Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Claudin-2: A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It is localized to the TIGHT JUNCTIONS of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.PhosphoproteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Endothelial claudin: claudin-5/TMVCF constitutes tight junction strands in endothelial cells. (1/124)

Tight junctions (TJs) in endothelial cells are thought to determine vascular permeability. Recently, claudin-1 to -15 were identified as major components of TJ strands. Among these, claudin-5 (also called transmembrane protein deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome [TMVCF]) was expressed ubiquitously, even in organs lacking epithelial tissues, suggesting the possible involvement of this claudin species in endothelial TJs. We then obtained a claudin-6-specific polyclonal antibody and a polyclonal antibody that recognized both claudin-5/TMVCF and claudin-6. In the brain and lung, immunofluorescence microscopy with these polyclonal antibodies showed that claudin-5/TMVCF was exclusively concentrated at cell-cell borders of endothelial cells of all segments of blood vessels, but not at those of epithelial cells. Immunoreplica electron microscopy revealed that claudin-5/TMVCF was a component of TJ strands. In contrast, in the kidney, the claudin-5/TMVCF signal was restricted to endothelial cells of arteries, but was undetectable in those of veins and capillaries. In addition, in all other tissues we examined, claudin-5/TMVCF was specifically detected in endothelial cells of some segments of blood vessels, but not in epithelial cells. Furthermore, when claudin-5/TMVCF cDNA was introduced into mouse L fibroblasts, TJ strands were reconstituted that resembled those in endothelial cells in vivo, i.e., the extracellular face-associated TJs. These findings indicated that claudin-5/TMVCF is an endothelial cell-specific component of TJ strands.  (+info)

Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediated by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases. (2/124)

Genes associated with regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP)-mediated pro-MMP-2 processing were screened in 293T cells by a newly developed expression cloning method. One of the gene products, which promoted processing of pro-MMP-2 by MT1-MMP was claudin-5, a major component of endothelial tight junctions. Expression of claudin-5 not only replaced TIMP-2 in pro-MMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP but also promoted activation of pro-MMP-2 mediated by all MT-MMPs and MT1-MMP mutants lacking the transmembrane domain (DeltaMT1-MMP). A carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant of pro-MMP-2 (proDeltaMMP-2) was processed to an intermediate form by MT1-MMP in 293T cells and was further converted to an activated form by introduction of claudin-5. In contrast to the stimulatory effect of TIMP-2 on pro-MMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP, activation of pro-MMP-2 by DeltaMT1-MMP in the presence of claudin-5 and proDeltaMMP-2 processing by MT1-MMP were both inversely repressed by expression of exogenous TIMP-2. These results suggest that TIMP-2 is not involved in cluadin-5-induced pro-MMP-2 activation by MT-MMPs. Stimulation of MT-MMP-mediated pro-MMP-2 activation was also observed with other claudin family members, claudin-1, claudin-2, and claudin-3. Amino acid substitutions or deletions in ectodomain of claudin-1 abolished stimulatory effect. Direct interaction of claudin-1 with MT1-MMP and MMP-2 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation analysis. MT1-MMP was co-localized with claudin-1 not only at cell-cell borders, but also at other parts of the cells. TIMP-2 enhanced cell surface localization of MMP-2 mediated by MT1-MMP, and claudin-1 also stimulated it. These results suggest that claudin recruits all MT-MMPs and pro-MMP-2 on the cell surface to achieve elevated focal concentrations and, consequently, enhances activation of pro-MMP-2.  (+info)

The renal segmental distribution of claudins changes with development. (3/124)

BACKGROUND: Permeability properties of mammalian nephron are tuned during postnatal maturation. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and complexity of tight junctions (TJs) vary along the different tubular segments, suggesting that the molecules constituting this structure change. We studied the differential expression of occludin and several claudins in isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits. METHODS: Isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits were processed for occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-2 immunofluorescence, and Western blot detection of claudin-1 and -2. Claudin-5 was detected in whole kidney frozen sections. RT-PCR from isolated tubules was performed for claudins-1 to -8. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence revealed that occludin, claudin-1 and -2 were present at the cell boundaries at the neonatal stage of development. Claudin-1 was detected in the tighter segments of the nephron (distal and collecting duct), while claudin-2 was found in the leaky portions (proximal). Claudin 5 was found in the kidney vasculature. PCR amplification revealed the presence of claudins-1 to -4 in tubules of newborns. In adults, claudins-1, -2 and -4 were present in proximal, Henle's loop and collecting segments; claudin-3 was in proximal and collecting tubules, while claudins-5 and -6 were absent from all tubular portions. Claudin-7 was restricted to proximal tubules, while claudin-8 was present in proximal and Henle's segments. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of occludin distribution is present from the neonatal age. Claudins-7 and -8 are up-regulated after birth. Each tubular segment expresses a peculiar set of claudins that might be responsible for the permeability properties of their TJs.  (+info)

Prolonged fluid shear stress induces a distinct set of endothelial cell genes, most specifically lung Kruppel-like factor (KLF2). (4/124)

The endothelium expresses a large repertoire of genes under apparent transcriptional control of biomechanical forces, many of which are neither cell-type nor flow specific. We set out to identify genes that are uniquely flow responsive in human vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional profiling using commercial DNA microarrays identified 12 of 18 000 genes that were modulated at least 5-fold after 24 hours of steady laminar flow (25 dyne/cm(2)). After a 7-day exposure to unidirectional pulsatile flow (19 +/- 12 dyne/cm(2)), only 3 of 12 remained elevated at least 5-fold. A custom microarray of ~300 vascular cell-related gene fragments was constructed, and expression analysis revealed that many flow-induced genes are also induced by at least one of the following agents: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, or thrombin, indicating a more general role in adaptive or stress responses. Most flow-induced genes were also induced by TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. A limited panel of genes that are unique for flow-exposed cultures was identified, including lung Kruppel-like factor (LKLF/KLF2) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). In marked contrast, both these genes were substantially repressed by TNF-alpha. LKLF but not CYP1B1 mRNA was detected exclusively in the vascular endothelium of healthy human aorta by in situ hybridization and appeared to be flow regulated. To date LKLF is the first endothelial transcription factor that is uniquely induced by flow and might therefore be at the molecular basis of the physiological healthy, flow-exposed state of the endothelial cell.  (+info)

Distinct claudins and associated PDZ proteins form different autotypic tight junctions in myelinating Schwann cells. (5/124)

The apposed membranes of myelinating Schwann cells are joined by several types of junctional specializations known as autotypic or reflexive junctions. These include tight, gap, and adherens junctions, all of which are found in regions of noncompact myelin: the paranodal loops, incisures of Schmidt-Lanterman, and mesaxons. The molecular components of autotypic tight junctions have not been established. Here we report that two homologues of Discs Lost-multi PDZ domain protein (MUPP)1, and Pals-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), are differentially localized in myelinating Schwann cells and associated with different claudins. PATJ is mainly found at the paranodal loops, where it colocalized with claudin-1. MUPP1 and claudin-5 colocalized in the incisures, and the COOH-terminal region of claudin-5 interacts with MUPP1 in a PSD-95/Disc Large/zona occludens (ZO)-1 (PDZ)-dependent manner. In developing nerves, claudin-5 and MUPP1 appear together in incisures during the first postnatal week, suggesting that they coassemble during myelination. Finally, we show that the incisures also contain four other PDZ proteins that are found in epithelial tight junctions, including three membrane-associated guanylate-kinase proteins (membrane-associated guanylate-kinase inverted-2, ZO-1, and ZO-2) and the adaptor protein Par-3. The presence of these different tight junction proteins in regions of noncompact myelin may be required to maintain the intricate cytoarchitecture of myelinating Schwann cells.  (+info)

Holey barrier: claudins and the regulation of brain endothelial permeability. (6/124)

Endothelial tight junctions (TJs)* are an important functional part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this issue, Nitta et al. (2003) demonstrate that claudin-5, a transmembrane protein of TJs, is a critical determinant of BBB permeability in mice. Unexpectedly, knockout of claudin-5 did not result in a general breakdown of TJs but in a selective increase in paracellular permeability of small molecules. This suggests that the BBB can be manipulated to allow selective diffusion of small molecules and makes claudin-5 a possible target for the development of drugs for this purpose.  (+info)

Size-selective loosening of the blood-brain barrier in claudin-5-deficient mice. (7/124)

Tight junctions are well-developed between adjacent endothelial cells of blood vessels in the central nervous system, and play a central role in establishing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Claudin-5 is a major cell adhesion molecule of tight junctions in brain endothelial cells. To examine its possible involvement in the BBB, claudin-5-deficient mice were generated. In the brains of these mice, the development and morphology of blood vessels were not altered, showing no bleeding or edema. However, tracer experiments and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that in these mice, the BBB against small molecules (<800 D), but not larger molecules, was selectively affected. This unexpected finding (i.e., the size-selective loosening of the BBB) not only provides new insight into the basic molecular physiology of BBB but also opens a new way to deliver potential drugs across the BBB into the central nervous system.  (+info)

Role of claudin interactions in airway tight junctional permeability. (8/124)

Airway epithelial tight junctions (TJs) serve to separate the external and internal environments of the lung. However, the members of the claudin family that mediate this function have not been fully delineated. We characterized the claudin expression in normal airways removed from human donors during lung transplantation and determined the contribution of each claudin to airway barrier function. Stable cell lines in NIH/3T3 and human airway (IB3.1) cells were constructed expressing the claudin components found in the human airway, claudin-1, -3, or -5. The effects of claudin expression on transepithelial resistance, permeability coefficients, and claudin-claudin interactions were assessed. Claudin-1 and -3 decreased solute permeability, whereas claudin-5 increased permeability. We also detected oligomerization of claudin-5 in cell lines and in freshly excised human airways. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed heterophilic interactions between claudin species in both cell lines and human airway epithelium. These suggest that airway TJs are regulated by claudinclaudin interactions that confer the selectivity of the junction.  (+info)

*CLDN5

Claudin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN5 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN5 claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome)". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, ... Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, Rizzolo LJ (2002). "Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2002). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN6

Morita K, Sasaki H, Furuse M, Tsukita S (1999). "Endothelial Claudin: Claudin-5/Tmvcf Constitutes Tight Junction Strands in ... Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN6 claudin 6". Human CLDN6 genome location and CLDN6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*MMP3

Claudin and occludin are proteins that are essential for the formation of the tight junctions between the cells of the blood- ... The study showed that MMP-3 accomplishes this damage by degrading claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 (another tight junction protein ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (Jun 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing ... The WT mice were shown to have lower claudin-5 and occludin levels than the KO mice after TBI. ...

*Cingulin

... claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin ... Paschoud S, Bongiovanni M, Pache JC, Citi S (September 2007). "Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung ... Guillemot L, Citi S (August 2006). "Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase ... Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent ...

*ANGPTL4

... disrupts endothelial cell junctions by directly interacting with integrin, VE-cadherin and claudin-5 in a sequential ... "ANGPTL4 modulates vascular junction integrity by integrin signaling and disruption of intercellular VE-cadherin and claudin-5 ... 33 (Pt 5): 1059-62. doi:10.1042/BST20051059. PMID 16246045. Le Jan S, Amy C, Cazes A, Monnot C, Lamandé N, Favier J, Philippe J ... 162 (5): 1521-1528. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64285-X. PMC 1851201 . PMID 12707035. Mandard S, Zandbergen F, Tan NS, Escher P, ...

*PBDC1

1] NCBI GEO Profile GDS3510: Claudin-1 overexpression effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line Chao YC, Pan SH, Yang SC, Yu SL, ... Che TF, Lin CW, Tsai MS, Chang GC, Wu CH, Wu YY, Lee YC, Hong TM, Yang PC (January 2009). "Claudin-1 is a metastasis suppressor ... This alternative splice form appears to be missing exon 5 of the transcript, but it may be added onto exon 6, creating a larger ... 5 (2): e9289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009289. PMC 2827538 . PMID 20195357. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...

*CLDN2

Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... Claudin-2 is expressed in cation-leaky epithelia such as that of the kidney proximal tubule. Mice that are deficient in claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Saitou, M.; Furuse, K.; Sasaki, H ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ...

*Rochechouart

Ernstson Claudin Impact Structures: Meteorite Craters. Retrieved 2015-09-15. Steele, Diana (1998-03-19). "Crater chain points ...

*Claudin

The name claudin comes from Latin word claudere ("to close"), suggesting the barrier role of these proteins. A recent review ... All human claudins (with the exception of Claudin 12) have domains that let them bind to PDZ domains of scaffold proteins. ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (June 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins ... "A systems proteomics view of the endogenous human claudin protein family". J Proteome Res. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00769. ...

*Clostridium enterotoxin

This mechanism is mediated by host claudin-3 and claudin-4 receptors, situated at the tight junctions. Clostridium enterotoxin ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer ... This allows the human claudin-3,4,6,7,8 and 14 to bind but not 1,2,5, and 10. The way the protein work is it destroys the cell ... Van Itallie CM, Betts L, Smedley JG, McClane BA, Anderson JM (January 2008). "Structure of the claudin-binding domain of ...

*TSPAN8

... claudin-7, CD44 variant isoforms, and tetraspanins promotes colorectal cancer progression". Molecular Cancer Research. 5 (6): ... 35 (5): 637-42. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(01)00183-0. PMID 11690710. Shackel NA, McGuinness PH, Abbott CA, Gorrell MD, McCaughan ... "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi: ...

*Transporter Classification Database

Family 1.H.1 The Claudin Tight Junction (Claudin1) Family 1.H.2 The Invertebrate PMP22-Claudin (Claudin2) Family 1.I.1 Nuclear ... 37 (5): 287-337. doi:10.1080/10409230290771528. PMID 12449427. Classification of human transporters in pharmacology. ... Family 4.A.5 The PTS Galactitol (Gat) Family 4.A.6 The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family 4.A.7 The PTS L-Ascorbate (L- ... 5]arene Channels (HAPA-C) Family 1.D.31 The Amphotericin B Family 1.D.32 The Pore-forming Novicidin Family 1.D.33 The Channel- ...

*Co-receptor

Studies suggest that the tight junction protein Claudin-1 (CLDN1) may also play a part in HCV entry. Claudin family ... "Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry". Nature. 446 (7137): 801-5. doi:10.1038/ ... LRP5 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5) acts as a co-receptor for the Wnt-family of glycoproteins which ... Interleukins 1, 2, and 5 all rely on interleukin co-receptors to bind to the primary interleukin receptors. Syndecans 1 and 4 ...

*Rubielos de la Cérida impact structure

Claudin, F., Ernstson, K., Rampino, M.R., and Anguita, F. 2001. Striae, polish, imprints, rotated fractures, and related ... Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U., Anguita, F. and Ernstson, T. 2001. Impact melt rocks, shock metamorphism, and ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U. & Hradil, K. (2002): The mid-Tertiary Azuara and ... 1], Ernstson, K., Schüssler, U., Claudin, F., and Ernstson, T. (2003). An impact crater chain in northern Spain. Meteorite, 9, ...

*CLDN17

Claudin-17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN17 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. It forms anion- ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN17 claudin 17". Krug SM, Günzel D, Conrad MP, Rosenthal R, Fromm A, Amasheh S, Schulzke JD, Fromm M (2012). " ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...

*CLDN14

Claudin-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN14 gene. It belongs to a related family of proteins called ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN14 claudin 14". Baker M, Reynolds LE, Robinson SD, Lees DM, Parsons M, Elia G, et al. (2013). "Stromal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Sticky cells, blood vessels and cancer - the paradox of Claudin-14 - Marianne Baker, Cancer Research UK Science Update blog, 14 ...

*CLDN9

2007). "Claudin-6 and claudin-9 function as additional coreceptors for hepatitis C virus". J. Virol. 81 (22): 12465-71. doi: ... Claudin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN9 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene is involved ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN9 claudin 9". Gene discovery reveals a critical protein's function in hearing Human CLDN9 genome location and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN1

"Entrez Gene: CLDN1 claudin 1". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... Claudin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN1 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... Miyamori H, Takino T, Kobayashi Y, Tokai H, Itoh Y, Seiki M, Sato H (2001). "Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix ...

*CLDN22

Claudin-22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN22 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ... CLDN22 claudin 22". Human CLDN22 genome location and CLDN22 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. González-Mariscal L, ...

*CLDN11

Claudin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN11 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. The protein encoded ... 2001). "Osp/Claudin-11 Forms a Complex with a Novel Member of the Tetraspanin Super Family and β1 Integrin and Regulates ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN11 claudin 11 (oligodendrocyte transmembrane protein)". Human CLDN11 genome location and CLDN11 gene details ... 2000). "CNS myelin and sertoli cell tight junction strands are absent in Osp/claudin-11 null mice". Cell. 99 (6): 649-59. doi: ...

*CLDN3

Claudin 3, also known as CLDN3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN3 gene. It is a member of the claudin ... CLDN3 claudin 3". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin interactions in airway ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer Res ... The protein encoded by this intron-less gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component ...

*CLDN18

... claudin 18". Niimi T, Nagashima K, Ward JM, et al. (2001). "claudin-18, a Novel Downstream Target Gene for the T/EBP/ ... Claudin 18.2) is abundant in gastric tumors. Experimental antibody IMAB362 targets Claudin 18.2 to help treat gastric cancers. ... Claudin-18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN18 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. CLDN18 belongs to ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN19

Claudin-19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN19 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudin-19 has been ... CLDN19 claudin 19". Naeem, M.; Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. (2011). "Mutation in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 (CLDN19) and ... 2006). "Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease". ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN15

Claudin-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN15 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Among its related ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ... CLDN15 claudin 15". Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "CLDN15 Gene - GeneCards , CLD15 Protein , CLD15 Antibody". www.genecards. ...

*CLDN16

Claudin-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN16 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... 2004). "A Novel Claudin 16 Mutation Associated with Childhood Hypercalciuria Abolishes Binding to ZO-1 and Results in Lysosomal ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN16 claudin 16". "Salmonella infection data for Cldn16". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter ...

*Michael Cates

JP Bouchaud and P Claudin, Physical Review Letters 81, 1841-1844 (1998) Multiple glassy states in a simple model system, KN ... Cates was born on 5 May 1961. He read Natural Sciences and earned a PhD at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1985, where he studied ... Michael Elmhirst Cates FRS FRSE (born 5 May 1961) is a British physicist. He is the 19th Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at ...
Hypoxic Stress Induced by Hydralazine Leads to a Loss of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and an Increase in Efflux Transporter Activity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Health,Effector T cells (Teff cells) are involved in activating and directing...The authors show that when cancer develops in mouse skin cells Tregs ......,Combination,therapy,with,a,monocloncal,antibody,and,a,vaccine,leads,to,tumor,rejection,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents a significant component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. AntiCIL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. mAb attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in sheep fetuses (16). However, the role of IL-6 after injury in the immature brain has been studied much less extensively than those of IL-1and TNF-in the immature brain. We recently generated pharmacologic quantities of a highly selective, ovine-specific antiCIL-6 mAb and antiCIL-1mAb. The neutralizing abilities of these mAbs have previously been confirmed in ovine splenic mononuclear cell cultures (35). Moreover, we recently demonstrated that infusions of an antiCIL-1mAb result in the uptake of the antiCIL-1mAb into the brain and attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in ovine fetal brain using the preclinical translational fetal sheep model ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many CNS disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We have previously shown that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction complexes, and BBB integrity disruption. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that induce BBB integrity marker loss are unclear. We hypothesize that 3-chloropropanediol-induced modulation of tight junction protein expression is mediated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis we have used a mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to 3-chloropropanediol for up to 3 days. Results showed early reversible loss of sharp paracellular claudin-5 expression 90, 105, and 120 min following 3-chloropropanediol (500 μM) treatment. Sharp paracellular claudin-5 ...
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Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
Luca Bors1, Ágnes Bajza1, Barbara Hutka1, László Dénes1, Krisztián Szigeti2, Nikolett Hegedűs2, Dávid Szöllősi2, Domokos Máthé2, Attila Csorba3 and Franciska Erdő1. Investigation of the impact of aging on blood-brain barrier function in rats - Does P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have any role in changing BBB permeability?. ...
Claudin-1 is an integral membrane protein component of tight junctions. The Snail family of transcription factors are repressors that play a central role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process that occurs during cancer progression. Snail and Slug members are direct repressors of E-cadherin and act by binding to the specific E-boxes of its proximal promoter. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of Slug or Snail causes a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Overexpression of Slug and Snail in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells down-regulated Claudin-1 at protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Snail and Slug are able to effectively repress human Claudin-1-driven reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type promoter sequence, but not those with mutations in two proximal E-box elements. We also demonstrate by band-shift assay that Snail and Slug bind to the E-box motifs present in the human Claudin-1 promoter. Moreover, an inverse correlation in ...
Read "Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
Barclay Morrison III, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, has led the first study to determine underlying biological mechanisms that promote functional recovery of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after blast injury.
Associate Professor. One in four people worldwide - over 1.5 billion people - suffer from brain disorders, including depression, infection, trauma, stroke, seizures, dementia, and tumors. Despite this huge demand for treatments, delivery of drugs into the brain to treat these disorders is greatly impaired by the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is the interface between blood and brain that controls what goes in and comes out of the brain. Anatomically, the blood-brain barrier is made of endothelial cells forming a complex vascular network that supplies the brain with oxygen and nutrients, and disposes of carbon dioxide and wastes. Recent studies show that the blood-brain barrier is affected by brain disorders and itself plays a role in causing brain disease. Therefore, understanding blood-brain barrier function is critical for devising new therapeutic strategies to enhance brain drug delivery, improve brain protection, and treat brain disorders. Currently, we study the role of the ...
For every experimental group, brains from at minimum 3 distinct litter had been analyzed and when compared to the in accordance NaCl handle group. qPCR approach improvement exposed that only samples must be when compared to every other which have gone through experimental treatment, mind isolation, storage, purification and evaluation preparing steps with each other. Therefore, for every DEX-treatment the according NaCl handle group was carried out at the exact same time. In addition, owing to the large complete variety of samples, but limited sample variety which could be purified at the same time, only samples from mice at the same age and identical variety of antenatal injections ended up compared to every other by using a two-tailed Student`s t-take a look at. Data are offered as the signifies ± SEM. The major tight junction molecule and mind endothelial mobile marker claudin-five was investigated originally. Triple maternal DEX remedy drastically decreased claudin-5 mRNA expression to .54 ...
Implications of the blood-brain barrier and its manipulation , Implications of the blood-brain barrier and its manipulation , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
The expression of claudin-11 in benign and malignant bladder tissue and the effect of forced expression of claudin-11 on tight junction function and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were studied. Claudin-11 expression was tested in bladder cancer cell lines (T24/83, RT 112/84 and EJ138) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in benign and malignant bladder tissue by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T24/83 cells were transfected with the pcDNA.1/NT-GFP-TOPO vector containing full-length human claudin-11 sequence. Stable-transfected cells overexpressing claudin-11 (T24Cl-11Ex), wild-type cells (T24WT) and the empty plasmid control clone (T24GFP) were compared using transurothelial resistance (TUR), in vitro adhesion, invasion and growth assays. Claudin-11 was strongly expressed in the non-invasive RT112/84 cell line compared to the invasive T24/83 and EJ138 TCC cell lines. Benign bladder tissue demonstrated equal expression of claudin-11 mRNA as ...
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of the cell-cell junction with concomitant changes in the expression of junctional proteins is a hallmark of cancer metastasis and invasion. Role of adherent junction proteins have been studied extensively in cancer, however the role of tight junction proteins is less understood. Claudins are the recently identified tetraspanins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJs). Recent studies have shown changes in expression/cellular localization for claudins during tumorigenesis, however a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin-1 in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal ...
We detected claudin-12 protein in primary and transformed brain endothelium, but not at the TJ. In murine development, claudin-12 is predominantly seen at the TJs [4], while data on adult brain are only available at the mRNA level: findings by Belanger et al. support claudin-12 as a marker for metabolic disturbances affecting brain function in the adult [12]. In an immortalized murine cell culture model, only claudin-12 mRNA levels were down-regulated under conditions mimicking hyperammonemia. Taken together, it cannot be excluded that claudin-12 exists as an intracellular protein in the adult brain serving an as yet unknown function, or its localization to the TJ in vitro might require exquisite signaling input from other members of the neurovascular unit like pericytes and astrocytes. We did not test the hCMEC/D3 cells in co-culture with astrocytes as they are not responsive to glial cell conditioning in our experimental set-up.. So far, data on claudin-3 expression in immortalized human brain ...
Mouse monoclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody [mAbcam 61357] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and 5…
In the present study, we demonstrate that HIV-infected leukocytes transmigrate in greater numbers across a tissue culture model of the human BBB in response to CCL2 than do uninfected cells, resulting in increased BBB permeability. This process was characterized by four major findings. First, BBB permeability was increased only when the combination of HIV-infected cells and a CCL2 chemotactic gradient was present. The addition of CCL2 alone or the adhesion of HIV-infected cells alone to the BBB model was not sufficient to induce BBB disruption. Second, the mechanism of BBB disruption and enhanced transmigration of HIV-infected cells was specifically CCL2 dependent, because other chemokines did not replicate the CCL2 effect. Third, the high HIV-infected leukocyte transmigration induced by CCL2 was associated with increased BBB permeability that correlated with a reduction in TJP (ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin) and an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BBB cells. Fourth, HIV-infected leukocytes ...
http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1693fta1 Endothelial tight junctions form the blood–brain barrier] What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date ...
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View mouse Cldn15 Chr5:136966616-136975858 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
We produce a variety of bags used for cell culture applications. These specialized container products are constructed using our NxFlex® F1000C1 films. The inner solution contact layer of this film is specially formulated to be non-leaching and chemically inert for the highest biocompatibility requirements of cell culture applications. A layer of EVOH insures excellent gas barrier properties.. ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage plays a key role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. It is quite necessary to further explore the characteristic and mechanism of BBB leakage during stroke. We induced a focal cerebral ischemia model by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats for defining the time course of BBB permeability within 120 h following reperfusion and evaluate the specific role of tight junction (TJ) associated proteins claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 as well as protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) pathway in BBB leakage induced by reperfusion injury. We verified a bimodal increase in the permeability of the BBB following focal ischemia by Evans blue assay. Two peaks of BBB permeability appeared at 3 h and 72 h of reperfusion after 2 h focal ischemia, respectively. The leak at the endothelial cell was represented at the level of transmission electron microscopy. TTC staining results showed increased infarct size with time after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. The mRNA and ...
The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry-the first step of viral infection. Due to the lack of neutralizing anti-CLDN1 antibodies, the role of CLDN1 in the viral entry process is poorly understood. In this study, we produced antibodies directed against the human CLDN1 extracellular loops by genetic immunization and used these antibodies to investigate the mechanistic role of CLDN1 for HCV entry in an infectious HCV cell culture system and human hepatocytes. Antibodies specific for cell surface-expressed CLDN1 specifically inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies specific for CLDN1, scavenger receptor B1, and CD81 show an additive neutralizing capacity compared with either agent used alone. Kinetic studies with anti-CLDN1 and anti-CD81 antibodies demonstrate that HCV interactions with both entry factors occur at a similar time in the internalization process. Anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit the binding of ...
Objective Helicobacter pylori strains that express the oncoprotein CagA augment risk for gastric cancer. However, the precise mechanisms through which cag+ strains heighten cancer risk have not been fully delineated and model systems that recapitulate the gastric niche are critical for understanding pathogenesis. Gastroids are three-dimensional organ-like structures that provide unique opportunities to study host-H. pylori interactions in a preclinical model. We used gastroids to inform and direct in vitro studies to define mechanisms through which H. pylori modulates expression of the cancer-associated tight junction protein claudin-7.. ...
Claudins are major integral membrane proteins of tight junctions. Altered expression of several claudin proteins, in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of various cancers. Although their dysregulation in cancer suggests that claudins play a role in tumorigenesis, the exact underlying mechanism remains unclear. The involvement of claudins in tumor progression was suggested by their important role in the migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells in a tissue-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that they play a role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the formation of cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (CSCs/TICs), and chemoresistance, suggesting that claudins are promising targets for the treatment of chemoresistant and recurrent tumors. A recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subtype that is characterized by the enrichment of EMT and stem cell-like features is significantly associated with disease recurrence, underscoring
Our research should stimulate renewed clinical interest in developing glucocorticoid therapies to treat blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and other disorders of the central nervous system," Morrison says. His findings also hold important implications for military personnel exposed to blast injury. "We may be able to improve outcomes in brain-injured soldiers and civilians," he continues, "and reduce the length of their mandatory rest periods before returning to duty, making the difference between requiring only days rather than weeks or longer to recover.". This improvement could be a significant result, as there are currently no approved pharmaceutical therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and recently completed clinical trials have not demonstrated any benefit of other tested neuro-protective interventions. For patients with head injuries (non-blast related) and brain edema, doctors have been prescribing glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones, as standard treatment for ...
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are interconnected by specific junctional proteins forming a highly regulated barrier...
In the small intestine, gluten triggers the release of zonulin, a protein that regulates the tight junctions between epithelial cells and therefore intestinal, but also blood-brain barrier function. Recent evidence suggests that overstimulation of zonulin in susceptible individuals could dysregulate intercellular communication promoting tumorigenesis at specific organ sites ...
They found that the severity of the disease was reduced by both warfarin (see figure below) and rivoraxaban. In contrast, despite effective anticoagulation, starting after the initiation of the disease had no effect on the course of the EAE (i.e. no effect when used as a therapeutic regimen rather than a preventative one). One explanation is that the effect of anticoagulation is small, which is only apparent in the preventative setting but is diluted in the therapeutic setting. Another explanation is that the mechanisms of the disease after onset are very much different to those at the start, which is also likely to be true. A key feature of the MS disease onset is the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which allows the influx of immune cells into the brain. Thrombin is known to interrupt BBB integrity, and the protective effect of anticoagulation may be explained by the low thrombin activity preserving the BBB integrity. ...
They found that the severity of the disease was reduced by both warfarin (see figure below) and rivoraxaban. In contrast, despite effective anticoagulation, starting after the initiation of the disease had no effect on the course of the EAE (i.e. no effect when used as a therapeutic regimen rather than a preventative one). One explanation is that the effect of anticoagulation is small, which is only apparent in the preventative setting but is diluted in the therapeutic setting. Another explanation is that the mechanisms of the disease after onset are very much different to those at the start, which is also likely to be true. A key feature of the MS disease onset is the loss of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which allows the influx of immune cells into the brain. Thrombin is known to interrupt BBB integrity, and the protective effect of anticoagulation may be explained by the low thrombin activity preserving the BBB integrity. ...
Cytoplasmic expression of claudin-1 in metastatic melanoma cells correlates to increased migration, and increased secretion of MMP-2 in a PKC dependent manner, whereas claudin-1 nuclear expressi...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S K Tiwari-Woodruff, A G Buznikov, T Q Vu, P E Micevych, K Chen, H I Kornblum, J M Bronstein].
Stephen Strasburg has been scratched from tonights start against the Phillies with what the Nationals are calling forearm tightness. Ross Ohlendorf is starting his his place.
Stephen Strasburg has been scratched from tonights start against the Phillies with what the Nationals are calling forearm tightness. Ross Ohlendorf is starting his his place.
Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is a structural tight junction (TJ) protein and is expressed in differentiating keratinocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Our objective was to identify immunoreactive CLDN1 in human epidermal Langerhans cells and to examine the pattern of epidermal Langerhans cells in genetic human CLDN1 deficiency [neonatal ichthyosis, sclerosing cholangitis (NISCH) syndrome]. Epidermal cells from healthy human skin labelled with CLDN1-specific antibodies were analysed by confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Skin biopsy sections of two patients with NISCH syndrome were stained with an antibody to CD1a expressed on epidermal Langerhans cells. Epidermal Langerhans cells and a subpopulation of keratinocytes from healthy skin were positive for CLDN1. The gross number and distribution of epidermal Langerhans cells of two patients with molecularly confirmed NISCH syndrome, however, was not grossly altered. Therefore, CLDN1 is unlikely to play a critical role in ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a high risk factor for stroke and leads to more severe vascular and white-matter injury than stroke in non-DM. We tested the neurorestorative effects of delayed human umbilical cord blood cell (HUCBC) treatment of stroke in type-2 diabetes (T2DM). db/db-T2DM and db/+-non-DM mice were subjected to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) and were treated 3 days after dMCAo with: (a) non-DM + Phosphate buffered saline (PBS); (b) T2DM + PBS; (c) T2DM + naïve-HUCBC; (d) T2DM + miR-126(-/-) HUCBC. Functional evaluation, vascular and white-matter changes, neuroinflammation, and miR-126 effects were measured in vivo and in vitro. T2DM mice exhibited significantly decreased serum and brain tissue miR-126 expression compared with non-DM mice. T2DM + HUCBC mice exhibited increased miR-126 expression, increased tight junction protein expression, axon/myelin, vascular density, and M2-macrophage polarization. However, decreased blood-brain barrier leakage, brain hemorrhage, and miR
Epithelial barrier dysfunction is a significant factor in many allergic diseases, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Infiltrating leukocytes and tissue adaptations increase metabolic demands and decrease oxygen availability at barrier surfaces. Understanding of how these processes impact barrier is limited, particularly in allergy. Here, we identified a regulatory axis whereby the oxygen-sensing transcription factor HIF-1α orchestrated epithelial barrier integrity, selectively controlling tight junction CLDN1 (claudin-1). Prolonged experimental hypoxia or HIF1A knockdown suppressed HIF-1α-dependent claudin-1 expression and epithelial barrier function, as documented in 3D organotypic epithelial cultures. L2-IL5OXA mice with EoE-relevant allergic inflammation displayed localized eosinophil oxygen metabolism, tissue hypoxia, and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of esophageal epithelial-targeted stabilized ...
The present invention relates to a nanocomposite blend composition having superior barrier properties, and more particularly to a nanocomposite blend composition comprising a polyolefin resin; one or more nanocomposites having barrier properties, selected from an ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/intercalated clay nanocomposite, a polyamide/intercalated clay nanocomposite, an ionomer/intercalated clay nanocomposite, and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/intercalated clay nanocomposite; and a compatibilizer. This nanocomposite blend composition has superior mechanical strength and superior barrier properties to oxygen, organic solvent, and moisture. Also, it has superior chemical barrier properties and is applicable to single/multi-layer blow molding and film processing.
The brain is kind of like an exclusive nightclub; if youre not on the list, the bouncer, AKA the blood-brain barrier, can and will turn you away...
Reaktivität: Hund, Human, Maus and more. 60 verschiedene TJP3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Blood-Brain barrier allows only select molecules to pass the bloodstream into the fluid that bathes the brain, just like a bouncer at an exclusive nightclub.
Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 60 verschiedene CLDN18 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Tightness in chest is one of the scariest conditions one can ever experience, though it is not always a sign of cardiac ailments but in most of the cases
Question - Feeling tightness in chest and strange test in mouth. Should I be concerned?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Dyspnea, Ask a Pulmonologist
Paper and cellulosic materials hold a good promise of being candidates for flexible packaging materials provided suitable barrier properties such as water repellence and grease resistance are imparted to them. One of the ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Peter Greenaway at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Peter Greenaway easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.

Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...

... is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 ... alteplase; claudin 5; gadolinium pentetate; occludin; age distribution; aged; aging; animal experiment; animal model; article; ... mediated through the acute disassembly of claudin 5 and occludin. Increased T 2 values over the first hour of postreperfusion ... Both tPA and age independently increased claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation during ischemia. Early BBB permeability ...
more infohttp://nparc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/object/?id=ae12c4a7-5885-474d-9f42-8acdfa74a406

Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...

As a result, a novel homozygous mutation (c.346C , G, p.Leu116Val) in 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin 16 was identified. Her ... claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin ... FHHNC in the Chinese population and identified a novel missense mutation in the highly conserved 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin ... Sixty mutations of claudin 16 coding gene have been reported in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and ...
more infohttps://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-018-0979-1

ASMscience | |span class=jp-italic|Clostridium perfringens|/span| Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin ProductionASMscience | |span class='jp-italic'|Clostridium perfringens|/span| Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production

CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... Human claudin-8 and -14 are receptors capable of conveying the cytotoxic effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. MBio 4 ... Identification of a claudin-4 residue important for mediating the host cell binding and action of Clostridium perfringens ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015

Claudin-5 (human)Claudin-5 (human)

The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=6646&showAllSites=true

Claudin-5 (mouse)Claudin-5 (mouse)

The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=6645&showAllSites=true

Claudin 5 Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (352588)
                
                
		        
	Claudin 5 Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (352588)

Invitrogen Anti-Claudin 5 Monoclonal (4C3C2), Catalog # 352588. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), ... claudin-1 and claudin-2, with no similarity to occludin. In contrast to occludin, which induces only a small number of short ... Published figure using Claudin 5 monoclonal antibody (Product # 352588). Fig 5 Excess tip cell production in the Sox7, Sox17, ... Published figure using Claudin 5 monoclonal antibody (Product # 352588). Immunofluorescent staining of Claudin-5 in human Caco- ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Claudin-5-Antibody-clone-4C3C2-Monoclonal/352588

Claudin 5 ELISA Kits | www.antikoerper-online.deClaudin 5 ELISA Kits | www.antikoerper-online.de

Compare and order Claudin 5 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... claudin 5b (cldn5b) ELISA Kit * claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome) L homeolog (cldn5.L) ... Search Claudin 5 ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Monkey,. Pig (Porcine),. Cow (Bovine),. Guinea Pig,. Rabbit,. Goat,. ... Claudin 5 ELISA Kit. 47 products by 11 suppliers: Blue Gene , Abbexa , USBio , Wuhan Fine biotech , Biomatik , CUSABIO , Cloud- ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/hepatitis-c-pathway-88/cldn5-elisa-kit-2914/

Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by ß1-integrins | RTIInterendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by ß1-integrins | RTI

Interendothelial claudin-5 expression depends on cerebral endothelial cell-matrix adhesion by ß1-integrins. ... Osada, T., Gu, Y-H., Kanazawa, M., Tsubota, Y., Hawkins, B., Spatz, M., ... del Zoppo, G. (2011). Interendothelial claudin-5 ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/interendothelial-claudin-5-expression-depends-cerebral-endothelial-cell%E2%80%93matrix-adhesion

Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema | DiabetesClaudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema | Diabetes

Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ... Claudin-5 Redistribution Induced by Inflammation Leads to Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/02/28/db19-1121.article-info

PLOS ONE: Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5PLOS ONE: Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5

Over-expression of claudin-5 was sufficient to prevent replication-deficient virus-induced permeability. The barrier-protective ... Instead, replication-deficient virus induced degradation of the tight junction protein claudin-5; the adherens junction protein ... agent formoterol was able to markedly attenuate flu-induced leak in association with dose-dependent induction of claudin-5. ... Influenza Infects Lung Microvascular Endothelium Leading to Microvascular Leak: Role of Apoptosis and Claudin-5. Figure 10. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047323.g010

Metformin promoted ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 rearran | Open-iMetformin promoted ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 rearran | Open-i

A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham ... occludin and claudin-5 rearrangement and lessened IgG and Evans ... A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham group, NS and metformin-treated mice at 3 days following tMCAO. Scale bar = ... A) Occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression in sham group, NS and metformin-treated mice at 3 days following tMCAO. Scale bar = ... Bar graphs show a quantification of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression. (C) IgG leakage at 3 days following tMCAO in ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4201919_12974_2014_177_Fig4_HTML&req=4

Claudin-5-Binders Enhance Permeation of Solutes across the Blood-Brain Barrier in a Mammalian Model | Journal of Pharmacology...Claudin-5-Binders Enhance Permeation of Solutes across the Blood-Brain Barrier in a Mammalian Model | Journal of Pharmacology...

1999) Endothelial claudin: claudin-5/TMVCF constitutes tight junction strands in endothelial cells. J Cell Biol 147:185-194. ... claudin. CNS. central nervous system. DMEM. Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium. ECL. extracellular loop domain. FBS. fetal ... 2015) Claudin-4 SPECT imaging allows detection of aplastic lesions in a mouse model of breast cancer. J Nucl Med 56:745-751. ... Claudin-5-Binders Enhance Permeation of Solutes across the Blood-Brain Barrier in a Mammalian Model. Yosuke Hashimoto, Keisuke ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/363/2/275

Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT...Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT...

Sharp paracellular claudin-5 profiles were later restored, but lost again by 2 and 3 days post 3-chloropropanediol treatment. ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ... Biphasic modulation of paracellular claudin-5 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells is mediated through the PI3K/AKT ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2014/10/03/jpet.114.218339

Identification of Regulatory Sequences of Zebrafish Claudin 5 Genes | IOVS | ARVO JournalsIdentification of Regulatory Sequences of Zebrafish Claudin 5 Genes | IOVS | ARVO Journals

A 2 kb sequence, from 6.5 to 8.5 kb upstream of claudin 5b, contains enhancer activities that can drive the expression in the ... Results: : The 5.6 kb fragment upstream of the start codon of claudin 5b can direct the EGFP expression in the hyaloid vessels ... DNA fragments of various lengths were amplified from the flanking regions of the claudin 5a or 5b, and inserted into the ... The purpose of this study is to identify DNA regulatory sequences of the zebrafish claudin 5 genes. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2352091

Tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier: far more than claudin-5  - MDC RepositoryTight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier: far more than claudin-5 - MDC Repository

At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), claudin (Cldn)-5 is thought to be the dominant tight junction (TJ) protein, with minor ... Tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier: far more than claudin-5 ... Tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier: far more than claudin-5. ...
more infohttp://edoc.mdc-berlin.de/18043/

Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5...Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5...

Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 ... Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays show that the attenuated expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and F- ... and claudin-5 and the rearrangement of F-actin and that cAMP/PKA signal transduction system might be involved in the modulating ... and claudin-5 and rearrangement of F-actin in brain microvascular endothelial cells are observed at the same time. Meanwhile, ...
more infohttps://read.qxmd.com/read/18183615/bradykinin-increases-blood-tumor-barrier-permeability-by-down-regulating-the-expression-levels-of-zo-1-occludin-and-claudin-5-and-rearranging-actin-cytoskeleton

Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood...Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood...

Specific role of tight junction proteins claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 of the blood-brain barrier in a focal cerebral ischemic ... The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro ... Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate ... Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood- ...
more infohttps://read.qxmd.com/read/22378877/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-mediated-occludin-degradation-and-caveolin-1-mediated-claudin-5-redistribution-contribute-to-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-early-ischemic-stroke-stage

Dose-dependent expression of claudin-5 is a modifying factor in schizophrenia.  - Sheffield Hallam University Research ArchiveDose-dependent expression of claudin-5 is a modifying factor in schizophrenia. - Sheffield Hallam University Research Archive

Norris Dose-dependent expression of claudin 5.pdf - Published Version Creative Commons Attribution. Download (4MB) , Preview ... Claudin-5 is expressed in endothelial cells forming part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, schizophrenia occurs in ... Here, we show that a variant in the claudin-5 gene is weakly associated with schizophrenia in 22q11DS, leading to 75% less ... We also show that targeted adeno-associated virus-mediated suppression of claudin-5 in the mouse brain results in localized BBB ...
more infohttp://shura.shu.ac.uk/17132/

HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level<...HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level<...

Andras, I. E., & Toborek, M. J. (2011). HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level. In ... HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level. / Andras, Ibolya Edit; Toborek, Michal J. ... Andras, IE & Toborek, MJ 2011, HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level. in Methods ... HIV-1-induced alterations of claudin-5 expression at the blood-brain barrier level. In Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 762. ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/hiv-1-induced-alterations-of-claudin-5-expression-at-the-blood-br

Immunohistochemical detection of arteriolar hyperplasia in canine liver biopsy samples using the claudin-5 antibody  -...Immunohistochemical detection of arteriolar hyperplasia in canine liver biopsy samples using the claudin-5 antibody -...

It is suggested that the claudin-5 marker can improve the detection of hepatic arteriolar proliferation in the PAs of liver ... Immunohistochemical detection of arteriolar hyperplasia in canine liver biopsy samples using the claudin-5 antibody ... by the use of humanised anti-claudin-5 antibody. The increased number of hyperplastic hepatic arterioles per PA was 5-6, 8-12 ... portal venules and portal lymphatics as well as the endothelium of sinusoids from dogs show strong membranous claudin-5 cross- ...
more infohttp://real.mtak.hu/48121/

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic...Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic...

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic ... Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid CSF, implying that A. cantonensis infection caused ... Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor ... Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun7/149820060227-Matrix-Metalloproteinase-9-Leads-to-Claudin-5-Degradation-via-the-NF-B-Pathway-in-BALB-c-Mice-with-Eosinophilic-Meningoencephalitis-Caused-by-Angios.php

Frontiers | Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction Is Present without Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular...Frontiers | Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction Is Present without Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular...

After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd-/- mice are no longer significant. These ... After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd-/- mice are no longer significant. These ... Virotherapy with claudin-5 prevents the onset of cardiomyopathy in another muscular dystrophy model. ... Virotherapy with claudin-5 prevents the onset of cardiomyopathy in another muscular dystrophy model. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00539/full

Association of Cytokeratin 5 and Claudin 3 expression with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in women with early breast cancer...Association of Cytokeratin 5 and Claudin 3 expression with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in women with early breast cancer...

Claudin (CLDN) 3. Positive expression in BRCA1 breast cancer (BC) (a) and negative control (isotypic antibody) (b). Positive ... Thus, in this study, we examined the protein expression of claudin (CLDN) 3, CLDN4, CLDN7, and E-cadherin. Moreover, we ... Association of Cytokeratin 5 and Claudin 3 expression with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in women with early breast cancer ... Association of Cytokeratin 5 and Claudin 3 expression with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in women with early breast cancer ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=176568

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Aberrant BMAL1 dependent claudin-5 cycling induces geographic atrophy Natalie Hudson; Lucia Celkova; Sarah Doyle; Matthew ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Matthew+Campbell
  • In the present study, to investigate whether CLDN-5 binders can be used for delivery of drugs to the CNS, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the extracellular domains of CLDN-5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Claudin (CLDN) 3. (cdc.gov)
  • We also show that targeted adeno-associated virus-mediated suppression of claudin-5 in the mouse brain results in localized BBB disruption and behavioural changes. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Functional studies suggest a dual role for stargazin, both as a modulatory gamma subunit for voltage-dependent calcium channels and as a regulator of post-synaptic membrane targeting for alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Reactivity has been confirmed with rat, human and mouse Claudin-5 using rat lung, mouse kidney, mouse small intestine, mouse lung homogenates, human colon tissue, and CACO-2 human cell line. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using an inducible 'knockdown' mouse model, we further link claudin-5 suppression with psychosis through a distinct behavioural phenotype showing impairments in learning and memory, anxiety-like behaviour and sensorimotor gating. (shu.ac.uk)
  • This paper describes that the endothelial cells of normal hepatic arterioles, portal venules and portal lymphatics as well as the endothelium of sinusoids from dogs show strong membranous claudin-5 cross-reactivity. (mtak.hu)
  • In addition, these animals develop seizures and die after 3-4 weeks of claudin-5 suppression, reinforcing the crucial role of claudin-5 in normal neurological function. (shu.ac.uk)
  • After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd −/− mice are no longer significant. (frontiersin.org)
  • 5) MadCAM-1 was specifically expressed in venous ECs in the early embryonic stage. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In 25 liver biopsy samples taken from dogs with portal vein hypoperfusion, an increased number of arterioles was detected in the portal areas (PAs) by the use of humanised anti-claudin-5 antibody. (mtak.hu)