability in MIC determinations was found to be greater when LHB was used than when HTM was used. There was no difference in intraobserver variability between the two medium formulations. beta-Lactamase-positive isolates developed false resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate 2 weeks after microdilution panels of both types of medium were stored at -20 degrees C but not when panels were stored at -70 degrees C. In conclusion, this study supports the use of HTM rather than LHB for sensitivity testing of H. influenzae because of its lower rate of interobserver variability and its ability to support the growth of these organisms, which is comparable to that of LHB.  (+info)

Three-day intravenous triple therapy is not effective for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding gastro-duodenal ulcer. (8/262)

AIM: To test the efficacy of an ultra-short intravenous triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer against standard oral 1-week triple therapy in a randomised, double-blind prospective trial. METHODS: PATIENTS: (n = 75) with haemorrhagic peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were randomised into: an Intravenous Group to receive omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid intravenously b.d. for 3 days followed by 7 days of oral omeprazole plus placebo of clarithromycin and amoxicillin; an Oral Group to receive intravenous omeprazole plus placebo of clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid followed by 7 days of oral omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin b.d. Gastric biopsies were obtained for urease test. A 13C-urea breath test was performed to check for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat eradication was 50% (19/38) in the Intravenous Group and 78% (29/37) in the Oral Group (odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 1.32-9.94; P < 0.01; number needed to treat (NNT) = 4). Per protocol eradication was 50% (14/28) in the Intravenous Group and 86% (24/28) in the Oral Group (P < 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: An ultra-short, 3-day, intravenous, triple therapy containing omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid cannot be recommended as an effective eradication regimen for H. pylori infection related to haemorrhagic gastro-duodenal ulcer.  (+info)

Clavulanic acid is a type of beta-lactamase inhibitor, which is a compound that is used to increase the effectiveness of certain antibiotics. It works by preventing the breakdown of beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins and cephalosporins) by bacterial enzymes called beta-lactamases. This allows the antibiotic to remain active against the bacteria for a longer period of time, increasing its ability to kill the bacteria and treat the infection.

Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin in a medication called Augmentin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It may also be used in other combinations with other beta-lactam antibiotics.

Like all medications, clavulanic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those who are allergic to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking clavulanic acid or any medication.

Clavulanic acid is not a medical condition, but rather an antibacterial compound that is often combined with certain antibiotics to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that have become resistant to the antibiotic alone. It works by inhibiting certain enzymes produced by bacteria that help them to resist the antibiotic, allowing the antibiotic to work more effectively.

Clavulanic acid is typically combined with antibiotics such as amoxicillin or ticarcillin to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It is important to note that clavulanate-containing medications should only be used under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can contribute to antibiotic resistance.

The Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. This combination therapy combines the antibiotic amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate, which is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The addition of potassium clavulanate helps protect amoxicillin from being broken down by certain types of bacteria that produce beta-lactamases, thus increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic against a broader range of bacterial infections.

Amoxicillin is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, ultimately leading to bacterial death. However, some bacteria have developed enzymes called beta-lactamases, which can break down and inactivate certain antibiotics like amoxicillin. Potassium clavulanate is added to the combination to inhibit these beta-lactamase enzymes, allowing amoxicillin to maintain its effectiveness against a wider range of bacteria.

This combination medication is used to treat various infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and dental infections. It's essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration as directed by a healthcare professional to ensure effective treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance.

Common brand names for this combination include Augmentin and Amoxiclav.

Ticarcillin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called penicillins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Ticarcillin has activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The drug works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. It is often administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its poor oral bioavailability. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions, including rash and itching.

It's important to note that the use of ticarcillin should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection. Additionally, healthcare providers should monitor renal function during treatment, as ticarcillin can affect kidney function in some patients.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Sulbactam is not a medication itself, but it's a type of β-lactamase inhibitor. It's often combined with other antibiotics such as ampicillin or cefoperazone to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that produce β-lactamases, enzymes that can inactivate certain types of antibiotics (like penicillins and cephalosporins). By inhibiting these enzymes, sulbactam helps to protect the antibiotic from being deactivated, allowing it to maintain its activity against bacteria.

The combination of sulbactam with other antibiotics is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It's important to note that the specific medical definition of sulbactam would be a β-lactamase inhibitor used in combination with other antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Penicillanic acid is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition in the context of human medicine or clinical practice. It is a chemical compound that is a derivative of penicillin, an antibiotic produced by certain types of mold. Penicillanic acid is a breakdown product of penicillin and is not itself used as a medication.

In chemistry, penicillanic acid is a organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C6H5COOH. It is a derivative of benzene and has a carboxylic acid group and a five-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond, which is a characteristic feature of penicillin and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while penicillanic acid may have relevance in the context of chemistry or microbiology research, it does not have a direct medical definition or application in clinical medicine.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Cephamycins are a subclass of cephalosporin antibiotics, which are derived from the fungus Acremonium species. They have a similar chemical structure to other cephalosporins but have an additional methoxy group on their side chain that makes them more resistant to beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other cephalosporins and penicillins.

Cephamycins are primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Enterobacter species. They have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making them useful for treating a variety of infections.

The two main cephamycins that are used clinically are cefoxitin and cefotetan. Cefoxitin is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and skin and soft tissue infections. Cefotetan is primarily used for the treatment of surgical prophylaxis, gynecological infections, and pneumonia.

Like other cephalosporins, cephamycins can cause allergic reactions, including rashes, hives, and anaphylaxis. They should be used with caution in patients who have a history of allergies to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Additionally, cephamycins can disrupt the normal gut flora, leading to secondary infections such as Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) diarrhea.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, saprophytic bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their complex morphology, forming branching filaments called hyphae that can differentiate into long chains of spores.

Streptomyces species are particularly notable for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antifungals, and other therapeutic compounds. In fact, many important antibiotics such as streptomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are derived from Streptomyces species.

Because of their industrial importance in the production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, Streptomyces have been extensively studied and are considered model organisms for the study of bacterial genetics, biochemistry, and ecology.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Ureohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The reaction is as follows:

CO(NH2)2 + H2O → 2 NH3 + CO2

The most well-known example of a ureohydrolase is the enzyme urease, which is found in many organisms including bacteria, fungi, and plants. Ureases are important virulence factors for some pathogenic bacteria, as they allow these microorganisms to survive in the acidic environment of the urinary tract by metabolizing urea present in the urine.

Ureohydrolases play a role in various biological processes, such as nitrogen metabolism and pH regulation. However, their activity can also contribute to the formation of kidney stones and other urological disorders if excessive amounts of ammonia are produced in the urinary tract.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

A lactam is a cyclic amide compound containing a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The name "lactam" is derived from the fact that these compounds are structurally similar to lactones, which are cyclic esters, but with an amide bond instead of an ester bond.

Lactams can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins. These antibiotics contain a four-membered lactam ring (known as a β-lactam) that is essential for their biological activity. The β-lactam ring makes these compounds highly reactive, allowing them to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus kill the bacteria.

In summary, lactams are cyclic amide compounds with a carbonyl group and a nitrogen atom in the ring structure. They can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins.

A cephalosporinase is an enzyme that can break down and inactivate cephalosporins, a group of antibiotics commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce this enzyme are referred to as "cephalosporin-resistant" or "cephalosporinase-producing" organisms. The production of cephalosporinases by bacteria can lead to treatment failures and make infections more difficult to manage.

Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means they can be effective against a wide range of bacterial species. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms, such as the production of cephalosporinases, to counteract their effects. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring in cephalosporins, rendering them ineffective.

There are different classes of cephalosporinases (e.g., Ambler classes A, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and substrate profiles. Some cephalosporinases can hydrolyze a broader range of cephalosporins than others, leading to varying degrees of resistance.

To overcome cephalosporinase-mediated resistance, alternative antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics may be used. Additionally, the development of new cephalosporins with improved stability against these enzymes is an ongoing area of research in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery.

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by some bacteria that can inactivate penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics by breaking down the beta-lactam ring, which is essential for their antimicrobial activity. Bacteria that produce penicillinase are resistant to penicillin and related antibiotics. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, such as methicillin and oxacillin, have been developed to overcome this form of bacterial resistance.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Piperacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a semisynthetic penicillin that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

Piperacillin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria.

Piperacillin is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting and is used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal or urinary tract infections. As with all antibiotics, it should be used only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacterial cells to form cell walls, leading to their death. Aztreonam is specifically active against certain types of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

Aztreonam is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and inhaled powder, for use in different clinical settings. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics or that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Like all antibiotics, aztreonam can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those with a history of allergies to other antibiotics. It is important to use aztreonam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Penicillin resistance is the ability of certain bacteria to withstand the antibacterial effects of penicillin, a type of antibiotic. This occurs when these bacteria have developed mechanisms that prevent penicillin from binding to and inhibiting the function of their cell wall biosynthesis proteins, particularly the enzyme transpeptidase.

One common mechanism of penicillin resistance is the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate the beta-lactam ring structure present in penicillin and other related antibiotics. Another mechanism involves alterations in the bacterial cell wall that prevent penicillin from binding to its target proteins.

Penicillin resistance is a significant concern in clinical settings, as it can limit treatment options for bacterial infections and may necessitate the use of more potent or toxic antibiotics. It is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to penicillin.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Dicloxacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other types of penicillins. Dicloxacillin is effective against many gram-positive cocci, including staphylococci that produce penicillinases (enzymes that destroy penicillins).

The medical definition of dicloxacillin is:

"A semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and dichloroacetyl coenzyme A. It is resistant to staphylococcal penicillinases and is used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes."

Dicloxacillin is available in oral capsule form and is typically taken two to four times daily, depending on the severity of the infection. It is important to take dicloxacillin for the entire prescribed course of treatment, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is completely treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Like all antibiotics, dicloxacillin can cause side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. People with a history of penicillin allergy should inform their healthcare provider before taking dicloxacillin or any other antibiics.

Penicillin G is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called penicillins. It is a natural antibiotic derived from the Penicillium fungus and is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Penicillin G is active against many gram-positive bacteria, as well as some gram-negative bacteria.

Penicillin G is available in various forms, including an injectable solution and a powder for reconstitution into a solution. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. Penicillin G is often used to treat serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics, such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pneumonia, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

It's important to note that Penicillin G is not commonly used for topical or oral treatment due to its poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and instability in acidic environments. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, Penicillin G should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate use and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Azlocillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic belonging to the class of extended-spectrum penicillins. It is derived from the basic penicillin structure and has an additional side chain that provides it with a broader spectrum of activity, including against many Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Azlocillin works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. It is commonly used in the treatment of severe intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, and septicemia caused by susceptible organisms.

Like other antibiotics, azlocillin should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. It is important to note that individual patient responses to medications may vary, and healthcare providers should consider each patient's unique medical history and current health status before prescribing any medication.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to

'Aza compounds' is a general term used in chemistry to describe organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom (denoted by the symbol 'N' or 'aza') that has replaced a carbon atom in a hydrocarbon structure. The term 'aza' comes from the Greek word for nitrogen, 'azote.'

In medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, aza compounds are of particular interest because the presence of the nitrogen atom can significantly affect the chemical and biological properties of the compound. For example, aza compounds may exhibit enhanced bioavailability, metabolic stability, or receptor binding affinity compared to their non-aza counterparts.

Some common examples of aza compounds in medicine include:

1. Aza-aromatic compounds: These are aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline derivatives, which have been used as anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agents.
2. Aza-heterocyclic compounds: These are non-aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in a cyclic structure. Examples include azepine, diazepine, and triazole derivatives, which have been used as anxiolytic, anti-viral, and anti-fungal agents.
3. Aza-peptides: These are peptide compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the backbone structure. Examples include azapeptides and azabicyclopeptides, which have been used as enzyme inhibitors and neuroprotective agents.
4. Aza-sugars: These are sugar derivatives that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include azasugars and iminosugars, which have been used as glycosidase inhibitors and anti-viral agents.

Overall, aza compounds represent an important class of medicinal agents with diverse chemical structures and biological activities.

"Ochrobactrum anthropi" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is found in various environments, including soil, water, and clinical samples. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection under certain circumstances, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Infections caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi are often associated with medical devices or procedures, such as catheter-related bacteremia, pneumonia, and wound infections. It is inherently resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

Cloxacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other types of penicillins. Cloxacillin works by interfering with the ability of the bacterial cell wall to grow and multiply, ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Cloxacillin is often used to treat skin infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory tract infections. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powder for injection. As with all antibiotics, it is important to take cloxacillin exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

Like other penicillins, cloxacillin can cause allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform a healthcare provider of all other medications being taken before starting cloxacillin.

Monobactams are a type of antibiotics that contain a single bacterial cell wall-binding component, known as a monocyclic beta-lactam. Aztreonam is an example of a monobactam that is used clinically to treat various infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Monobactams work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for building the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. They are not affected by beta-lactamases, which are enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other types of beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Bacteroides fragilis' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut flora and play an important role in maintaining a healthy digestive system. However, they can also cause infections when they enter other parts of the body, such as the abdomen or bloodstream, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Bacteroides fragilis is known for its ability to produce enzymes that allow it to resist antibiotics and evade the host's immune system. This makes it a challenging bacterium to treat and can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as abscesses, sepsis, and meningitis.

Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of Bacteroides fragilis and other bacteria that can cause infections. If an infection does occur, it is typically treated with a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Ampicillin resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance where bacteria have the ability to grow in the presence of ampicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic used to treat various infections. This resistance occurs due to the production of enzymes called beta-lactamases that can break down the ampicillin molecule, rendering it ineffective. Additionally, some bacteria may have mutations that result in changes to their cell wall structure, making them impervious to the effects of ampicillin. Ampicillin resistance is a significant public health concern as it limits treatment options for infections caused by these resistant bacteria and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality.

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Cephalothin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Cephalothin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. It binds to specific proteins in the bacterial cell wall, causing the wall to become unstable and ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Like other antibiotics, cephalothin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, and it should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalothin include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney damage, and seizures. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have or medications you are taking before starting treatment with cephalothin.

Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the antibacterial effects of cephalosporins, a group of widely used antibiotics. These drugs work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth and reproduction. However, some bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive in the presence of cephalosporins.

There are several ways in which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporins. One common mechanism is through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring structure of cephalosporins and other related antibiotics. This makes the drugs ineffective against the bacteria.

Another mechanism of resistance involves changes in the bacterial cell membrane or the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that prevent the binding of cephalosporins to their target sites. These changes can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of new genes through horizontal gene transfer.

Cephalosporin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it can limit the treatment options for bacterial infections and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance, including cephalosporin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to use these drugs judiciously and follow proper infection prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Sulfadimethoxine is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial drug that contains the sulfanilamide nucleus and is used to treat various bacterial infections in both humans and animals. In human medicine, it is used to treat urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and traveler's diarrhea. In veterinary medicine, it is commonly used to treat coccidiosis in animals such as poultry, cattle, and pets.

The drug works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth. It is usually administered orally and is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powder for suspension. As with any medication, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

"Thermotoga neapolitana" is not a medical term, but rather a designation for a specific type of bacteria. It belongs to the genus "Thermotoga," which includes extremophile bacteria that thrive in extremely hot environments, such as hydrothermal vents and hot springs. The species "neapolitana" refers to the fact that this bacterium was first isolated from a hot water vent near Naples, Italy.

These bacteria are known for their ability to break down complex organic compounds into simpler molecules, which they use as a source of energy. They are also capable of surviving in temperatures up to 90°C (194°F) and have been studied for their potential applications in biotechnology, such as the production of biofuels and enzymes that can function at high temperatures.

While "Thermotoga neapolitana" itself is not a medical term, like other bacteria, it has the potential to cause infection under certain circumstances, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or exposed to contaminated equipment or environments. However, such cases are relatively rare and not well-studied.

Cefuroxime is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefuroxime is effective against many different types of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. It is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections.

Like all antibiotics, cefuroxime should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which are more difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Suppurative Otitis Media is a type of inner ear infection that involves the accumulation of pus (suppuration) in the middle ear space. It can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection and often results from a previous episode of acute otitis media, where fluid builds up behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

Suppurative Otitis Media can lead to complications such as hearing loss, damage to the inner ear structures, and spread of infection to nearby areas like the mastoid process or the brain. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and sometimes surgical intervention to drain the pus and relieve pressure on the eardrum.

Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefotaxime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Cefotaxime is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery or in people with weakened immune systems. The drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage depends on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like all antibiotics, cefotaxime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious allergic reactions or damage to the kidneys or liver. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

'Enterobacter cloacae' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

E. cloacae is known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it typically does not cause disease in healthy people but can take advantage of a weakened host to cause infection. It can cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia (bloodstream infections), and wound infections.

E. cloacae is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. cloacae isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are typically reserved for treating serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This has led to concerns about the potential for untreatable infections caused by this organism.

"Klebsiella oxytoca" is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract and can be found in soil, water, and plants. In clinical settings, K. oxytoca can cause various types of infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. It is known to produce a variety of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate certain antibiotics, making it resistant to some forms of treatment. Its identification is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Bacteroides infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterial genus Bacteroides, which are a group of anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli that are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause intra-abdominal infections, such as appendicitis, peritonitis, and liver abscesses, as well as wound infections, bacteremia, and gynecological infections when they spread to other parts of the body, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Bacteroides species are often resistant to many antibiotics, making infections challenging to treat. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, often requiring combination therapy, is essential for successful treatment. Surgical intervention may also be necessary in certain cases of Bacteroides infections, such as abscess drainage or debridement of necrotic tissue.

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This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Salowe SP, Krol WJ, Iwata-Reuyl D, Townsend CA (1991). "Elucidation ... Townsend CA (2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6 (5): 583-9. doi:10.1016/S1367- ... of the gene encoding proclavaminate amidino hydrolase and characterization of protein function in clavulanic acid biosynthesis ...
Townsend CA (October 2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 6 (5): 583-9 ... Clavaminate synthase (EC 1.14.11.21, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with systematic name ... "Structural origins of the selectivity of the trifunctional oxygenase clavaminic acid synthase". Nature Structural Biology. 7 (2 ...
Townsend CA (2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6 (5): 583-9. doi:10.1016/S1367- ... This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. ( ...
Khaleeli N; Li R; Townsend CA (1999). "Origin of the beta-lactam carbons in clavulanic acid from an unusual thiamine ... This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of ... the first enzyme in the clavulanic acid biosynthesis pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (7): 5685-92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310803200. ...
Proclavaminate amidinohydrolase is involved in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Clavulanic acid acts as an inhibitor of a wide ... evolution of a hydrolytic enzyme in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Biochem. J. 366 (Pt 2): 423-434. doi:10.1042/BJ20020125. PMC ... Clifton IJ, Elkins JM, Hernandez H (2002). "Oligomeric structure of proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase: ...
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Baggaley K, Brown A, Schofield C (1997). "Chemistry and biosynthesis of clavulanic acid and other clavams". Nat Prod Rep. 14 (4 ... Tahlan K, Anders C, Jensen S (2004). "The Paralogous Pairs of Genes Involved in Clavulanic Acid and Clavam Metabolite ... Streptomyces clavuligerus is a species of Gram-positive bacterium notable for producing clavulanic acid. S. clavuligerus ATCC ... Kirk S (2000). "The physiology of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus (PhD thesis)". University of Surrey, ...
"APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" (PDF). Retrieved November 27, 2014. Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin ... "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean ... Piperacillin and Piperacillin/tazobactam Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid Certain carbapenems and carbapenem-beta-lactamase- ... Clindamycin Dalbavancin Delafloxacin Fusidic acid Mupirocin (topical) Omadacycline Oritavancin Tedizolid Telavancin Tigecycline ...
Amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were the most frequently consumed. Antibiotics are screened for any negative ... For example, β-lactam antibiotics may be used in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid or sulbactam ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections may be treated with a combination therapy of fusidic acid and rifampicin ... and Amino Acids)". Applied Microbiology. Springer India. pp. 83-120. doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2259-0. ISBN 978-81-322-2258-3. ...
Cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, or a fluoroquinolone may also be used. However, antibiotic resistance to ...
Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). "1,3-β-D-Glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid ... increasing fecal bulk and producing short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities. This ...
Thus imipenem/cilastatin, like amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, is a commonly used combination product. Keynan S, Hooper NM, Felici ... Alpha-Amino acids, Amino acid derivatives, Thioethers, Dicarboxylic acids). ...
A strain isolated from mangroves has been demonstrated to produce clavulanic acid and streptomycin. The genome of M. ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Acid-fast ...
"X-ray crystal structure of ornithine acetyltransferase from the clavulanic acid biosynthesis gene cluster". Biochem. J. 385 (Pt ...
It can be sold and used in combination with clavulanate as ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. Because it is a penicillin, it also ... Ticarcillin is also often paired with a β-lactamase inhibitor such as clavulanic acid (co-ticarclav).[citation needed] In ... One synthesis began by making the monobenzyl ester of 3-Thienylmalonic acid, converting this to the acid chloride with SOCl2, ... and condensing it with 6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). Hydrogenolysis (Pd/C) completed the synthesis of ticarcillin. Fischer ...
However, HugA does not affect cephamycins or carbapenems and is inhibited by clavulanic acid. Similar to other Proteus species ... penneri LPS are the amide of D-galacturonic acid with L-lysine α-D-GalA-(L-Lys) (and the amide of D-galacturonic acid with L- ... penneri from the experiment were found to be multiple drug-resistant including resistance to amoxy-clavulanic acid combination ...
These include ampicillin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae," Elsevier, 137B (1986): 155-163. ...
The first therapy includes the concurrent use of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and metronidazole. The second option ...
Bacterial adenoiditis may be treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin - clavulanic acid or a cephalosporin. In case of ...
For example, the BAN Co-amoxiclav is assigned to preparations containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Most other ... "amoxicillin with clavulanic acid". The prefix of "co-" is used for many combination drugs, including opioid with paracetamol or ...
Brown AG (August 1986). "Clavulanic acid, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor--a case study in drug discovery and development". ...
"Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma by HPLC-ESI mass spectrometry". Journal of ...
Each disk is labelled with the antibiotic it contains (e.g. AMC30, 30µg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) Antibiotic sensitivity ...
Spratt BG, Jobanputra V, Zimmermann W (1977). "Binding of Thienamycin and Clavulanic Acid to the Penicillin-Binding Proteins of ... and l-α-aminoadipic acid by ACV synthetase (ACVS, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and then cyclization of this formed ...
Due to its clavulanic acid component, penicillin amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most common culprit of cholestatic liver injury ... The primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are synthesized in the liver and undergo conjugation ... a bile acid analogue), simtuzumab (a monoclonal antibody), and 24-norursodeoxycholic acid (a synthetic bile acid). Although the ... In the treatment of ICP, current evidence suggests ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a minor secondary bile acid in humans, is the ...
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"Early Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin in Combination with Clavulanic Acid in Patients with Sputum Smear-positive Pulmonary ... Amino acid replacements in the NADH binding site of InhA apparently result in INH resistance by preventing the inhibition of ... Mutation in the rpoB gene changes the sequence of amino acids and eventual conformation, or arrangement, of the beta subunit. ... p-aminosalicylic acid) For patients with RR-TB or MDR-TB, "not previously treated with second-line drugs and in whom resistance ...
Clavulanic acid was patented in 1974. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is a first-line treatment for many types of infections, ... which produces clavulanic acid. The β-lactam like structure of clavulanic acid looks structurally similar to penicillin, but ... which is the first step of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Clavulanic acid was discovered around 1974-75 by British ... This restructures the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in the ...
Bioaccumulation. Clavulanic acid has a low potential to bioaccumulate.. Toxicity. It cannot be excluded that clavulanic acid is ... Risk. Risk of environmental impact of clavulanic acid cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ... Bioaccumulation: An estimated Log Pow of -2,04 (unknown method) ... indicates that has low potential for clavulanic acid ... Risk of environmental impact of clavulanic acid cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ...
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  • In its most common preparations, potassium clavulanate (clavulanic acid as a salt of potassium) is combined with: amoxicillin (co-amoxiclav, trade names Augmentin, Clavulin, Tyclav, Clavaseptin (veterinary), Clavamox (veterinary), Synulox (veterinary), and others) ticarcillin (co-ticarclav, trade name Timentin) Clavulanic acid was patented in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is a first-line treatment for many types of infections, including sinus infections, and urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UK Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) recommends that treatments such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid preparations be reserved for bacterial infections likely to be caused by amoxicillin-resistant β-lactamase-producing strains, and that treatment should not normally exceed 14 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fass environmental information for Spektramox (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid) from Meda (downloaded 2022-12-20). (janusinfo.se)
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  • Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, and urinary tract. (chemistonline.in)
  • Clavulanic acid + amoxicillin. (rxeli.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics Amoxicillin properties and clavulanic acid, are completely dissolved in aqueous solution at rn to the organism environment. (rxeli.com)
  • To optimum accept amoxicillin / clavulanic acid in time or at the beginning of meal. (rxeli.com)
  • Concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in blood serum at reception of a combination of drugs of amoxicillin / clavulanic acid are similar to those which are observed at oral separate administration of an equivalent dose of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. (rxeli.com)
  • About 25% of total amount of clavulanic acid and 18% of amoxicillin contact proteins in blood plasma. (rxeli.com)
  • Distribution volume at oral administration of drug is about 0.3-0.4 l/kg of amoxicillin and 0.2 l/kg of clavulanic acid. (rxeli.com)
  • Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid get through a placental barrier. (rxeli.com)
  • Amoxicillin is partially removed with urine in the form of inactive penitsilloyny acid in the quantities equivalent to 10 - 25% of an initial dose. (rxeli.com)
  • Average elimination half-life of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid makes about 1 hour, and average general clearance about 25 l/h. (rxeli.com)
  • About 60 - 70% of amoxicillin and 40 - 65% of clavulanic acid are removed from an organism in an invariable view with urine during the first 6 h after reception of a single dose of tablets of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. (rxeli.com)
  • During various researches it was revealed that with urine 50-85% of amoxicillin and 27-60% of clavulanic acid within 24 hours are removed. (rxeli.com)
  • Simultaneous use of a probenetsid slows down amoxicillin discharge, but this drug does not influence removal of clavulanic acid through kidneys. (rxeli.com)
  • When reconstituted, every ml of oral suspension contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 80 mg amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate equivalent to 11.4 mg of clavulanic acid. (medicines.org.uk)
  • 5ml of oral suspension contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 400mg amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate equivalent to 57mg of clavulanic acid. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Doses are expressed throughout in terms of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid content except when doses are stated in terms of an individual component. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The use of alternative presentations of Augmentin (e.g. those that provide higher doses of amoxicillin and/or different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid) should be considered as necessary (see sections 4.4 and 5.1). (medicines.org.uk)
  • 40 kg, this formulation of Augmentin provides a maximum daily dose of 1000-2800 mg amoxicillin/143-400 mg clavulanic acid, when administered as recommended below. (medicines.org.uk)
  • If it is considered that a higher daily dose of amoxicillin is required, it is recommended that another preparation of Augmentin is selected in order to avoid administration of unnecessarily high daily doses of clavulanic acid (see sections 4.4 and 5.1). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Patient 6 got preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and was excluded from the study. (bmj.com)
  • Gram negative isolates showed high resistance rate of 73.1% to ampicillin and 65.4% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Gram-positive isolates showed high resistant rate of 94.1% to penicillin. (who.int)
  • The association amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was not effective in 28.3% of the tested isolates. (scielo.br)
  • Noroclav Tablets are indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria sensitive to amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid: Skin Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Respiratory Infections and Enteritis. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • Inappropriate use of the product may increase the prevalence of bacteria resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • The ANSM has specified that the most affected pediatric forms are Clamoxyl (amoxicillin) and its generic versions (125 mg/5 mL, 250 mg/5 mL and 500 mg/5 mL doses) and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) and its generic versions (100 mg/12.5 mg/mL doses). (medscape.com)
  • Clavulanic acid was discovered around 1974-75 by British scientists working at the drug company Beecham from the bacteria Streptomyces clavuligerus. (wikipedia.org)
  • DOXINIS-CV Tablets contain Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Clavulanic Acid. (neisslabs.com)
  • The enzyme activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid but not by boric acid, cefotaxime, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. (lu.se)
  • Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. (aaem.pl)
  • The β-lactam like structure of clavulanic acid looks structurally similar to penicillin, but the biosynthesis of this molecule involves a different biochemical pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEA synthase is a 60.9 kDA protein and is the first gene found in the clavulanic acid biosynthesis gene cluster, encoded by orf2 of the clavulanic acid gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is known that this enzyme has the ability to couple together glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate with L-arginine in the presence of thiamine diphosphate (TDP or thiamine pyrophosphate), which is the first step of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs through different mechanisms, which include spontaneous (natural) genetic mutations and horizontal transfer of resistant genes through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • Amino acid sequencing of some beta-lactamases has shown that substitution of only a few amino acids in the bla gene leads to high-level resistance against specific cephalosporins. (lu.se)
  • This restructures the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in the active site, permanently inactivating it, and thus inactivating the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two nucleotides were different between the E. coli (Tn3) and H. ducreyi (pCb) genes that affected the amino-acid sequence. (lu.se)
  • Clavulanic acid has negligible intrinsic antimicrobial activity, despite sharing the β-lactam ring that is characteristic of β-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific mechanism of how this enzyme works is not fully understood, but this enzyme regulates 3 steps in the overall synthesis of clavulanic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid but not by. (lu.se)
  • The name is derived from strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus, which produces clavulanic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clavaminate synthase is a non-heme oxygenase dependent on iron and α-keto-glutarate and is encoded by orf5 of the clavulanic acid gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-lactam synthetase is a 54.5 kDa protein that is encoded by orf3 of the clavulanic acid gene cluster, and shows similarity to asparagine synthase - Class B enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clavulanic acid is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and L-arginine as starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clavulanic Acid is a semisynthetic beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces. (neisslabs.com)
  • All 3 steps occur in the same region of the catalytic, iron-containing reaction center, yet do not occur in sequence and affect different areas of the clavulanic acid structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It cannot be excluded that clavulanic acid is persistent, due to the lack of data. (janusinfo.se)
  • Risk of environmental impact of clavulanic acid cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • Gram negative isolates showed high resistance rate of 73.1% to ampicillin and 65.4% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Gram-positive isolates showed high resistant rate of 94.1% to penicillin. (who.int)
  • A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. (pharmfair.com)
  • 327 ambulatory patients diagnosed with radio-graphically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia administered clarithromycin 500mg immediate-release or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875mg/125mg twice daily for 7 days. (medscape.com)
  • Further to DrugAlert volume 804 , HPS Pharmacies wish to advise that suppliers are continuing to experience a supply interruption for amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 875mg/125mg tablets. (hps.com.au)
  • An internationally registered brand of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 875mg/125mg tablets has been approved for supply under Section 19A of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 . (hps.com.au)
  • To determine the evolution and trends of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance among Escherichia coli isolates in Spain, we tested 9,090 blood isolates from 42 Spanish hospitals and compared resistance with trends in outpatient consumption. (cdc.gov)
  • This product contains Amoxycillin 1g/vial, and Clavulanic Acid 200mg/vial in the form of INJECTION, POWDER, FOR SOLUTION . (pharmfair.com)
  • The 250 mg and 500 mg tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs through different mechanisms, which include spontaneous (natural) genetic mutations and horizontal transfer of resistant genes through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • Since first description in 1988, numerous cases of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid hepatotoxicity have been reported. (nih.gov)
  • A case of acute hepatocellular injury by amoxycillin-clavulanic acid is reported in a 23-years-old male, with a favourable outcome after 18 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Severe toxic hepatitis associated with amoxycillin and clavulanic acid. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the safety and efficacy of clarithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in patients with community-acquired pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant and/or macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, by selecting clinical investigators who practice in study populations from geographic areas in which a high incidence of resistant strains is reported by surveillance. (medscape.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amoxicillin and clavulanic acid preparations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ticarcillin and Clavulanic Acid. (nih.gov)
  • The most commonly used antibiotics include cephalexin , Clavulanic acid-amoxicillin (Clavamox), Clindamycin , and Cefovecin injectable (Convenia). (petplace.com)
  • Osteomyelitis is best treated with lauric acid, which is antiviral may not be enough for strong as monolaurin against H. If you are prescribed antibiotics by Division of Cancer Prevention rule out a list of or through a vein. (rsmraiganj.in)
  • Stimulates the release of gastric acid in the stomach, which is involved in the digestion of protein, absorption of minerals and other nutrients, and protects us from pathogens. (youarethehealer.org)
  • Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed with clauvanic acid (a beta lactamase inhibitor) as it is susceptible to beta-lacatamase degradation. (pharmfair.com)
  • The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. (pharmfair.com)
  • in a class of medications called potassium-competitive acid blockers (PCAB). (nih.gov)
  • Clavulanic acid competitively and irreversibly inhibits a wide variety of beta-lactamases, commonly found in microorganisms resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. (pharmfair.com)
  • Vonoprazan works by decreasing the amount of acid made in the stomach. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, and a suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 250 mg regular tablet and the 250 mg chewable tablet contain different amounts of clavulanic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy may be associated with severe side effects -- review of the literature. (nih.gov)
  • Take amoxicillin and clavulanic acid until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The rates of resolution and/or improvement in clinical signs and symptoms and radiological improvement were similar with clarithromycin to those with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as was overall incidence of adverse events. (medscape.com)
  • Acute hepatitis and destructive cholangitis probably induced by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination]. (nih.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Plan to use another form of birth control while taking amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Histamine is a biogenic (made by a life form) amine and it is made from the amino acid histadine through a process called decarboxylation. (youarethehealer.org)
  • you should know that amoxicillin and clavulanic acid may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives (birth control pills). (medlineplus.gov)