Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).UreohydrolasesPenicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Cephalosporinasebeta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Azlocillin: A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Aza CompoundsOchrobactrum anthropi: A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Thermotoga neapolitana: A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.BooksEscherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aza CompoundsMicrobial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).QuinolinesSulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.CephalosporinasePublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Medicare Part C: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 establishes a Medicare+Choice program under part C of Title XVIII, Section 4001, of the Social Security Act. Under this program, an eligible individual may elect to receive Medicare benefits through enrollment in a Medicare+Choice plan. Beneficiaries may choose to use private pay options, establish medical savings accounts, use managed care plans, or join provider-sponsored plans.Fitness Centers: Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)United StatesAppointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dry Socket: A condition sometimes occurring after tooth extraction, particularly after traumatic extraction, resulting in a dry appearance of the exposed bone in the socket, due to disintegration or loss of the blood clot. It is basically a focal osteomyelitis without suppuration and is accompanied by severe pain (alveolalgia) and foul odor. (Dorland, 28th ed)Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.ArthritisYersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sterilization Reversal: Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.UreohydrolasesCephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thermotoga neapolitana: A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.Price ListsTablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Meditation: A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)ArtProdrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.LouisianaInsurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Insurance, Physician Services: Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".MichiganDelayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)

Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol. (1/354)

Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue.  (+info)

Ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli isolates with different beta-lactam resistance phenotypes. (2/354)

The activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate were studied with 100 selected clinical Escherichia coli isolates with different beta-lactam susceptibility phenotypes by standard agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques and with a commercial microdilution system (PASCO). A fixed ratio (2:1) and a fixed concentration (clavulanate, 2 and 4 micrograms/ml; sulbactam, 8 micrograms/ml) were used in the agar dilution technique. The resistance frequencies for amoxicillin-clavulanate with different techniques were as follows: fixed ratio agar dilution, 12%; fixed concentration 4-micrograms/ml agar dilution, 17%; fixed ratio microdilution, 9%; and disk diffusion, 9%. Marked discrepancies were found when these results were compared with those obtained with ampicillin-sulbactam (26 to 52% resistance), showing that susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid cannot be predicted by testing the isolate against ampicillin-sulbactam. Interestingly, the discrimination between susceptible and intermediate isolates was better achieved with 4 micrograms of clavulanate per ml than with the fixed ratio. In contrast, amoxicillin susceptibility was not sufficiently restored when 2 micrograms of clavulanate per ml was used, particularly in moderate (mean beta-lactamase activity, 50.8 mU/mg of protein) and high-level (215 mU/mg) TEM-1 beta-lactamase producer isolates. Four micrograms of clavulanate per milliliter could be a reasonable alternative to the 2:1 fixed ratio, because most high-level beta-lactamase-hyperproducing isolates would be categorized as nonsusceptible, and low- and moderate-level beta-lactamase-producing isolates would be categorized as nonresistant. This approach cannot be applied to sulbactam, either with the fixed 2:1 ratio or with the 8-micrograms/ml fixed concentration, because many low-level beta-lactamase-producing isolates would be classified in the resistant category. These findings call for a review of breakpoints for beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors combinations.  (+info)

Clavulanate induces expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC cephalosporinase at physiologically relevant concentrations and antagonizes the antibacterial activity of ticarcillin. (3/354)

Although previous studies have indicated that clavulanate may induce AmpC expression in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the impact of this inducer activity on the antibacterial activity of ticarcillin at clinically relevant concentrations has not been investigated. Therefore, a study was designed to determine if the inducer activity of clavulanate was associated with in vitro antagonism of ticarcillin at pharmacokinetically relevant concentrations. By the disk approximation methodology, clavulanate induction of AmpC expression was observed with 8 of 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Quantitative studies demonstrated a significant induction of AmpC when clavulanate-inducible strains were exposed to the peak concentrations of clavulanate achieved in human serum with the 3.2- and 3.1-g doses of ticarcillin-clavulanate. In studies with three clavulanate-inducible strains in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, antagonism of the bactericidal effect of ticarcillin was observed in some tests with regimens simulating a 3.1-g dose of ticarcillin-clavulanate and in all tests with regimens simulating a 3.2-g dose of ticarcillin-clavulanate. No antagonism was observed in studies with two clavulanate-noninducible strains. In contrast to clavulanate. No antagonism was observed in studies with two clavulanate-noninducible strains. In contrast to clavulanate, tazobactam failed to induce AmpC expression in any strains, and the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin-tazobactam were somewhat enhanced over those of piperacillin alone against all strains studied. Overall, the data collected from the pharmacodynamic model suggested that induction per se was not always associated with reduced killing but that a certain minimal level of induction by clavulanate was required before antagonism of the antibacterial activity of its companion drug occurred. Nevertheless, since clinically relevant concentrations of clavulanate can antagonize the bactericidal activity of ticarcillin, the combination of ticarcillin-clavulanate should be avoided when selecting an antipseudomonal beta-lactam for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. For piperacillin-tazobactam, induction is not an issue in the context of treating this pathogen.  (+info)

Genes specific for the biosynthesis of clavam metabolites antipodal to clavulanic acid are clustered with the gene for clavaminate synthase 1 in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (4/354)

Portions of the Streptomyces clavuligerus chromosome flanking cas1, which encodes the clavaminate synthase 1 isoenzyme (CAS1), have been cloned and sequenced. Mutants of S. clavuligerus disrupted in cvm1, the open reading frame located immediately upstream of cas1, were constructed by a gene replacement procedure. Similar techniques were used to generate S. clavuligerus mutants carrying a deletion that encompassed portions of the two open reading frames, cvm4 and cvm5, located directly downstream of cas1. Both classes of mutants still produced clavulanic acid and cephamycin C but lost the ability to synthesize the antipodal clavam metabolites clavam-2-carboxylate, 2-hydroxymethyl-clavam, and 2-alanylclavam. These results suggested that cas1 is clustered with genes essential and specific for clavam metabolite biosynthesis. When a cas1 mutant of S. clavuligerus was constructed by gene replacement, it produced lower levels of both clavulanic acid and most of the antipodal clavams except for 2-alanylclavam. However, a double mutant of S. clavuligerus disrupted in both cas1 and cas2 produced neither clavulanic acid nor any of the antipodal clavams, including 2-alanylclavam. This outcome was consistent with the contribution of both CAS1 and CAS2 to a common pool of clavaminic acid that is shunted toward clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis.  (+info)

Aspartic acid for asparagine substitution at position 276 reduces susceptibility to mechanism-based inhibitors in SHV-1 and SHV-5 beta-lactamases. (5/354)

In SHV-type beta-actamases, position 276 (in Ambler's numbering scheme) is occupied by an asparagine (Asn) residue. The effect on SHV-1 beta-lactamase and its extended-spectrum derivative SHV-5 of substituting an aspartic acid (Asp) residue for Asn276 was studied. Mutations were introduced by a PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis procedure. Wild-type SHV-1 and -5 beta-lactamases and their respective Asn276-->Asp mutants were expressed under isogenic conditions by cloning the respective bla genes into the pBCSK(+) plasmid and transforming Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Determination of IC50 showed that SHV-1(Asn276-->Asp), compared with SHV-1, was inhibited by 8- and 8.8-fold higher concentrations of clavulanate and tazobactam respectively. Replacement of Asn276 by Asp in SHV-5 beta-lactamase caused a ten-fold increase in the IC50 of clavulanate; the increases in the IC50s of tazobactam and sulbactam were 10- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Beta-lactam susceptibility testing showed that both Asn276-->Asp mutant enzymes, compared with the parental beta-lactamases, conferred slightly lower levels of resistance to penicillins (amoxycillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin), cephalosporins (cephalothin and cefprozil) and some of the expanded-spectrum oxyimino beta-lactams tested (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam). The MICs of ceftazidime remained unaltered, while those of cefepime and cefpirome were slightly elevated in the clones producing the mutant beta-lactamases. The latter clones were also less susceptible to penicillin-inhibitor combinations. Asn276-->Asp mutation was associated with changes in the substrate profiles of SHV-1 and SHV-5 enzymes. Based on the structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the potential effects of the introduced mutation on SHV-1 and SHV-5 are discussed.  (+info)

In-vitro susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to newer beta-lactam agents. (6/354)

The in-vitro activities of imipenem and four beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested against 816 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, and compared with other anti-anaerobic agents. None of the strains was resistant to metronidazole, and only one was resistant to chloramphenicol. Mezlocillin and piperacillin were moderately active, while clindamycin was the least active. Rates of resistance varied between various species. The new beta-lactam agents tested showed excellent activity; piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were the most active. The emergence of strains that are resistant to these agents, observed in this study, suggests there is a need to perform periodic antimicrobial susceptibility tests.  (+info)

A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. (7/354)

BACKGROUND: Among patients with fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer who have a low risk of complications, oral administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics may be an acceptable alternative to intravenous treatment. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients (age, 5 to 74 years) who had fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer. Neutropenia was expected to be present for no more than 10 days in these patients, and they had to have no other underlying conditions. Patients were assigned to receive either oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate or intravenous ceftazidime. They were hospitalized until fever and neutropenia resolved. RESULTS: A total of 116 episodes were included in each group (84 patients in the oral-therapy group and 79 patients in the intravenous-therapy group). The mean neutrophil counts at admission were 81 per cubic millimeter and 84 per cubic millimeter, respectively; the mean duration of neutropenia was 3.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. Treatment was successful without the need for modifications in 71 percent of episodes in the oral-therapy group and 67 percent of episodes in the intravenous-therapy group (difference between groups, 3 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -8 percent to 15 percent; P=0.48). Treatment was considered to have failed because of the need for modifications in the regimen in 13 percent and 32 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001) and because of the patient's inability to tolerate the regimen in 16 percent and 1 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001). There were no deaths. The incidence of intolerance of the oral antibiotics was 16 percent, as compared with 8 percent for placebo (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized low-risk patients who have fever and neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy, empirical therapy with oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate is safe and effective.  (+info)

Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. (8/354)

BACKGROUND: Intravenously administered antimicrobial agents have been the standard choice for the empirical management of fever in patients with cancer and granulocytopenia. If orally administered empirical therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy, it would offer advantages such as improved quality of life and lower cost. METHODS: In a prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned febrile patients with cancer who had granulocytopenia that was expected to resolve within 10 days to receive empirical therapy with either oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg twice daily) plus amoxicillin-clavulanate (625 mg three times daily) or standard daily doses of intravenous ceftriaxone plus amikacin. All patients were hospitalized until their fever resolved. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was equivalence between the regimens, defined as an absolute difference in the rates of success of 10 percent or less. RESULTS: Equivalence was demonstrated at the second interim analysis, and the trial was terminated after the enrollment of 353 patients. In the analysis of the 312 patients who were treated according to the protocol and who could be evaluated, treatment was successful in 86 percent of the patients in the oral-therapy group (95 percent confidence interval, 80 to 91 percent) and 84 percent of those in the intravenous-therapy group (95 percent confidence interval, 78 to 90 percent; P=0.02). The results were similar in the intention-to-treat analysis (80 percent and 77 percent, respectively; P=0.03), as were the duration of fever, the time to a change in the regimen, the reasons for such a change, the duration of therapy, and survival. The types of adverse events differed slightly between the groups but were similar in frequency. CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk patients with cancer who have fever and granulocytopenia, oral therapy with ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate is as effective as intravenous therapy.  (+info)

*Clavulanic acid

... which produces clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid arginine and the sugar glyceraldehyde 3- ... Clavulanic acid is an example of a clavam. Clavulanic acid was patented in 1974. For the treatment of pyelonephritis during ... which is the first step of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Clavulanic acid was discovered around 1974/75 by British ... This restructures the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in the ...

*Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

... is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe; in the ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984. It is on the World Health Organization's ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as: urinary ...

*Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid

... , or co-ticarclav, is a combination antibiotic consisting of ticarcillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and ... clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and ...

*Amoxicillin

It may also increase the risk of yeast infections and, when used in combination with clavulanic acid, diarrhea. It should not ... For this reason, it may be combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This drug combination is commonly called co- ... Use of the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination for more than one week has caused mild hepatitis in some patients. Young ... Cundiff j, Joe S.; Joe, S (2007). "Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-induced hepatitis". Am. J. Otolaryngol. 28 (1): 28-30. doi: ...

*Proclavaminate amidinohydrolase

This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Salowe SP, Krol WJ, Iwata-Reuyl D, Townsend CA (1991). "Elucidation ... Townsend CA (2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6 (5): 583-9. doi:10.1016/S1367- ... of the gene encoding proclavaminate amidino hydrolase and characterization of protein function in clavulanic acid biosynthesis ...

*Clavaminate synthase

Townsend, C.A. (2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6: 583-589. doi:10.1016/S1367- ... Clavaminate synthase (EC 1.14.11.21, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with systematic name ... "Structural origins of the selectivity of the trifunctional oxygenase clavaminic acid synthase". Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 (2): 127- ...

*carboxyethyl)arginine beta-lactam-synthase

Townsend CA (2002). "New reactions in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6 (5): 583-9. doi:10.1016/S1367- ... This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. ( ...

*N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine synthase

Khaleeli N; Li R; Townsend CA (1999). "Origin of the beta-lactam carbons in clavulanic acid from an unusual thiamine ... This enzyme participates in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of ... the first enzyme in the clavulanic acid biosynthesis pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (7): 5685-92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310803200. ...

*Ureohydrolase

Proclavaminate amidinohydrolase is involved in clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Clavulanic acid acts as an inhibitor of a wide ... evolution of a hydrolytic enzyme in clavulanic acid biosynthesis". Biochem. J. 366 (Pt 2): 423. doi:10.1042/BJ20020125. PMC ... Clifton IJ, Elkins JM, Hernandez H (2002). "Oligomeric structure of proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase: ...

*Clavam

An example is clavulanic acid, from which this compound class receives its name. "Medscape.com". Retrieved 2008-12-29. Chemical ... Clavulanic Acid Mode of Action and Biosynthesis". Retrieved 2011-07-25. ...

*Streptomyces clavuligerus

Baggaley K, Brown A, Schofield C (1997). "Chemistry and biosynthesis of clavulanic acid and other clavams". Nat Prod Rep. 14 (4 ... Tahlan K, Anders C, Jensen S (2004). "The Paralogous Pairs of Genes Involved in Clavulanic Acid and Clavam Metabolite ... Streptomyces clavuligerus is a species of Gram-positive bacterium notable for producing clavulanic acid. S. clavuligerus ATCC ... Kirk S (2000). "The physiology of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus (PhD thesis)". University of Surrey, ...

*List of antibiotics

"APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" (PDF). Retrieved November 27, 2014. Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin ... "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean ... Fluoroquinolones Piperacillin/tazobactam Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid Antibiotics that cover vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ( ... Clindamycin Dalbavancin Daptomycin Fusidic acid Linezolid Mupirocin (topical) Oritavancin Tedizolid Telavancin Tigecycline ...

*Urinary tract infection

Cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, or a fluoroquinolone may also be used. However, resistance to fluoroquinolones ...

*Beta-glucan

Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). "1,3-β-D-Glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid ...

*Cilastatin

Thus imipenem/cilastatin, like amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, is a commonly used combination product. Keynan S, Hooper NM, Felici ...

*ArgJ protein family

"X-ray crystal structure of ornithine acetyltransferase from the clavulanic acid biosynthesis gene cluster". Biochem. J. 385 (Pt ...

*Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius

These include ampicillin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenza," Elsevier, 137B (1986): 155-163. ...

*Urofacial syndrome

Treatment can include amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, intravenous fluid administration and paracetamol oral for pain relief. Other ...

*Adenoiditis

Bacterial adenoiditis may be treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin - clavulanic acid or a cephalosporin. In case of ...

*British Approved Name

For example, the BAN Co-amoxiclav is assigned to preparations containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Most other ... "amoxicillin with clavulanic acid". The prefix of "co-" is used for many combination drugs, including opioid with paracetamol or ...

*Park Jong-sei

"Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma by HPLC-ESI mass spectrometry". Journal of ...

*GlaxoSmithKline

Brown AG (Aug 1986). "Clavulanic acid, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor--a case study in drug discovery and development". Drug ...

*Thienamycin

Spratt BG, Jobanputra V, Zimmermann W (1977). "Binding of Thienamycin and Clavulanic Acid to the Penicillin-Binding Proteins of ... and l-α-aminoadipic acid by ACV synthetase (ACVS, a nonribsomal peptide synthetase) and then cyclization of this formed ...

*Ticarcillin

... is also often paired with a β-lactamase inhibitor such as clavulanic acid (co-ticarclav). In molecular biology, ... One synthesis began by making the monobenzyl ester of 3-Thienylmalonic acid, converting this to the acid chloride with SOCl2, ... and condensing it with 6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). Hydrogenolysis (Pd/C) completed the synthesis of ticarcillin.. ...

*Wolfgang Klietmann

"Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other ... Oehlert, W; Klietmann, W (1967). "The inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis with actinomycin and its recovery in different ...

*Febrile neutropenia

... mild low-risk cases may be treated with a combination of oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin, while more severe ... or piperacillin/tazobactam for high-risk patients and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin for low-risk patients. ...
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Consumer information about the medication AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID 500 MG/125 MG - ORAL (Augmentin), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID 500 MG/125 MG - ORAL.
Structural and biochemical studies of the orf12 gene product (ORF12) from the clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis gene cluster are described. Sequence and crystallographic analyses reveal two domains: a C-terminal penicillin-binding protein (PBP)/beta-lactamase-type fold with highest structural similarity to the class A beta-lactamases fused to an N-terminal domain with a fold similar to steroid isomerases and polyketide cyclases. The C-terminal domain of ORF12 did not show beta-lactamase or PBP activity for the substrates tested, but did show low-level esterase activity towards 3-O-acetyl cephalosporins and a thioester substrate. Mutagenesis studies imply that Ser173, which is present in a conserved SXXK motif, acts as a nucleophile in catalysis, consistent with studies of related esterases, beta-lactamases and d-Ala carboxypeptidases. Structures of wild-type ORF12 and of catalytic residue variants were obtained in complex with and in the absence of clavulanic acid. The role of ORF12 in ...
Augmentin Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid tablets What do amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets do?AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID (Augmentin(R)) is a penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin kills or stops the growth of bacteria that cause infection. Clavulanic acid is added to amoxicillin to help the amoxicillin to work better. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid treats many different kinds of infections of the skin, respiratory tract, sinuses, ear, and kidney. It also treats some sexually transmitted disease. Generic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets or chewable tablets are not available.
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Augmentin 1000 Duo (Amoxycillin Trihydrate/Potassium Clavulanate) is a combination of two ingredients. It contains amoxicillin, which is a type of antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections such as those occurring in the lungs, skin, sinus and urinary tract.
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This quasi-experimental study investigated the effect of an antibiotic cycling policy based on time-series analysis of epidemiologic data, which identified antimicrobial drugs and time periods for restriction. Cyclical restrictions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and clarithromycin were undertaken over a 2-year period in the intervention hospital. We used segmented regression analysis to compare the effect on the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI), healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA), and new extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolates and on changes in resistance patterns of the HA-MRSA and ESBL organisms between the intervention and control hospitals. HA-CDI incidence did not change. HA-MRSA incidence increased significantly in the intervention hospital. The resistance of new ESBL isolates to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam decreased significantly in the intervention
Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to break the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotics effectiveness. An example such enzyme is the NDM-1 discovered in 2009.. As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin/CLA (FGP) is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.. Full article ▸. ...
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ratio-Aclavulanate: This combination product containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid belongs to the group of medications known as antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Amoxicillin works by killing the bacteria that is causing the infection. Clavulanic acid helps make the amoxicillin more effective. This medication is most commonly used to treat infections of the sinus, ear, lung, skin, and bladder.
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To know the drug resistance of (AB) in wound of children with traffic injury and its relationship with antibiotic use. Wound exudate of 226 children with traffic injury admitted to our unit from January 2010 to December 2015 were collected. API bacteria identification panels and fully automatic microbiological identification system were used to identify pathogens. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect the drug resistance of pathogens to 18 antibiotics including amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and imipenem. The detection situation of pathogen of childrens wounds and drug resistance of detected AB to 18 antibiotics in each year were collected. Forty-six AB positive children (2 children excluded) were divided into imipenem-resistant group (IR, =19) and non imipenem-resistant group (NIR, =25) according to whether AB was 100% resistant to imipenem. Drug resistance of AB in wounds of children to 18 antibiotics in two groups was compared. The antibiotic use ...
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Angewandte Chemie Bioorganic Chemistry Irreversible Inhibition of Metallo-b-lactamase (IMP-1) by 3-(3-Mercaptopropionylsulfanyl)propionic Acid Pentafluorophenyl Ester** Hiromasa Kurosaki,* Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Higashi, Kimitaka Soga, Satoshi Matsueda, Haruka Yumoto, Shogo Misumi, Yuriko Yamagata, Yoshichika Arakawa, and Masafumi Goto Pathogenic bacteria that produce metallo-b-lactamases (MBLs) are emerging as a new challenge to the medical community. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of a wide spectrum of b-lactams, including carbapenems such as imipenem, some of which are coded in transferable plasmids.[1, 2] Among the currently known MBLs, IMP-1, a member of subclass B1, which is encoded by the blaIMP gene included in the integron structure,[2, 3] rapidly spreads by facile horizontal gene transfer to other bacteria.[4] Moreover, many of the currently used serine b-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam are ineffective against MBLs. Thus, the ...
That reach the colon during treatment, thus reducing alterations in the microbiota to a minimum . In spite of clavulanic acid presence which is a beta-lactamase
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Comparison of the production biomass (a), glycerol consumption (b) and clavulanic acid (c) between the mutant and wild type strains cultivated in semi-synthetic
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Ingredients : Amoxycillin 250 mg + Potassium Clavulanate 125 mg. Packing : 6 Tabs/Strip. Dosage : As directed by the physician.. Precautions: History of allergy especially to cephalosporins, infectious mononucleosis, severe renal impairment.. Contraindications: Penicillin allergy.. Side Effects: Hyperactivity, agitation, insomnia, dizziness, maculopapular rash, exfoliative dermatitis, urticaria, hypersensitivity vasculitis, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, agranulocytosis, neuromuscular hypersensitivity, pseudomembranous colitis.. Storage Conditions: Store it at room temperature and in an airtight container. Keep away from light and children.. ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early empiric prescription of amoxicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid in children with reactive arthritis
The development of a combination of amoxicilin and potassium clavulanate appears to have provided an answer to this problem. Potassium clavulanate is a compound which is metabolized to clavulanic acid; this has a weak intrinsic antimicrobial activity, but binds irreversibly to a wide range of Beta lactamase enzymes. The irreversible binding action permits penicillins such as amoxicillin to be effective against Beta lactamase producing strains of bacteria that would otherwise be resistant. ...
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Dove comprare generico Augmentin. Augmentin Generico è usato nel trattamento delle infezioni del tratto respiratorio inferiore, allorecchio medio, del sinus, della pelle e del tratto urinario. Queste infezioni sono causate da batteri specifici, i quali producono un enzima denominato beta-lattamasi che rende le infezioni particolarmente difficili da curare. ...
Inköp Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid Europa Generisk Augmentin Var du kan köpa Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid Nu. Generic Augmentin is used in the treatment of lower respiratory, middle ear, sinus, skin, and urinary tract infections that are caused by certain specific bacteria. These bacteria produce a chemical enzyme called beta lactamase that makes some infections particularly difficult to […]. ...
Augmentins combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid gives it a broader antimicrobal spectrum--meaning it is effective against a wide range of bacteria. On the downside, this broader spectrum increases the chance of bacteria developing a resistance to the drug. Gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea, are more likely through the use of Augmentin than with other antibiotic products. In addition, although rare, Augmentin use can lead to liver damage. Because Augmentin Duo Forte is the branded version for the combination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid, its price is usually greater than those of its generic competitors. ...
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The following is a list of antibiotics. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior. In practice, both can effectively treat a bacterial infection. The following are lists of antibiotics for specific microbial coverage. Antibiotics that cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Vancomycin Ceftobiprole(5th generation) Ceftaroline (5th generation) Clindamycin Dalbavancin Daptomycin Fusidic acid Linezolid Mupirocin (topical) Oritavancin Tedizolid Telavancin Tigecycline Antibiotics that cover Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Aminoglycosides Carbapenems Ceftazidime (3rd generation) Cefepime (4th generation) Ceftobiprole (5th generation) Fluoroquinolones Piperacillin/tazobactam Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid Antibiotics that cover vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE): Linezolid Streptogramins ...
A beta-lactamase inhibitor is a drug given in conjunction with a beta-lactam antibiotic. Although the inhibitor does not usually have significant antibiotic activity on its own,[1] it still plays an important role by disabling or slowing down the action of beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase inhibitors in clinical use include clavulanic acid and its potassium salt (usually combined with amoxicillin or ticarcillin), sulbactam and tazobactam. ...
Acids, Salts, and derivatives of Clavulanic Acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the Sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an Oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-Lactamase irreversibly, so that similar Antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial Enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects ...
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Augmentin (Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections such as lower respiratory, middle ear, sinus, skin, and urinary tract in...
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Ou Achetez Pas Cher Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid. Augmentin générique est un antibiotique utilisé pour traiter plusieurs types dinfections, telles que lamygdalite, la pneumonie, les infections de loreille, la bronchite, les infections des voies urinaires, la gonorrhée et les infections de la peau. ...
Antibiotics are substances that possess bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. Their administration is widespread in the treatment as well as in the prevention of many infections in general population, and especially in vulnerable groups. Respiratory and urinary infections are the most common infections in the elderly. The initial empirical antibiotic therapy of pneumonia in older patients is directed to possible causative agents. Doxicicline is most frequently applied in ambulatory patients, followed by macrolides (azithromycin), fluorochinolone and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. In the hospitalized patients, a wide spectrum of cephalosporins with macrolides is applied, as well as beta-lactamase inhibitors combined with macrolides or fluorochinolone only. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, a very common phenomenon in the elderly, is usually not treated. The antibiotic therapy of urinary infection in the older population is applied according to the causative agent. Polymicrobial infections occur in 30% of the
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Important Information about Clavam 625 - an Antibiotic medicine. Why it is prescribed, dosage and possible side-effects of Clavam 625
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The clavulanic acid (CLV) is nowadays frequently included in the treatment with Amoxicillin (AX). This component of the antibiotic therapy initially thought to have a low immunogenic capacity; however immediate allergic reactions to CLV have been reported in a 30% of patients allergic to AX-CLV. Basophil activation test (BAT) has shown promising results demonstrating specific recognition of CLV determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the value of BAT in the evaluation of immediate allergic reactions to CLV. ...
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The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β -lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae Christine Miossec, Monique Claudon, Premavathy Levasseur, Michael T Black Novexel, Romainville, France Abstract: Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for induction of ampC expression in Enterobacter cloacae was investigated by ampC messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation. Cefoxitin and clavulanic acid were confirmed as ampC inducers, whereas avibactam was found to exert no effect on ampC expression. Thus, avibactam is unlikely to diminish the activity of any partner β-lactam antibiotic against AmpC-producing organisms. Keywords: β-lactamase, ampC, induction, NXL104, avibactam
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Menten kinetics under room conditions, and b) DFT calculations agreed with experiments that the irreversible reaction of the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid with the whole S85 catalytic center of 3LEZ is spontaneous. These observations must be viewed in the light that a) the compounds in other chemical classes showed comparable affinities, and, in some cases, even higher than β-lactams, for the S85 active site, b) Km and Ki data are not available at the high hydrostatic pressure of the deep sea, where 3LEZ is believed to have evolved, c) an inverse order of affinities for the β-lactams, with respect to both experimentation and simulations at room conditions, was observed from comparative docking simulations with 3LEZ derived from MD under high hydrostatic pressure. Although MD requires a general assessment for high hydrostatic pressure before c) above is given the same weight as all other observations, this work questions the conclusion that the in vitro determined β-lactamase activity ...
Females of childbearing potential should either be sexually inactive (abstinent) for 14 days prior to the study and throughout the study or be using one of the following acceptable birth control methods:. surgically sterile (bilateral tubal ligation, hysterectomy bilateral oophorectomy) 6 months minimum; IUD in place for at least 3 months; barrier methods (condom, diaphragm) with spermicide for at least 14 days pror to the start of the study and .throughout the study; surgical sterilization of the partner (vasectomy for 6 months minimum); hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months pdor to the start of the study. Other birth control methods may be deemed acceptable. Postmenopausal women with amenorrhea for at least 2 years will be eligible;. ...
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Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ES is an antibiotic prescribed for treating ear infections in children. This eMedTV Web page offers some basic information on amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ES, including side effects and safety precautions.
A 32 year old, non-smoking, white woman was admitted to this hospital as an emergency with cough and breathlessness in late December 1993. She had been well until two weeks previously, when she developed headache and nausea followed by a cough with scanty sputum and progressive dyspnoea with orthopnoea. Her general practitioner prescribed amoxycillin with clavulanic acid on the day of admission. She was a part time cleaner; drank no alcohol; had no history of foreign travel, intravenous drug use, or blood transfusion; and kept no pets.. On admission she was unwell, cyanosed, and breathless at rest but alert, oriented, and without fever. The main abnormal signs were a raised heart rate (140 beats/min), jugular venous pressure (5 cm), and respiratory rate (32 breaths/min); a low systolic blood pressure (70 mm Hg); left basal crackles; and a third heart sound. A chest radiograph showed extensive consolidation of the mid-zones and lower zones in both lungs (fig 1). The electrocardiogram showed sinus ...
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Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. This will be a two-arm, parallel, comparative, observer blind, randomised study to assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (875mg/125mg) in comparison with clindamycin (150mg) administered for 5-7 days in subjects with acute odontogenic infections with or without abscess. Il na pas été observé de toxicité aiguë menaçant le pronostic vital dans les cas de surdosage en gabapentine allant jusquà 49 g! During prilosec prescription dose sneeringly the last 20 years, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have progressively become the most commonly prescribed antidepressants? Bacitracin is usually not taken orally because it is more effective as a topical antibiotic. Die Wirkung kommt super schnell (10 Minuten bei mir maximal) und hält bis zum nächsten Tag an. Call the values in each of the investigations in #3. "Nutcracker" esophagus: This condition is marked by muscle contractions of ...
Clavet (Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium) works by fighting and eliminating bacteria. It also helps to inhibit beta lactamase enzymes, which helps to overcome antibiotic resistance. This medicine is suitable for use in cats, dogs and certain farm animals, including calves.
... is a drug prescribed to treat bacterial ear infections in children. This eMedTV article offers an overview of this antibiotic, including information on how it works, dosing guidelines, possible side effects, and more.
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Children under 12 years old with body weight below 40 kg dose was selected individually on the basis of the recommended dosing schemes (for amoxicillin) - 45 mg / kg / day in 2 divided doses or 40 mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses. Optimum dosage forms of the drug for children from 6 to 12 years are tablets 500/125 mg in the appointment of two times a day. The maximum daily dose of clavulanic acid (in the form of potassium salt) is for adults - 600 mg for children - 10 mg / kg body weight. The maximum daily dose of amoxicillin for adults - 6 g, for children - 45 mg / kg body weight. The course of treatment is 5-14 days. The duration of treatment is determined by your doctor ...
Tilmicosin (eg. Micotil) is still the drug of choice considering both anecdotal and published reports. It is specifically licensed for ewe mastitis and highly effective because it has good activity particularly within udder tissue and against the bacteria that have accumulated within inflammatory cells. Its major drawback is that it can only be given by a vet though some farmers consider it worth this extra expense for a valuable ewe.. Oxytetracycline (eg. Oxytetrin, Alamycin) or amoxycillin (eg. Amoxypen, Betamox) are effective licensed antibiotics that may be long-acting which means it is not necessary to treat every day, though of course the ewe should be checked regularly.. Some vets may prescribe drugs that are not licensed for sheep. Some of these, such as amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Synulox, Noroclav) or tylosin (Tylan), can be very effective and are licensed for cattle mastitis. They need to be given daily but this can be useful as it encourages regular attention to the sick ewe. ...
This multi-page article lists pharmaceutical drugs alphabetically by name. Many drugs have more than one name and, therefore, the same drug may be listed more than once. Brand names and generic names are differentiated by the use of capital initials for the former. See also the list of the top 100 bestselling branded drugs, ranked by sales. Abbreviations are used in the list as follows: INN = International Nonproprietary Name BAN = British Approved Name USAN = United States Adopted Name Two-letter codes for countries List of drugs 1-9 , A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I , J , K , L , M , N , O , P , Q , R , S , T , U , V , W , X , Y , Z Ca , Cb-Ce , Cf-Ch , Ci , Cj-Cl , Cm-Co , Cp-Cz Cl-719 cladribine (INN) Claforan (Sanofi-Aventis), also known as cefotaxime clamidoxic acid (INN) Clamohexal (Hexal Australia) [Au]. clamoxyquine (INN) clanfenur (INN) clanobutin (INN) clantifen (INN) Claravis (Barr Pharmaceuticals) Clarinex Claripel clarithromycin (INN) Claritin (Schering-Plough) clavulanic acid ...
National Drug Code Number: 68788-9055-2. Drug Trade Name: Amoxicillin And Clavulanate Potassium (Amoxicillin And Clavulanate Potassium)
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa AH, isolated in Ankara, Turkey, was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MIC, 128 microg/ml) and produced a beta-lactamase that gave a doublet of bands at pIs 8.7 and 8.9. beta-Lactamase production was transferable to P. aeruginosa PU21 by conjugation and was determined by a ca. 450-kb plasmid, pMLH54. The transconjugant and Escherichia coli transformed with the cloned gene showed increased resistance to ceftazidime (especially) and to cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, and aztreonam, but not to carbapenems. Resistance was not reversed by clavulanic acid or tazobactam. Sequencing revealed that the beta-lactamase responsible for this resistance was identical to OXA-2 except that glycine replaced aspartate at position 150. Compared to OXA-2, the new enzyme, named OXA-15, had greater cephalosporinase activity, with increased relative hydrolysis rates for cephaloridine and cephalothin and, most dramatically, for ceftazidime. Cefotaxime and carbapenems remained stable ...
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Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association and incorporated as Louisiana Health Service & Indemnity Company. Copyright © 2017 Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana is licensed to sell products only in the state of Louisiana.. External links open in new windows to websites Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana does not control.. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana and its subsidiaries, HMO Louisiana, Inc. and Southern National Life Insurance Company, Inc., comply with applicable federal civil rights laws and do not exclude people or treat them differently on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability or sex. More Information English , Español , Français , Tiếng Việt , 中文 , العربية , Pilipino , 한국어 , Português , ລາວ , 日本語 , اردو , Deutsche , فارسی , русский , ไทย ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outbreak of meropenem-resistant Serratia marcescens comediated by chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase overproduction and outer membrane protein loss. AU - Suh, Borum. AU - Bae, Il Kwon. AU - Kim, Juwon. AU - Jeong, Seok Hoon. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Lee, Kyungwon. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the meropenem resistance of Serratia marcescens clinical isolates. Meropenem-resistant (MIC range, 16 to 32 μg/ml) S. marcescens isolates were recovered from nine patients in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea, from June to November 2005. All the isolates shared identical or similar (,85% similarity) SpeI macrorestriction patterns, indicating clonal spread. PCR experiments did not detect any carbapenemase in those isolates. They carried the blaCTX-M-22 gene located on a 150-kbp plasmid of the incompatibility group L/M; however, the addition of clavulanic acid exhibited few effects on meropenem MICs. Although ...
Amino acid changes that influence activity and resistance to beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors were explored by constructing the Gly238Ser and Met69Ile-Gly238Ser mutants of the OHIO-1 beta-lactamase, a class A enzyme of the SHV family. The Km values of cefotaxime and ceftazidime for OHIO-1 and Met69Ile beta-lactamases were , or = 500 microM. The Km of cefotaxime for the Gly238Ser beta-lactamase was 26 microM, and that of ceftazidime was 105 microM. The Km of cefotaxime for the Met69Ile-Gly238Ser beta-lactamase was 292 microM, and that of ceftazidime was 392 microM. For the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanate and sulbactam, the apparent Ki values for the Met69Ile-Gly238Ser enzyme were 0.03 and 0.15 microM, respectively. Relative Vmax values indicate that the Met69Ile-Gly238Ser mutant of the OHIO-1 beta-lactamase possesses cephalosporinase activity similar to that of the Gly238Ser mutant but diminished penicillinase activity. In an Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain that possesses a ...

clavulanic acid | Encyclopedia.comclavulanic acid | Encyclopedia.com

Combined with the antibiotic, clavulanic acid can overcome drug resistance. Source for information on clavulanic acid: A ... clavulanic acid (klav-yoo-lan-ik) n. a drug that interferes with the enzymes (penicillinases) that inactivate many penicillin- ... Combined with the antibiotic, clavulanic acid can overcome drug resistance.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the ... clavulanic acid (klav-yoo-lan-ik) n. a drug that interferes with the enzymes (penicillinases) that inactivate many penicillin- ...
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Clavulanic acid - WikipediaClavulanic acid - Wikipedia

... which produces clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid arginine and the sugar glyceraldehyde 3- ... Clavulanic acid is an example of a clavam. Clavulanic acid was patented in 1974. For the treatment of pyelonephritis during ... which is the first step of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Clavulanic acid was discovered around 1974/75 by British ... This restructures the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in the ...
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Timentin (ticarcillin, clavulanic acid)Timentin (ticarcillin, clavulanic acid)

... ticarcillin and clavulanic acid. Ticarcillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic, and clavulanic acid is a medicine that prevents ... Timentin (ticarcillin, clavulanic acid). Timentin injection contains two active ingredients, ticarcillin and clavulanic acid. ... ticarcillin and clavulanic acid. Ticarcillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic, and clavulanic acid is a medicine that prevents ... Clavulanic acid is a type of medicine known as a beta-lactamase inhibitor. It is included in this medicine because it inhibits ...
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Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid | SpringerLinkAmoxicillin/clavulanic acid | SpringerLink

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis: case report. Reactions Weekly volume 1283, page11(2010 ... in a child after the administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid: brief report. Pediatric Dermatology 26: 623-625, No. 5, Oct ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. React. Wkly. 1283, 11 (2010). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-201012830-00038 ...
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Clavulanic Acid - Drugs.comClavulanic Acid - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Clavulanic Acid is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Clavulanic Acid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Te Di (Clavulanic Acid and Amoxicillin). New Asiatic Pharm, China. *Teva-Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid (Clavulanic Acid and ... APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid (Clavulanic Acid and Amoxicillin). Apotex, Australia. *Arcef-CV (Clavulanic Acid and ...
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Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid - WikipediaAmoxicillin/clavulanic acid - Wikipedia

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe; in the ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984. It is on the World Health Organizations ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as: urinary ...
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Amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid/epinephrine | SpringerLinkAmoxicillin/clavulanic-acid/epinephrine | SpringerLink

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Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid: MedlinePlus Drug InformationAmoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... The 250 mg and 500 mg tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. Do not substitute ... clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amoxicillin and clavulanic ... Take amoxicillin and clavulanic acid exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed ...
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Augmentin (Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid): Support and DiscussAugmentin (Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid): Support and Discuss

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Amoxicillin/clavulanic acidAmoxicillin/clavulanic acid

... diagnosed with symmetrical drug related intertriginous and flexural exanthema after she received amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ...
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Canine Staph Infection Treatment with Clavulanic AcidCanine Staph Infection Treatment with Clavulanic Acid

Side Effects of Clavulanic Acid. Clavulanic acid is generally a safe drug. The first doses can cause vomit, diarrhea and ... Administration of Clavulanic Acid. When you start administering amoxicillin and clavulanic acid to your dog, you should respect ... Canine Staph Infection Treatment with Clavulanic Acid. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are used efficiently in treating ... Clavulanic acid is a synthetic substance which functions together with beta-lactam antibiotics to fight bacteria with high ...
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Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and then take cephalexin?Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and then take cephalexin?

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Augmentin Duo (Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid) GlaxoSmithKlineAugmentin Duo (Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid) GlaxoSmithKline

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Severe neutropenia during treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in a patient on regular hemodialysis treatment]. Giornale ...
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Clavulanic acids synonyms, Clavulanic acids pronunciation, Clavulanic acids translation, English dictionary definition of ... Clavulanic acids. n. A compound, C8H9NO5, originally obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus, that inhibits ... clavulanic acid. (redirected from Clavulanic acids). Also found in: Medical.. Related to Clavulanic acids: Augmentin, Co- ... Clavulanic acids - definition of Clavulanic acids by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Clavulanic+acids ...
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Clavulanic acid biosynthesis synonyms, Clavulanic acid biosynthesis pronunciation, Clavulanic acid biosynthesis translation, ... English dictionary definition of Clavulanic acid biosynthesis. n. A compound, C8H9NO5, originally obtained from the bacterium ... clavulanic acid. (redirected from Clavulanic acid biosynthesis). Also found in: Medical. clav·u·lan·ic acid. (klăv′yo͝o-lăn′ĭk) ... Clavulanic acid biosynthesis - definition of Clavulanic acid biosynthesis by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary. ...
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Increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in Escherichia coli blood isolates, Spain.. Oteo J1, Campos J, Lázaro E, ... Evolution of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid nonsusceptibility of Escherichia coli from blood isolates, Spain, 2003-2006. ESBL, ... Increased Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Aug;14(8): ... Increased Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli Blood Isolates, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Aug;14(8): ...
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Clavulanic acid (Science: chemical) clavulanic acid (c8h9o5n) and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of ... chemical name: 4-Oxa-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-, (2R-(2alpha,3Z,5alpha)) ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Clavulanic_acid&oldid=12551" ...
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  • On April 1, 2020 Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 125/31.25 (Apo) was not listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Can I take Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 125/31.25 (Apo) in sport? (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Administered together with amoxicillin, clavulanic acid is efficient in fighting infections caused by highly resistant gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. (vetinfo.com)
  • Clavulanic acid was discovered around 1974/75 by British scientists working at the drug company Beecham from the bacteria Streptomyces clavuligerus. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the β-lactam like structure, clavulanic acid looks structurally similar to penicillin, but the biosynthesis of this molecule involves a different pathway and set of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This restructures the clavulanic acid molecule, creating a much more reactive species that attacks another amino acid in the active site, permanently inactivating it, and thus inactivating the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases clavulanic acid can trigger allergic reactions which manifest through: swelling, fever, breathing problems and rashes. (vetinfo.com)
  • The specific mechanism of how this enzyme works is not fully understood, but this enzyme regulates 3 steps in the overall synthesis of clavulanic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is known that this enzyme has the ability to couple together glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate with L-arginine in the presence of thiamine diphosphate (TDP or thiamine pyrophosphate), which is the first step of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 250 mg regular tablet and the 250 mg chewable tablet contain different amounts of clavulanic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Severe neutropenia during treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in a patient on regular hemodialysis treatment]. (springer.com)
  • All 3 steps occur in the same region of the catalytic iron center, yet do not occur in-sequence and affect different areas of the clavulanic acid structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clavulanic acid is generally a safe drug. (vetinfo.com)
  • Clavulanic acid (/ˌklævjəˈlænɪk/) is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is efficacious in reducing the incidence of IC following third molar extraction but should not be prescribed in all cases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clavulanic acid is a suicide inhibitor, covalently bonding to a serine residue in the active site of the β-lactamase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEA synthase is a 60.9 kDA protein and is the first gene found in the clavulanic acid biosynthesis gene cluster, encoded by orf2 of the clavulanic acid gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)