Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Partial or total replacement of one or more FINGERS, or a FINGER JOINT.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.
Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Dewar proposed Dewar benzene, and Koerner and Claus proposed Claus' benzene. Some of these structures would be synthesized in ... Prismane or 'Ladenburg benzene' is a polycyclic hydrocarbon with the formula C6H6. It is an isomer of benzene, specifically a ... Prismane is far less stable than benzene. The carbon (and hydrogen) atoms of the prismane molecule are arranged in the shape of ... The first, which was proposed by Kekulé in 1865, later proved to be closest to the true structure of benzene. This structure ...
Abdulkarim, Ali; Hinkel, Felix; Jänsch, Daniel; Freudenberg, Jan; Golling, Florian E.; Müllen, Klaus (2016). "A New Solution to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kovacic, Peter; Kyriakis, Alexander (1962). "Polymerization of benzene to p-polyphenyl ...
... known for his structure of benzene proposed in 1867; Corps Teutonia Marburg Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus, Corps Hasso-Nassovia ... Corps Vandalia Heidelberg Klaus Hänsch Albrecht von Hagen, Wehrmacht officer, German resistance, executed; Corps Saxo-Borussia ... Corps Suevia Heidelberg Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus (1838-1900), chemist, ...
... benzofuran carbazole carboline isatin methylindole oxindole pyrrole skatole benzene Isoindoline Isoindoline Speck Klaus; ... The parent compound has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen- ...
Hunger, Klaus; Mischke, Peter; Rieper, Wolfgang; Raue, Roderich; Kunde, Klaus; Engel, Aloys (2005). "Azo Dyes". Ullmann's ... chloroform/benzene 1∶1, SiO2) in thin Layer Chromatography). The above described product indeed turned out to be SSB-II which ...
Claus' benzene This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular formula. If an internal ... The molecular formula C6H6 (molar mass: 78.114) Benzene Benzvalene Bicyclopropenyl Dewar benzene Fulvene Prismane [3]Radialene ... "Benzene". ChemSpider. 2015. Retrieved 5/1/2019. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help). ...
315-347, Claus presents Kekulé's hypothetical structure for benzene (p. 317), presents objections to it, presents an ... Benzene molecules have been detected on Mars. X-ray diffraction shows that all six carbon-carbon bonds in benzene are of the ... Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of ... Pure benzene, for example, oxidizes in the body to produce an epoxide, benzene oxide, which is not excreted readily and can ...
Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene and Xylene) destruction which otherwise would clog downstream Claus catalyst. Gases containing ... First patented in 1883 by the chemist Carl Friedrich Claus, the Claus process has become the industry standard. C. F. Claus was ... Claus died in London in the year 1900. The multi-step Claus process recovers sulfur from the gaseous hydrogen sulfide found in ... Vita of Carl Friedrich Claus - inventor of the Claus process for production of sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, online document of ...
... (C6H6) is a hypothetical hydrocarbon and an isomer of benzene. It was proposed by Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus in ... Although it is often referred to alongside Dewar benzene and Prismane, it is not possible to synthesise it, which Dewar benzene ... Claus presents Kekulé's hypothetical structure for benzene (p. 317), presents objections to it, presents an alternative ... Warren, D. S.; Gimarc, B. M. (1992). "Valence isomers of benzene and their relationship to isomers of isoelectronic P6". ...
... benzvalene and Claus' benzene. Prismane and benzvalene were synthesized in the 1970s; Claus' benzene is impossible to ... Unlike benzene, Dewar benzene is not flat because the carbons where the rings join are bonded to four atoms rather than three. ... Dewar benzene (also spelled dewarbenzene) or bicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-2,5-diene is a bicyclic isomer of benzene with the molecular ... van Tamelen, Eugene E.; Pappas, S. P. (1962). "Chemistry of Dewar Benzene. 1,2,5-Tri-t-Butylbicyclo[2.2.0]Hexa-2,5-Diene". J. ...
... volcanologist and paleontologist Klaus Roth, mathematician, winner of the 1958 Fields Medal Walter Rouse-Ball, mathematician R. ... discovered the structure of benzene Karl Pearson, statistician, founder of statistics department at UCL. Sir Roger Penrose, ... Klaus Roth MSc (1948), PhD (1950), Professor (1948-1966) Tancred Borenius (1885-1948), art historian, diplomat and British ... worked in the Manhattan Project and co-founded the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Klaus F. Roth - Professor of Mathematics, ...
Benzene ring contractions are the last two mechanisms that have been suggested, and they are currently the preferred mechanisms ... DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)87204-4 Becker, Juergen; Wentrup, Curt; Katz, Ellen; Zeller, Klaus Peter (1980). "Azulene- ... Automerization of benzene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 109 (18): 5456-5461. doi:10.1021/ja00252a024. Tsefrikas, ... Benzene ring contractions at high temperatures. Evidence from the thermal interconversions of aceanthrylene, acephenanthrylene ...
Claus is best known for proposing a model of benzene molecule in 1867. In his model, the six carbon atoms of benzene form a ... While the prismane was synthesized in 1973, calculations showed that the synthesis of Claus' benzene is impossible. Claus ... August Kekulé 1865 and by Claus - found their place in organic chemistry. Ladenburg's prismane and Claus' benzene were both ... Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus (6 June 1838 - 4 May 1900) was a German chemist. He is known for his structure of benzene proposed in ...
The considered two-dimensional benzene ring structures are examples of subunits of graphene lattices (graphene nanostructures ... Academy of Europe Müllen Klaus accessed July 30, 2019 Hamburg Science Award 2017 goes to Klaus Müllen and Xinliang Feng ... Klaus Müllen (born January 2, 1947) is a German chemist working in the fields of polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry ... GRC Fellow Klaus Müllen receives Hermann Staudinger Award 2016. Hans Joachim Räder, Ali Rouhanipour, Anna Maria Talarico, ...
The dinitrobenzene is prepared by dinitration of benzene. m-Phenylenediamine is used in the preparation various polymers ... Klaus Dieter; Springob, Christian; Franzke, Michael; Balzer, Wolfgang; Imhoff, Sonja; Maresch, Gerhard; Bimczok, Rudolf (2006 ...
Their calculation indicates that the interaction energy between benzene and homodesmotic benzene is higher than that of a ... Huber, Roland G.; Margreiter, Michael A.; Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Tautermann, Christofer S.; Liedl, Klaus R ... "Substituent effects in the benzene dimer are due to direct interactions of the substituents with the unsubstituted benzene". J ... While benzene does not have a dipole moment, it has a strong quadrupole moment. The local C-H dipole means that there is ...
Who Says Alcohol and Benzene Don't Mix? Archived April 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Biasioli, Franco; Yeretzian, Chahan; ... ISBN 978-1-405-17668-2. Sulzer, Philipp; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Feil, Stefan; Winkler, Klaus; Mutschlechner, Paul; ...
It is a solid insoluble in water and soluble in acetone, toluene, and benzene. Its chemical formula is C21H15NO3, and its ... Hans-Samuel Bien, Josef Stawitz, Klaus Wunderlich "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Claus, K. H.; Krüger, C. (15 September 1988). "Structure of cyclooctatetraene at 129 K". Acta Crystallogr. C. 44 (9): 1632-1634 ... Unlike benzene, C6H6, cyclooctatetraene, C8H8, is not aromatic, although its dianion, C 8H2− 8 (cyclooctatetraenide), is. Its ... Because of its stoichiometric relationship to benzene, COT has been the subject of much research and some controversy. ... Benzene, by contrast, characteristically undergoes substitution reactions, not additions. 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene was ...
Degree 4 nanothreads have a double bond remaining from benzene and thus only two bonds formed between each pair of benzene ... Klaus (2018-05-29). "The Chemical Structure of Carbon Nanothreads Analyzed by Advanced Solid-State NMR". Journal of the ... Get Ready for Diamond Nanothread technologyreview.com Synthesizing Carbon Nanothreads from Benzene spie.org Liquid Benzene ... The distances between benzene molecules with van der Waals separations between them must shrink by 40% or more as the short, ...
Klaus Huthmacher, Dieter Most "Cyanuric Acid and Cyanuric Chloride" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" 2005, Wiley ... In 1866, Marcellin Berthelot reported the first example of cyclotrimerization, the conversion of acetylene to benzene. This ... doi 10.1002/14356007.a08 191 Industrial Organic Chemistry, Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jurgen Arpe John Wiley & Sons; 3rd 1997 ISBN ... "Benzene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ...
... is manufactured by chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric ... Klaus K.; Mann, Trevor (2006). "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007 ... "Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2012 ...
It was first synthesized in 1978, and was named in honor of August Kekulé, the discoverer of the structure of the benzene ... Krieger, Claus; Diederich, Francois; Schweitzer, Dieter; Staab, Heinz A. (September 1979). "Molecular Structure and ... In the late 1970s, 1H-NMR provided evidence of benzene rings and X-ray analysis determined that the structure had had ... In 2019, the configuration was determined to be one consisting of benzene-like rings alternating with non-aromatic linkages, by ...
It is soluble in diethylether and benzene. The addition compound with 2,2′-bipyridine is much more stable. A melting point of ... Portius, Peter; Filippou, Alexander C.; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Davis, Martin; Wehrstedt, Klaus-Dieter (2010). "Neutrale Lewis- ... Silicon tetraazide is synthesized by conversion of silicon tetrachloride with sodium azide in benzene. The reaction of silicon ...
Their calculation indicates that the interaction energy between benzene and homodesmotic benzene is higher than that of a ... Huber, Roland G.; Margreiter, Michael A.; Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Tautermann, Christofer S.; Liedl, Klaus R ... "Substituent effects in the benzene dimer are due to direct interactions of the substituents with the unsubstituted benzene". J ... as the positive quadrupole of one benzene ring interacts with the negative quadrupole of the other. The benzene rings are ...
When Nickel benzoate is heated in a vacuum, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene, benzoic acid, phenol, biphenyl, nickel, ... doi:10.1016/0021-9517(71)90007-8. Krogmann, Klaus; Mattes, Rainer (January 1963). "Die Kristallstruktur von Nickelformiat, Ni ... But also produced were butanes, benzene, toluene, and organic acid. Nickel succinate can form metal organic framework compounds ... Soyenkoff, Basil (January 1929). "Benzene Dispersions of Basic Soaps of Nickel and Iron". Journal of Physical Chemistry. 34 (11 ...
Coordination of Benzene to a highly reduced Tricarbonylmanganese centre allows the Benzene to undergo cycloaddition with ... Kreiter, Cornelius G; Lehr, Klaus (1991). "Photochemische Reaktionen von Übergangsmetall-Organyl-Komplexen mit Olefinen". ... The Dötz reaction is a formal [3+2+1] cycloaddition of two alkynes, a carbene, and a carbony ligand to form a benzene ring. An ... As an example, free Benzene is extremely unreactive in cycloadditions due to its aromaticity. ...
Bardo, Richard D.; Ruedenberg, Klaus (February 1974). "Even‐tempered atomic orbitals. VI. Optimal orbital exponents and optimal ... "Popular theoretical methods predict benzene and arenes to be nonplanar". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (29): 9342-9343. doi:10.1021/ ... "Popular Theoretical Methods Predict Benzene and Arenes To Be Nonplanar". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 128 (29): ...
The triazines have planar six-membered benzene-like ring but with three carbons replaced by nitrogens. The three isomers of ... Klaus Gompper (2000). "ACTINIDE(III)/LANTHANIDE(III) PARTITIONING USING n-Pr-BTP AS EXTRACTANT: EXTRACTION KINETICS AND ... Although triazines are aromatic compounds, their resonance energy is much lower than in benzene. Electrophilic aromatic ... substitution is difficult but nucleophilic aromatic substitution easier than typical chlorinated benzenes. 2,4,6-Trichloro-1,3, ...
Claus Schilling: Former civilian medical specialist at Dachau concentration camp (1942-1945). Sentenced to death on 13 December ... 11 May 1946 of killing hundreds of ill and disabled inmates by administering lethal injections of the chemical compound Benzene ... including the former commandant Martin Gottfried Weiss and the camp doctor Claus Schilling. Smaller groups of Dachau camp ...
Klaus (2001). "Bis(pyrimidine)-based palladium catalysts: Synthesis, X-ray structure and applications in Heck-, Suzuki-, ... of this complex's use is shown in the double coupling of o-diiodobenzene and phenylacetylene to give dialkynylated benzene. ...
Hunger, Klaus; Mischke, Peter; Rieper, Wolfgang; Raue, Roderich; Kunde, Klaus; Engel, Aloys (2000). "Azo Dyes". Ullmann's ... Aromatic amines, such as aniline, have their lone pair electrons conjugated into the benzene ring, thus their tendency to ...
Klaus K. Beutel, Trevor Mann "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, ...
a b c d e Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... and are forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce benzene content. In the European Union, the benzene limit is set ... Most of the benzene, toluene and xylene (the so-called BTX hydrocarbons) are more valuable as chemical feedstocks and are thus ... Substitute aromatics such as toluene, xylene and cumene combined with limited benzene solved the problem.[35] ...
Klingshirn, Claus F. (2012). Semiconductor Optics. Graduate Texts in Physics (4 ed.). Springer. pp. 285-288. ISBN 978-364228362 ... An early Raman spectrum of benzene published by Raman and Krishnan.[8] ...
Roland E. Bauer; Volker Enkelmann; Uwe M. Wiesler; Alexander J. Berresheim; Klaus Müllen (2002). "Single-Crystal Structures of ... it simply was another form of isomerism for example with benzene and acetylene and had little to do with size.[6] ...
Hentschel, Klaus (2002). Mapping the spectrum: techniques of visual representation in research and teaching. Oxford, England: ... The benzene rings in indigo can be modified to give a variety of related dyestuffs. Thioindigo, where the two NH groups are ...
a b Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... benzene 101 2,5-Dimethylfuran 101.3[19]. 88.1[19]. 94.7[19]. Petro-Canada "Ultra 94" in Canada [20]. 101.5 88 94 ...
Theopold, Klaus H.; Kucharczyk, Robin R. (15 December 2011), "Chromium: Organometallic Chemistry", in Scott, Robert A. (ed.), ... Most chromium(0) compounds are derivatives of the compounds chromium hexacarbonyl or bis(benzene)chromium.[35] ...
It is imperative to ascertain key risk factors such as smoking, occupational exposures to benzene, history of recent weight ... McVary, Kevin T.; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Avins, Andrew L.; Barry, Michael J.; Bruskewitz, Reginald C.; Donnell, Robert F.; Foster ...
a b c d e Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... and are forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce benzene content. In the European Union, the benzene limit is set ... In many languages, the name of the product is derived from benzene, such as Benzin in German or benzina in Italian. Argentina, ... Most of the benzene, toluene and xylene (the so-called BTX hydrocarbons) are more valuable as chemical feedstocks and are thus ...
BenzeneEdit. Main article: Benzene. One VOC that is a known human carcinogen is benzene, which is a chemical found in ... Sulzer, Philipp; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Feil, Stefan; Winkler, Klaus; Mutschlechner, Paul; Haidacher, Stefan; ... Benzene evaporates into the air quickly and the vapor of benzene is heavier than air allowing the compound to sink into low- ... Benzene also has natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. It is frequently used to make other chemicals in the ...
Schreiner, Bernhard (2008). "Der Claus-Prozess. Reich an Jahren und bedeutender denn je". Chemie in Unserer Zeit. 42 (6): 378- ... such as benzene and toluene. The first and second ionization energies of sulfur are 999.6 and 2252 kJ/mol, respectively. ... is converted into elemental sulfur by the Claus process. This process entails oxidation of some hydrogen sulfide to sulfur ...
The Claus process is used in refineries to produce sulfur as a byproduct. The Stretford process has also been used to remove ... Benzene. *Benzonitrile. *Buckminsterfullerene (C60, C60+, fullerene, buckyball). *C70 fullerene ... Sulfur dioxide is the oxidising agent in the Claus process, which is conducted on a large scale in oil refineries. Here, sulfur ...
Hansen, Claus; et al. (2010). "Elevated antimony concentrations in commercial juices". Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 12 ... Poly(ethyl benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). Identifiers CAS Number. *25038-59-9 Y ...
Spedding took issue with the prevailing explanation by Friedrich August Kekulé of how the six carbon atoms in benzene hold ...
The first example of a catalytic C-H borylation of an unactivated hydrocarbon (benzene) was reported by Smith and Iverson using ... Nemecek, Gregor; Thomas, Robert; Goesmann, Helmut; Feldmann, Claus; Podlech, Joachim (October 2013). "Structure Elucidation and ... However, this meta borylation was completely sterically directed and was limitted to only 1,3-disubstituted benzenes. Around 12 ...
a b Uwe Wolfmeier,Hans Schmidt, Franz-Leo Heinrichs, Georg Michalczyk, Wolfgang Payer,Wolfram Dietsche, Klaus Boehlke, Gerd ... benzene, and Turpentine. ...
Adding another benzene ring to form dibenzo[c,g]phenantrene creates steric hindrance between the two extreme hydrogen atoms.[14 ... Feng, Xinliang; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus (2009). "Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Synthesis and discotic ... Full conjugation means that all carbon atoms and carbon-carbon bonds must have the sp2 structure of benzene. This class is ... In theory, there are 51 structural isomers of coronene that have six fused benzene rings in a cyclic sequence, with two edge ...
The Stoichiometry and Fate of Inhibitors in Benzene and Chlorobenzene». Journal of the American Chemical Society. 77 (12): 3233 ... em inglês) Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Using the Claus process, hydrogen sulfide is afterwards transformed to elementary sulfur to be sold to the chemical industry. ... including ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes ("BTX") which are often sent to petrochemical plants for further processing in a ... Amine gas treater, Claus unit, and tail gas treatment convert hydrogen sulfide from hydrodesulfurization into elemental sulfur ... to remove hydrogen sulfide gas from various wastewater streams for subsequent conversion into end-product sulfur in the Claus ...
a b David Parker, Jan Bussink, Hendrik T. van de Grampel, Gary W. Wheatley, Ernst-Ulrich Dorf, Edgar Ostlinning, Klaus Reinking ... attracts electrons from neighboring benzene rings, causing electron deficiency. The polymer therefore opposes further electron ...
Mesoporous aerogel - selective oxidation of benzene[edit]. Silver nanoparticles supported on aerogel are advantageous due to ... Klaus, Tanja; Joerger, Ralph; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Göran (1999-11-23). "Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, ... "Silver Nanoparticles in Mesoporous Aerogel Exhibiting Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene in CO2 Free Air". Catalysis ... the higher number of active sites.[64] The highest selectivity for oxidation of benzene to phenol was observed at low weight ...
Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menne, Torkil (February 2006). "Severe allergic hair dye reactions ... and benzene has been linked to adult leukemia.[52] ...
Peter Pässler; Werner Hefner; Klaus Buckl; Helmut Meinass; Andreas Meiswinkel; Hans-Jürgen Wernicke; Günter Ebersberg; Richard ...
Prechtl, Julia; Kneip, Christoph; Lockhart, Peter; Wenderoth, Klaus; Maier, Uwe-G. (2004). "Intracellular spheroid bodies of ... benzene. As much as 200 mol of ammonia per mol of TiCl. 4 was obtained after hydrolysis.…"[38] ...
Claus EB, Stowe M, Carter D (December 2001). "Breast carcinoma in situ: risk factors and screening patterns". Journal of the ... benzene and asbestos. Its evaluation states, "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in ...
Pilkis SJ, el-Maghrabi MR, Claus TH (June 1990). "Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in control of hepatic gluconeogenesis. From ... benzene or chloroform. The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule ...
These nanoparticles catalyzed the dehalogenation of aromatic compounds as well as the hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane. ... Beller, Matthias; Fischer, Hartmut; Kühlein, Klaus; Reisinger, C.-P.; Herrmann, W.A. (1996). "First palladium-catalyzed Heck ...
Claus benzene (C6H6) is a hypothetical hydrocarbon and an isomer of benzene. It was proposed by Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus in ... Although it is often referred to alongside Dewar benzene and Prismane, it is not possible to synthesise it, which Dewar benzene ... Claus presents Kekulés hypothetical structure for benzene (p. 317), presents objections to it, presents an alternative ... Warren, D. S.; Gimarc, B. M. (1992). "Valence isomers of benzene and their relationship to isomers of isoelectronic P6". ...
Historic Benzene Formulae Claus(1867) V.1.svg 118 × 135 ; 3 Kio. ... benzene (sco); Benzol (lb); benzen (nn); benzen (nb); Benzol (az); 苯 (lzh); بەنزین (ckb); benzene (en); بنزين (ar); 苯 (yue); ... Benzene (en-ca); பென்சீன் (ta); benzene (it); Benzen (sh); Benzenum (la); benzen (cs); Benseen (et); бэнзоль (be-tarask); ... Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond, spin.jpg 1 536 × 1 152 ; 323 Kio. ...
... benzvalene and Claus benzene. Prismane and benzvalene were synthesized in the 1970s; Claus benzene is impossible to ... Unlike benzene, Dewar benzene is not flat because the carbons where the rings join are bonded to four atoms rather than three. ... Dewar benzene (also spelled dewarbenzene) or bicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-2,5-diene is a bicyclic isomer of benzene with the molecular ... van Tamelen, Eugene E.; Pappas, S. P. (1962). "Chemistry of Dewar Benzene. 1,2,5-Tri-t-Butylbicyclo[2.2.0]Hexa-2,5-Diene". J. ...
Plastic model of a molecule of benzene. Benzene (formula: C6H6) is a highly inflammable colourless liquid. The atoms are colour ... Credit: KLAUS GULDBRANDSEN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY. Caption: Benzene. Plastic model of a molecule of benzene. Benzene (formula: ... Keywords: atoms, benzene, bonding, bonds, c6h6, carbon, chemical, chemistry, compound, compounds, hydrocarbon, hydrocarbons, ...
Claus R, Lubbert M. Epigenetic targets in hematopoietic malignancies. Oncogene 2003; 22: 6489-96. ... Airborne benzene was associated with a significant reduction in LINE-1 (−2.33% for a 10-fold increase in airborne benzene ... benzene. Introduction. Exposure to benzene, a widespread airborne pollutant emitted from traffic exhaust fumes and cigarette ... DNA methylation and airborne benzene exposure. LINE-1 and AluI methylation decreased with increasing airborne benzene exposure ...
The effect of microhydration on the interaction of guanidinium cation with benzene has been studied by employing ab initio ... Klaus F.; Schulz, Julius C. F.; Netz, Roland R. // Journal of Chemical Physics;2015, Vol. 142 Issue 21, p1 Using extensive ... Effect of microhydration on the guanidinium...benzene interaction. Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M.; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Peña- ... Four different structural arrangements were considered for the guanidinium...benzene interaction to which up to six water ...
Author(s): Klaus Schaefer; Stefan M. Emeis; Martina Stockhause; Achim Sedlmaier; Herbert Hoffmann; Georg Depta; Andreas ... Emission rates of benzene and ammonia area sources determined by spectroscopic remote measurements and inverse dispersion ... Dioxins and their precursors such as halogenated benzenes and phenols are suspected to be carcinogenic, and therefore they are ... An integrated optic chemical sensor has been developed to monitor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in water. ...
Schmidt, Torsten Claus; Haas, Rainer; Steinbach, Klaus; Von Löw, Eberhard V. Derivatization of aromatic amines for analysis in ... Carbon Isotope Fractionation of Substituted Benzene Analogs during Oxidation with Ozone and Hydroxyl Radicals : How Should ... Schmidt, Torsten Claus; Haas, Rainer; von Löw, Eberhard; Steinbach, Klaus Derivatization of aromatic amines with bromine for ... Pamme, Nicole; Steinbach, Klaus; Ensinger, Wolfgang J.; Schmidt, Torsten Claus Analysis of polynitrophenols and hexyl by liquid ...
37] K. Angermund, K. H. Claus, K. Goddard, C. Kruger. Angew. Chem. 1985, 97. 241 - 252; Angew. Chem. In[. Ed. Engl. 1985, 24, ... benzene)] 44(295 K) [Ru,(CO),(benzene)l 44(193 K) [Ru,C(CO), ,(benzene),] 37 [Os,(CO),(benzene)] 38 [Os,(CO),(C,H,)(benzene)] ... in benzene and benzene/H,O.[I By 1950 R.E. Rundle had succeeded in proving the existence of benzene bridges between the silver ... Benzene can be bonded to one or more surface atoms. For the simple case of benzene on a close packed, atomically flat metal ...
auto sales Bank of England BASF benzene Brent oil prices Brexit central banks China consumer spending credit bubble credit ... Klaus Ries, Business Manager, Styrenic foams and monomers will discuss the styrenics value chain in Europe. International ... Dow Chemical. Pieter Platteeuw, Global Business Director, will focus on benzene and what lies ahead for its markets. BASF. ...
... units to handle benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) destruction effectively in SRUs; and cascading of semi-lean ... solvent from the Shell Claus off-gas treating (SCOT ® ) absorber to the main AGRU absorber. ...
Claus-Peter Hälsig Vice President Process & Technology, Fluor. Claus-Peter Hälsig holds the position of Vice President Process ... In the field of petrochemicals he has handled polymers, PX, PTA, benzene, LAB, glycols and butadiene business. A well-known ... Claus-Peter Hälsig holds the position of Vice President Process & Technology for Fluor in Europe, Russia/CIS, Middle East and ... detergents and benzene. He has also been a guest faculty at the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore, taking the course ...
A team led by Xinliang Feng of Dresden University of Technology and Klaus Müllen of the Max Planck Institute for Polymer ... Chemists hope to create other class members, including the simplest one, persulfurated benzene, for use in battery cathodes and ...
... benzene derivatives: a molecular approach toward carbonaceous materials for Li-ion storage ... 2005). Pyrolysis of hexa(phenyl)benzene derivatives: a molecular approach toward carbonaceous materials for Li-ion storage. ... Pyrolysis of hexa(phenyl)benzene derivatives: a molecular approach toward carbonaceous materials for Li-ion storage ...
The quantification of benzene in FTIR spectra is restricted by the interference of benzene with carbon dioxide. The authors ... Schaefer, Klaus; S. Emeis; M. Stockhause; A. Sedlmaier; H. Hoffmann; G. Depta; A. Gronauer, Fraunhofer Inst, for Atmospheric ... At the ambient air quality measurement there are cross-sensitivities between ozone and benzene, and benzene and toluene. These ... Emission Rates of Benzene and Ammonia Area Sources Determined by Spectroscopic Remote Measurements and Inverse Dispersion ...
A schematic process flow diagram of a basic 3-Bed Claus unit is shown below:. The Claus technology can be divided into two ... compounds as benzene, toluene and xylene may be present. These compounds. are normally of liquid nature but as they are of ... the Claus plant, only two catalytic stages are usually installed.. 5. The first process step in the catalytic stage is the ... through Claus plants while alternate configurations such as a split-flow set up or feed and. air preheating can be used to ...
... benzene-polycarboxylic acids (CDBPA) is a new therapy of solid tumors without toxicity, mild and transient side-effects and an ... Steen Lindkær-Jensen1* , Claus L. Jensen2, Naiel Azzam3, Rinat Bar-Shalom3, Basem Fares3, Nina Habib L Jensen1 , Stig Larsen4 ... 2013) Benzene poly-carbolylic acid complex with cis-diammine platinum (II) dichloride in the treatment of stage IV breast ... Cis-diammineplatinum (II) benzene-polycarboxylic acids (CDBPA) is a new therapy of solid tumors without toxicity, mild and ...
This is done by Amine treatment after which H2S is converted to sulphur through Claus process. Guwahati Refinery is amongst ... produces MS component by improving Research Octane Number upto 87.0 units and also helps in meeting the Benzene content ...
9. On-Surface Dehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Dibromo-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene ... You searched for: Author Müllen, Klaus Remove constraint Author: Müllen, Klaus Start Over ... Müllen, Klaus, et al. ; Wu, Zhen; Ji, Chendong; Zhao, Xujie; Han, Yilong; Pan, Kai; Yin, Meizhen; Show all 7 Authors. Source: ... Müllen, Klaus, et al. ; Chen, Qiang; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Narita, Akimitsu; Show all 4 Authors. Source:. Journal of the ...
Ter Meer A. Claus and E. Trainer continued the experiments. Claus and Trainer obtained a resinous material from 2 mol of phenol ... 2. Breakdown of benzene and propylene consumption. Phenol Production Processes The cumene process is by far the most important ... Claus dissolved two moles of phenol and one mole of acetaldehyde in ether and passed in hydrochloric acid gas. After removal of ... The hydroxyl group is in the benzene ring plane even for 2 6 di tert butylphenol Ortho and meta substituted phenols exist as ...
Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid = detergent. As long as the water in the barrel doesnt get sudsy, you can infer that they ... "Family farms work when the whole family works the farm." -- Adam Klaus ... these blue barrels had Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid in . Can these be used to store water in for a green house? Im sure ...
TK-220 is a CoMo catalyst that is specifically developed for treating tail gases derived from Claus or other similar units. ... Benzene hydrogenation,Petrochemical processing : Petrochemical sulfur guards ,Petrochemical processing : Selective ... TK-224 is a CoMo catalyst that is specifically developed for treating tail gases derived from Claus or other similar units. ... TK-222 is a CoMo catalyst specifically developed for treating tail gases derived from Claus or other similar units. ...
37) Schwab, F.; Lucas, M.; Claus, P. Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2011, 50, 10453. doi: 10.1002/anie.201104959. (38) Liu, J. L.; Zhu ... Partial Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene over Novel Ru-B/MOF Catalysts TAN Xiao-He1, ZHOU Gong-Bing1, DOU Rong-Fei1, PEI ... Partial Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene over Novel Ru-B/MOF Catalysts[J].Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2014, 30(5): 932-942. ... Reaction Mechanism of Benzene Methylation with Methanol over H-ZSM-5 Catalyst [J]. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin., 2017, 33(4): 769-779 ...
The role of surface adsorption in surface-enhanced Raman scattering from Benzene thiols Author(s): D. A. Alexson; O. J. ... Klaus Müllen; Heiko Rocholz; Jennifer S. Shumaker-Parry; Martin Steinhart; Xinhua Zhong Show Abstract ... Experimental data for benzene thiol on dielectric coated nanowires is shown to support the calculations. These results ... A simple group of Benzene thiols was chosen to facilitate comparison with theoretical models. Experimental results with ...
Pyrocarbon deposition from propylene and benzene in the low temperature regi*. Becker, Armin; Huettinger, Klaus J. ...
Klaus-Dieter WarzechaKlaus-Dieter Warzecha 40.7k77 gold badges8080 silver badges145145 bronze badges ... Klaus-Dieter Warzecha 40.7k77 gold badges8080 silver badges145145 bronze badges ... Thats the old (and long replaced) phenol synthesis by Raschig. $\endgroup$ - Klaus-Dieter Warzecha Mar 8 14 at 10:01 ... I will get benzene carboxylic acid which will give effervescence on reaction with $\ce{NaHCO3}$. But, does $\ce{KMnO4}$ have ...
Previous: A novel process to reduce aromatics and benzene in reformates * Next: FCC flue gas scrubber alternatives: part II ... Increasing the flexibility of a Claus unit * By incorporating a Claus unit, iron-based liquid redox processing can result in a ... Home › Articles › Increasing the flexibility of a Claus unit Articles View All Date of Publication: 2010/04 Last Modified: 2014 ... removal efficiency of 99.9+% and 100% turndown capacity, as well as increasing Claus unit capacity. ...
Klaus-Dieter WarzechaKlaus-Dieter Warzecha 40.3k77 gold badges7878 silver badges142142 bronze badges ... The ozonolysis of benzene forms Glyoxal through the formation of benzene Triozonide as an intermediate. ... Benzene when treated with ozone in prescence of an inert solvent like chloroform(CHCl3) or CCl4 or CH2Cl2, benzene triozonide ... Shouldnt the conditions for the ozonolysis of benzene be more extreme? $\endgroup$ - Keerthana A.K. Dec 18 13 at 17:16 ...
Klaus D. Mielenz. Appl. Opt. 17(18), 2875-2876 (1978) View: HTML , PDF ... Absorption curve of the 607-μm line in benzene. J. Stone. Appl. Opt. 17(18), 2876-2877 (1978) View: HTML , PDF ...
  • The catalytic properties of a novel Raney-Nickel mold were investigated in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of benzene and compared to commercially available. (uni-bonn.de)