Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Lysergic AcidErgotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Ergotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Cyperus: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. SESQUITERPENES are found in some of the species.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dahlia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Ergothioneine: A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Costello Syndrome: Rare congenital disorder with multiple anomalies including: characteristic dysmorphic craniofacial features, musculoskeletal abnormalities, neurocognitive delay, and high prevalence of cancer. Germline mutations in H-Ras protein can cause Costello syndrome. Costello syndrome shows early phenotypic overlap with other disorders that involve MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM (e.g., NOONAN SYNDROME and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome).Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.BooksNostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Pick Disease of the Brain: A rare form of DEMENTIA that is sometimes familial. Clinical features include APHASIA; APRAXIA; CONFUSION; ANOMIA; memory loss; and personality deterioration. This pattern is consistent with the pathologic findings of circumscribed atrophy of the poles of the FRONTAL LOBE and TEMPORAL LOBE. Neuronal loss is maximal in the HIPPOCAMPUS, entorhinal cortex, and AMYGDALA. Some ballooned cortical neurons contain argentophylic (Pick) bodies. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Apr;8(2):339-54; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1057-9)Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Peperomia: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE. Members contain prenylated quinones.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Psilocybe: A genus of small mushrooms in the family Strophariaceae. Some species are known for their hallucinogenic properties.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea growing as a parasite. (1/48)

Carbon assimilation by Claviceps purpurea, growing as a parasite on cereals, has been investigated by supplying the host plant with 14CO2 in a closed system. The presence of the pathogen induced the plant to exude photosynthate which contained high levels of sucrose. During the period of 14CO2 supply, 14C was incorporated into the sucrose and so the path of carbon into the parasite could be traced. Hexoses, derived by the action of the fungal sucrase on sucrose, were assimilated by the pathogen and largely converted into polyols - mainly mannitol and, to a lesser extent, trehalose. The rate of carbohydrate metabolism decreased with maturation of the ergot, and also showed qualitative differences between the basal and apical regions of the ergot which were probably a function of nutrient supply.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a tri-partite hydrophobin from Claviceps fusiformis. A novel type of class II hydrophobin. (2/48)

A new type of hydrophobin is encoded by an abundant mRNA of Claviceps fusiformis. The predicted amino-acid sequence of the protein, dubbed CFTH1, shows a putative signal sequence for secretion, followed by three class II hydrophobin domains each preceded by glycine/asparagine rich regions. SDS/PAGE analysis of 60% ethanol extractions of C. fusiformis mycelia from shaken cultures showed CFTH1 at the 50-55-kDa position. N-terminal sequencing of both untreated mature CFTH1 and of a fragment obtained by trypsin digestion revealed that CFTH1 is not processed between the hydrophobin domains. Mass spectroscopy showed a mass of about 36 500 Da, which is about 1500 Da higher than the mass predicted from the constituent amino acids, indicating post-translational modification but not glycosylation. Purified CFTH1 self-assembled at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces and, after assembly at a water/air interface, it was found to be highly surface active. Antibodies raised against CFTH1 localized the protein in a mucilageous coat surrounding submerged vegetative hyphae in liquid shaken culture and, as a discrete layer of about 10 nm thickness at the surface of aerial hyphae of standing cultures, suggesting a role in the formation of aerial hyphae.  (+info)

Chemoraces and habitat specialization of Claviceps purpurea populations. (3/48)

We studied genetic variability of 100 isolates of Claviceps purpurea by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), an EcoRI restriction site polymorphism in the 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the alkaloids produced, and conidial morphology. We identified three groups: (i) group G1 from fields and open meadows (57 isolates), (ii) group G2 from shady or wet habitats (41 isolates), and (iii) group G3 from Spartina anglica from salt marshes (2 isolates). The sclerotia of G1 isolates contained ergotamines and ergotoxines; G2 isolates produced ergosine and ergocristine along with small amounts of ergocryptine; and G3 isolates produced ergocristine and ergocryptine. The conidia of G1 isolates were 5 to 8 microm long, the conidia of G2 isolates were 7 to 10 microm long, and the conidia of G3 isolates were 10 to 12 microm long. Sclerotia of the G2 and G3 isolates floated on water. In the 5.8S rDNA analysis, an EcoRI site was found in G1 and G3 isolates but not in G2 isolates. The host preferences of the groups were not absolute, and there were host genera that were common to both G1 and G2; the presence of members of different groups in the same locality was rare. Without the use of RAPD or rDNA polymorphism, it was not possible to distinguish the three groups solely on the basis of phenotype, host, or habitat. In general, populations of C. purpurea are not host specialized, as previously assumed, but they are habitat specialized, and collecting strategies and toxin risk assessments should be changed to reflect this paradigm shift.  (+info)

Metabolism of the germinating sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea. (4/48)

The concentration of free amino acids, particularly alanine, altered as stromata developed on germinating sclerotia. Lipid reserves in the sclerotium provided the principal carbon and energy source, and the nutrients required for stomatal growth appeared to be provided by the sclerotial tissues immediately beneath the point of attachment of the stoma. Alkaloid did not disappear from the sclerotia during germination. Very high levels of polyol, particularly mannitol, were attained in the stromata as germination progressed; the synthesis of polyol was usually accompanied by that of soluble sugars, notably glucose. In an attempt to ascertain the role of mannitol in germination, the relationship between polyol and soluble sugars was investigated in excised stromata after their submergence in buffered media containing a variety of soluble carbohydrates. Mannitol was synthesized under these conditions by way of phosphorylated intermediates, and chiefly in the capitulum, after rapid, and probably passive, absorption of the exogenously supplied sugar. The tissues equilibrated rapidly with the supplied carbohydrate, whose concentration was maintained by further uptake whilst mannitol was being synthesized. The concentrations of assimilated glucose and synthesized mannitol tended toward the same value during incubation and the results suggested that the synthesis was compartmentalized within the stromata. Very little exogenously supplied mannitol was assimilated.  (+info)

The biotrophic, non-appressorium-forming grass pathogen Claviceps purpurea needs a Fus3/Pmk1 homologous mitogen-activated protein kinase for colonization of rye ovarian tissue. (5/48)

Claviceps purpurea is a common pathogen of a wide range of grasses and cereals that is able to establish a stable, balanced interaction with its host plant and is considered a biotroph. It does not form special penetration structures such as appressoria. To study the signaling processes involved in this special host-pathogen interaction, we have cloned a gene, cpmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase that shows significant homology to Fus3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to pmk1 of Magnaporthe grisea. Using a gene-replacement approach, we isolated a Acpmk1 mutant and characterized it in detail. Loss of CPMK1 has no obvious effect on vegetative properties (such as growth rate, morphology, and conidia formation); however, infection tests on rye show that the mutant is unable to colonize rye tissue, i.e., it appears to be completely nonpathogenic. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type copy of cpmk1 fully restores its pathogenicity, confirming that this MAP kinase is essential for infection of rye by C. purpurea. Transformation of the delta pmk1 mutant of M. grisea with a complete copy of cpmk1 (including the C. purpurea promoter) fully restored its ability to form appressoria and its pathogenicity on barley. Although both fungi drastically differ in their pathogenic strategies, this result indicates that the signal pathway involving CPMK1 is highly conserved.  (+info)

Thermoregulatory response of dairy cows fed ergotized barley during summer heat stress. (6/48)

Claviceps purpurea infects the seed heads of cereal grains and grasses and produces ergopeptine alkaloids that cause hyperthermia and agalactia in cattle during periods of heat stress. A field experiment was undertaken to examine the effects of ergopeptine alkaloids found in barley on thermal status of dairy cattle during periods of heat stress. Production end points were also measured to identify the effect of the change in thermal status. Contaminated barley screenings containing known levels of ergopeptine alkaloids were fed to lactating Holstein cattle (10 microg total ergopeptine alkaloids/kg BW/day) for 10 days during summer heat stress. Air temperature increased 14.4 C during the first 8 days of treatment and then declined the same during the last 2 days. Extreme daily values for rectal temperature and respiration rate, using averages of all animals, showed maximum increases of 2.3 C and 56.8 breaths/minute, respectively, during this period. Group afternoon milk production decreased 2 kg/day during the heat stress period, with no measurable change in feed intake. A greater level of hyperthermia occurred in cattle consuming the diet with ergopeptine alkaloids, with only marginal symptoms of ergot toxicosis reflected in feed intake and milk production. Therefore, the ergopeptine alkaloid dose used in this study represents a level for minimal induction of the ergot toxicity response.  (+info)

Physiological study of ergot: induction of alkaloid synthesis by tryptophan at the enzymatic level. (7/48)

The enhancement of ergot alkaloid production by tryptophan and its analogues in both normal and high-phosphate cultures is more directly related to increased dimethylallyltryptophan (DMAT) synthetase activity rather than to a lack of regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes. Thiotryptophan [beta-(1-benzo-thien-3-yl)-alanine] is rather ineffective in the end product regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis, whereas tryptophan and 5-methyltryptophan are potent effectors. The presence of increased levels of DMAT synthetase in ergot cultures supplemented with tryptophan or thiotryptophan, and to a lesser extent with 5-methyltryptophan, suggests that the induction effect involves de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Thiotryptophan and tryptophan but not 5-methyltryptophan can overcome the block of alkaloid synthesis by inorganic phosphate. The results with thiotryptophan indicate that the phosphate effect cannot be explained merely on the basis of a block of tryptophan synthesis.  (+info)

Mycotoxins and reproduction in domestic livestock. (8/48)

Molds are parasitic plants that are ubiquitous in livestock feedstuffs. Even though molds themselves reduce the quality of grains, their synthesis of chemical substances termed mycotoxins causes the greatest monetary loss to the animal industry. Five major mycotoxins that impair growth and reproductive efficiency in North America are aflatoxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin, and ergot. Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Consumption of grains containing aflatoxins by swine affects reproduction indirectly by reducing feed intake and growth. In swine, aflatoxins impair liver and kidney function, delay blood clotting, increase susceptibility to bruising, and interfere with cellular humoral immune systems. Ruminants are comparatively resistant to aflatoxicosis, but presence of aflatoxins in milk of dairy cows is closely monitored for human safety. Depending on environmental conditions, Fusarium roseum can produce either zearalenone or deoxynivalenol. Days 7 to 10 postmating seem to be a critical period of gestation for zearalenone to exert its detrimental actions on early embryonic development. Presence of deoxynivalenol in swine feedstuffs decreases feed intake, causes feed refusal, and induces occasional vomiting. Several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus produce ochratoxin, a mycotoxin that causes necrosis of kidney tissue. Ergot alkaloids produced by Claviceps purpurea on wheat can cause reproductive problems and are associated with lactational failure in swine. Various methods have been developed to remove mycotoxins from infected feedstuffs. Chemical analyses in laboratories as well as diagnostic kits suitable for use at the elevator or farm can be used successfully to identify which mycotoxins are present in suspect feedstuffs.  (+info)

Kinetic parameters of production of clavine alkaloids were evaluated in two Claviceps purpureastrains. Mutagenesis brought about enhanced resistance of the biosynthetic system towards alkaloids....
P. claviceps is cylindrical with 23-30 ribs, and white areoles with yellow spines. Funnel-shaped yellow flowers are borne in summer. Tolerates brief periods to
Clipson, N.; Landy, E.; Otte, M. (2001). Fungi, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 15- ...
ID M1W199_CLAP2 Unreviewed; 3614 AA. AC M1W199; DT 01-MAY-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-MAY-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 20. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CCE30771.1}; GN ORFNames=CPUR_04620 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CCE30771.1}; OS Claviceps purpurea (strain 20.1) (Ergot fungus) (Sphacelia segetum). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; OC Sordariomycetes; Hypocreomycetidae; Hypocreales; Clavicipitaceae; OC Claviceps. OX NCBI_TaxID=1111077 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CCE30771.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000016801}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CCE30771.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000016801} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=20.1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CCE30771.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000016801}; RX PubMed=23468653; DOI=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003323; RA Schardl C.L., Young C.A., Hesse U., Amyotte S.G., Andreeva K., RA Calie P.J., Fleetwood D.J., Haws D.C., Moore N., Oeser B., RA Panaccione D.G., Schweri ...
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uuid": "361435cb-a113-4c71-963b-85977c28d390", "type": "records", "etag": "2a1054021c4f10735025a5a87c523e5e0c71e834", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "246", "dwc:specificEpithet": "purpurea", "dwc:county": "Gallatin Co.", "dwc:recordedBy": "E.T. Barthol. and Barthol.", "dwc:order": "Hypocreales", "dwc:habitat": "Leymus sp.", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "(Fr.) Tul.", "dwc:occurrenceID": "889823", "dwc:dateIdentified": "1913", "dwc:stateProvince": "Montana", "dwc:eventDate": "1913-09-03", "dwc:country": "USA", "idigbio:recordId": "urn:uuid:9716d70e-43d3-4003-bae3-9ed4a9fb7ba3", "dwc:kingdom": "Fungi", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Claviceps", "dwc:family": "Clavicipitaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "Bartholomew, Elam", "symbiota:verbatimScientificName": "Claviceps purpurea", "dwc:rights": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/", "dwc:phylum": "Ascomycota", "dcterms:references": "http://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=889823", ...
Tim Evans, a veterinary toxicologist was called to ranch in Missouri recently to try to determine what might have killed 4 of their 20 cows. It turned out that the grass they were eating was infected with the mycotoxin ergot, made by Claviceps fungi. Chemically ergot is related to LSD and was linked to deadly human epidemics in the Middle Ages. Some historians believe that ergot was the cause of The Salem Witch Hunts and St. Anthonys Fire, in which people scratched until they bled, convulsed and hallucinated. The article continues by stating that ergot compounds cause arteries to constrict, causing labored breathing, elevated body temperatures and restricted blood supply to extremities.. In other news, Pharmatimes.com reports that 13% of Americans now take antidepressants. Do you see the same link that I do?. MY TAKE-if antidepressants were available during the middle ages, 100% of those suspected of being witches would have been on them. Yes, there are some antifungal properties in todays ...
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Secalonic acids A, B, and C, are chiral dimeric tetrahydroxanthones closely related to ergoflavin and ergochrysin A that are collectively called ergochromes and belong to a class of mycotoxins initially isolated as major ergot pigments from the fungi Claviceps purpurea that grows parasitically on rye grasses. From early times and particularly in medieval Europe the consumption of grains containing ergot has repeatedly lead to mass poisonings known as ergotism which was caused by toxic ergot alkaloids and mycotoxins such as the ergochromes, due to contamination of flour by C. purpurea. Secalonic acid D the enantiomer of secalonic acid A is a major environmental toxin, isolated from the fungus Penicillium oxalicum, and is a major microbial contaminant of freshly-harvested corn which causes toxicity through contamination of foodstuffs. Major Ergot Ergochromes and Secalonic acid D Secalonic acid A Secalonic acid B Secalonic acid C Secalonic acid D Ergoflavin Ergochrysin A In addition to the ...
Ergoloid mesylate is a dihydrogenated ergot (Claviceps purpurea) derivative alkaloid used as a vasodilator agent. Ergoloid Mesylate is the only vasodilator that has shown mild benefits in the treatment of vascular dementia. Ergoloid Mesylate is a mixture of three different ergotamantriones: dihydroergocornine, dihydroergocristine, and dihydroergocryptine. It has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear.
Principal Investigator:HASHIMOTO Takashi, Project Period (FY):1990 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:応用生物化学・栄養化学
Heterologously expressed MopA and the AHP domain catalyze Mn(II) oxidation.In order to increase expression of and aid in purification of the Mn-oxidizing protein as well as to determine the domain necessary for activity, mopA and the AHP domain of mopA (Fig. 1) were cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. The operon containing the mopA gene in Erythrobacter sp. SD21 has not been characterized, and mopA may be the only gene in its operon. Upstream of mopA, there is a two-component system response regulator that has currently not been linked to Mn oxidation. Therefore, no additional genes were expressed with mopA. The full-length mopA gene was cloned into the modified pSpeedET expression vector carrying a C-terminal His tag and a gIII N-terminal signal sequence. Several constructs with the His tag on the N or C terminus, different lengths of the His tag, and different expression vectors were tested for activity, with the most stable Mn-oxidizing activity occurring when expressed ...
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About this species:. Dalea purpurea is a perennial legume, it has a taproot, and its many florets and form a spike. Flowering occurs from June through August and is native to central North America. Seeds are produced in bract-enclosed pods on the spike, with each spike producing around 150-250 seeds (Cane 2006).. Our interest in this species stems from its membership in the Fabaceae (legume) family, and its associated role in prairie community ecology.. ...
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Heteromita fusiformis ATCC ® 50363™ Designation: DE-1 Isolation: Hagley Museum grounds, sediment near shore of canal running parallel to the Brandywine River -- 39 degrees 45 minutes latitude, 75 degrees 35 minutes longitude, Wilmington, DE, 1992
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Unusual comQXPA-like loci.(A) Non-canonical unusual com system is present in B. cereus VD102, B. cereus BAG4X12 1, B. cereus MSX A1 and L. fusiformis ZC1. Note
Ergoline alkaloids are constituents of Clavicipitaceous fungi living on Poaceae plants. Ergoline alkaloids as well as volatile oil are also present in Ipomoea asarifoliaRoem. & Schult...
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1962; 6 (203-213). .pdf version. Since the hallucinogenic properties of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) were accidentally discovered by Hoffman in 1943 there has been wide experimentation with the drug designed to test its properties both as a psychotomimetic and as a therapeutic agent. It has been considered by some investigators as having great value in revealing the nature of the schizophrenic state and thereby advancing the understanding that leads to progress in therapy. However, other investigators, while acknowledging the undoubted psychic effects of the drug, insist that the LSD experience cannot be equated with naturally occurring psychosis. (fn 1) It is not the first psychopharmaceutical agent to be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy; most of its predecessors were greeted with equal enthusiasm by some because of their action in unlocking the gates of repression and thus leading to disinhibition and catharsis. In fact, according to Hoch, careful ...
glycosides having antibacterial activity using Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation reaction. On the whole, 28 ricinoleic acid glycosides were developed and their antibacterial activities were analysed. Seven of them were found to show promising wide spectrum antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria.. Among the 7 compounds, two compounds namely mannopyranosyl- and the arabinofuranosyl derivatives were found to be effective against various non-clinical/clinical, overexpressed/resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and other gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. It was found that the presence of sugar and its structure and the methyl ester protection of the carboxylic moiety of ricinoleic acid are responsible for these compounds to be bioactive.. Now industries looking for other potential compounds with antibacterial activity could go for these ricinoleic acid glycosides.. Wish to know more about Ricinoleic Acid - see here. Or other castor derivatives - ...
Define Clavicipitaceae. Clavicipitaceae synonyms, Clavicipitaceae pronunciation, Clavicipitaceae translation, English dictionary definition of Clavicipitaceae. Noun 1. Clavicipitaceae - any of various mushrooms of the class Ascomycetes grainy club mushrooms ascomycete, ascomycetous fungus - any fungus of the class...
Ergotism definition, a condition caused by eating rye or some other grain that is infected with ergot fungus or by taking an overdose of a medicine containing ergot, characterized by cramps, spasms, and a form of gangrene. See more.
R. Gažák, P. Sedmera). A series of dimers of antiparkinsonic ergot alkaloids (terguride, pergolide) and of a clavine (pyroclavine) was prepared and fully spectrally characterized. The new compounds were tested for their antiparasitic and immunomodulatory activities. Some dimers were found to be active against the causative agent of malaria, , namely against its strains resistant to chinin. New compounds are free of negative effects and the toxicity threshold is 2 - 3 orders lower than the active concentration. These compound constitute new in the development of novel antimalarial drugs.. New cyclic oligomers of ergot alkaloids were synthesized. This is an entirely new class of ergot alkaloid derivatives.. ...
Prenyl transfer reactions occur ubiquitously in nature and play an important role in primary and secondary metabolism in all domains of life. Prenylated secondary metabolites including indole alkaloids usually demonstrate improved biological and pharmacological activities and thus makes them to promising candidates for drug discovery and development. Important producers of such bioactive compounds are fungi of ascomycetes and bacteria of actinomycetes. The transfer reactions of a prenyl moiety from prenyl diphosphate, primarily dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), onto indole derivatives including tryptophan are mainly catalyzed in nature by the members of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily. In the last years, remarkable progress has been achieved in their biochemical, molecular biological, and structural characterization, especially for DMATS enzymes from fungi. The major challenge of this thesis is to provide a better understanding of the catalytic features of these enzymes ...
Lolitrems are potent tremorgenic mycotoxins that are synthesised by clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the Epichloë/Neotyphodium group in associati
Sun Ergoline manufactures and distributes tanning beds, tanning equipment, sunbeds, solariums, tanning products and UV technologies to commercial tanning salons, health clubs and video stores.
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Smulikowska, Stefania, 1992: A simple in vitro test for evaluation of the usefulness of industrial enzymes as additives to broiler diet based on rye
In sclerotia producing species (mexicana,tampensis and atlantis are all i know off...) , is sclerotia as potent as the fruits ? or does it change due to specimen? Ive never tried (any) sclerotia
D in axenic cultures under conditions of nitrogen starvation , and at least two of these ?SPM1 encoding a serine protease andNutrient Conditions during Rice
... is a fairly common, slender plant and grows is sandy, pindan, stony or gravelly soils in a variety of plant communities throughout the Kimberley region. Flowering occurs between January - July.
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Im enamored with Pink Muhly grass, and got some seeds to try next year. I tried the Dalea purpurea and it grew but when I planted them outside they disappeared, Im not sure why. I might try them again. I got some pink pussytoes and put it in a dry sunny place, I cant say it spread much but it is still alive. I think I did put newpaper under mulch near them so maybe they couldnt spread well. I also like the short red peonies that dont flop, they look great.. ReplyDelete ...
Fulgi de Secara Solaris sunt realizati din cereale integrale si au o valoare nutritiva deosebita. Prin tehnologia de fabricatie nu se modifica si nu se
In order to assess the immunopathological effects of aqueous Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on mice experimentally challenged with Pasteurella multocida serotype A, forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. The groups included a control group (received sterile distilled water 2 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally and then 100 μl sterile saline intranasally), a PMA group (received sterile distilled water as the control group and after 2 weeks, 5.6 × 103 CFU/ml of P. multocida serotype A, intranasally), an EPE+PMA group (received E. purpurea extract intraperitoneally 2 times/week for 2 weeks and then challenged as the PMA group) and an EPE group (received E. purpurea extract as EPE+PMA group and then 100 μl sterile saline intranasally). After 24 and 48 h post challenge, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and analyzed for bacterial counts in their lungs and livers, TNFα serum levels and histapathological changes. The results showed significant differences
The effects of several hallucinogenic compounds and their nonhallucinogenic analogs were evaluated in an underwater swim alley. Rats were submerged and forced to swim underwater through plastic tubes 3.47 m long in order to escape at the other end of the tubes. All of the compounds tested significantly increased the starting latency but only d-amphetamine significantly increased swimming time. The peak effect time for d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and three amphetamine derivatives on latency was 20 mm after the i.p. injection; that for 2-brom-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148) was 40 min. Dose-response curves indicated that the increase in latency was a function of dose. The ED50s for LSD-25, BOL-148, 2,4,5-trimethoxy-amphetamine (TMA-2) hydrochloride, 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA) hydrochloride, d-amphetamine hydrochloride and 4,5,6-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA-3) hydrochloride were 1.9, 11.0, 15.0, 31.0, 36.5 and 77.0 µmol/kg, respectively. An analysis of relative effectiveness ...
Acacia baileyana var Purpurea - Cootamundra Wattle, Golden Wattle - Ornamental tree to 6m. A fast growing shrub or small tree with feathery purple tinged foliage and golden-yellow puffball flowers. Popular garden tree.
Bhadada, Shraddha V., R.K. Goyal (2015) Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
Flores em Israel - flores exóticas (Marthas backyard) - Digitalis purpurea,Foxglove, Purple Foxglove, Ladys Glove,אצבעונית ארגמנית
Ergotism is one of the oldest known mycotoxicoses and the first documented epidemic of ergotism occurred in the middle ages when thousands of people died because of the
Ergoline-alkaloidoj estas trovitaj en pli malaltaj fungoj [3] kaj du specioj de florplantoj: la meksika specia Rivea corymbosa kaj Ipomoea violacea de la Konvolvulacoj (iksio) familio, kies semoj estis identigitaj kiel la psikedelaj plantmedikamentoj konataj kiel " ololiuhqui " kaj " tlitliltzin " [ konfirmo bezonis ] [ citaĵon bezonis ]. La ĉefalkaloidoj en la semoj estas ergino kaj ĝia optika izomer isoergino, kun pluraj aliaj lisergicacidderivaĵoj kaj clavinoj ĉee en pli malgrandaj kvantoj. La havaja specia Argyreia nervosa inkludas similajn alkaloidojn. Ĝi estas ebla, kvankam ne pruvite, ke ergino aŭ isoergino kaŭzas la psikedelajn efikojn. Povas ekzisti funga origino de la ergotoalkaloidalkaloidoj ankaŭ en la Konvolvulacoj. Kiel la ergotalkaloidoj en kelkaj monobebolitplantoj, la ergotoalkaloidalkaloidoj trovitaj en la planta Ipomoea asarifolia (Konvolvulacoj) estas produktitaj per sem-elsendita epifita clavicipitaceoza fungo.. ...
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World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Gentamicin; Used as a selection agent (gentamicin-resistance gene) in molecular biology applications. Bulk and Prepack available at Sigmaaldrich.com.
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Although the name foxglove (Digitalis spp.) refers to a group of short-lived perennial and biennial plants, it is most often used to refer to the most common of those plants, Digitalis purpurea. The ...
I have some D. binata seedlings coming up from a pot of S. purpurea ssp. venosa (a pleasant surprise). I was just wondering if they were one the multi
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Secale. Published online. Accessed 26 Sept. 2013 ...
Intraduodenal infusion of ricinoleic acid and iv bolus injection of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produce markedly similar alterations in the digestive contractile patterns of the GI tract of the unanesthetized dog. The brief, initial stimulation of contractile activity in the proximal small intestine following both procedures is mediated through a cholinergic mechanism. The stimulatory response is followed by an inhibition of digestive contractile activity of unknown origin. These observations suggest that possibility that the GI hormone, cholecystokinin, may mediate the intestinal motor response evoked by infusion of ricinoleic acid directly into the proximal small intestine.
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We soon gave up the single dose at weekly and biweekly intervals, finding that the children could tolerate and benefit from daily doses up to 150 micrograms (orally in two divided doses).. The autistic children showed evidence of a gradual improvement in physical condition and maturation and in behavior. Their eyes were bright and they looked at us. Their facial expression was more alert and their color was more natural. Eating and sleeping habits improved. They were more responsive to the environment and improved in their ability to follow routine and made some small attempts at playing with an adult or another child. There seemed to be more comprehension of speech and attempts to communicate, though minimal. Disturbed behavior such as head banging and self-mutilation diminished markedly, although this behavior in these children had not responded to other forms of medication, which was entirely discontinued before and during the use of LSD. In general, these effects were most marked during the ...
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient.
Involved in the synthesis of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) which is secreted by bacteria and is used to communicate both the cell density and the metabolic potential of the environment. The regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density is called quorum sensing. Catalyzes the transformation of S-ribosylhomocysteine (RHC) to homocysteine (HC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentadione (DPD).
Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. As .... ...
Ergot alkaloids are among the most relevant natural products in the history of toxins and pharmaceuticals. Until the late 20th century, human and livestock exposure to ergot alkaloids was primarily through ingestion of
LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide) is one of the most potent perception-changing chemicals. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. Users may call it acid, blotter, cubes, microdot, yellow sunshine, blue heaven, cid, dots, mellow yellow, or window pane.. How Is LSD Used?. LSD is sold in tablets, capsules, and, occasionally, liquid form. It is usually taken orally. LSD is often added to absorbent paper, which is then divided into decorated pieces, each equivalent to one dose.. LSD changes sensations and feelings in people under its influence. Users may feel several emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another. Experiences may seem to cross-over different senses, giving the user the feeling of hearing colors and seeing sounds.. What Are the Risks Associated with LSD Use? In large doses, the drug produces delusions and visual hallucinations and causes the users sense of time and self to be altered. The ...
LSA (d-lysergic acid amide) er et psykedelisk tryptamin som finnes i frøene til plantene Argyreia nervosa og Ipomoea tricolor. Strukturmessig er det likt LSD, selv om effekten beskrives som mindre visuell enn LSD-rusen. ...
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... This gem is similar to but smaller than Arabis cyprium and has much smaller seeds. We discovered it high in the alpine ski-zone of the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus where it is the earliest by far of all arabis varieties to flower. It comes out with the snowdrops here numerous sprays of delicate pink flowers being produced from January onwards. It is excellent in a pot too!
Find Double Scoop Bubble Gum Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea Double Scoop Bubble Gum) in Mechanicsburg Harrisburg Dillsburg Camp Hill Pennsylvania PA at Ashcombe Farm & Greenhouses
Title:[DETERMINATION OF NON-HYDROGENATED AND HYDROGENATED ERGOT ALKALOIDS].,Author:GAWRYCH Z,WILCZYNSKA I,Journal:Acta Pol Pharm,1965;22:1-12.,Publication type:Journal Article
Ergot sclerotia on wheat. History of ergotism. Rye was not cultivated until the 5 th century AD. Ergot prefers to infect rye flowers. Ergotism was widespread during the Middle Ages, since rye grows easily even in poor soils. Slideshow 3083328 by badu
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Kuo, T., Ray, K.J., Levinson, W.E., Knothe, G.H. 2004. Microbial conversion of ricinoleic acid for producing 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(e)-octadecenoic acid, a natural fungicide for treatment of rice [abstract]. Great Lakes Regional American Chemical Society Symposium. Peoria IL. p. 186 ...
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Secale cereale. Le seigle. Aucun timbre ne mentionne le nom de cette plante, a ce que je sache. Comme ce timbre de la Pologne représente le seigle (info. du catalogue Scott), je présume que le timbre du Canada de 1956 sur lindustrie chimique représente aussi le seigle. ...
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Ingrediente reteta batoane cu cacao: ⦁ 150 gr faina de orez ⦁ 150 gr faina integrala ⦁ 50 gr fulgi de cocos pudra ⦁ 100 gr musli cu cereale si fructe
The competition and inhibition studies suggest that the catalytic site of L/ODC for the recognition of both substrates is identical (see Supplemental Figure 3 online). The evidence for both LDC and ODC activities being ascribed to the same active site have also been reported in a L/ODC from the bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium, which is capable of decarboxylating both l-Lys and l-Orn with similar kinetic properties, and in the ODC from N. glutinosa (Takatsuka et al., 1999; Lee and Cho, 2001). Unlike other eukaryotic ODCs that are almost exclusively specific for l-Orn over l-Lys (Lee et al., 2007b), the three L/ODCs from QA-producing plants proteins exhibited decarboxylase activities toward both l-Lys and l-Orn, with similar kinetic properties. These results imply that the active site of L/ODC is relatively tolerant to variable side chains of substrate (C5 for Lys and C4 for Orn) for the intermediary Schiff-base formation.. Evaluation of the L/ODC-F344H mutant enzyme activity points out that ...
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). Castor oil is colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste and is a triglyceride of fatty acids. Almost 90% of its fatty acid content consists of ricinoleic acid.. Ricinoleic acid is exclusive to castor oil. Such a high concentration of this unusual, unsaturated fatty acid is thought to be responsible for castor oils healing abilities.. Castor Oil prevents the growth of viruses, bacteria, yeast, and more!. Ricinoleic acid has been shown to be effective in preventing the growth of numerous species of viruses, bacteria, yeast, and molds. This would explain the high degree of success in the topical use of the oil for treating such ailments as ringworm, keratoses (non-cancerous, wart-like skin growths), skin inflammation, abrasions, fungal-infected finger and toenails, acne, and chronic pruritus (itching). Generally, ...
D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most potent hallucinogenic substance known to man. Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms, or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of heroin and cocaine are measured in milligrams, or thousandths of a gram. Compared to other hallucinogenic substances, LSD is 100 times more potent than psilocybin and 4,000 times more potent than mescaline. Click here.. ...
This medicine is only for use in the vagina. Do not take by mouth. Wash hands before and after use. Read package directions carefully before using. Fill the applicator from the tube as directed in the package directions. Lie on your back with your knees drawn up and insert applicator into vagina as far as it will go comfortably. Press plunger to deposit gel. Remove applicator from vagina. Use your medicine at regular intervals. Do not use it more often than directed. Do not stop using except on the advice of your doctor or health care professional.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed.. ...
de Groot, A.N., van Dongen, P.W., Vree, T.B., Hekster, Y.A. and van Roosmalen, J. (1998) Ergot Alkaloids. Current Status and Review of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Use Compared with Other Oxytocics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Drugs, 56, 523-535.
The EN9F10 hybridoma was produced by fusing P3X63Ag8.653 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with an ergonovine - human serum albumin conjugate. The antibody detects ergopeptine and lysergic acid derivatives.
Miller, K. M. and Kneitel, J. M. 2005. Inquiline communities in pitcher plants as a prototypical metacommunity. - In: Holyoak, M., Leibold, M. A. and Holt, R. D. (eds.), Metacommunities: Spatial Dynamics and Ecological Communities. University of Chicago Press, pp. 122-145 ...
Ipomoea is a group of perennial or annual vines as well as evergreen shrubs and perennials. The vines require support, full sun and humus rich soil. They a
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Fluid Extract 15-20% certified organic alcohol Serving size: 1mL, 3x daily Each serving contains: E. angustifolia root fluid extract (1:1) 500mg E.purpurea whole plant fluid extract (1:1) 500mg Guaranteed to contain the equivalent of 20mg of total phenols Promotes A Healthy Immune System
Exercising extreme caution, I began the planned series of experiments with the smallest quantity that could be expected to produce some effect, considering the activity of the ergot alkaloids known at the time: namely, 0.25 mg…it was already clear to me that LSD had been the cause of the remarkable experience of the previous Friday, for the altered perceptions were of the same type as before, only much more intense. I had to struggle to speak intelligibly. I asked my laboratory assistant, who was informed of the self-experiment, to escort me home. On the way…my condition began to assume threatening forms. Everything in my field of vision wavered and was distorted as if seen in a curved mirror. I also had the sensation of being unable to move from the spot. Nevertheless, my assistant later told me that we had traveled very rapidly. Finally, we arrived at home safe and sound, and I was just barely capable of asking my companion to summon our family doctor and request milk from the neighbors. ...
CASTOR OIL Explanation Castor oil is obtained from the seeds of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae). The oil consists of a triglyceride of fatty acids. The fatty acid content of castor oil consists of about 88-90% ricinoleic acid, 4-5% linoleic acid, 2-3% oleic acid, 1% palmitic acid, 1% stearic acid, about 1% dihydroxystearic acid, and trace amounts of other fatty acids (Binder et al. 1962). BIOLOGICAL DATA BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS About 7% of the ricinoleic acid present in a 1 ml oral dose of castor oil given by stomach tube to fasted Sprague-Dawley rats was absorbed into the chyle within a 24-hour period. About 24% of the ricinoleic acid was absorbed if the substance was given to fed rats. Seven weanling rats were given a diet containing 20% castor oil, the animals gained weight on the diet, although at a lower rate than animals fed an olive oil supplemented diet. After eight weeks on the castor oil diet, the amount of ricinoleic acid in the animals fat pads was about 9.7%. ...
A garden picture of Digitalis purpurea, Preferred common namecommon foxglove FamilyPlantaginaceae Digitalis can be biennials or usually short-lived perennials forming a rosette of simple leaves with bell-shaped flowers in slender, erect, usually one-sided racemes D. purpurea is a biennial or short-lived perennial, freely self-sowing, with a rosette of softly hairy, oval leaves and tall, one-sided spires of pendant, tubular, bright rosy-purple flowers 6cm long, spotted within, in summer Other common names bloody bells bloody finger cow flop dead mans bells dead mens bells dogs lugs dragons mouth fairy bells fairy fingers fairy gloves fairy thimbles fairys cap fairys petticoat fairys thimble finger flower flap dock folks gloves fox finger gloves of Mary ladys fingers ladys gloves ladys thimble lions mouth lusmore lustmore pop dock thimble finger thimble flower throat root witches bells witches fingers witches gloves witches thimbles
Digitalis purpurea is a biennial foxglove that produces only a basal rosette of light green, oblong leaves in the first year from seed. Flowers are borne in the second year in terminal, one-sided racemes atop leafy, 2-4 tall (infrequently to 5) spires arising from the centers of the basal rosettes. Pendulous, 2-3" long, tubular, funnel-shaped, dark rose-pink to purple (sometimes white) flowers with purple and white spots inside are closely grouped along each spike. Flowers are attractive to hummingbirds. Plant leaves are a source of the drug digitalis and are highly poisonous. A late spring bloomer that reaches its peak about the same time as roses begin to bloom. After flowering, plants can become somewhat scraggly by late summer, and, because they are biennials, consideration may be given to removing them from the garden as soon as they release their seed. Individual flowers resemble the snipped off fingers of a glove, hence the common name of foxglove ...
Plants are known to synthesize diverse groups of phytochemicals in the different cell types. So, they are claimed as the great chemists of nature by Peter J. Facchini - one of the renowned plant molecular biologist from University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is established that the plants manufacture phytochemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,…
Ricinoleic acid, formally called 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid is a fatty acid. It is an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid and a hydroxy acid. It is a major component of the seed oil obtained from mature Castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) Geographically, the Ricinoleic Acid market dominance over North America, Latin America, … Continue reading → ...
Nephritis after scarlatina. Cystitis. Inflammation of neck of bladder ; after passing a few drops the desire to urinate is increased and the patient walks about in great distress, associated with tenesmus of rectum ; these symptoms have indicated the use of the drug for the relief of acute inflammation in chronic enlargement of the prostate. In inflammation of the kidneys of the chronic form it is sometimes of temporary value when there is threatened failure of the heart, or very scanty or suppressed urine, with œdema of the lungs, etc ...
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As some of you know I have been working on an in-the-jar sclerotia forming strain of Psilocybe mexicana. It has taken awhile but so far the preliminary results are promising. The strain fruits sparsely
I would think you could adapt a German potato salad recipe (vinegar) (hot/warm temperature) to it, but I havent tried it. Also theres sauerkraut and mustards. And good Rye/Pumpernickel bread, or other rye stuff. I dont know if thats very German, but my grandma got me hooked on rye. Or soup with dumplings? -Mera ...
Echinacea (angustifolia & purpurea) Fluid Extract 60ml 1000 mg Tested & Verified Identified for Authenticity Holistically Balanced® Gluten Free With one of the most comprehensive herbariums in the world, Natures Answer® has identified Mother Natures
Echinacea Purpurea Root tincture is popularly believed to stimulate the bodys immune system and ward off infections, particularly the common cold. There is, however, no evidence to suggest this at all and it is more a case of folklore rules or the triumph of hope over expectation that has fostered this belief.. It is a natural antibiotic though and Echinacea Root is used to treat infections and to combat low resistance to sickness & to enhance the immune system. This is probably where the preventative cold and flu belief originates.. Echinacea Root has been used in the treatment of chronic recurring vaginal yeast infections. Echinacea purpurea, called King of the blood purifiers in some herbal manuscripts, has also been traditionally used to help acne, boils and difficult skin conditions where there is some evidence to suggest that its efficacy is well deserved. It has a slight numbing effect that is useful in the treatment for the discomfort of cold sores, and it is also considered to help ...
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the efficacy of immunoregulatory materials, herbal remedies or probiotics, in different parts of immune system following vaccination with different tropism. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea and a probiotic (protexin) on systemic and mucosal immune response in turkey. METHODS: A total of 288 1-day-old male turkey poults were randomized into 6 groups as follow: Group T1: Turkeys received Echinacea purpurea at the rate of 1 ml /1 liter water and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, Group T2: Turkeys received probiotic at the rate of 1 g /1 liter water and NDV vaccine, Group T3: Positive control that turkey received NDV vaccine without any additives. Group T4: Turkeys received Echinacea purpurea at the rate of 1 ml /1 liter water without NDV vaccine. Group T5: Turkeys received probiotic at the rate of 1 g /1 liter water without NDV vaccine, Group T6: Negative control group, neither vaccinated against NDV vaccine nor
The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. ...
Claviceps spp. (Ergot). Morning glory: Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), Ipomoea spp.(Morning Glory, Tlitliltzin, ...
Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) is a direct menace to humans when it attacks wheat or rye and produces highly poisonous and ...
CLAVICEPS PASPALI 3. DATA SUAVEOLANS 4. ERYTROXYLUM COCA 5. LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSII (COTO PEYOTE) 6. AMAZONIAN PRESTONIA ( ...
Vladimir Kren, Ladislav Cvak (2003). Ergot: The Genus Claviceps. CRC Press. ISBN 0-203-30419-5. ... The Genus Claviceps. CRC Press. ISBN 0-203-30419-5. Q. Ashton Acton (2012). Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology ...
Vladimir Kren, Ladislav Cvak (2003). Ergot: The Genus Claviceps. CRC Press. ISBN 0203304195. Houbraken, J. A. M. P.; Frisvad, J ...
Ergot: the genus Claviceps. CRC Press. pp. 411-440. ISBN 978-905702375-0. ...
Ergot: the genus Claviceps. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 411-440. Roth, BL; Driscol, J. "PDSP Ki ...
The fungus Claviceps spp. infects the flowering head and replaces grain of the rye with an ergot that's a hard and compact ...
Škrlatnordeča glavnica (znanstveno ime Claviceps purpurea) je vrsta glive zaprtotrosnice, ki zajeda rž ter druga žita in trave ... Ergot: the genus Claviceps. V: Biology of ergot fungi. Kren V., Cvak L. (ur.) Amsterdam. Harwood Academic Publishers. str. 25- ... Biology of Claviceps. V: Biotechnology Series, Vol. 6. Biology of Industrial Microorganisms. Demain, A.L. and Nadine, A.S. (ur ... Claviceps purpurea ima precej kompleksen življenjski cikel, sestavljen iz spolne in nespolne faze. Pomladi se iz peritecijev, ...
Claviceps sulcata, an ergot fungus, has been observed on the grass. Shield bugs (Scaptocoris spp.) can damage it, as well. ... New Claviceps species from warm-season grasses. Fungal Diversity 49(1) 145-65.. ...
Validation and typification of the name Claviceps zizaniae. Mycotaxon 106: 303-309. Faith Fyles - First Botanical Artist at the ... on poisonous plants that also mentions the wild rice ergot now known as Claviceps zizaniae (Fyles) Pantidou ex Redhead, M. E. ...
... s are ergoloid-like chemicals made by Claviceps purpurea. Incorporation of thiazolidine-4-carbozylic acid into ergosine ...
For example, the ergot alkaloids produced by Claviceps spp. have been dangerous contaminants of rye crops for centuries. When ... "Molecular cloning and analysis of the ergopeptine assembly system in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea". Chem. Biol. 10 (12 ...
Walzel, B.; Riederer, B.; Keller, U. Mechanism of Alkaloid Cyclopeptide Synthesis in the Ergot Fungus Claviceps Purpurea. Chem ... Dihydroergocryptine Kren V., Cvak L. "Ergot: the genus Claviceps". Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1999. p. 399-401 ... An Old Yellow Enzyme Gene Controls the Branch Point between Aspergillus Fumigatus and Claviceps Purpurea Ergot Alkaloid ... The Ergot Alkaloid Gene Cluster in Claviceps Purpurea: Extension of the Cluster Sequence and Intra Species Evolution. ...
... is an ergoloid-like chemical made by Claviceps purpurea. Crespi-Perellino, N; Guicciardi, A; Minghetti, A; Spalla, C ... 15 March 1981). "Incorporation of alpha-aminobutyric acid into ergostine by Claviceps purpurea". Experientia. 37 (3): 217-8. ...
It is mainly produced by members of the genus claviceps. Long used in traditional Chinese medicine, it was found in 1987 mouse ...
Claviceps purpureaand Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Other Eukaryotes: Gigartinales among the red algae (Boyen et al. 1994), and ...
It is produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Claviceps, and Penicillium. It inhibits potassium channels in smooth muscles ...
The book hypothesizes that the source of both was ergot (Claviceps purpurea). In his autobiography, Swami Rama recalls ...
Ergot: The Genus Claviceps, Vladimír Křen, Ladislav Cvak Balansia in Index Fungorum. ...
Cordia clarendonensis (Britton) Stearn Cordia clarkei Brace ex Prain Cordia claviceps Urb. & Ekman Cordia cochinchinensis ...
For example, Claviceps purpurea sclerotia form and begin regrowth in the spring, infecting grass and rye plants by way of ... Claviceps purpurea can infect a wide variety of plants by infecting the ovaries. The fungal spores germinate at the anthesis ... Claviceps purpurea sclerotia contain alkaloids that, when consumed, can cause ergotism which is a disease that causes paranoia ... Claviceps purpurea's life cycle is an interesting model for plant pathologists and cell biologists because: Strict organ ...
Claviceps purpurea. Other notable mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, which are insidious liver toxins and highly carcinogenic ... and Claviceps. Many ascomycete species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but ...
Ergot alkaloids are associated with grasses that are produced in a structure of Claviceps called the sclerotia. Some of the ... Some other fungi that are known to produce mycotoxins include Claviceps and Alternaria. There are six known types of mycotoxins ...
Sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea which grows on the seeds of purple moor grass.. ... The caterpillars of some Lepidoptera use it as a foodplant, e.g., the chequered skipper (Carterocephalus palaemon). Claviceps ...
The oxacyclol alkaloid ergotamine from the fungus Claviceps purpurea was the first identified cyclol. The cyclic depsipeptide ...
Claviceps zizaniae is a plant pathogen that causes ergot in the wild rice species Zizania aquatica and Z. palustris. Originally ... "Claviceps zizaniae (Fyles) Pantidou ex Redhead, M.E. Corlett & M.N.L. Lefebvre". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved ... 1959). "Claviceps from Zizania". Canadian Journal of Botany. 37 (6): 1233-6. doi:10.1139/b59-104. Redhead SA, Corlett ME, ... Lefebvre MNL (2008). "Validation and typification of the name Claviceps zizaniae". Mycotaxon. 106: 303-9. Claviceps zizaniae in ...
agropyri Claviceps purpurea var. purpurea Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae Claviceps purpurea var. wilsonii. Molecular biology ... Claviceps microcephala Tul. (1853) Claviceps wilsonii Cooke (1884) Later scientists tried to determine host varieties as ... Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants. Consumption of grains ... PDF Claviceps purpurea - Ergot Alkaloid Ergot article from North Dakota State University, 2002 PBS Secrets of the Dead: "The ...
Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782) kingdom Animalia - animals » phylum Platyhelminthes - flatworms » class Cestoda - ... de Jong, Y.S.D.M. (ed.): Fauna Europaea [http://www.faunaeur.org] [as Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782)]. Data retrieved ... Portál informačního systému ochrany přírody (ISOP) [http://portal.nature.cz] [as Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782)]. Data ... Text function: [[t:82403;,em,Bothriocephalus claviceps,/em,]]. Reference: ,a href="https://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id82403/",,em ...
Kinetic parameters of production of clavine alkaloids were evaluated in two Claviceps purpureastrains. Mutagenesis brought ... Řeháček Z, Pažoutová S, Kozová J, Sajdl P, Křen V, Flieger M (1984) New production strain ofClaviceps purpurea CP7/5/35. Cz ... Sočič H, Gaberc-Porekar V, Pertot E, Puc A, Miličič S (1986) Developmental studies ofClaviceps paspali seed cultures for the ... Grm B, Mele M, Kremser M (1980) Model of growth and ergot alkaloid production byClaviceps purpurea. Biotechnol Bioeng 22:255- ...
... claviceps is cylindrical with 23-30 ribs, and white areoles with yellow spines. Funnel-shaped yellow flowers are borne in ... P. claviceps is cylindrical with 23-30 ribs, and white areoles with yellow spines. Funnel-shaped yellow flowers are borne in ... Important Info : Also known as Notocactus claviceps. Google Plant Images: click here! ...
Crystallographic and NMR Investigation of Ergometrine and Methylergometrine, Two Alkaloids from Claviceps Purpurea by Fiorella ... "Crystallographic and NMR Investigation of Ergometrine and Methylergometrine, Two Alkaloids from Claviceps Purpurea." Molecules ...
Agurell S (1966) Biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids in Claviceps paspali. Acta Pharm Suec 3:11-22Google Scholar ... Hamed O, Rehaček Z (1978) Variability of requirements to fermentation media in Claviceps purpurea strains. Zbl Bakt 133:551-556 ... Keller U, Zocher R, Kleinkauf H (1980) Biosynthesis of ergotamine in protoplasts of Claviceps purpurea. J Gen Microbiol 118:485 ... Sočič H, Gaberc-Porekar V, Didek-Brumec M (1985) Biochemical characterization of the inoculum of Claviceps purpurea for ...
Biosynthesis of ergothioneine by Claviceps purpurea. 3. The incorporation of labelled histidine. H. Heath, Jennifer Wildy ... Biosynthesis of ergothioneine by Claviceps purpurea. 3. The incorporation of labelled histidine ... Biosynthesis of ergothioneine by Claviceps purpurea. 3. The incorporation of labelled histidine ... Biosynthesis of ergothioneine by Claviceps purpurea. 3. The incorporation of labelled histidine ...
Another way to produce ergot alkaloids is the cultivation of Claviceps strains (mainly Claviceps paspali or Claviceps purpurea ... Claviceps paspali is a parasitic fungus that infects wild grasses. Claviceps species are notorious toxin producers that have ... The most well-known member of the Claviceps genus is Claviceps purpurea. During the Middle Ages, this fungus was responsible ... Our work also paves the way for the further genetic characterization of Claviceps paspali and other Claviceps species, and will ...
Claviceps purpurea, ergot fungus, is a highly toxic fungus that, for many hundreds of years, caused many thousands of deaths ... Claviceps purpurea, ergot fungus. Summary For many hundreds of years this highly toxic fungus, which finds a host in cereal ... Read more about Claviceps purpurea and ergot in these blog entries (most recent first);. Pretty solid proof that CIA was not ... Claviceps. From the Latin clava, club with the suffix -ceps, -headed from its shape.. Purpurea. purple ...
Genus Claviceps Claviceps purpurea (Fr.:Fr.)Tul., 1883. Rank: Species. Taxon Status: accepted. Relationships towards this taxon ... Claviceps. Tul.. accepted genus name. Vernaculars (+) (-). Dutch: echt moederkoren sources: PESI (A Pan-European Species ... WoRMS (2014). Claviceps purpurea (Fr.:Fr.)Tul., 1883. In: Index Fungorum Partnership (2014) Index Fungorum. In: Costello, M.J ...
Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. [teleom.] Sphacelia segetum Lév. [anam.]. Synonyms. Cordyceps purpurea (Fr.) Berk. [syn.] ... Claviceps purpurea is a member of the Ascomycota, order Hypocreales (Clavicipitaceae). The fungus produces three dissimilar ...
This volume provides readers with biotechnological aspects of ergot alkaloid production and genetic and physiological data. Toxicology and environmental risks
The first saprophytic cultivation of Claviceps on artificial nutritional media dates back to 1922 (Bonns 1922). The first ... Saprophytic Cultivation of Claviceps 521 History. Wed, 14 Sep 2016 , Biological Control ... There are three main processes used for the preparation of Claviceps strains for saprophytic culture. (a) Plating of ... The first saprophytic cultivation of Claviceps on artificial nutritional media dates back to 1922 (Bonns 1922). The first ...
A strain of Claviceps fusiformis produced clavine alkaloid (principally agroclavine) in yields of 4 mg/ml within 6 days when ... Large-scale Production of Clavine Alkaloids by Claviceps fusiformis * G. T. BANKS, P. G. MANTLE and CHRISTINE A. SZCZYRBAK ... SUMMARY: A strain of Claviceps fusiformis produced clavine alkaloid (principally agroclavine) in yields of 4 mg/ml within 6 ...
Entmethylierung von Να-Methyltryptophan durch Claviceps sp.. Floss, Heinz-Günter / Gröger, Detlef ...
Claviceps spp. (Ergot). Morning glory: Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), Ipomoea spp.(Morning Glory, Tlitliltzin, ...
Claviceps purpurea. Fungos venenosos. Aspergillus flavus. Prof. Ricardo Lobo. Frieira. Fungos comestíveis. Agaricus campestris ...
Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that cause an alteration in perception, thought, or mood. A rather heterogeneous group, these compounds have different chemical structures, different mechanisms of action, and different adverse effects.
c) Claviceps. *(d) Phytophthora. 26. The Finches of Galapagos islands provide an evidence in favour of ...
Molecular cloning and analysis of the ergopeptine assembly system in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Chem. Biol. 2003, 10 ... The ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Extension of the cluster sequence and intra species evolution. ... of different NRPSs as for fumonisin biosynthesis has been reported for the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids in Claviceps ...
Hydergine (Ergot) (claviceps purpurea). *Sage (Salvia officinalis, salvia lavandulaefolia). *Vitamin E (alpha-tocopheril) ...
Full text: Available Index: GHL / IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Claviceps / Ergot Alkaloids Language: English Journal: ... Saprophytic production of ergot alkaloids by Bajra ergot (Claviceps fusiformis Loveless). Saprophytic production of ergot ...
Claviceps purpurea, the ergot fungus, is a highly specialized pathogen of grasses; its colonization of host ovarian tissue ... The small GTPase Rac and the PAK kinase Cla4 in Claviceps purpurea: interaction and impact on polarity, development and ... The small GTPase Rac and the PAK kinase Cla4 in Claviceps purpurea: interaction and impact on polarity, development and ...
Claviceps spp. (Ergot). Morning glory: Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), Ipomoea spp.(Morning Glory, Tlitliltzin, ...
  • Pažoutová S, Flieger M, Sajdl P, Řeháček Z, Taisinger J, Bass A (1981a) The relationship between the intensity of oxidative metabolism and predominance of agroclavine or elymoclavine in submerged Claviceps purpurea cultures. (springer.com)
  • The small GTPase Rac and the PAK kinase Cla4 in Claviceps purpurea: interaction and impact on polarity, development and pathogenicity. (igzev.de)
  • Dopstadt J, Neubauer L, Tudzynski P, Humpf HU (2016) The epipolythiodiketopiperazine gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea: dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 enzyme prevents formation of the previously unknown clapurines. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Evaluation of Claviceps purpurea isolates on wheat reveals complex virulence and host susceptibility relationships , 39(3), 307-317. (gc.ca)
  • Among 14 foliar diseases observed, maize stripe virus (MStV), a tenuivirus transmitted by Peregrinus maidis, and among five panicle diseases, ergot (Claviceps spp. (usda.gov)