A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.
A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It is localized to the TIGHT JUNCTIONS of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Endothelial claudin: claudin-5/TMVCF constitutes tight junction strands in endothelial cells. (1/124)

Tight junctions (TJs) in endothelial cells are thought to determine vascular permeability. Recently, claudin-1 to -15 were identified as major components of TJ strands. Among these, claudin-5 (also called transmembrane protein deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome [TMVCF]) was expressed ubiquitously, even in organs lacking epithelial tissues, suggesting the possible involvement of this claudin species in endothelial TJs. We then obtained a claudin-6-specific polyclonal antibody and a polyclonal antibody that recognized both claudin-5/TMVCF and claudin-6. In the brain and lung, immunofluorescence microscopy with these polyclonal antibodies showed that claudin-5/TMVCF was exclusively concentrated at cell-cell borders of endothelial cells of all segments of blood vessels, but not at those of epithelial cells. Immunoreplica electron microscopy revealed that claudin-5/TMVCF was a component of TJ strands. In contrast, in the kidney, the claudin-5/TMVCF signal was restricted to endothelial cells of arteries, but was undetectable in those of veins and capillaries. In addition, in all other tissues we examined, claudin-5/TMVCF was specifically detected in endothelial cells of some segments of blood vessels, but not in epithelial cells. Furthermore, when claudin-5/TMVCF cDNA was introduced into mouse L fibroblasts, TJ strands were reconstituted that resembled those in endothelial cells in vivo, i.e., the extracellular face-associated TJs. These findings indicated that claudin-5/TMVCF is an endothelial cell-specific component of TJ strands.  (+info)

Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediated by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases. (2/124)

Genes associated with regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP)-mediated pro-MMP-2 processing were screened in 293T cells by a newly developed expression cloning method. One of the gene products, which promoted processing of pro-MMP-2 by MT1-MMP was claudin-5, a major component of endothelial tight junctions. Expression of claudin-5 not only replaced TIMP-2 in pro-MMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP but also promoted activation of pro-MMP-2 mediated by all MT-MMPs and MT1-MMP mutants lacking the transmembrane domain (DeltaMT1-MMP). A carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant of pro-MMP-2 (proDeltaMMP-2) was processed to an intermediate form by MT1-MMP in 293T cells and was further converted to an activated form by introduction of claudin-5. In contrast to the stimulatory effect of TIMP-2 on pro-MMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP, activation of pro-MMP-2 by DeltaMT1-MMP in the presence of claudin-5 and proDeltaMMP-2 processing by MT1-MMP were both inversely repressed by expression of exogenous TIMP-2. These results suggest that TIMP-2 is not involved in cluadin-5-induced pro-MMP-2 activation by MT-MMPs. Stimulation of MT-MMP-mediated pro-MMP-2 activation was also observed with other claudin family members, claudin-1, claudin-2, and claudin-3. Amino acid substitutions or deletions in ectodomain of claudin-1 abolished stimulatory effect. Direct interaction of claudin-1 with MT1-MMP and MMP-2 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation analysis. MT1-MMP was co-localized with claudin-1 not only at cell-cell borders, but also at other parts of the cells. TIMP-2 enhanced cell surface localization of MMP-2 mediated by MT1-MMP, and claudin-1 also stimulated it. These results suggest that claudin recruits all MT-MMPs and pro-MMP-2 on the cell surface to achieve elevated focal concentrations and, consequently, enhances activation of pro-MMP-2.  (+info)

The renal segmental distribution of claudins changes with development. (3/124)

BACKGROUND: Permeability properties of mammalian nephron are tuned during postnatal maturation. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and complexity of tight junctions (TJs) vary along the different tubular segments, suggesting that the molecules constituting this structure change. We studied the differential expression of occludin and several claudins in isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits. METHODS: Isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits were processed for occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-2 immunofluorescence, and Western blot detection of claudin-1 and -2. Claudin-5 was detected in whole kidney frozen sections. RT-PCR from isolated tubules was performed for claudins-1 to -8. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence revealed that occludin, claudin-1 and -2 were present at the cell boundaries at the neonatal stage of development. Claudin-1 was detected in the tighter segments of the nephron (distal and collecting duct), while claudin-2 was found in the leaky portions (proximal). Claudin 5 was found in the kidney vasculature. PCR amplification revealed the presence of claudins-1 to -4 in tubules of newborns. In adults, claudins-1, -2 and -4 were present in proximal, Henle's loop and collecting segments; claudin-3 was in proximal and collecting tubules, while claudins-5 and -6 were absent from all tubular portions. Claudin-7 was restricted to proximal tubules, while claudin-8 was present in proximal and Henle's segments. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of occludin distribution is present from the neonatal age. Claudins-7 and -8 are up-regulated after birth. Each tubular segment expresses a peculiar set of claudins that might be responsible for the permeability properties of their TJs.  (+info)

Prolonged fluid shear stress induces a distinct set of endothelial cell genes, most specifically lung Kruppel-like factor (KLF2). (4/124)

The endothelium expresses a large repertoire of genes under apparent transcriptional control of biomechanical forces, many of which are neither cell-type nor flow specific. We set out to identify genes that are uniquely flow responsive in human vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional profiling using commercial DNA microarrays identified 12 of 18 000 genes that were modulated at least 5-fold after 24 hours of steady laminar flow (25 dyne/cm(2)). After a 7-day exposure to unidirectional pulsatile flow (19 +/- 12 dyne/cm(2)), only 3 of 12 remained elevated at least 5-fold. A custom microarray of ~300 vascular cell-related gene fragments was constructed, and expression analysis revealed that many flow-induced genes are also induced by at least one of the following agents: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, or thrombin, indicating a more general role in adaptive or stress responses. Most flow-induced genes were also induced by TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. A limited panel of genes that are unique for flow-exposed cultures was identified, including lung Kruppel-like factor (LKLF/KLF2) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). In marked contrast, both these genes were substantially repressed by TNF-alpha. LKLF but not CYP1B1 mRNA was detected exclusively in the vascular endothelium of healthy human aorta by in situ hybridization and appeared to be flow regulated. To date LKLF is the first endothelial transcription factor that is uniquely induced by flow and might therefore be at the molecular basis of the physiological healthy, flow-exposed state of the endothelial cell.  (+info)

Distinct claudins and associated PDZ proteins form different autotypic tight junctions in myelinating Schwann cells. (5/124)

The apposed membranes of myelinating Schwann cells are joined by several types of junctional specializations known as autotypic or reflexive junctions. These include tight, gap, and adherens junctions, all of which are found in regions of noncompact myelin: the paranodal loops, incisures of Schmidt-Lanterman, and mesaxons. The molecular components of autotypic tight junctions have not been established. Here we report that two homologues of Discs Lost-multi PDZ domain protein (MUPP)1, and Pals-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), are differentially localized in myelinating Schwann cells and associated with different claudins. PATJ is mainly found at the paranodal loops, where it colocalized with claudin-1. MUPP1 and claudin-5 colocalized in the incisures, and the COOH-terminal region of claudin-5 interacts with MUPP1 in a PSD-95/Disc Large/zona occludens (ZO)-1 (PDZ)-dependent manner. In developing nerves, claudin-5 and MUPP1 appear together in incisures during the first postnatal week, suggesting that they coassemble during myelination. Finally, we show that the incisures also contain four other PDZ proteins that are found in epithelial tight junctions, including three membrane-associated guanylate-kinase proteins (membrane-associated guanylate-kinase inverted-2, ZO-1, and ZO-2) and the adaptor protein Par-3. The presence of these different tight junction proteins in regions of noncompact myelin may be required to maintain the intricate cytoarchitecture of myelinating Schwann cells.  (+info)

Holey barrier: claudins and the regulation of brain endothelial permeability. (6/124)

Endothelial tight junctions (TJs)* are an important functional part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this issue, Nitta et al. (2003) demonstrate that claudin-5, a transmembrane protein of TJs, is a critical determinant of BBB permeability in mice. Unexpectedly, knockout of claudin-5 did not result in a general breakdown of TJs but in a selective increase in paracellular permeability of small molecules. This suggests that the BBB can be manipulated to allow selective diffusion of small molecules and makes claudin-5 a possible target for the development of drugs for this purpose.  (+info)

Size-selective loosening of the blood-brain barrier in claudin-5-deficient mice. (7/124)

Tight junctions are well-developed between adjacent endothelial cells of blood vessels in the central nervous system, and play a central role in establishing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Claudin-5 is a major cell adhesion molecule of tight junctions in brain endothelial cells. To examine its possible involvement in the BBB, claudin-5-deficient mice were generated. In the brains of these mice, the development and morphology of blood vessels were not altered, showing no bleeding or edema. However, tracer experiments and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that in these mice, the BBB against small molecules (<800 D), but not larger molecules, was selectively affected. This unexpected finding (i.e., the size-selective loosening of the BBB) not only provides new insight into the basic molecular physiology of BBB but also opens a new way to deliver potential drugs across the BBB into the central nervous system.  (+info)

Role of claudin interactions in airway tight junctional permeability. (8/124)

Airway epithelial tight junctions (TJs) serve to separate the external and internal environments of the lung. However, the members of the claudin family that mediate this function have not been fully delineated. We characterized the claudin expression in normal airways removed from human donors during lung transplantation and determined the contribution of each claudin to airway barrier function. Stable cell lines in NIH/3T3 and human airway (IB3.1) cells were constructed expressing the claudin components found in the human airway, claudin-1, -3, or -5. The effects of claudin expression on transepithelial resistance, permeability coefficients, and claudin-claudin interactions were assessed. Claudin-1 and -3 decreased solute permeability, whereas claudin-5 increased permeability. We also detected oligomerization of claudin-5 in cell lines and in freshly excised human airways. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed heterophilic interactions between claudin species in both cell lines and human airway epithelium. These suggest that airway TJs are regulated by claudinclaudin interactions that confer the selectivity of the junction.  (+info)

Hypoxic Stress Induced by Hydralazine Leads to a Loss of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and an Increase in Efflux Transporter Activity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective membrane barrier, formed by brain endothelial cells, that separates the brain from circulating blood, preventing harmful materials in the blood from entering the brain. BBB disruption occurs in various neurological disorders, including Alzheime ...
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Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents a significant component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. AntiCIL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. mAb attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in sheep fetuses (16). However, the role of IL-6 after injury in the immature brain has been studied much less extensively than those of IL-1and TNF-in the immature brain. We recently generated pharmacologic quantities of a highly selective, ovine-specific antiCIL-6 mAb and antiCIL-1mAb. The neutralizing abilities of these mAbs have previously been confirmed in ovine splenic mononuclear cell cultures (35). Moreover, we recently demonstrated that infusions of an antiCIL-1mAb result in the uptake of the antiCIL-1mAb into the brain and attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in ovine fetal brain using the preclinical translational fetal sheep model ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many CNS disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We have previously shown that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction complexes, and BBB integrity disruption. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that induce BBB integrity marker loss are unclear. We hypothesize that 3-chloropropanediol-induced modulation of tight junction protein expression is mediated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis we have used a mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to 3-chloropropanediol for up to 3 days. Results showed early reversible loss of sharp paracellular claudin-5 expression 90, 105, and 120 min following 3-chloropropanediol (500 μM) treatment. Sharp paracellular claudin-5 ...
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The blood-brain barrier maintains central nervous system homeostasis and limits the entry of blood-borne substances that could alter neuronal function and survival. The barrier exists predominantly at the endothelium of cerebral vascular microvessels. The cerebral vascular endothelium becomes highly specialized during the formation of the neurovascular unit early in embryonic development. The blood-brain barrier is present and functional early in fetal life. The tightness of the barrier gradually increases throughout gestation and in the newborn period. Alterations in the basolateral environment of the cerebral microvasculature can modify the blood-brain barrier properties by modulating the expression of the endothelial tight junctions and other biochemical properties of the cerebral vascular endothelium. Maturation of the blood-brain barrier late in gestation correlates with increases in endogenous corticosteroids and with exposure to exogenous corticosteroids. Several adverse fetal and ...
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Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
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Luca Bors1, Ágnes Bajza1, Barbara Hutka1, László Dénes1, Krisztián Szigeti2, Nikolett Hegedűs2, Dávid Szöllősi2, Domokos Máthé2, Attila Csorba3 and Franciska Erdő1. Investigation of the impact of aging on blood-brain barrier function in rats - Does P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have any role in changing BBB permeability?. ...
COMMENT Here, Montagne et al. present an elegant study that brings together elements from much of their previous work, ultimately culminating in a strong case for an APOE4-specific effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. In this paper, they reported .... ...
Claudin-1 is an integral membrane protein component of tight junctions. The Snail family of transcription factors are repressors that play a central role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process that occurs during cancer progression. Snail and Slug members are direct repressors of E-cadherin and act by binding to the specific E-boxes of its proximal promoter. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of Slug or Snail causes a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Overexpression of Slug and Snail in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells down-regulated Claudin-1 at protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Snail and Slug are able to effectively repress human Claudin-1-driven reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type promoter sequence, but not those with mutations in two proximal E-box elements. We also demonstrate by band-shift assay that Snail and Slug bind to the E-box motifs present in the human Claudin-1 promoter. Moreover, an inverse correlation in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by Β 1-integrins. AU - Osada, Takashi. AU - Gu, Yu Huan. AU - Kanazawa, Masato. AU - Tsubota, Yoshiaki. AU - Hawkins, Brian T.. AU - Spatz, Maria. AU - Milner, Richard. AU - Del Zoppo, Gregory J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - The hypothesis tested by these studies states that in addition to interendothelial cell tight junction proteins, matrix adhesion by Β 1-integrin receptors expressed by endothelial cells have an important role in maintaining the cerebral microvessel permeability barrier. Primary brain endothelial cells from C57 BL/6 mice were incubated with Β 1-integrin function-blocking antibody (Ha2/5) or isotype control and the impacts on claudin-5 expression and microvessel permeability were quantified. Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the interendothelial claudin-5 expression by confluent endothelial cells was significantly decreased in a ...
Read Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
Barclay Morrison III, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, has led the first study to determine underlying biological mechanisms that promote functional recovery of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after blast injury.
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Associate Professor. One in four people worldwide - over 1.5 billion people - suffer from brain disorders, including depression, infection, trauma, stroke, seizures, dementia, and tumors. Despite this huge demand for treatments, delivery of drugs into the brain to treat these disorders is greatly impaired by the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is the interface between blood and brain that controls what goes in and comes out of the brain. Anatomically, the blood-brain barrier is made of endothelial cells forming a complex vascular network that supplies the brain with oxygen and nutrients, and disposes of carbon dioxide and wastes. Recent studies show that the blood-brain barrier is affected by brain disorders and itself plays a role in causing brain disease. Therefore, understanding blood-brain barrier function is critical for devising new therapeutic strategies to enhance brain drug delivery, improve brain protection, and treat brain disorders. Currently, we study the role of the ...
For every experimental group, brains from at minimum 3 distinct litter had been analyzed and when compared to the in accordance NaCl handle group. qPCR approach improvement exposed that only samples must be when compared to every other which have gone through experimental treatment, mind isolation, storage, purification and evaluation preparing steps with each other. Therefore, for every DEX-treatment the according NaCl handle group was carried out at the exact same time. In addition, owing to the large complete variety of samples, but limited sample variety which could be purified at the same time, only samples from mice at the same age and identical variety of antenatal injections ended up compared to every other by using a two-tailed Student`s t-take a look at. Data are offered as the signifies ± SEM. The major tight junction molecule and mind endothelial mobile marker claudin-five was investigated originally. Triple maternal DEX remedy drastically decreased claudin-5 mRNA expression to .54 ...
Implications of the blood-brain barrier and its manipulation , Implications of the blood-brain barrier and its manipulation , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
The expression of claudin-11 in benign and malignant bladder tissue and the effect of forced expression of claudin-11 on tight junction function and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were studied. Claudin-11 expression was tested in bladder cancer cell lines (T24/83, RT 112/84 and EJ138) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in benign and malignant bladder tissue by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T24/83 cells were transfected with the pcDNA.1/NT-GFP-TOPO vector containing full-length human claudin-11 sequence. Stable-transfected cells overexpressing claudin-11 (T24Cl-11Ex), wild-type cells (T24WT) and the empty plasmid control clone (T24GFP) were compared using transurothelial resistance (TUR), in vitro adhesion, invasion and growth assays. Claudin-11 was strongly expressed in the non-invasive RT112/84 cell line compared to the invasive T24/83 and EJ138 TCC cell lines. Benign bladder tissue demonstrated equal expression of claudin-11 mRNA as ...
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of the cell-cell junction with concomitant changes in the expression of junctional proteins is a hallmark of cancer metastasis and invasion. Role of adherent junction proteins have been studied extensively in cancer, however the role of tight junction proteins is less understood. Claudins are the recently identified tetraspanins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJs). Recent studies have shown changes in expression/cellular localization for claudins during tumorigenesis, however a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin-1 in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal ...
Recent investigations revealed that epithelial TJs contain charge- and size-selective pores, which control the paracellular flux of charged and uncharged solutes. The paracellular flux occurs through two distinct pathways: one high-capacity pathway with size-restrictive pores and one low-capacity pathway that is size independent, at least for substances with radii of up to 7 Å (Van Itallie et al., 2008; Watson et al., 2001). The physical basis of the low-capacity pathway is not yet completely understood, whereas the high-capacity pathway is well described. It consists of small pores with radii of ~4 Å, and is responsible for the flux of small charged and uncharged solutes. Expression of claudin-2 affects only the high-capacity pathway, by inducing an increase in pore number and a change in charge selectivity (Van Itallie et al., 2008). In a recent attempt to model the claudin-2-induced channel (Yu et al., 2009), the pore diameter, calculated from permeability to organic cations and from the ...
The aim of this study was to characterize the hCMEC/D3 cell line, an in vitro model of the human Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) for the expression of brain endothelial specific claudins-3 and -12. hCMEC/D3 cells express claudins-3 and -12. Claudin-3 is distinctly localized to the TJ whereas claudin -12 is observed in the perinuclear region and completely absent from TJs. We show that the expression of both proteins is lost in cell passage numbers where the BBB properties are no longer fully conserved. Expression and localization of claudin-3 is not modulated by simvastatin shown to improve barrier function in vitro and also recommended for routine hCMEC/D3 culture. These results support conservation of claudin-3 and -12 expression in the hCMEC/D3 cell line and make claudin-3 a potential marker for BBB characteristics in vitro.
Mouse monoclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody [mAbcam 61357] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and 5…
In the present study, we demonstrate that HIV-infected leukocytes transmigrate in greater numbers across a tissue culture model of the human BBB in response to CCL2 than do uninfected cells, resulting in increased BBB permeability. This process was characterized by four major findings. First, BBB permeability was increased only when the combination of HIV-infected cells and a CCL2 chemotactic gradient was present. The addition of CCL2 alone or the adhesion of HIV-infected cells alone to the BBB model was not sufficient to induce BBB disruption. Second, the mechanism of BBB disruption and enhanced transmigration of HIV-infected cells was specifically CCL2 dependent, because other chemokines did not replicate the CCL2 effect. Third, the high HIV-infected leukocyte transmigration induced by CCL2 was associated with increased BBB permeability that correlated with a reduction in TJP (ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin) and an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BBB cells. Fourth, HIV-infected leukocytes ...
http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1693fta1 Endothelial tight junctions form the blood–brain barrier] What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date ...
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View mouse Cldn15 Chr5:136966616-136975858 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage plays a key role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. It is quite necessary to further explore the characteristic and mechanism of BBB leakage during stroke. We induced a focal cerebral ischemia model by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats for defining the time course of BBB permeability within 120 h following reperfusion and evaluate the specific role of tight junction (TJ) associated proteins claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 as well as protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) pathway in BBB leakage induced by reperfusion injury. We verified a bimodal increase in the permeability of the BBB following focal ischemia by Evans blue assay. Two peaks of BBB permeability appeared at 3 h and 72 h of reperfusion after 2 h focal ischemia, respectively. The leak at the endothelial cell was represented at the level of transmission electron microscopy. TTC staining results showed increased infarct size with time after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. The mRNA and ...
The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry-the first step of viral infection. Due to the lack of neutralizing anti-CLDN1 antibodies, the role of CLDN1 in the viral entry process is poorly understood. In this study, we produced antibodies directed against the human CLDN1 extracellular loops by genetic immunization and used these antibodies to investigate the mechanistic role of CLDN1 for HCV entry in an infectious HCV cell culture system and human hepatocytes. Antibodies specific for cell surface-expressed CLDN1 specifically inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies specific for CLDN1, scavenger receptor B1, and CD81 show an additive neutralizing capacity compared with either agent used alone. Kinetic studies with anti-CLDN1 and anti-CD81 antibodies demonstrate that HCV interactions with both entry factors occur at a similar time in the internalization process. Anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit the binding of ...
HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junctions proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-receptor CD81. The claudin-1 assembly with tight junctions is regulated by post translational modifications. During claudins assembly and disassembly with tight junctions, phosphorylation is required at C-terminal tail. In cellular proteins, interplay between phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification is believed to be functional switch, but it is very difficult to monitor these functional and vibrant changes in vivo. Netphos 2.0 and Disphos 1.3 programs were used for potential phosphorylation; NetPhosK 1.0 and KinasePhos for
Objective Helicobacter pylori strains that express the oncoprotein CagA augment risk for gastric cancer. However, the precise mechanisms through which cag+ strains heighten cancer risk have not been fully delineated and model systems that recapitulate the gastric niche are critical for understanding pathogenesis. Gastroids are three-dimensional organ-like structures that provide unique opportunities to study host-H. pylori interactions in a preclinical model. We used gastroids to inform and direct in vitro studies to define mechanisms through which H. pylori modulates expression of the cancer-associated tight junction protein claudin-7.. ...
Claudins are major integral membrane proteins of tight junctions. Altered expression of several claudin proteins, in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of various cancers. Although their dysregulation in cancer suggests that claudins play a role in tumorigenesis, the exact underlying mechanism remains unclear. The involvement of claudins in tumor progression was suggested by their important role in the migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells in a tissue-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that they play a role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the formation of cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (CSCs/TICs), and chemoresistance, suggesting that claudins are promising targets for the treatment of chemoresistant and recurrent tumors. A recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subtype that is characterized by the enrichment of EMT and stem cell-like features is significantly associated with disease recurrence, underscoring
Our research should stimulate renewed clinical interest in developing glucocorticoid therapies to treat blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and other disorders of the central nervous system, Morrison says. His findings also hold important implications for military personnel exposed to blast injury. We may be able to improve outcomes in brain-injured soldiers and civilians, he continues, and reduce the length of their mandatory rest periods before returning to duty, making the difference between requiring only days rather than weeks or longer to recover.. This improvement could be a significant result, as there are currently no approved pharmaceutical therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and recently completed clinical trials have not demonstrated any benefit of other tested neuro-protective interventions. For patients with head injuries (non-blast related) and brain edema, doctors have been prescribing glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones, as standard treatment for ...
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are interconnected by specific junctional proteins forming a highly regulated barrier...
Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) are unique in forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which confers high electrical resistance and low permeability properties, thus protecting neural cells from potentially harmful blood components. Endothelial cells, which form the inner cellular lining of all blood vessels, play a critical role in this process by forming tight adhesive interactions between each other. To study the properties of primary brain endothelial cells (BECs), a number of different methods have been described. In this chapter, we present a relatively simple method that produces high numbers of primary mouse BECs that are highly pure (greater than 99 % CD31-positive). In addition, we also describe an immunocytochemical approach to demonstrate the endothelial purity of these cultures ...
In the small intestine, gluten triggers the release of zonulin, a protein that regulates the tight junctions between epithelial cells and therefore intestinal, but also blood-brain barrier function. Recent evidence suggests that overstimulation of zonulin in susceptible individuals could dysregulate intercellular communication promoting tumorigenesis at specific organ sites ...
They found that the severity of the disease was reduced by both warfarin (see figure below) and rivoraxaban. In contrast, despite effective anticoagulation, starting after the initiation of the disease had no effect on the course of the EAE (i.e. no effect when used as a therapeutic regimen rather than a preventative one). One explanation is that the effect of anticoagulation is small, which is only apparent in the preventative setting but is diluted in the therapeutic setting. Another explanation is that the mechanisms of the disease after onset are very much different to those at the start, which is also likely to be true. A key feature of the MS disease onset is the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which allows the influx of immune cells into the brain. Thrombin is known to interrupt BBB integrity, and the protective effect of anticoagulation may be explained by the low thrombin activity preserving the BBB integrity. ...
They found that the severity of the disease was reduced by both warfarin (see figure below) and rivoraxaban. In contrast, despite effective anticoagulation, starting after the initiation of the disease had no effect on the course of the EAE (i.e. no effect when used as a therapeutic regimen rather than a preventative one). One explanation is that the effect of anticoagulation is small, which is only apparent in the preventative setting but is diluted in the therapeutic setting. Another explanation is that the mechanisms of the disease after onset are very much different to those at the start, which is also likely to be true. A key feature of the MS disease onset is the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which allows the influx of immune cells into the brain. Thrombin is known to interrupt BBB integrity, and the protective effect of anticoagulation may be explained by the low thrombin activity preserving the BBB integrity. ...
Cytoplasmic expression of claudin-1 in metastatic melanoma cells correlates to increased migration, and increased secretion of MMP-2 in a PKC dependent manner, whereas claudin-1 nuclear expressi...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S K Tiwari-Woodruff, A G Buznikov, T Q Vu, P E Micevych, K Chen, H I Kornblum, J M Bronstein].
The Hemicellulose research group have chosen the Systech Illinois 8001 oxygen permeation analyser to test the barrier properties of polysaccharide films.
Many other factors can cause a leaky blood-brain barrier. Fortunately, more natural ways have been demonstrated to help fix a leaky blood-brain barrier.
Stephen Strasburg has been scratched from tonights start against the Phillies with what the Nationals are calling forearm tightness. Ross Ohlendorf is starting his his place.
Stephen Strasburg has been scratched from tonights start against the Phillies with what the Nationals are calling forearm tightness. Ross Ohlendorf is starting his his place.
February 2018). "claudin 5". Biology Open. 7 (2): bio030494. doi:10.1242/bio.030494. PMC 5861362. PMID 29437557. Abbott NJ, ... 34 (5): 834-40. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.10.016. PMC 2442477. PMID 18207311. Wiley DT, Webster P, Gale A, Davis ME (May ... Retrieved 5 January 2015. "History of Blood-Brain Barrier". The Davis Lab. University of Arizona. Archived from the original on ...
Ernstson, K.; Claudin, F.; Schüssler, U.; Hradil, K. (2002). "The mid-Tertiary Azuara and Rubielos de la Cérida paired impact ... 5 (2). Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M. C. L.; Ponce, J.; Stinco, S. G. (2015). Impact Craters in South America. Springer. p. 23. ISBN ... 51 (5): 996-999. doi:10.1111/maps.12632. List of confirmed impact craters by name - Earth Impact Database Rampino, M.R; Volk, T ... 11: 5-65. Magnetic anomaly map, Sudbury, Ontario and Quebec. Natural Resources Canada L. Antoine, W. Reimold, and A. Tessema ( ...
Claudin-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN14 gene. It belongs to a related family of proteins called ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN14 claudin 14". Baker M, Reynolds LE, Robinson SD, Lees DM, Parsons M, Elia G, et al. (2013). "Stromal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Sticky cells, blood vessels and cancer - the paradox of Claudin-14 - Marianne Baker, Cancer Research UK Science Update blog, 14 ...
"Entrez Gene: CLDN1 claudin 1". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... Claudin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN1 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... Miyamori H, Takino T, Kobayashi Y, Tokai H, Itoh Y, Seiki M, Sato H (2001). "Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix ...
Claudin 3, also known as CLDN3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN3 gene. It is a member of the claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN3 claudin 3". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer Res ... The protein encoded by this intron-less gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component ...
Cates, M. E.; Wittmer, J. P.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Claudin, P. (31 August 1998). "Jamming, Force Chains, and Fragile Matter". ... Pham, K. N. (5 April 2002). "Multiple Glassy States in a Simple Model System". Science. American Association for the ... Cates was born on 5 May 1961. He read Natural Sciences and earned a PhD at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1985, where he studied ... Michael Elmhirst Cates FRS FRSE (born 5 May 1961) is a British physicist. He is the 19th Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at ...
Claudin-20 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN20 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN20 claudin 20". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human CLDN20 genome location and CLDN20 gene details ... Hewitt KJ, Agarwal R, Morin PJ (Aug 2006). "The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues". BMC Cancer. ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN5 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN5 claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome)". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, ... Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, Rizzolo LJ (2002). "Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2002). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN7 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudins, such as ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN7 claudin 7". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human CLDN7 genome location and CLDN7 gene details page ... 2005). "Claudin-1 is a strong prognostic indicator in stage II colonic cancer: a tissue microarray study". Mod. Pathol. 18 (4 ... 2003). "Loss of the tight junction protein claudin-7 correlates with histological grade in both ductal carcinoma in situ and ...
2007). "Claudin-6 and claudin-9 function as additional coreceptors for hepatitis C virus". J. Virol. 81 (22): 12465-71. doi: ... Claudin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN9 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene is involved ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN9 claudin 9". Gene discovery reveals a critical protein's function in hearing Human CLDN9 genome location and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN8 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN8 claudin 8". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human CLDN8 genome location and CLDN8 gene details page ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Morita K, Furuse M, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (Mar 1999). "Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein ...
Claudin-22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN22 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN22 claudin 22". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human CLDN22 genome location and CLDN22 gene details ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...
Claudin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN11 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins and was the first ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN11 claudin 11 (oligodendrocyte transmembrane protein)". Gow A, Southwood CM, Li JS, Pariali M, Riordan GP, ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the claudin family of tight junction associated proteins and is a major component ... Tiwari-Woodruff SK, Buznikov AG, Vu TQ, Micevych PE, Chen K, Kornblum HI, Bronstein JM (April 2001). "OSP/claudin-11 forms a ...
Fernando Claudin 11."The First Breach: The Excommunication of Yugoslavia" - Josip Tito 12. "Secret Report to the 20th Party ... Isaac Deutscher 5."Marxism and Primitive Magic - ibid. 6. "Trotsky's Interpretation of Stalinism" - Perry Anderson 7."Was Lenin ...
"Entrez Gene: CLDN18 claudin 18". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Niimi T, Nagashima K, Ward JM, et al. (2001). "claudin ... Claudin 18.2) is abundant in gastric tumors. Experimental antibody IMAB362 targets Claudin 18.2 to help treat gastric cancers. ... Claudin-18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN18 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. CLDN18 belongs to ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN19 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudin-19 has been ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN19 claudin 19". Naeem, M.; Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. (2011). "Mutation in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 ( ... 2006). "Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease". ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN15 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Among its related ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN15 claudin 15". Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "CLDN15 Gene - GeneCards , CLD15 Protein , CLD15 Antibody". ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...
Claudin-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN16 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... 2004). "A Novel Claudin 16 Mutation Associated with Childhood Hypercalciuria Abolishes Binding to ZO-1 and Results in Lysosomal ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN16 claudin 16". "Salmonella infection data for Cldn16". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter ...
Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... Claudin-2 is expressed in cation-leaky epithelia such as that of the kidney proximal tubule. Mice that are deficient in claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ...
Beeman N, Webb PG, Baumgartner HK (February 2012). "Occludin is required for apoptosis when claudin-claudin interactions are ... These 5 domains are separated by the 4 transmembrane domains of the protein. The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain ... 15 (5): 1195-219. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3542. PMID 21235353. Walter JK, Castro V, Voss M, Gast K, Rueckert C, Piontek J, Blasig ... 117 (5): 1050-8. doi:10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01493.x. PMID 11710912. Traweger A, Fang D, Liu YC, Stelzhammer W, Krizbai IA, ...
Claudin, F., Ernstson, K., Rampino, M.R., and Anguita, F. 2001. Striae, polish, imprints, rotated fractures, and related ... Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U., Anguita, F. and Ernstson, T. 2001. Impact melt rocks, shock metamorphism, and ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U. & Hradil, K. (2002): The mid-Tertiary Azuara and ... 1], Ernstson, K., Schüssler, U., Claudin, F., and Ernstson, T. (2003). An impact crater chain in northern Spain. Meteorite, 9, ...
Morita K, Sasaki H, Furuse M, Tsukita S (1999). "Endothelial Claudin: Claudin-5/Tmvcf Constitutes Tight Junction Strands in ... Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. The knockout mice of ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN6 claudin 6". Human CLDN6 genome location and CLDN6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin and occludin are proteins that are essential for the formation of the tight junctions between the cells of the blood- ... The study showed that MMP-3 accomplishes this damage by degrading claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 (another tight junction protein ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (Jun 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing ... The WT mice were shown to have lower claudin-5 and occludin levels than the KO mice after TBI. ...
2012 - In silico directed mutagenesis identifies the CD81/claudin-1 hepatitis C virus receptor interface. Davis C, Harris HJ, ... Cellular microbiology 15: 430-45 Link 2013 - Heterogeneous claudin-1 expression in human liver. Harris HJ, Wilson GK, Hübscher ... Hepatology 57: 854-5 Link 2014 - Hypoxia inducible factors in liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma: current understanding ...
... claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin ... Paschoud S, Bongiovanni M, Pache JC, Citi S (September 2007). "Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung ... Guillemot L, Citi S (August 2006). "Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase ... Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent ...
Nevertheless, another sources document existence of mTEC unipotent progenitors that express claudin 3 and 4 (Cld3/4). These two ... "Medullary thymic epithelial cells expressing Aire represent a unique lineage derived from cells expressing claudin". Nature ... 3 (5): 383-91. doi:10.1038/nri1085. PMID 12766760. Kurobe H, Liu C, Ueno T, Saito F, Ohigashi I, Seach N, Arakaki R, Hayashi Y ... 41 (5): 753-61. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.10.011. PMID 25464854. Ohigashi I, Zuklys S, Sakata M, Mayer CE, Hamazaki Y, Minato N ...
... claudin-7, CD44 variant isoforms, and tetraspanins promotes colorectal cancer progression". Molecular Cancer Research. 5 (6): ... 35 (5): 637-42. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(01)00183-0. PMID 11690710. Shackel NA, McGuinness PH, Abbott CA, Gorrell MD, McCaughan ... "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi: ...
... expression is significantly increased after the overexpression of claudin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Claudin ... C11orf49 expression is significantly increased after the overexpression of Claudin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. C11orf49 ... There are 5 known isoforms for the C11orf49 protein with isoform 2 being the most complete protein, encoded by transcript ... Table 5. List of binding transcription factors to the GXP_204543 promoter. Both microarray expression patterns and RNA-Seq data ...
Studies suggest that the tight junction protein Claudin-1 (CLDN1) may also play a part in HCV entry. Claudin family ... "Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry". Nature. 446 (7137): 801-5. doi:10.1038/ ... LRP5 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5) acts as a co-receptor for the Wnt-family of glycoproteins which ... Interleukins 1, 2, and 5 all rely on interleukin co-receptors to bind to the primary interleukin receptors. Syndecans 1 and 4 ...
Patients with ALS have been found to have decreased expression of certain proteins, like ZO-1 or claudin-5, that weaken the ... "Involvement of Claudin-11 in Disruption of Blood-Brain, -Spinal Cord, and -Arachnoid Barriers in Multiple Sclerosis." Molecular ... Only 5-10% of ALS cases have an identifiable cause, most often is a mutation in the gene SOD1. Regardless of whether the cause ... doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1207-5. Benoit Aubé, Sébastien A. Lévesque, Alexandre Paré, Émilie Chamma, Hania Kébir, Roser Gorina, ...
Famous composers of these "Parisian" chansons included Claudin de Sermisy and Clément Janequin. Janequin's La guerre, written ... 5] Leonardo, a famous painter and inventor, arrived with three of his paintings, namely the Mona Lisa, Sainte Anne, and Saint ...
Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal pigment epithelium. J Membr Biol 186: 81-88, 2002 ... 5] 기능[편집]. 망막색소상피세포는 신체 내에서 몇몇 기능을 수행한다. 광수용(light absorption), 물질 수송(epithelial transport), 시각회로 조절(visual cycle), 식세포작용( ... doi:10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00140-5.. *↑ Rizzolo, lj (2014). "Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium". 》 ... Coexpression of FGF-5 and bFGF by the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. Exp Eye Res 55: 727-734, 1992 ...
CLDND1: Claudin domain containing 1. *CPN2: Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2. *CPOX: coproporphyrinogen oxidase (coproporphyria, ... doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077. PMID 20441615.. *^ "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 3". HUGO Gene Nomenclature ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[5] ...
Sertoliho bunky tvoria pomocou tesných spojov (proteínmi ako je claudin alebo occludin) hemato-semenníkovú bariéru, ktorá ... 5, s. 1423-1428. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-08-22]. ISSN 0041-1345. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.01.143. ... Sertoliho bunky kontrolujú vstup aj výstup molekúl cez túto bariéru - väčšina musí prejsť priamo cez cytoplazmu SC[5]. ...
Claudin 1, which is a tight-junction protein, and CD81 link to create a complex, priming them for later HCV infection processes ... 5 (6): 453-63. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1645. PMID 17487147. S2CID 13176201.. *^ Rigat K, Wang Y, Hudyma TW, et al. (November 2010 ... 7 (5): 710-721. doi:10.1017/S1355838201010111. PMC 1370123. PMID 11350035.. *^ Baghbani-arani F, Roohvand F, Aghasadeghi MR, ... 5 (3): 129-51. doi:10.1089/mcg.2000.5.129. PMID 11252351.. *^ Jubin R (2001). "Hepatitis C IRES: translating translation into a ...
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the second extracellular loop of claudin-3, a tight junction integral membrane ... vermutlich Claudin bei CPE,[14] sowie vermutlich GPI-Anker oder andere Glykosylierungen beim ε-Toxin. Durch die ... N. Ramarao, V. Sanchis: The pore-forming haemolysins of bacillus cereus: a review. In: Toxins. Band 5, Nummer 6, Juni 2013, S. ... 6460, January 1994, S. 292-5. doi:10.1038/367292a0. PMID 7510043. *↑ Cole AR, Gibert M, Popoff M, Moss DS, Titball RW, Basak AK ...
116 (5): 1243-53. doi:10.1172/JCI27186. PMC 1440704. PMID 16628254.. *^ Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Kovacs, A.; Kanter, E. M.; Yamada ... 5: 40. doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00040. PMC 3920094. PMID 24575048.. *^ Barbe, M. T. (1 April 2006). "Cell-Cell Communication ... 69 (5): 1472-80. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.103.016360. PMID 12826585.. *^ El-Sabban, M. E.; Sfeir, AJ; Daher, MH; Kalaany, NY; ... doi:10.1007/s12031-007-9027-5. PMC 2650399. PMID 18236012.. *^ Béla Völgyi, Stewart A. Bloomfield (February 2009). "The diverse ...
Anatole Claudin (1898). The First Paris Press: an account of the books printed for G. Fichet and J. Heynlin in the Sorbonne, ... 5] In 1476 in Lyon appeared one of the first printed French-language books, La Légende Dorée (Golden Legend) by Jacobus da ...
These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... Epithelial cells are continuously renewed every 4-5 days through a process of cell division, maturation, and migration. Renewal ...
Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN12 claudin 12". Human CLDN12 genome location and CLDN12 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel ... 2001). "claudin-18, a novel downstream target gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 homeodomain transcription factor, encodes lung- and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
... is concentrated at tight junctions through its possible interaction with claudin-1 and junctional adhesion molecule". The ... 15 (5): 525-30. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00104-2. PMID 14519386. Naik UP, Eckfeld K (2004). "Junctional adhesion molecule 1 ( ...
... has overexpressed HER2/neu Normal breast-like Claudin-low: a more recently described class; often triple-negative, but distinct ... MammaPrint has 5 FDA clearances and is the only FDA cleared microarray assay available. To be eligible for the MammaPrint gene ... 5 (1): 5-23. doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2010.11.003. PMC 5528267. PMID 21147047. Geyer, F. C.; Marchiò, C.; Reis-Filho, J. S. (2009 ... The overall 5-year survival rate for both invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma was approximately 85% in ...
Claudin 4, also known as CLDN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN4 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN4 claudin 4". Human CLDN4 genome location and CLDN4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the claudin family. The protein is a component of tight ... 2003). "Claudin-4 expression decreases invasiveness and metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer". Cancer Res. 63 (19): 6265- ...
Claudin E is a molecule found in tight junctions that appears to be expressed in the EVL and required for normal zebrafish ... "The tight junction component claudin E is required for zebra fish epiboly". Developmental Dynamics. 239 (2): 715-722. doi: ... 132 (5): 1105-16. doi:10.1242/dev.01668. PMID 15689372. Kimmel CB, Warga RM (November 1987). "Indeterminate cell lineage of the ... 5 (7): e1000563. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000563. PMC 2700972. PMID 19609345. Mungo Marsden; Douglas W. DeSimone (2001-09-15 ...
Markov AG, Falchuk EL, Kruglova NM, Radloff J, Amasheh S (January 2016). "Claudin expression in follicle-associated epithelium ... 11 (5): 770-84. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.067. PMID 25921539. Diener M (January 2016). "Roadblock for antigens--take a ... 46 (5): 1095-104. doi:10.1023/a:1010778532240. PMID 11341655. S2CID 34204173. Ermund A, Gustafsson JK, Hansson GC, Keita AV ( ... Among the mononuclear cells, CD4+/CD25+ (10%) cells and CD8+/CD25+ (5%) cells are more abundant in Peyer's patches than in the ...
The name claudin comes from Latin word claudere ("to close"), suggesting the barrier role of these proteins. A recent review ... All human claudins (with the exception of Claudin 12) have domains that let them bind to PDZ domains of scaffold proteins. ... "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing at tight junctions with no sequence similarity to occludin". J. ... "A systems proteomics view of the endogenous human claudin protein family". J Proteome Res. 15 (2): 339-359. doi:10.1021/acs. ...
Claudin de Sermisy, Thomas Crecquillon, Domenico Ferrabosco, Jean de Latre, Jacquet de Berchem, Jakob Meiland, Alexander ... 300 R/Vv, 123". The codex, consisting of 183 folia, is bound in parchment with the initials "P W S P" and the number "1 5 9 1" ... Contains 5 pieces Martin Rost, Die Norddeutsche Orgelkunst Vol.2 - Danzig, published by MDG, MDG MDG 319 0178-2, 2003; Contains ... 5 pieces Wolfgang Baumgratz, Orgels in Hanzesteden, published by NCRV, NCRV 9088, 1992; Contains 4 pieces Bogusław Grabowski, ...
Claudin, P; Andreotti, B (2006). "A scaling law for aeolian dunes on Mars, Venus, Earth, and for subaqueous ripples". Earth and ... Chang, Alicia (August 5, 2008). "Scientists: Salt in Mars soil not bad for life". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved August ... "MEPAG Goal 5: Toxic Effects of Martian Dust on Humans". Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory ... Retrieved August 5, 2008. Certini, G; Scalenghe, R; Amundson, R (2009). "A view of extraterrestrial soils". European Journal of ...
Claudin grabs a sword to fight them with. Raoul fires his gun at Claudin, but Anatole knocks Raoul's arm, and the shot hits the ... Enraged, Claudin strangles Pleyel. Georgette, the publisher's assistant, throws etching acid in Claudin's face, horribly ... Claudin hears his concerto being played in the office and is convinced that Pleyel is trying to steal it; unbeknownst to him, a ... Violinist Erique Claudin is dismissed from the Paris Opera House after revealing that he is losing the use of the fingers of ...
"Systems Proteomics View of the Endogenous Human Claudin Protein Family". Journal of Proteome Research. 15 (2): 339-359. doi: ... 6 (5): 1997-2004. doi:10.1021/pr070025y. PMID 17397212. Binz, P. A.; Barkovich, R; Beavis, R. C.; Creasy, D; Horn, D. M.; ... 35 (5): 406-409. doi:10.1038/nbt.3790. ISSN 1087-0156. PMC 5831141. PMID 28486464. Omenn, Gilbert S.; Lane, Lydie; Lundberg, ... 88 (5): 2847-2855. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04567. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 26849966. Keegan, Sarah; Cortens, John P; Beavis, ...
"Decreased lactate dehydrogenase B expression enhances claudin 1-mediated hepatoma cell invasiveness via mitochondrial defects ... 30 (5): 1799-805. PMID 20592382. Hendrickson SL, Lautenberger JA, Chinn LW, Malasky M, Sezgin E, Kingsley LA, Goedert JJ, Kirk ... 5 (9): e12862. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012862. PMC 2943476. PMID 20877624. Swiderek K, Paneth P (2011). "Differences and ... Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes X, 5 and 13. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000111716 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
MicroRNA Gong Y, Renigunta V, Himmerkus N, Zhang J, Renigunta A, Bleich M, Hou J (April 2012). "Claudin-14 regulates renal Ca ... 108 (5): 1111-21. doi:10.1007/s00436-010-2152-z. PMID 21085987. S2CID 37782043. Miko E, Czimmerer Z, Csánky E, Boros G, Buslig ...
Claudin de Sermisy, French composer (b. 1495) October 18 - Anne d'Alençon, French noblewoman (b. 1492) November 7 - Maldeo ... November 5 - Battle of Corrichie in Scotland: The rebellion of George Gordon, Earl of Huntly is crushed by James Stewart, Earl ... September 5 - Katharina Zell, German Protestant reformer (b. 1497) October - George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly (b. 1514) ...
"Claudin-1 overexpression effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line". NCBI GEO Profiles. Retrieved 4 May 2015. Vandepoele K, Van ... NBPF1 is a 1214 amino acid long protein in humans that weighs 139 kD and has an isoelectric point of around 5. A feature about ... 220 (5): 3053-60. doi:10.1007/s00429-014-0814-9. PMC 4722867. PMID 24957859. Davis JM, Searles VB, Anderson N, Keeney J, Dumas ... 5 (8): e12089. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512089D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012089. PMC 2918508. PMID 20711500. Dumas L, Sikela JM ( ...
Following the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956 Claudin found himself increasingly at odds with ...
Claudin de Sermisy set the psalm. In the 17th century, Henry Dumont set this psalm for La Chapelle Royale au Louvre (1666). In ... Verses 1-5: The Psalmist's personal experience of God's compassion; Verses 6-19: The attributes of God as seen in his ...
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
Invitrogen Anti-Claudin 5 Monoclonal (4C3C2), Catalog # 35-2500. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), ... Claudin 5 Monoclonal Antibody (4C3C2). Advanced Verification This Antibody was verified by Relative expression to ensure that ... Claudin-5 was detected at ~23 kDa using Claudin-5 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Product # 35-2500) at 0.5-1 µg/mL in 2.5 % skim ... Cite Claudin 5 Monoclonal Antibody (4C3C2). The following product was used in this experiment: Claudin 5 Monoclonal Antibody ( ...
Invitrogen Anti-Claudin 5 Monoclonal (4C3C2), Catalog # 352588. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), ... claudin-1 and claudin-2, with no similarity to occludin. In contrast to occludin, which induces only a small number of short ... Published figure using Claudin 5 monoclonal antibody (Product # 352588). Fig 5 Excess tip cell production in the Sox7, Sox17, ... Published figure using Claudin 5 monoclonal antibody (Product # 352588). Immunofluorescent staining of Claudin-5 in human Caco- ...
Over-expression of claudin-5 was sufficient to prevent replication-deficient virus-induced permeability. The barrier-protective ... Instead, replication-deficient virus induced degradation of the tight junction protein claudin-5; the adherens junction protein ... agent formoterol was able to markedly attenuate flu-induced leak in association with dose-dependent induction of claudin-5. ... Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5. Figure 10. ...
Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ...
4A). Claudin-5 is anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via ZO-1, and this structure is crucial for stable claudin-5 expression in ... n = 3. C: Effect of Rip-OS on claudin-5 transcription levels in the retina of Kimba mice. n = 4. D: Effects of ripasudil and ... For example, claudin-5 is an essential TJ component protein (14-16) and its assembly is dependent on AJ-associated vascular ... 7B, C, F, and G). However, ZO-1 and claudin-5 binding was attenuated by VEGF stimulation, and this effect was inhibited by ...
Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by ß1-integrins. ... Osada, T., Gu, Y-H., Kanazawa, M., Tsubota, Y., Hawkins, B., Spatz, M., ... del Zoppo, G. (2011). Interendothelial claudin-5 ...
Compare and order Claudin 5 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... claudin 5b (cldn5b) ELISA Kit * claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome) L homeolog (cldn5.L) ... Search Claudin 5 ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Monkey,. Pig (Porcine),. Cow (Bovine),. Guinea Pig,. Rabbit,. Goat,. ... Claudin 5 ELISA Kit. 47 products by 11 suppliers: Blue Gene , Abbexa , USBio , Wuhan Fine biotech , Biomatik , CUSABIO , Cloud- ...
5. Heat samples at 95-100C for 5 minutes.. 6. Load 5ul of a control pre-stained protein ladder to track sample migration in the ... The blocking solution is normally composed of 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T, and some antibodies require BSA in place of milk. This ... Remember to make PVDF soaked in methanol for 5 minutes prior to use.. 4. Electrophorese for 90 minutes at 100V or overnight at ... 5. Check membrane for transfer of control protein ladder. If using nitrocellulose, sample transfer and relative concentration ...
The graph plots aggregation by the particle number at a time point divided by the particle number at time 0 (Nt/No). Claudin-1 ... PKH26-labeled untransfected L-cells (red) were mixed 1:1 with unlabeled untransfected L-cells (top row), GFP-Claudin-1- ... Expression of Claudin-1 or Cacng2 promotes cell aggregation, as shown by microscopy and particle counts. ... Because stargazin is structurally similar to claudins, we hypothesized that it might also have retained claudin-like functions ...
Stable expression of claudin-5(wild type) in MDCK-II cells-but not that of mutants R145A, Y148A, Y158A or E159Q-increas … ... Here, we analyzed the impact of residues in the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of mouse claudin-5 on paracellular ... Stable expression of claudin-5(wild type) in MDCK-II cells-but not that of mutants R145A, Y148A, Y158A or E159Q-increased ... Expression of claudin-5(Y148A), (Y158A) or (E159Q) enhanced permeability of FITC-dextran(10 kDa), which was unchanged in cells ...
A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham ... occludin and claudin-5 rearrangement and lessened IgG and Evans ... A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham group, NS and metformin-treated mice at 3 days following tMCAO. Scale bar = ... A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham group, NS and metformin-treated mice at 3 days following tMCAO. Scale bar = ... Bar graphs show a quantification of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression. (C) IgG leakage at 3 days following tMCAO in ...
Sharp paracellular claudin-5 profiles were later restored, but lost again by 2 and 3 days post 3-chloropropanediol treatment. ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ...
1999) Endothelial claudin: claudin-5/TMVCF constitutes tight junction strands in endothelial cells. J Cell Biol 147:185-194. ... claudin. CNS. central nervous system. DMEM. Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium. ECL. extracellular loop domain. FBS. fetal ... 2015) Claudin-4 SPECT imaging allows detection of aplastic lesions in a mouse model of breast cancer. J Nucl Med 56:745-751. ... Claudin-5-Binders Enhance Permeation of Solutes across the Blood-Brain Barrier in a Mammalian Model. Yosuke Hashimoto, Keisuke ...
Changes in VE-cadherin and claudin-5 expression were studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and quantified by cell-based enzyme ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is associated with TGF-β1-induced permeability of centrally derived ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is associated with TGF-β1-induced permeability of centrally derived ... blood-retinal barrier; blood-brain barrier; transforming growth factor-β1; VE-cadherin; claudin-5; tyrosine phosphorylation. ...
Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in ... Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in ... Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in ...
Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in ... Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in ... Conclusion: Upregulation of pore-forming claudin 2 and downregulation and redistribution of sealing claudins 5 and 8 lead to ... Occludin and the sealing tight junction proteins claudin 5 and claudin 8 were downregulated and redistributed off the tight ...
A 2 kb sequence, from 6.5 to 8.5 kb upstream of claudin 5b, contains enhancer activities that can drive the expression in the ... Results: : The 5.6 kb fragment upstream of the start codon of claudin 5b can direct the EGFP expression in the hyaloid vessels ... DNA fragments of various lengths were amplified from the flanking regions of the claudin 5a or 5b, and inserted into the ... The purpose of this study is to identify DNA regulatory sequences of the zebrafish claudin 5 genes. ...
show that the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition transcription factor Snail induces claudin-11 expression and suppresses RhoA ... Shang, X., Lin, X., Alvarez, E., Manorek, G. & Howell, S. B. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 control tumor ... Supplementary Figure 7: Expression of Snail or claudin-11 correlates with an advanced HNSCC and a worse prognosis.. ... 7: Expression of Snail or claudin-11 correlates with an advanced HNSCC and a worse prognosis.. ...
Claudin-18-mediated YAP activity regulates lung stem and progenitor cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. ... Claudin-18-mediated YAP activity regulates lung stem and progenitor cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. ... Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to ... 2. Scale bars: 5 μm. (. H. ) IP with anti-p-LATS1/2 Ab shows decreased p-LATS1/2 and decreased association of p-LATS1/2 with p- ...
show that a disease-causing effect of claudin-19 mutations is due to a defective visual cycle from a decreased expression of ... This study explains why claudin-19 mutations alter the expression of RPE signature gene… ... In the kidney, claudin-19 must be complexed with claudin-16 to reach the cell surface27,45. However, human RPE delivers claudin ... ARPE-19 and the kidney cell lines, MDCK and LLC-PK1, do not express claudin-16 or claudin-19. Nonetheless, when claudin-19 is ...
suggest that claudin-6 induces MMP-2 activation through claudin-1 membrane expression Title: Claudin-6 enhances cell ... CLDN6 claudin 6 [Homo sapiens] CLDN6 claudin 6 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:9074 ... claudin 6provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2048 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000184697 MIM:615798 Gene type. protein ... Claudin 6 expression is useful to distinguish myxofibrosarcomas from other myxoid soft tissue tumors. Bekki H, et al. Pathol ...
The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:186.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Claudin-18 gene structure, regulation, and expression is evolutionary conserved in mammals. Gene. 2011;481:83-92.PubMedCrossRef ... Claudin-18 is an early-stage marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:942-952.PubMedCentralPubMed ... miR-1303 Claudin-18 Stomach neoplasms Proliferation Invasion This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ...
In particular, claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. 18F-Labeled claudin selective ... In this work we describe the synthesis of the first 18F-labeled probes potentially suitable for PET imaging of claudin-4 ... As such, cancer expression of claudin proteins is markedly dysregulated, making it an attractive target for molecular imaging ... to claudin selective peptides. As a proof-of-principle, one of them, 5-[18F]FDR-Clone 27, was isolated in ,98% radiochemical ...
claudin-2. Fwd. forward. GEO. Gene Expression Omnibus. GF. germ free. GPCR. G-protein coupled receptor. GPR109a. G-protein ... Claudin-2 as a mediator of leaky gut barrier during intestinal inflammation. Tissue Barriers 3: e977176. ... Claudin switching: physiological plasticity of the tight junction. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 42: 22-29. ... HIF-dependent regulation of claudin-1 is central to intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity. Mol. Biol. Cell 26: 2252- ...
While some claudin family members play essential roles in the formation of impermeable barriers, others mediate the ... Often, several claudin family members are coexpressed and interact with each other, and this determines the overall ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ...
... the presence of claudin 1 in the Golgi cisterns may indicate the presence of tight junction precursors before transportation to ... the presence of claudin 1 in the Golgi cisterns may indicate the presence of tight junction precursors before transportation to ... and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin 1 antibodies. Since it has been shown that ameloblasts repeatedly alternate between ... and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin 1 antibodies. Since it has been shown that ameloblasts repeatedly alternate between ...
Claudin-based tight junctions are crucial for the mammalian epidermal barrier: a lesson from claudin-1-deficient mice. J Cell ... 17, 53) or immunofluorescence for human claudin-1 (polyclonal rabbit anti-claudin-1; 51-9000, Invitrogen) with appropriate ... Claudin-1 is a critical mediator of skin barrier (29). In the esophagus, claudin-1 is decreased in gastroesophageal reflux ... and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of ...
IPR006187 Claudin. IPR003554 Claudin10. IPR017974 Claudin_CS. IPR004031 PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... IPR006187 Claudin. IPR003554 Claudin10. IPR017974 Claudin_CS. IPR004031 PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... Belongs to the claudin family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix. Phylogenomic databases. ... "Claudin-10 exists in six alternatively spliced isoforms that exhibit distinct localization and function.". Gunzel D., Stuiver M ...
J:64941 Morita K, et al., Claudin-11/OSP-based tight junctions of myelin sheaths in brain and Sertoli cells in testis. J Cell ...
  • A closer examination of isolated tight junctions uncovered two related ~22 kDa, four-transmembrane domain proteins, claudin-1 and claudin-2, with no similarity to occludin. (thermofisher.com)
  • Excitement in the tight junction field continues to rise following the recent discovery of claudins -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -8 and experiments suggesting that tight junctions in different tissues are comprised of different sets of claudin family proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • The alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor trafficking regulator "stargazin" is related to the claudin family of proteins b. (nih.gov)
  • Stargazin is related to the claudin family of tight junction proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Occludin and the sealing tight junction proteins claudin 5 and claudin 8 were downregulated and redistributed off the tight junction, whereas the pore-forming tight junctions protein claudin 2 was strongly upregulated, which constitute the molecular basis of tight junction changes. (bmj.com)
  • Besides its role in barrier function, claudin-19 regulates the expression of RPE signature genes 16 , 17 that include visual cycle proteins and retinal neurotrophic factors. (nature.com)
  • As such, cancer expression of claudin proteins is markedly dysregulated, making it an attractive target for molecular imaging like positron emission tomography (PET). (mdpi.com)
  • Specific role of tight junction proteins claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 of the blood-brain barrier in a focal cerebral ischemic insult. (qxmd.com)
  • This study was performed to determine whether BK opens the BTB by affecting the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and caludin-5 and cytoskeleton protein filamentous actin (F-actin). (qxmd.com)
  • Cell lysates from Huh7.5.1 cells were incubated with purified GST-claudin-1 tail or GST, and proteins were pulled down with glutathione-Sepharose beads. (asm.org)
  • Candidate claudin-1 tail-interacting proteins were the GST-claudin-1-tail interactome. (asm.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that both exposure to HIV-1 and HIV-1 specific proteins, such as Tat protein, can contribute to alterations of expression and distribution of claudin-5 in brain endothelial cells and brain microvessels. (elsevier.com)
  • The expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins were determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western Blot . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of immunofluorescence double staining showed that ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins could not only coexist in the same cell , but also could be expressed separately in different cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Linear regression analysis showed the positive correlation between the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins in brain tissue of rats with acute CO poisoning (R2= 0.917, P = 0.022). (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion NBP could markedly improve the ultrastructure and functional integrity of BBB through up-regulating the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins , and then reduce brain damage caused by CO poisoning . (bvsalud.org)
  • The vasodilation neuropeptides, the expressions of substance P (SP) and its preferred binding neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) as well as claudin-5 of tight-junction proteins associated with BBB impairment were also assessed by Western blotting and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the effect of alteplase on the expressions of Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 proteins in the vascular endothelial cells after thrombolysis in the rats with acute cerebral infarction and its mechanism,and to provide experimental evidence for its clinical application. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alteplase can improve the structure of brain endothelial cells in the rats with acute cerebral infarction ,and the mechanism may be related to decreasing the expressions of Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 proteins in the vascular endothelial cells of the rats induced by alteplase . (bvsalud.org)
  • To this end, MDCK C7 cells were stably transfected with either claudin-2 or claudin-10b, two paracellular cation-channel-forming TJ proteins that are not endogenously expressed in this cell line. (biologists.org)
  • Perturbation was overexpression of either claudin-2 or claudin-10b, as both form cation channels within the TJ of MDCK C7 cells, a tight renal epithelial cell line that lacks endogenous expression of these TJ proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Cell entry of HCV2 and other pathogens(3-5) is mediated by tight junction (TJ) proteins, but successful therapeutic targeting of TJ proteins has not been reported yet. (ugent.be)
  • Claudin-low breast cancers are characterized by low expression levels of cell-cell adhesion molecules including E-cadherin and several of the tight junction claudin proteins, claudin 3, 4, and 7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clone REA751 recognizes the human claudin-3 antigen, an integral membrane protein which is a component of the claudin family of epithelial tight junction proteins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • These genes encode the tight junction proteins claudin-16 and claudin-19, respectively, which regulate the paracellular ion reabsortion in the kidney. (plos.org)
  • Yet in comparison to Medigeshi et al [5] we noticed that capsid proteins expression alone didn't bring about degradation of restricted junction essential membrane protein. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • However just because a huge pool from the WNV capsid proteins is geared to the nuclei of contaminated cells [9] [10] transcription of claudin-1 and JAM-1 genes may be suffering from WNV replication. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Data in Number 2 show that WNV illness does not decrease the levels of claudin-1- or JAM-1-specific or additional mRNAs that encode limited junction proteins such as claudin-3 claudin-4 ZO-1 and occludin. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • By contrast, in MDCK I cells, PMA treatment resulted in redistribution of claudins 1, 3, 4 and 5 from the TJ and in reorganization of the proteins into more insoluble complexes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Tight junction proteins claudin-2 and -12 are critical for vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ absorption between enterocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). (wiley.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier forms in capillaries, where proteins such as claudin-5 and occludin bind to create tight junctions between the endothelial cells that comprise the vessel. (alzforum.org)
  • The tight-junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin prevent transport between endothelial cells. (alzforum.org)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with the ~ 22-24 kDa endogenous Claudin-5 protein. (thermofisher.com)
  • For example, claudin-5 is an essential TJ component protein ( 14 - 16 ) and its assembly is dependent on AJ-associated vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In turn, claudin-5 becomes anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), resulting in its stable expression on cell membranes ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 5. Check membrane for transfer of control protein ladder. (novusbio.com)
  • This mechanistic study provides a greater understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways mediating tight junction protein expression and supports a hypothesis that two independent pathways triggered by PI3K mediate early and late loss of paracellular claudin-5 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Claudin-5 (CLDN-5), a tetra-transmembrane protein is a key component of the TJ seal that prevents the paracellular diffusion of drugs into the CNS. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is established in the hyaloid vasculature of zebrafish at 3 days postfertilization (dpf), and knock-down of claudin 5a gene results in leakage of plasma protein from the hyaloid vessels. (arvojournals.org)
  • We show that the EMT transcription factor Snail elicits collective migration in squamous cell carcinoma by inducing the expression of a tight junctional protein, claudin-11. (nature.com)
  • Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to lung enlargement, parenchymal expansion, increased abundance and proliferation of known distal lung progenitors, the alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), increased organ size, and tumorigenesis in mice. (jci.org)
  • Immunologic and chemical targeting of the tight-junction protein Claudin-6 eliminates tumorigenic human pluripotent stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Loss and gain of IL-10RA expression directly correlates with IEC barrier formation and butyrate represses permeability-promoting claudin-2 tight-junction protein expression through an IL-10RA-dependent mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. (qxmd.com)
  • Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. (qxmd.com)
  • In rat brain glioma model and BTB model in vitro, we find that the protein expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 are attenuated by BK induction. (qxmd.com)
  • Claudin-1 is a tight junction transmembrane protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Induction of claudin-4 by indomethacin was confirmed at both mRNA and protein levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), claudin (Cldn)-5 is thought to be the dominant tight junction (TJ) protein, with minor contributions from Cldn3 and -12, and occludin. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Various genes show associations with schizophrenia and a very weak nominal association with the tight junction protein, claudin-5, has previously been identified. (shu.ac.uk)
  • whereas markedly elevated SP protein and NK-1R mRNA expressions concomitant with enhanced claudin-5 expression seemed to be associated with persistent BBB impairment in this experimental CT model. (elsevier.com)
  • Hypoxia (1% O 2 ) altered the location of claudin-5 in the plasma membrane and the level of claudin-5 protein in bEND.3 cells, and these changes were accompanied by a decrease in the transendothelial electrical resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • Claudin 5 is a tight junction protein required for blood brain barrier (BBB) and, probably, choroid plexus (CP) structure and function in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Claudin 18 Kits (17) und Claudin 18 Proteine (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gαi2: a new partner of claudin-5 that regulates tight junction integrity in human brain endothelial cells. (crcm-marseille.fr)
  • The transmembrane protein claudin-5 is known as a key TJ protein at the BBB, although, the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates TJ tightness are poorly understood. (crcm-marseille.fr)
  • Claudin-11 (CLDN11) is a potential tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 3 (3q26.2), and encodes a member of the claudin family, an integral membrane protein of the paracellular tight junction (TJ) [ 12 , 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using a human liver-chimeric mouse model(6), we show that a monoclonal antibody specific for the TJ protein claudin-1 (ref. 7) eliminates chronic HCV infection without detectable toxicity. (ugent.be)
  • Claudin1 (CLDN1), a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight junction strands. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • CLDN18 (Claudin 18) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • 1999) Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein components of tight junction strands. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • This method involves using inexpensive peptides (protein fragments) that bind to a protein called claudin 5. (alz.org)
  • Claudin 5 helps form protein complexes called "tight junctions" that regulate transportation across the blood-brain barrier. (alz.org)
  • degradation of claudin protein in lysosomes [5]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Data in Amount 1 present that in every cases the restricted junction membrane protein claudin-1 and JAM-1 are degraded in WNV contaminated cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Amount 1 WNV an infection results in lack of claudin-1 and JAM-1 protein in epithelial and endothelial cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Astragaloside A Dynamin and microtubules are necessary for WNV-induced degradation of claudin-1 and JAM-1 Having eliminated the chance that WNV an infection impacts the transcription and/or degradation of restricted junction protein-encoding mRNAs we following focused on identifying how virus an infection induces degradation of claudin-1 and JAM-1 protein. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similarly, in aged Tg2576 mice, which overexpress amyloid precursor protein, the authors saw scant claudin-5 and occludin along portions of capillaries clogged with amyloid. (alzforum.org)
  • In MDCK II cells, barrier improvement by claudin-8 is accompanied by a reduction of endogenous claudin-2 protein at the tight junction. (deepdyve.com)
  • VEGF overexpression in the mouse retina caused delayed inflammatory cytokine upregulation, monocyte/macrophage infiltration (CD11b + Ly6C + CCR2 + cells), macrophage/microglia activation (CD11b + CD80 + cells), and blood-retinal barrier disruption due to claudin-5 redistribution, which did not recover with VEGF blockade alone. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast to occludin, which induces only a small number of short strands at cell-cell contact sites when introduced into fibroblasts lacking tight junctions, claudin-1 and -2 induce networks of strands characteristic of true tight junctions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Though inconclusive, these findings suggest that claudin-1 and -2 are major structural components of TJ strands and that occludin plays some other accessory role. (thermofisher.com)
  • Metformin promoted ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 rearrangement and lessened IgG and Evans blue extravasation. (nih.gov)
  • A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham group, NS and metformin-treated mice at 3 days following tMCAO. (nih.gov)
  • B) Representative result of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression at 1 and 3 days after tMCAO. (nih.gov)
  • Bar graphs show a quantification of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate endothelial cell permeability after metformin treatment, we conducted occludin/CD31, ZO-1/CD31 and claudin-5/CD31 double staining to observe tight junction distribution in situ at 3 days after tMCAO. (nih.gov)
  • Result indicated that occludin and ZO-1 were continuously located on the margin of ECs in sham group, claudin-5 was continuously located along ECs, and fewer gaps were formed in the metformin-treated group (Figure 4A). (nih.gov)
  • Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT (2-[[(4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]methyl]-thiirane) or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. (qxmd.com)
  • These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis. (qxmd.com)
  • The redistribution of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearrangement of F-actin in brain microvascular endothelial cells are observed at the same time. (qxmd.com)
  • This study demonstrates that the increase of BK-mediated BTB permeability is associated with the down-regulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and the rearrangement of F-actin and that cAMP/PKA signal transduction system might be involved in the modulating process. (qxmd.com)
  • Among identified genes, we focused on those related to tight junction function ( claudin-4 , claudin-1 , and occludin ), particularly claudin-4 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • C) Cell lysates from Huh7.5.1 cells were pulled down by GST-CD81-N-tail, GST-CD81-C-tail, GST-occludin-tail, GST-SRB1-tail, GST-claudin-1 tail or GST with two extra washes. (asm.org)
  • RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed an increase in the abundance of claudin-3 and an apparent change in the posttranslational modification of occludin, data reinforcing a paracellular barrier alteration. (scialert.net)
  • Confirming these latter findings, first author James Keaney in Campbell's group demonstrated that adding synthetic Aβ40 monomers and dimers transiently suppressed claudin-5 and occludin in endothelial cell cultures. (alzforum.org)
  • Postmortem brain sections from 30 Alzheimer's patients and controls also showed less claudin-5 and occludin in blood vessels choked with amyloid, but normal amounts in healthy vessel sections just a few microns away (see image below). (alzforum.org)
  • The authors used siRNAs to suppress claudin-5 and occludin translation in endothelial cell cultures that maintain tight junctions and form a monolayer separating two pools of medium. (alzforum.org)
  • Here, we analyzed the impact of residues in the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of mouse claudin-5 on paracellular permeability. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of claudin-5(Y148A), (Y158A) or (E159Q) enhanced permeability of FITC-dextran(10 kDa), which was unchanged in cells expressing claudin-5(wild type) or claudin-5(R145A). (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to test the hypothesis that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 increases the paracellular permeability of vascular endothelial monolayers through tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. (open.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is involved in the increased paracellular permeability of central nervous system-derived vascular endothelium induced by TGF-β1. (open.ac.uk)
  • While some claudin family members play essential roles in the formation of impermeable barriers, others mediate the permeability to ions and small molecules. (uniprot.org)
  • Often, several claudin family members are coexpressed and interact with each other, and this determines the overall permeability. (uniprot.org)
  • Primary brain endothelial cells from C57 BL/6 mice were incubated with Β 1-integrin function-blocking antibody (Ha2/5) or isotype control and the impacts on claudin-5 expression and microvessel permeability were quantified. (elsevier.com)
  • Ha2/5 incubation reduced the resistance of endothelial cell monolayers significantly, and significantly increased permeability to 40 and 150 kDa dextrans. (elsevier.com)
  • This study demonstrates that blockade of Β 1-integrin function changes interendothelial claudin-5 expression and increases microvessel permeability. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, endothelial cell-matrix interactions via Β 1-integrin directly affect interendothelial cell tight junction claudin-5 expression and brain microvascular permeability. (elsevier.com)
  • Aims To investigate the roles of Claudin-5 (CLDN5) in regulating the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during lung cancer brain metastasis. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated the degradation of claudin-5. (duhnnae.com)
  • Under all conditions, water flux in claudin-2-transfected cells was elevated compared with vector controls, indicating claudin-2-mediated paracellular water permeability. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Gαi2 or claudin-5 in hCMEC/D3 cells similarly increases their paracellular permeability and delays TJ recovery after mannitol treatment. (crcm-marseille.fr)
  • Members of the claudin family are known to determine tight junction permeability in a charge- and size-selective manner. (rupress.org)
  • We have demonstrated that it regulates claudin-5 levels and endothelial permeability. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We previously reported that claudin-8 reduces paracellular cation permeability when expressed in low-resistance Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Unlike in MDCK II cells, induction of claudin-8 in MDCK I cells (which did not affect levels of endogenous claudins) did not alter paracellular ion permeability. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, when endogenous claudin-2 in MDCK II cells was downregulated by epidermal growth factor to create a cell model with low transepithelial resistance and low levels of claudin-2, the permeability effects of claudin-8 were also abolished. (deepdyve.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Claudin 5 Monoclonal Antibody (4C3C2) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 35-2500, RRID AB_2533200. (thermofisher.com)
  • 2. Incubate primary antibody overnight or at room temperature for 2 hours prepared in 5% milk/TBST. (novusbio.com)
  • 3. Remove antibody solution and wash membrane three times for 5-15 minutes in TBST. (novusbio.com)
  • 4. Incubate membrane with an appropriate secondary antibody (peroxidase conjugated) for 1 hour at room temperature in 5% milk/TBST. (novusbio.com)
  • Unexpectedly, the anti-claudin-1 antibody localized claudin to the Golgi apparatus of a sub-population of SA and RA in addition to the distal junctions of RA. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-claudin-1 antibody followed by Western blotting. (asm.org)
  • In 25 liver biopsy samples taken from dogs with portal vein hypoperfusion, an increased number of arterioles was detected in the portal areas (PAs) by the use of humanised anti-claudin-5 antibody. (mtak.hu)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyzes of Claudin-1 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of Claudin-1 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the claudin family. (thermofisher.com)
  • This gene encodes a component of tight junction strands, which is a member of the claudin family. (nih.gov)
  • The claudin 5b gene has positive and negative regulatory elements in the 5' flanking region. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the effects of microRNA-1303 (miR-1303) on gastric cancer (GC) cells and the upstream regulation of GC-associated claudin-18 gene (CLDN18) remain unclear. (springer.com)
  • The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. (springer.com)
  • In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, schizophrenia occurs in 30% of individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population who are haploinsufficient for the claudin-5 gene. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that a variant in the claudin-5 gene is weakly associated with schizophrenia in 22q11DS, leading to 75% less claudin-5 being expressed in endothelial cells. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that the gene claudin 5a is the zebrafish orthologue with high fidelity expression, in the BBB and CP barriers, that demonstrates the conservation of the BBB and CP between humans and zebrafish. (biologists.org)
  • In 1999, Simon and colleagues identified mutations in the gene PCLN1, subsequently called CLDN16 , as the underlying cause of FHHNC [5] . (plos.org)
  • Gene expression profile studies have identified multiple subtypes of TNBC, including basal-like and claudin-low/mesenchymal-like. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that this is not because of relocalization of claudin-2 into the cytosolic pool but primarily due to a decrease in gene expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, AKT inhibitors only prevented the early changes in claudin-5 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Disruption of tight junctions, including changes in claudin-5 expression, is common in HIV-1-infected patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of snail correlates with increased claudin-11, and both are associated with a worse outcome. (nature.com)
  • Overexpression of claudin-4 in AGS cells did not affect cell growth or the induction of apoptosis by indomethacin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, addition of indomethacin or overexpression of claudin-4 inhibited cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that claudin overexpression studies measure the combined effect of alterations in both endogenous and exogenous claudins, thus explaining the dependence of the phenotype on the host cell line. (deepdyve.com)
  • Claudin-4 is the first to confer ionic selectivity to paracellular transport, leading to the prediction that the combination of different claudins defines the overall selectivity of different junctions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Because stargazin is structurally similar to claudins, we hypothesized that it might also have retained claudin-like functions inherited from a common ancestor. (nih.gov)
  • The highly conserved residues Y148, Y158 and E159 in ECL2 of claudin-5 contribute to homo- and/or heterophilic trans-interaction between classic claudins and thereby tighten the paracellular space against ions, small and large molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Upregulation of pore-forming claudin 2 and downregulation and redistribution of sealing claudins 5 and 8 lead to altered tight junction structure and pronounced barrier dysfunction already in mild to moderately active Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • In HT29 cells, claudins 1, 3, 4 and 5 and possibly claudin 2 were redistributed to apical cell-cell contacts after PKC activation and the amounts of claudins 1, 3 and 5, but not of claudin 2, were increased in cell lysates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Claudins 1 and 4 were phosphorylated in both MDCK I and HT29 cells, but PKC-induced changes in claudin phosphorylation state were detected only in MDCK I cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Using an inducible 'knockdown' mouse model, we further link claudin-5 suppression with psychosis through a distinct behavioural phenotype showing impairments in learning and memory, anxiety-like behaviour and sensorimotor gating. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Tracer experiments revealed that the barrier function of hypoxic retinal vasculature with depressed claudin-5 expression was selectively disrupted against small molecules, which is very similar to the phenotype of claudin-5-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
  • To test whether replacement of cation-permeable claudin-2 mediates the effect of claudin-8 on the electrophysiological phenotype of the host cell line, we expressed claudin-8 in high-resistance MDCK I cells, which lack endogenous claudin-2. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ripasudil also contributed to the stability of claudin-5 expression by both transcriptional enhancement and degradation suppression in inflammatory cytokine-stimulated endothelium. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This might involve rapid activation of metalloproteinase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), and ADAM17-mediated claudin-5 degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggested that degradation of claudin-5 was caused by MMP-9 in angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. (duhnnae.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to identify DNA regulatory sequences of the zebrafish claudin 5 genes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Exogenous expression of wild type, but not mutant claudin-19, increases the expression of RPE signature genes. (nature.com)
  • In mammals, humans have 23 claudin genes, whereas rats and mice have 24 genes ( Lal-Nag and Morin, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features. (nih.gov)
  • Based on these results, we consider that the induction of claudin-4 and other tight junction-related genes by NSAIDs may be involved in the chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs through the suppression of anchorage-independent growth and cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mice, claudin-19 was found in the kidney and Schwan cells of the peripheral nervous system, but was absent from the oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system 4 . (nature.com)
  • After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd −/− mice are no longer significant. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because TJs of basal cells are primarily composed of claudin-11, claudin-11-deficient (Cld11 -/- ) mice were generated with an expectation that the compartmentalization in stria vascularis in these mice would be affected. (biologists.org)
  • Mapping of Sensory Nerve Subsets within the Vagal Ganglia and the Brainstem Using Reporter Mice for Pirt, TRPV1, 5-HT3, and Tac1 Expression. (usf.edu)
  • Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to build and refine an atomic model of claudin-15 channels and study its transport properties. (rupress.org)
  • The pivotal role of EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasingly recognized and various molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular EMT have been identified ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which microbial-derived butyrate promotes barrier through IL-10RA-dependent repression of claudin-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Claudin-5 is expressed in endothelial cells forming part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (shu.ac.uk)
  • Andras, IE & Toborek, MJ 2011, HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level . (elsevier.com)
  • Objective To explore the effects of N-butylphthalide on the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 in blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning . (bvsalud.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying the hypoxia-induced disruption of the barrier function of neural vasculature were analyzed with reference to the expression of claudin-5, a component of tight junctions between neural endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of the expression of claudin-5 by RNAi resulted in a reduction of transendothelial electrical resistance, indicating a critical role of claudin-5 in the barrier property. (elsevier.com)
  • These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that claudin-5 is a target molecule of hypoxia leading to the disruption of the barrier function of neural vasculature. (elsevier.com)
  • Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption after infection with A. cantonensis. (duhnnae.com)
  • The presented data substantiate the hypothesis that claudin-18 is a central barrier-forming component of tight junctions and show that IL-13 (zeige IL13 Antikörper ) downregulates claudin-18 . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We recently showed in a renal epithelial cell culture system that reduction of culture medium methionine by 80% resulted in altered tight junctional (TJ) claudin composition and also improved epithelial barrier function ( 51 ). (scialert.net)
  • AKT2 maintains brain endothelial claudin-5 expression and selective activation of IR/AKT2/FOXO1-signaling reverses barrier dysfunction. (usf.edu)
  • By binding to claudin 5, the peptides should be able to create a temporary gap in the blood-brain barrier through which drug compounds could enter the brain. (alz.org)
  • Here, we address how the interaction of heterologously expressed claudin-8 with endogenous claudin isoforms impacts epithelial barrier properties. (deepdyve.com)
  • The blocking solution is normally composed of 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T, and some antibodies require BSA in place of milk. (novusbio.com)
  • In the present study, to investigate whether CLDN-5 binders can be used for delivery of drugs to the CNS, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the extracellular domains of CLDN-5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Distal junction area of ruffle-ended ameloblasts (RA) and the Golgi apparatus of a sub-population of smooth-ended ameloblasts (SA) and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin-1 antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • B) Huh7.5 cells treated with Sec24C siRNA or a control siRNA for 72 h were stained with antibodies against claudin-1 (green) and the tight junction marker ZO-1 (red). (asm.org)
  • A) Huh7.5 cells treated with different concentrations of XN for 12 h were fixed with methanol and stained with antibodies against claudin-1 (red) and the tight junction marker ZO-1 (green). (asm.org)
  • Stable expression of claudin-5(wild type) in MDCK-II cells-but not that of mutants R145A, Y148A, Y158A or E159Q-increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased fluorescein permeation. (nih.gov)
  • Title: TLR2 activation induced by H. pylori LPS promotes the differential expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 via either STAT3 and ERK1/2 in AGS cells. (nih.gov)
  • miR-1303 could bind to the putative binding sites in CLDN18 mRNA 3′-UTR and visibly lower the expression of claudin-18. (springer.com)
  • Dose-dependent expression of claudin-5 is a modifying factor in schizophrenia. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Finally, we show that anti-psychotic medications dose-dependently increase claudin-5 expression in vitro and in vivo while aberrant, discontinuous expression of claudin-5 in the brains of schizophrenic patients post mortem was observed compared to age-matched controls. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Expression of claudin 5a correlates with developmental tightening of the BBB and is restricted to a subset of the brain vasculature clearly delineating the BBB. (biologists.org)
  • Jun, Kim, Jung, Choi, Chin: Expression of claudin-7 and loss of claudin-18 correlate with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The density of small tight junction pores varies among cell types and is increased by expression of claudin-2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 60 Claudin 18 (CLDN18) Antikörper von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Administration of ripasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, attenuated retinal inflammation and claudin-5 redistribution. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutated claudin-19 affects multiple stages of RPE and retinal differentiation through its effects on multiple functions of the RPE. (nature.com)
  • In vivo the claudin-5 molecules were expressed under normoxia in the plasma membrane of retinal microvascular endothelial cells but were significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • F) Coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous claudin-1 with Sec24C in Huh7.5.1 cells. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, the anti-VEGF agent and the ROCK inhibitor were synergic in suppressing cytokine upregulation, monocyte/macrophage infiltration, macrophage/microglia activation, and claudin-5 redistribution. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, in vitro analysis confirmed that claudin-5 redistribution depends on ROCK2 but not on ROCK1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that ROCK-mediated claudin-5 redistribution by inflammation is a key mechanism in the anti-VEGF resistance of DME. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We and others have demonstrated that claudin-5 redistribution occurs in the diabetic retina together with vasopermeability ( 18 - 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The recently identified claudin-low subtype of breast cancer is enriched for cells with stem-like and mesenchymal-like characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional studies suggest a dual role for stargazin, both as a modulatory gamma subunit for voltage-dependent calcium channels and as a regulator of post-synaptic membrane targeting for alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors. (nih.gov)
  • High GLI1 expression is a property of claudin-low cells and tumors and correlates with markers of EMT and breast cancer stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Binding of CPE to claudin-3 induces epithelial cell lysis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PI3K inhibitors LY294002 (2.5-25 μM) and PI-828 (0.1-10 μM) prevented the 3-chloropropanediol-induced AKT (Thr308) phosphorylation and both early and late loss of paracellular claudin-5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 was studied by ICC, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. (open.ac.uk)
  • ICC revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of endothelial monolayers was greatly enhanced by TGF-β1 treatment, and immunoprecipitation of cell lysates showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. (open.ac.uk)
  • We also show that targeted adeno-associated virus-mediated suppression of claudin-5 in the mouse brain results in localized BBB disruption and behavioural changes. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Claudin 6 expression is useful to distinguish myxofibrosarcomas from other myxoid soft tissue tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical, pathological and biological features of claudin-low tumors were compared to the other tumor subtypes using an updated human tumor database and multiple independent data sets. (nih.gov)
  • These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models. (nih.gov)
  • Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Claudin-low tumors are mainly triple-negative invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Claudin-11/OSP-based tight junctions of myelin sheaths in brain and Sertoli cells in testis. (jax.org)
  • Suppression of claudin-4 expression by small interfering RNA restored the migration activity of AGS cells in the presence of indomethacin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell lysates from Huh7.5.1 cells were pulled down by GST-claudin-1 tail or GST followed by Western blotting. (asm.org)
  • D and E) Immunoblots showing the association of Sec24C with claudin-1 in transfected HEK293T cells by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. (asm.org)
  • HEK293T cells were transfected with Flag-claudin-1, Flag-SRB1, or PCMV-Tag2 empty vector for 48 h. (asm.org)
  • G) Colocalization of claudin-1 with Sec24C in Huh7.5.1 cells. (asm.org)
  • Huh7.5.1 cells were fixed by PFA and immunofluorescently labeled for claudin-1 (green) and Sec24C (red). (asm.org)
  • C) Cell surface claudin-1 was quantified by FACS assay in nonpermeabilized cells. (asm.org)
  • D) Intercellular claudin-1 was quantified by FACS assay in permeabilized cells. (asm.org)
  • Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the interendothelial claudin-5 expression by confluent endothelial cells was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner by Ha2/5 exposure relative to isotype. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper describes that the endothelial cells of normal hepatic arterioles, portal venules and portal lymphatics as well as the endothelium of sinusoids from dogs show strong membranous claudin-5 cross-reactivity. (mtak.hu)
  • Results The ultrastructure of BBB was normal in normal control group , some ZO-1 and a large number of claudin-5 positive cells were observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The movement of claudin-5 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of cultured confluent brain-derived endothelial (bEND.3) cells was closely correlated with the increase in the transendothelial electrical resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that claudin 5a -expressing cells of the CP are ciliated ependymal cells that drive fluid flow in the brain ventricles. (biologists.org)
  • Bile duct adenocarcinoma cells overexpress claudin-18 via the EGFR (zeige EGFR Antikörper )/ RAS / ERK (zeige EPHB2 Antikörper ) pathway, contributing to cell proliferation and invasion. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Altogether, our results identify Gαi2 as a novel claudin-5 partner required for TJ integrity in brain endothelial cells. (crcm-marseille.fr)
  • For example at 24 h post-infection claudin-1 mRNA levels Astragaloside A were >1.8 collapse higher than in mock-treated cells and at 72 h post-infection they were 3.9 times higher (p? (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Paget hypothesized that the interaction between tumor cells (seed) and host environment (soil) determines metastatic outcome ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A major difference between HT29 and MDCK I cells, which have low and high basal transepithelial electrical resistance, respectively, was the absence of claudin 2 in the latter. (deepdyve.com)
  • A single dose of ketamine resulted in a significant increase in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive (BrdU + ) cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rats at 24 h, but not at 28 days, after treatment completion. (chemweb.com)
  • 18 F-Labeled claudin selective peptides would provide access to a novel kind of imaging tools for pancreatic cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • These probes were prepared using oxime ligation of 5-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-deoxyribose (5-[ 18 F]FDR) to claudin selective peptides. (mdpi.com)
  • For this proposed grant, Dr. Karande and colleagues will design and test several peptides that can bind to claudin 5. (alz.org)
  • Claudin extracellular domains determine paracellular charge selectivity and resistance but not tight junction fibril architecture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • miR-1303 was significantly overexpressed whereas claudin-18 was downregulated in GC tissues and cell lines, which was significantly associated with tumor size, location invasion, histologic type and tumor-node-metastasis stage. (springer.com)
  • Here, we comprehensively characterize the recently identified claudin-low tumor subtype. (nih.gov)
  • Knockdown of GLI1 expression in claudin-low cell lines resulted in reduced cell viability, motility, clonogenicity, self-renewal, and reduced tumor growth of orthotopic xenografts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results uncover crosstalk between NFκB and GLI1 signals and suggest that targeting these pathways may be effective against the claudin-low breast cancer subtype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Del Zoppo, Gregory J. / Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by Β 1-integrins . (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, the localization of claudin-1 in maturation ameloblasts was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid CSF, implying that A. cantonensis infection caused tight junction breakdown and led to claudin-5 release into the CSF. (duhnnae.com)
  • To identify putative claudin-5 partners that contribute to TJ integrity, claudin-5-enriched membrane microdomains were prepared by cell fractionation, using the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and claudin-5 immunoprecipitates were submitted to tandem mass spectrometry. (crcm-marseille.fr)
  • The expression of miR-1303 and claudin-18 in GC tissues and gastric cancer cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. (springer.com)
  • 51.5% of gastric cancer tissues had reduced claudin-18 . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Different tissues exhibit different Claudin composition and CLDN1 expression is often cell type and tissue dependent. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Claudin molecules bear four transmembrane domains with both N- and C-termini located in the cytoplasm. (biologists.org)
  • Our simulations indicate that claudin-15 forms well-defined channels for ions and molecules and otherwise "seals" the paracellular space through hydrophobic interactions. (rupress.org)
  • The simulations suggest that the selectivity filter is formed by a cage of four aspartic acid residues (D55), contributed by four claudin-15 molecules, which creates a negative electrostatic potential to favor cation flux over anion flux. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, Claudin-4 forms channels through the tight junctions that discriminate against Na+ ions and are indifferent to Cl- ions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mechanistically, tyrosine-phosphorylated claudin-11 activates Src, which suppresses RhoA activity at intercellular junctions through p190RhoGAP, maintaining stable cell-cell contacts. (nature.com)
  • Claudin-8 also affects the trafficking of claudin-2, which was displaced specifically from the junctions at which claudin-8 was inserted. (deepdyve.com)
  • Claudin-3 and claudin-4 mRNA levels steadily improved during WNV illness and between 48 and 72 h were as much as 2.2 (p? (exposed-skin-care.net)