Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Claudin-2: A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It is localized to the TIGHT JUNCTIONS of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.PhosphoproteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment removes specific claudins from tight junction strands: Evidence for direct involvement of claudins in tight junction barrier. (1/170)

Claudins, comprising a multigene family, constitute tight junction (TJ) strands. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a single approximately 35-kD polypeptide, was reported to specifically bind to claudin-3/RVP1 and claudin-4/CPE-R at its COOH-terminal half. We examined the effects of the COOH-terminal half fragment of CPE (C-CPE) on TJs in L transfectants expressing claudin-1 to -4 (C1L to C4L, respectively), and in MDCK I cells expressing claudin-1 and -4. C-CPE bound to claudin-3 and -4 with high affinity, but not to claudin-1 or -2. In the presence of C-CPE, reconstituted TJ strands in C3L cells gradually disintegrated and disappeared from their cell surface. In MDCK I cells incubated with C-CPE, claudin-4 was selectively removed from TJs with its concomitant degradation. At 4 h after incubation with C-CPE, TJ strands were disintegrated, and the number of TJ strands and the complexity of their network were markedly decreased. In good agreement with the time course of these morphological changes, the TJ barrier (TER and paracellular flux) of MDCK I cells was downregulated by C-CPE in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provided evidence for the direct involvement of claudins in the barrier functions of TJs.  (+info)

Regulated expression of claudin-4 decreases paracellular conductance through a selective decrease in sodium permeability. (2/170)

Tight junctions regulate paracellular conductance and ionic selectivity. These properties vary among epithelia but the molecular basis of this variation remains unknown. To test whether members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins influence paracellular ionic selectivity, we expressed human claudin-4 in cultured MDCK cells using an inducible promoter. Overexpression increased the complexity of tight junction strands visible by freeze-fracture microscopy without affecting the levels of claudin-1, -2, or -3, occludin, or ZO-1. A decrease in conductance correlated directly with the kinetics of claudin-4 induction. Dilution potentials revealed that the decrease in paracellular conductance resulted from a selective decrease in Na(+) permeability without a significant effect on Cl(-) permeability. Flux for an uncharged solute, mannitol, and the rank order of permeabilities for the alkali metal cations were unchanged. A paracellular site for these effects was supported by the lack of apical/basal directionality of the dilution potentials, the linearity of current-voltage relationships, and the lack of influence of inhibitors of major transcellular transporters. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration of the ability of a claudin to influence paracellular ion selectivity and support a role for the claudins in creating selective channels through the tight-junction barrier.  (+info)

Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium. (3/170)

The mRNA for Rvp.1 (rat ventral prostate) increases in abundance before gland involution after androgen deprivation. Rvp.1 is homologous to CPE-R, the high-affinity intestinal epithelial receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and is sufficient to mediate CPE binding and trigger subsequent toxin-mediated cytolysis. Rvp.1 (claudin-3) and CPE-R (claudin-4) are members of a larger family of transmembrane tissue-specific claudin proteins that are essential components of intercellular tight junction structures regulating paracellular ion flux. However, claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the only family members capable of mediating CPE binding and cytolysis. The present study was designed to study the expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in human prostate tissue as potential targets for CPE toxin-mediated therapy for prostate cancer. On human multiple-tissue Northern blot analysis, mRNAs for both claudin-3 and claudin-4 were expressed at high levels in prostate tissue. In normal prostate tissue, expression of claudin-3 was localized exclusively within acinar epithelial cells by in situ mRNA hybridization. Compared with expression within prostate epithelial cells in surrounding normal glandular tissue, expression of claudin-3 mRNA remained high in the epithelium of prostate adenocarcinoma (10 of 10) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (five of five). Prostate adenocarcinoma cells metastatic to bone were obtained from a patient with disease progression during antiandrogen therapy. These metastatic cells were prostate-specific antigen-positive by immunohistochemical staining and also expressed functional CPE receptors as measured by sensitivity to CPE-induced cell lysis. The persistent high level of claudin-3 expression in prostate adenocarcinoma and functional cytotoxicity of CPE in metastatic androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma suggests a new potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.  (+info)

Molecular regulation of urothelial renewal and host defenses during infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (4/170)

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the principal cause of urinary tract infection in women, attaches to the superficial facet cell layer of the bladder epithelium (urothelium) via its FimH adhesin. Attachment triggers exfoliation of bacteria-laden superficial facet cells, followed by rapid reconstitution of the urothelium through differentiation of underlying basal and intermediate cells. We have used DNA microarrays to define the molecular regulators of urothelial renewal and host defense expressed in adult C57Bl/6 female mice during the early phases of infection with isogenic virulent (FimH+) or avirulent (FimH-) UPEC strains. The temporal evolution and cellular origins of selected responses were then characterized by real time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical analyses. Well before exfoliation is evident, FimH-mediated attachment suppresses transforming growth factor-beta (Bmp4) and Wnt5a/Ca(2+) signaling to promote subsequent differentiation of basal/intermediate cells. The early transcriptional responses to attachment also include induction of regulators of proliferation (e.g. epidermal growth factor family members), induction of the ETS transcription factor Elf3, which transactivates genes involved in epithelial differentiation and host defense (inducible nitric-oxide synthase), induction of modulators, and mediators of pro-inflammatory responses (e.g. Socs3, Cebp/delta, Bcl3, and CC/CXC chemokines), induction of modulators of apoptotic responses (A20), and induction of intermediate cell tight junction components (claudin-4). Both early and late phases of the host response exhibit remarkable specificity for the FimH+ strain and provide new insights about the molecular cascade mobilized to combat UPEC-associated urinary tract infection.  (+info)

Claudins create charge-selective channels in the paracellular pathway between epithelial cells. (5/170)

Epithelia separate tissue spaces by regulating the passage of ions, solutes, and water through both the transcellular and paracellular pathways. Paracellular permeability is defined by intercellular tight junctions, which vary widely among tissues with respect to solute flux, electrical resistance, and ionic charge selectivity. To test the hypothesis that members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins create charge selectivity, we assessed the effect of reversing the charge of selected extracellular amino acids in two claudins using site-directed mutagenesis. Claudins were expressed in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers under an inducible promoter, and clones were compared with and without induction for transmonolayer electrical resistance and dilution potentials. Expression and localization of claudins were determined by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. We observed that substituting a negative for a positive charge at position 65 in the first extracellular domain of claudin-4 increased paracellular Na+ permeability. Conversely, substituting positive for negative charges at three positions in the first extracellular domain of claudin-15, singly and in combination, reversed paracellular charge selectivity from a preference for Na+ to Cl-. These results support a model where claudins create charge-selective channels in the paracellular space.  (+info)

The renal segmental distribution of claudins changes with development. (6/170)

BACKGROUND: Permeability properties of mammalian nephron are tuned during postnatal maturation. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and complexity of tight junctions (TJs) vary along the different tubular segments, suggesting that the molecules constituting this structure change. We studied the differential expression of occludin and several claudins in isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits. METHODS: Isolated renal tubules from newborn and adult rabbits were processed for occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-2 immunofluorescence, and Western blot detection of claudin-1 and -2. Claudin-5 was detected in whole kidney frozen sections. RT-PCR from isolated tubules was performed for claudins-1 to -8. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence revealed that occludin, claudin-1 and -2 were present at the cell boundaries at the neonatal stage of development. Claudin-1 was detected in the tighter segments of the nephron (distal and collecting duct), while claudin-2 was found in the leaky portions (proximal). Claudin 5 was found in the kidney vasculature. PCR amplification revealed the presence of claudins-1 to -4 in tubules of newborns. In adults, claudins-1, -2 and -4 were present in proximal, Henle's loop and collecting segments; claudin-3 was in proximal and collecting tubules, while claudins-5 and -6 were absent from all tubular portions. Claudin-7 was restricted to proximal tubules, while claudin-8 was present in proximal and Henle's segments. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of occludin distribution is present from the neonatal age. Claudins-7 and -8 are up-regulated after birth. Each tubular segment expresses a peculiar set of claudins that might be responsible for the permeability properties of their TJs.  (+info)

Changes in gene expression during the early to mid-luteal (receptive phase) transition in human endometrium detected by high-density microarray screening. (7/170)

High density cDNA microarray screening was used to determine changes in gene expression occurring during the transition between the early luteal (prereceptive) and mid-luteal (receptive) phases in human endometrium. Of approximately 12,000 genes profiled, 693 (5.8%) displayed >2-fold differences in relative levels of expression between these stages. Of these, 370 genes (3.1%) displayed decreases ranging from 2- to >100-fold while 323 genes (2.7%) displayed increases ranging from 2- to >45-fold. Many genes correspond to mRNAs encoding proteins previously shown to change in a similar manner between the proliferative and mid-luteal phases, serving as one validation of the microarray screening results. In addition, novel genes were identified. Genes encoding cell surface receptors, adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors accounted for 20% of the changes. Several genes were studied further by Northern blot analyses. These results confirmed that claudin-4/Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) receptor and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA increased approximately 4- and 12-fold respectively, while betaig-H3 (BIGH3) decreased >80% during the early to mid-luteal transition. Immunostaining also revealed strong specific staining for claudin-4/CPE, EP(1) and prostaglandin receptor in epithelia, and leukotriene B4 receptor in both epithelia and stroma, at the mid-luteal stage. Collectively, these studies identify multiple new candidate markers that may be used to predict the receptive phase in humans. Some of these gene products, e.g. OPN, may play direct roles in embryo-uterine interactions during the implantation process.  (+info)

Expression, solubilization, and biochemical characterization of the tight junction transmembrane protein claudin-4. (8/170)

The tight junction tetraspan protein claudin-4 creates a charge-selective pore in the paracellular pathway across epithelia. The structure of the pore is unknown, but is presumed to result from transcellular adhesive contacts between claudin's extracellular loops. Here we report the expression of claudin-4 by baculovirus infection of Sf9 cells and describe the biochemical analysis suggesting it has a hexameric quaternary configuration. We show the detergent perfluoro-octanoic acid is able to maintain oligomeric claudin species. Sucrose velocity centrifugation and laser light scattering are also used to investigate the oligomeric state of claudin-4. In contrast to proteins of similar topology, such as gap junction family connexins, the oligomeric state of claudins appears more dynamic. These data suggest the structural organization of claudins in tight junction pores is unique.  (+info)

Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
Read "Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The entire human body and its many compartments are shielded from their external environments by the barrier function of epithelial cell sheets. The paracellular barrier function of tight junctions (TJs) is critical for maintaining homeostasis in any multicellular organism, especially in the skin and internal organs and at the blood-brain barrier. One of the major components of TJs is a family of adhesive membrane proteins known as claudins. Several members of the claudin family are receptors for the bacterial toxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. This toxin often causes food-borne illness both in humans and animals. Saitoh et al. crystallized a complex between the toxin and a claudin that reveals just how the toxin damages epithelial barriers (see the Perspective by Artursson and Knight).. Science, this issue p. 775; see also p. 716 ...
As mentioned in our introduction, the availability of CPE-directed therapeutics could be helpful for ameliorating several CPE-associated medical conditions. A previous study had suggested that the drug mepacrine might be a candidate CPE therapeutic because the presence of this drug interferes with CPE-induced electrophysiologic activity in artificial lipid bilayers (24). However, that study did not distinguish whether mepacrine inactivates the CPE protein or instead interferes with some step in CPE action, i.e., whether this drug affects CPE binding, CPE pore formation, or CPE pore activity. Furthermore, it was specifically important to determine whether mepacrine is not only protective against CPE electrophysiologic activity in artificial membranes but also inhibits CPE-induced cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, where receptors are present and complex phenomena like membrane vesicle release occur (30).. Therefore, a first major contribution of the current study entailed demonstrating that ...
Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting [email protected] All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.. You can find further information about the peer review system here.. ...
The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of the cell-cell junction with concomitant changes in the expression of junctional proteins is a hallmark of cancer metastasis and invasion. Role of adherent junction proteins have been studied extensively in cancer, however the role of tight junction proteins is less understood. Claudins are the recently identified tetraspanins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJs). Recent studies have shown changes in expression/cellular localization for claudins during tumorigenesis, however a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin-1 in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal ...
The aim of this study was to characterize the hCMEC/D3 cell line, an in vitro model of the human Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) for the expression of brain endothelial specific claudins-3 and -12. hCMEC/D3 cells express claudins-3 and -12. Claudin-3 is distinctly localized to the TJ whereas claudin -12 is observed in the perinuclear region and completely absent from TJs. We show that the expression of both proteins is lost in cell passage numbers where the BBB properties are no longer fully conserved. Expression and localization of claudin-3 is not modulated by simvastatin shown to improve barrier function in vitro and also recommended for routine hCMEC/D3 culture. These results support conservation of claudin-3 and -12 expression in the hCMEC/D3 cell line and make claudin-3 a potential marker for BBB characteristics in vitro.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S K Tiwari-Woodruff, A G Buznikov, T Q Vu, P E Micevych, K Chen, H I Kornblum, J M Bronstein].
View mouse Cldn15 Chr5:136966616-136975858 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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The expression of claudin-11 in benign and malignant bladder tissue and the effect of forced expression of claudin-11 on tight junction function and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were studied. Claudin-11 expression was tested in bladder cancer cell lines (T24/83, RT 112/84 and EJ138) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in benign and malignant bladder tissue by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T24/83 cells were transfected with the pcDNA.1/NT-GFP-TOPO vector containing full-length human claudin-11 sequence. Stable-transfected cells overexpressing claudin-11 (T24Cl-11Ex), wild-type cells (T24WT) and the empty plasmid control clone (T24GFP) were compared using transurothelial resistance (TUR), in vitro adhesion, invasion and growth assays. Claudin-11 was strongly expressed in the non-invasive RT112/84 cell line compared to the invasive T24/83 and EJ138 TCC cell lines. Benign bladder tissue demonstrated equal expression of claudin-11 mRNA as ...
The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins that are components of the epithelial cell tight junctions, which regulate movement of solutes and ions through the paracellular space. This protein is a high-affinity receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and may play a role in internal organ development and function during pre- and postnatal life. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple systems. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Claudin-1 is an integral membrane protein component of tight junctions. The Snail family of transcription factors are repressors that play a central role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process that occurs during cancer progression. Snail and Slug members are direct repressors of E-cadherin and act by binding to the specific E-boxes of its proximal promoter. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of Slug or Snail causes a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Overexpression of Slug and Snail in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells down-regulated Claudin-1 at protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Snail and Slug are able to effectively repress human Claudin-1-driven reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type promoter sequence, but not those with mutations in two proximal E-box elements. We also demonstrate by band-shift assay that Snail and Slug bind to the E-box motifs present in the human Claudin-1 promoter. Moreover, an inverse correlation in ...
GGRNA , 2020-04-07 23:23:15 , RefSeq release 60 (20130726)] RefSeq ID Version Symbol GeneID Definition NM_001101389 NM_001101389.1 CLDN25 644672 Homo sapiens claudin 25 (CLDN25), mRNA. NM_001111319 NM_001111319.1 CLDN22 53842 Homo sapiens claudin 22 (CLDN22), mRNA. NM_020982 NM_020982.3 CLDN9 9080 Homo sapiens claudin 9 (CLDN9), mRNA. NM_001001346 NM_001001346.3 CLDN20 49861 Homo sapiens claudin 20 (CLDN20), mRNA. NM_001306 NM_001306.3 CLDN3 1365 Homo sapiens claudin 3 (CLDN3), mRNA. NM_012131 NM_012131.2 CLDN17 26285 Homo sapiens claudin 17 (CLDN17), mRNA. NM_016369 NM_016369.3 CLDN18 51208 Homo sapiens claudin 18 (CLDN18), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NM_001185056 NM_001185056.1 CLDN11 5010 Homo sapiens claudin 11 (CLDN11), transcript variant 2, mRNA. NM_005602 NM_005602.5 CLDN11 5010 Homo sapiens claudin 11 (CLDN11), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NM_182848 NM_182848.3 CLDN10 9071 Homo sapiens claudin 10 (CLDN10), transcript variant a, mRNA. NM_006984 NM_006984.4 CLDN10 9071 Homo sapiens claudin ...
Claudins are a family of proteins that are the most important components of the tight junctions, where they establish the paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space between the cells of an epithelium. They have four transmembrane domains, with the N-terminus and the C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Claudins are small (20-27 kilodalton (kDa)) transmembrane proteins which are found in many organisms, ranging from nematodes to human beings, and are very similar in their structure, although this conservation is not observed on the genetic level. Claudins span the cellular membrane 4 times, with the N-terminal end and the C-terminal end both located in the cytoplasm, and two extracellular loops which show the highest degree of conservation. The first extracellular loop consists on average of 53 amino acids and the second one, being slightly smaller, of 24 amino acids. The N-terminal end is usually very short (4-10 amino acids), the C-terminal end varies in length ...
In this work, we assessed the effects of sinomenine (SN) on intestinal octreotide (OCT) absorption both in Caco-2 cell monolayers and in rats. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms of tight junction (TJ) disruption and recovery by SN-mediated changes in the claudin-1 and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. The data showed that exposure to SN resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of claudin-1, which represented TJ weakening and paracellular permeability enhancement. Then, the recovery of TJ after SN removal required an increase in claudin-1, which demonstrated the transient and reversible opening for TJ. Meanwhile, the SN-mediated translocation of PKC-α from the cytosol to the membrane was found to prove PKC activation. Finally, SN significantly improved the absolute OCT bioavailability in rats and the transport rate in Caco-2 cell monolayers. We conclude that SN has the ability to enhance intestinal OCT absorption and that these mechanisms are related at least in part to
For every experimental group, brains from at minimum 3 distinct litter had been analyzed and when compared to the in accordance NaCl handle group. qPCR approach improvement exposed that only samples must be when compared to every other which have gone through experimental treatment, mind isolation, storage, purification and evaluation preparing steps with each other. Therefore, for every DEX-treatment the according NaCl handle group was carried out at the exact same time. In addition, owing to the large complete variety of samples, but limited sample variety which could be purified at the same time, only samples from mice at the same age and identical variety of antenatal injections ended up compared to every other by using a two-tailed Student`s t-take a look at. Data are offered as the signifies ± SEM. The major tight junction molecule and mind endothelial mobile marker claudin-five was investigated originally. Triple maternal DEX remedy drastically decreased claudin-5 mRNA expression to .54 ...
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
Epithelial barrier dysfunction is a significant factor in many allergic diseases, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Infiltrating leukocytes and tissue adaptations increase metabolic demands and decrease oxygen availability at barrier surfaces. Understanding of how these processes impact barrier is limited, particularly in allergy. Here, we identified a regulatory axis whereby the oxygen-sensing transcription factor HIF-1α orchestrated epithelial barrier integrity, selectively controlling tight junction CLDN1 (claudin-1). Prolonged experimental hypoxia or HIF1A knockdown suppressed HIF-1α-dependent claudin-1 expression and epithelial barrier function, as documented in 3D organotypic epithelial cultures. L2-IL5OXA mice with EoE-relevant allergic inflammation displayed localized eosinophil oxygen metabolism, tissue hypoxia, and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of esophageal epithelial-targeted stabilized ...
Findings: hCMEC/D3 cells express claudins-3 and -12. Claudin-3 is distinctly localized to the TJ whereas claudin -12 is observed in the perinuclear region and completely absent from TJs. We show that the expression of both proteins is lost in cell passage numbers where the BBB properties are no longer fully conserved. Expression and localization of claudin-3 is not modulated by simvastatin shown to improve barrier function in vitro and also recommended for routine hCMEC/D3 culture ...
Cytoplasmic expression of claudin-1 in metastatic melanoma cells correlates to increased migration, and increased secretion of MMP-2 in a PKC dependent manner, whereas claudin-1 nuclear expressi...
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Crohns disease; infective colitis is often a cause of one episode of colitis which is mislabelled as ulcerative colitis e.g. transverse colon the portion Causes and symptoms. Biocare Probiotics 30 Billion Which Uk Are Best benefits of Digestive Enzymes for Cats. John McDougall in his book The McDougall Plan summarizes the multiple benefits of fiber (some info Ive taken from other sources too): Fiber has no calories since Probiotic dosages are listed Introduction Giardia Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhea in dogs and cats. Find and study online flashcards from Pathophysiology 3400. Colorectal cancer commonly known as colon cancer or bowel cancer is a melanoma from uncontrolled cell growth in the Probiotics can also play Biocare Probiotics 30 Billion Which Uk Are Best a role in maintaining oral health (bad eath). I know there have been some posts dealing with probiotics and many have questions about wh Stage IIB: Cancer has C colon ...
Complete information for CLDN18 gene (Protein Coding), Claudin 18, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry-the first step of viral infection. Due to the lack of neutralizing anti-CLDN1 antibodies, the role of CLDN1 in the viral entry process is poorly understood. In this study, we produced antibodies directed against the human CLDN1 extracellular loops by genetic immunization and used these antibodies to investigate the mechanistic role of CLDN1 for HCV entry in an infectious HCV cell culture system and human hepatocytes. Antibodies specific for cell surface-expressed CLDN1 specifically inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies specific for CLDN1, scavenger receptor B1, and CD81 show an additive neutralizing capacity compared with either agent used alone. Kinetic studies with anti-CLDN1 and anti-CD81 antibodies demonstrate that HCV interactions with both entry factors occur at a similar time in the internalization process. Anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit the binding of ...
Facts and data of a family history are often able to help in distinguishing between adenocarcinoma and epithelioid mesothelioma. When a patient possesses a family history of carcinoma, it is more likely that he or she suffers from a variant of the disease. When a patient has a history of asbestos exposure, it is more likely that he or she suffers from epithelioid mesothelioma. Or, if you or a loved one got asbestos exposure and received a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, it may be worthwhile to look for a second diagnostic assessment, either by the same oncology specialist or a physician who has adequate experience in mesothelioma cases ...
Facts and data of a family history are often able to help in distinguishing between adenocarcinoma and epithelioid mesothelioma. When a patient possesses a family history of carcinoma, it is more likely that he or she suffers from a variant of the disease. When a patient has a history of asbestos exposure, it is more likely that he or she suffers from epithelioid mesothelioma. Or, if you or a loved one got asbestos exposure and received a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, it may be worthwhile to look for a second diagnostic assessment, either by the same oncology specialist or a physician who has adequate experience in mesothelioma cases ...
1. Glomerular charge selectivity was assessed using the ratio of the clearance of pancreatic isoamylase to the clearance of the more anionic salivary isoamylase (CPAm/CSAm) in 30 normal subjects, 14 patients with minimal proteinuria and 23 patients with heavy proteinuria due to primary glomerulopathies. Seven patients with minimal change nephropathy were studied in relapse and remission.. 2. CPAm/CSAm exceeded 2.0 (range 2.1-6.1) in all normal subjects, indicating that the normal glomerular capillary wall possesses charge selectivity at the molecular size of amylase (molecular mass 56 kDa). 3. CPAm/CSAm was significantly lower in patients with heavy proteinuria than in normal subjects or patients with minimal proteinuria. CPAm/CSAm was low in patients with minimal change nephropathy in relapse and rose into the normal range with steroid-induced remission.. 4. These data suggest that heavy proteinuria in primary glomerulopathies is accompanied by loss of glomerular charge selectivity. Remission ...
immune Uncategorized PA-824, Rabbit Polyclonal to C-RAF (phospho-Thr269). The blood-epididymis barrier (BEB) is formed by epithelial tight junctions mediating selective permeability from the PA-824 epididymal epithelium. the paracellular permeability had been examined by two strategies TER and FITC-Dextran-based tracer diffusion assays. Both assays soon add up to related outcomes indicating a time-dependent disruption from the BEB differentially for the three TGF? isoforms (TGF?3>TGF?1>TGF?2) inside a TGF?-recetor-1 kinase- and Smad-dependent way. The small junction proteins claudin-1 was discovered to be decreased by the procedure with TGF?s whereas occludin had not PA-824 been affected. Epididymal epithelial cells are mainly attentive to TGF?s PA-824 through the basolateral side recommending that TGF? may impact for the epididymal epithelium through the stroma cell tradition versions the knockdown of 1 of the claudins (1 -3 -4 or -7) led to dramatically reduced transepithelial electrical level ...
The results of this study show that the amount of mobile receptor and the speed at which it diffuses varies according to its location within the cell. CD81 and claudin-1 are expressed equally in the filopodia and plasma membrane, whereas SR-BI is expressed at lower levels in the filopodia compared to the plasma membrane. We show that addition of both sE2 and sE1E2 has varying affects on both the speed and mobility of CD81 and claudin-1 and that the majority of significant effects observed for claudin-1 are observed at areas of potential cell contact. Finally, we demonstrate that addition of ITX5061 affects the diffusion coefficient of CD81 and CLDN-1 and the amount of mobile SR-BI. Furthermore, the effects on SR-BI are limited to areas of cell contact or exploratory regions. In summary, we present data which we hope will further current knowledge of the activity of these receptors in relation to their role in HCV infection ...
The tight junctions (TJ), which are located in the apical region between epithelial and endothelial cells, regulate the paracellular diffusion of ions and small molecules and play an important role in maintaining cell polarity, cell-cell integrity, and permeability. In the lung, epithelial cells are attached by TJ structures. They provide a permeable barrier and cell communication. The loss of barrier integrity, which is maintained by the expression of claudins (Cldn), results in cellular permibilization and leads to paracellular diffusion of solutes and harmful molecules. There are 27 known Cldn homologous members in mice and human. Cldn6 is mostly expressed in embryonic stem cells and associated with the programing of epithelial cells during embryo development and lung morphogenesis. In order to test the hypothesis that Cldn6 expression affects lung morphogenesis, we analyzed the expression pattern of Cldn6 during lung ontogenesis to examine cell-specific expression pattern of Cldn6 during each
The C\terminal fragment of enterotoxin (C\CPE) modulates the tight junction protein claudin and disturbs the tight junctional barrier. epithelial cells (HPDEs) had been treated with C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19. In well\differentiated cells of the pancreatic malignancy cell collection HPAC, C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19 interrupted both the hurdle and fencing features without adjustments in manifestation of claudin\1 and \4, collectively with an boost of MAPK phosphorylation. C\CPE 194, but not really C\CPE meters19, improved the cytotoxicity of the anticancer brokers gemcitabine and H\1. In differentiated pancreatic malignancy cell collection PANC\1 badly, C\CPE 194, but not really C\CPE meters19, reduced claudin\4 phrase and improved MAPK activity and the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agencies. In regular HPDEs, C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19 reduced claudin\4 phrase and improved the MAPK activity, whereas they do not really influence the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agencies. Our results ...
The differentiation between adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma can be difficult at histology. In this case, the initial histological diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was revised following review of clinical and radiologal features, and the cor...
Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is a structural tight junction (TJ) protein and is expressed in differentiating keratinocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Our objective was to identify immunoreactive CLDN1 in human epidermal Langerhans cells and to examine the pattern of epidermal Langerhans cells in genetic human CLDN1 deficiency [neonatal ichthyosis, sclerosing cholangitis (NISCH) syndrome]. Epidermal cells from healthy human skin labelled with CLDN1-specific antibodies were analysed by confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Skin biopsy sections of two patients with NISCH syndrome were stained with an antibody to CD1a expressed on epidermal Langerhans cells. Epidermal Langerhans cells and a subpopulation of keratinocytes from healthy skin were positive for CLDN1. The gross number and distribution of epidermal Langerhans cells of two patients with molecularly confirmed NISCH syndrome, however, was not grossly altered. Therefore, CLDN1 is unlikely to play a critical role in ...
Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe autosomal recessive human diarrheal disorder with characteristic intestinal epithelial dysplasia. CTE can be caused by mutations in genes encoding EpCAM, a putative adhesion molecule, and HAI-2, a cell surface protease inhibitor. A similar phenotype occurs in mice whose intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) fail to express the tight junction-associated protein claudin-7. EpCAM stabilizes claudin-7 in IECs, and HAI-2 regulates the cell surface serine protease matriptase, a known modifier of intestinal epithelial physiology. Therefore, we hypothesized that HAI-2, matriptase, EpCAM, and claudin-7 were functionally linked. Herein we have demonstrated that active matriptase cleaves EpCAM after Arg80 and that loss of HAI-2 in IECs led to unrestrained matriptase activity and efficient cleavage of EpCAM. Cleavage of EpCAM decreased its ability to associate with claudin-7 and targeted it for internalization and lysosomal degradation in conjunction with ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The tight junction regulates passage of molecules throuth the paracellular spaces. Occludin and claudins are the specific trancmembrance protains present at the tight junction and are believed to regulate the cell barrier functions. To examine the response of the tight junction to hyperosmotic solutions, Ⅰinvestigated the effects of hyperosmotic glycerol on function and protein expression of the tight junction in ECV304 cells. Cell cytotoxicity analysis showed that the high (10%) concentration of glcerol damaged 64.1% of the ECV304 cells (p<0.001), and this was confirmed morphologically. Treatment with 1%, 2% or 5% glyserol increased the paracellular permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled dextran by 4.7%, 18.7% and 29.4% (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, exposure to glycerol at any concentration strongly reduced the expression of occludin, whereas enpression of claudin-1 was affected very slightly. These results suggest that hyperosmotic glycerol would certainly ...
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Expression of CLDN4 (CPE-R, CPETR, CPETR1, hCPE-R, WBSCR8) in rectum tissue. Antibody staining with CAB002610 in immunohistochemistry.
Tight junctions between epithelial and endothelial cells form selective barriers and paracellular channels and regulate paracellular transport of solutes, immune cells, and drugs. More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and endothelia. Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that allow for permeation between the cells. Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I showcases work in this area clustered around three major themes: the molecular properties of tight junctions, for example, the role of the claudin family of proteins and the formation of ion and charge-selective channels; the regulation of tight junction
In this study, we demonstrated (I) distinct expression patterns of five genes encoding for proteins involved in the formation of tight junctions in esophageal mucosa. In particular Claudin-1 in ERD and to lesser extent Claudin-2 was expressed at higher levels in patients with GERD. In contrast, ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin were not affected by the presence of GERD. (II) In general, altered gene expression of Claudin-1/-2 did not correlate with the degree of histomorphological changes in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD.. Tight junctions are composed of transmembrane proteins such as Occludin, 24 Claudins, several junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) with different isoforms, E-Cadherin as well as cytosolic binding partners [43, 44]. The selection of the five genes studied was based on functional aspects. Occludin is critical for the formation of tight junctions in most tissues [45]. Claudin-1 is one of the numerous Claudins that seals intercellular space leading to higher barrier function ...
To investigate, researchers used a mouse model infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse equivalent of an E. coli infection. Using this model, they saw an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier within just two days of infection -- well before inflammation and epithelial damage. In particular, they uncovered a critical role for interleukin-22 that in turn influences another molecule called claudin-2, previously known to be involved in causing diarrhea. They found that diarrhea resulting from the signaling of these two molecules helped promote pathogen clearance and limited disease severity ...
Expression of CLDN7 (CEPTRL2, CPETRL2, Hs.84359) in tonsil tissue. Antibody staining with HPA014703 and CAB013063 in immunohistochemistry.
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Adiponectin兔多克隆抗体(ab18839)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TY - PAT. T1 - Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Paracellular Permeability across Epithelial and Endothelial Barriers. AU - Thakker,Dhiren R.. AU - Ward,Peter D.. N1 - Status: published applicationnumber: 09/974,519 usclass: 514/75 ; 514/642; 514/76; 514/946 applicationnumber: 09/974,519. PY - 1800. Y1 - 1800. N2 - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method includes: (a) administering an effective amount of a phospholipase C inhibitor to a subject at a time in which enhanced paracellular permeability is desired; and (b) enhancing paracellular permeability in the subject at the absorption site through the administering of the effective amount of the phospholipase C inhibitor. The disclosed compositions and methods provide enhanced absorption of a hydrophilic drug in a subject.. AB - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method ...
The precise regulation of intestinal epithelial TJs is crucial to maintaining barrier function between the luminal milieu and the internal environment. Recent studies have revealed an important role for Rho GTPases in regulating TJ structure/function (22, 29). In particular, TJ strand organization has been shown to be altered by constitutively active RhoA and Rac1 mutants (22) and inactivation of GTPases by C. difficile toxins is known to cause redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from membrane microdomains or membrane rafts (32). As a result, we have further explored the mechanisms whereby paracellular permeability is influenced by this family of mediators and investigated whether the inactivation of a single GTPase (RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42) has an effect on TJ distribution in such membrane rafts and whether TJ proteins involved in strand formation (such as claudin-1 and -2) are altered in this setting.. Using MDCK cell lines that express constitutively active or dominant-negative RhoA, Rac1, or ...
Claudin 7 antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech validated in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunofluorescence (IF), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with human,mouse samples. Cat.No. 10118-1-AP.
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CLDN1 protein. CLDN1 (NP_066924.1, 1 a.a. ~ 211 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00009076-B01P) - Products - Abnova
CLDN20 - human gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN205032G1|/strong|, CLDN20 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Van Itallie CM, Mitic LL, Anderson JM (July 2012). "SUMOylation of claudin-2". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1258 ... 6 (4): 1045-1048. doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1472. PMC 3796434 . PMID 24137461. Galanty Y, Belotserkovskaya R, Coates J, Polo S, ... 25 (3): 112-4. doi:10.1016/s0968-0004(99)01537-6. PMID 10694879. Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG (January 2000). "The coregulator ... 1): 60-4. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06541.x. PMID 22731716. Duval D, Duval G, Kedinger C, Poch O, Boeuf H (November 2003). " ...
Claudin 4, also known as CLDN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN4 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins ... This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the claudin family. The protein is a component of tight ... 2003). "Claudin-4 expression decreases invasiveness and metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer". Cancer Res. 63 (19): 6265- ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
"Claudin-1 overexpression effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line". NCBI GEO Profiles. Retrieved 4 May 2015. Vandepoele K, Van ... Retrieved 4 May 2015. Nathan JA, Kim HT, Ting L, Gygi SP, Goldberg AL (February 2013). "Why do cellular proteins linked to K63- ... 32 (4): 552-65. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.354. PMC 3579138 . PMID 23314748. Kim W, Bennett EJ, Huttlin EL, Guo A, Li J, Possemato ... Retrieved 4 May 2015. Davis-Smyth T, Duncan RC, Zheng T, Michelotti G, Levens D (December 1996). "The far upstream element- ...
Claudin-17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN17 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. It forms anion- ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN17 claudin 17". Krug SM, Günzel D, Conrad MP, Rosenthal R, Fromm A, Amasheh S, Schulzke JD, Fromm M (2012). " ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...
Claudin-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN14 gene. It belongs to a related family of proteins called ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN14 claudin 14". Baker M, Reynolds LE, Robinson SD, Lees DM, Parsons M, Elia G, et al. (2013). "Stromal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Sticky cells, blood vessels and cancer - the paradox of Claudin-14 - Marianne Baker, Cancer Research UK Science Update blog, 14 ...
Claudin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN5 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN5 claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome)". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, ... Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, Rizzolo LJ (2002). "Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2002). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
2007). "Claudin-6 and claudin-9 function as additional coreceptors for hepatitis C virus". J. Virol. 81 (22): 12465-71. doi: ... Claudin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN9 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene is involved ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN9 claudin 9". Gene discovery reveals a critical protein's function in hearing Human CLDN9 genome location and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
"Entrez Gene: CLDN1 claudin 1". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... Claudin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN1 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... Miyamori H, Takino T, Kobayashi Y, Tokai H, Itoh Y, Seiki M, Sato H (2001). "Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix ...
Claudin-22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN22 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ... CLDN22 claudin 22". Human CLDN22 genome location and CLDN22 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. González-Mariscal L, ...
Claudin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN11 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. The protein encoded ... 2001). "Osp/Claudin-11 Forms a Complex with a Novel Member of the Tetraspanin Super Family and β1 Integrin and Regulates ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN11 claudin 11 (oligodendrocyte transmembrane protein)". Human CLDN11 genome location and CLDN11 gene details ... 2000). "CNS myelin and sertoli cell tight junction strands are absent in Osp/claudin-11 null mice". Cell. 99 (6): 649-59. doi: ...
Claudin 3, also known as CLDN3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN3 gene. It is a member of the claudin ... CLDN3 claudin 3". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin interactions in airway ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer Res ... The protein encoded by this intron-less gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component ...
... claudin 18". Niimi T, Nagashima K, Ward JM, et al. (2001). "claudin-18, a Novel Downstream Target Gene for the T/EBP/ ... Claudin 18.2) is abundant in gastric tumors. Experimental antibody IMAB362 targets Claudin 18.2 to help treat gastric cancers. ... Claudin-18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN18 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. CLDN18 belongs to ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN19 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudin-19 has been ... CLDN19 claudin 19". Naeem, M.; Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. (2011). "Mutation in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 (CLDN19) and ... 2006). "Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease". ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN15 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Among its related ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ... CLDN15 claudin 15". Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "CLDN15 Gene - GeneCards , CLD15 Protein , CLD15 Antibody". www.genecards. ...
Morita K, Sasaki H, Furuse M, Tsukita S (1999). "Endothelial Claudin: Claudin-5/Tmvcf Constitutes Tight Junction Strands in ... Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN6 claudin 6". Human CLDN6 genome location and CLDN6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...
Claudin-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN16 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... 2004). "A Novel Claudin 16 Mutation Associated with Childhood Hypercalciuria Abolishes Binding to ZO-1 and Results in Lysosomal ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN16 claudin 16". "Salmonella infection data for Cldn16". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter ...
Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... Claudin-2 is expressed in cation-leaky epithelia such as that of the kidney proximal tubule. Mice that are deficient in claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Saitou, M.; Furuse, K.; Sasaki, H ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ...
Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2001). "claudin-18, a novel downstream target gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 homeodomain transcription factor, encodes lung- and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... 2004). "Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-4, -8, and -12 in bladder epithelium". Am. J. ...
Claudin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN7 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudins, such as ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN7 claudin 7". Human CLDN7 genome location and CLDN7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... 2005). "Claudin-1 is a strong prognostic indicator in stage II colonic cancer: a tissue microarray study". Mod. Pathol. 18 (4 ... 2003). "Loss of the tight junction protein claudin-7 correlates with histological grade in both ductal carcinoma in situ and ...
Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U., Anguita, F. and Ernstson, T. 2001. Impact melt rocks, shock metamorphism, and ... 124 p. "Norton, O.R. (2002) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites" Ernstson K. and Claudin F. (1990) Pelarda Formation ( ... Rundschau) 81(2):403-427 [1] Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U. & Hradil, K. (2002): The mid-Tertiary Azuara and Rubielos ... Geology, 29: 11-14.[4] EDEIS Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures. ...
... claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin ... Paschoud S, Bongiovanni M, Pache JC, Citi S (September 2007). "Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung ... Guillemot L, Citi S (August 2006). "Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase ... Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent ...
This mechanism is mediated by host claudin-3 and claudin-4 receptors, situated at the tight junctions. Clostridium enterotoxin ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer ... This allows the human claudin-3,4,6,7,8 and 14 to bind but not 1,2,5, and 10. The way the protein work is it destroys the cell ... Van Itallie CM, Betts L, Smedley JG, McClane BA, Anderson JM (January 2008). "Structure of the claudin-binding domain of ...
"Claudin-14 regulates renal Ca++ transport in response to CaSR signalling via a novel microRNA pathway". The EMBO Journal. 31 (8 ... 4: 65. doi:10.1186/1755-8794-4-65. PMC 3195087 . PMID 21923954. Delić, D.; Dkhil, M.; Al-Quraishy, S.; Wunderlich, F. (2010). " ... MicroRNA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gong, Y.; Renigunta, V.; Himmerkus, N.; Zhang, J.; Renigunta, A.; Bleich, M.; Hou, J. (2012). " ...
2012 - In silico directed mutagenesis identifies the CD81/claudin-1 hepatitis C virus receptor interface. Davis C, Harris HJ, ... Cellular microbiology 15: 430-45 Link 2013 - Heterogeneous claudin-1 expression in human liver. Harris HJ, Wilson GK, Hübscher ... Immunotherapy 4: 249-51 Link 2012 - Hepatitis C virus entry: beyond receptors. Meredith LW, Wilson GK, Fletcher NF, McKeating ...
"Occludin is required for apoptosis when claudin-claudin interactions are disrupted." Cell death & disease 3.2 (2012): e273. ... Together with the Claudin group of proteins, it is the main component of the tight junctions. The OCLN gene is located on the ... 13 (4): 1227-1237. doi:10.1091/mbc.01-08-0423. ISSN 1059-1524. PMC 102264 . PMID 11950934. Fanning, A S; Jameson B J; Jesaitis ... These 5 domains are separated by the 4 transmembrane domains of the protein. The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain ...
The gene Claudin-16 was cloned by Simon et al. (1999), but only after a series of reports described the Mg2+ flux itself with ... In particular, Claudin-16 allows the selective reuptake of Mg2+ in the human kidney. Some patients with mutations in the CLDN19 ... Naeem M, Hussain S, Akhtar N (2011). "Mutation in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) and familial hypomagnesemia, ... "Mutations in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) are associated with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and severe ...
Famous composers of these "Parisian" chansons included Claudin de Sermisy and Clément Janequin. Janequin's La guerre, written ... 4] His work is at the origin of the use of the French word "Renaissance" in other languages. ...
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the second extracellular loop of claudin-3, a tight junction integral membrane ... vermutlich Claudin bei CPE,[14] sowie vermutlich GPI-Anker oder andere Glykosylierungen beim ε-Toxin. Durch die ... 6082, 1986, S. 831-4. doi:10.1038/322831a0. PMID 2427956. *↑ a b Marcus Mueller, Ulla Grauschopf, Timm Maier, Rudi Glockshuber ... a b Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Peter Walter, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts: Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4 ...
As a result, a novel homozygous mutation (c.346C , G, p.Leu116Val) in 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin 16 was identified. Her ... claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin ... FHHNC in the Chinese population and identified a novel missense mutation in the highly conserved 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin ... Sixty mutations of claudin 16 coding gene have been reported in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and ...
A recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subtype that is characterized by the enrichment of EMT and stem cell-like ... The critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of claudin expression indicates the possible application of ... in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of various cancers. Although their dysregulation in ... Altered expression of several claudin proteins, in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of ...
... of a variant small acid-soluble protein-4 that binds more tightly to spore DNA than to the small acid-soluble protein-4 made by ... CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... Human claudin-8 and -14 are receptors capable of conveying the cytotoxic effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. MBio 4 ...
... is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 ... alteplase; claudin 5; gadolinium pentetate; occludin; age distribution; aged; aging; animal experiment; animal model; article; ... mediated through the acute disassembly of claudin 5 and occludin. Increased T 2 values over the first hour of postreperfusion ... Both tPA and age independently increased claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation during ischemia. Early BBB permeability ...
Rabbit polyclonal Claudin 4 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 16 publications ... Anti-Claudin 4 antibody (ab15104) at 1 µg/ml + SHSY-5Y (Human neuroblastoma cell line) Whole Cell Lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. ... Expression of claudin 1, 4 and 7 in thyroid neoplasms.. Oncol Lett 13:3722-3726 (2017). Read more (PubMed: 28529587) » ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Claudin 4 antibody (ab15104)Lean QY et al. PLoS One ...
Mislocalization claudin-3 (zeige CLDN3 Antikörper) to nucleus in colon cancer and mislocalization claudin-4 to nucleus in ... Claudin 4 (CLDN4) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the ... Mouse (Murine) Claudin 4 (CLDN4) Interaktionspartner * Reg (zeige KCNH2 Antikörper) I may play a role in the maintenance of ... Show all anti-Claudin 4 (CLDN4) Antikörper with Pubmed References. * Human Polyclonal CLDN4 Primary Antibody für IF (p), IHC (p ...
In particular, claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. 18F-Labeled claudin selective ... In this work we describe the synthesis of the first 18F-labeled probes potentially suitable for PET imaging of claudin-4 ... These probes were prepared using oxime ligation of 5-[18F]fluoro-5-deoxyribose (5-[18F]FDR) to claudin selective peptides. As a ... As such, cancer expression of claudin proteins is markedly dysregulated, making it an attractive target for molecular imaging ...
Anti-Claudin 4 pAb (GTX31496) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Claudin 4 antibody (claudin 4) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. ... claudin 4. Background. The protein encoded by this intronless ... IHC-P analysis of human colon tissue using GTX31496 Claudin 4 antibody. Working concentration : 20 μg/ml. Top ... IHC-P analysis of human colon tissue using GTX31496 Claudin 4 antibody. Working concentration : 20 μg/ml. Top ...
The graph plots aggregation by the particle number at a time point divided by the particle number at time 0 (Nt/No). Claudin-1 ... PKH26-labeled untransfected L-cells (red) were mixed 1:1 with unlabeled untransfected L-cells (top row), GFP-Claudin-1- ... Expression of Claudin-1 or Cacng2 promotes cell aggregation, as shown by microscopy and particle counts. ... Because stargazin is structurally similar to claudins, we hypothesized that it might also have retained claudin-like functions ...
Claudin is up-regulated in a variety of tumor types, but the causes and consequences of increased claudin expression in gastric ... Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer but not in ovarian cystadenomas ... Although claudin-4 has been shown by gene expression profiling to be overexpressed in pancreas (9, 34), breast (10), ovarian ( ... Claudin-4. Claudin-4 immunolabeling results are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Normal gastric mucosa distant from the primary ...
Claudin-4 - Proteins. Product filter Claudin-4 molecule 4-1BB Ligand 4-1BB Receptor 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, ... Claudin-4 Club Cell Protein Clusterin CNTF Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing Protein 1 Collectrin Complement C1q Tumor ... BTI-Tn-5B1-4) Hi-5 Insect cells* Baculovirus Bovine Heart Canine pooled serum Canine urine Cell Culture E. coli HEK293 HEK293 ... MCP-4 MCP-5 M-CSF MDC MEC Menopausal Gonadotropin Metadherin Meteorin-Like Protein MIA MIA-2 Midkine MIG MIP-1alpha MIP-1beta ...
... ... significant cytoplasmic staining appeared both for claudin 1 (p = 0.04) and claudin 4 (p = 0.01). Tumor samples were ... Altered claudin expression has been described in colon, prostatic, ovarian, and breast carcinoma. However, the role of ... Tight junction, methylation, colon cancer, claudin Nationell ämneskategori Cancer och onkologi Identifikatorer. URN: urn:nbn:se ...
Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of ... Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions ... the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an ... the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that demonstrated a favorable prognosis (3). Loss of ...
Down-regulation of claudin-4 (CLDN4) produces a loss of E-cadherin and increased β-catenin signaling and a phenotype similar to ... Down-regulation of claudin-4 (CLDN4) produces a loss of E-cadherin and increased β-catenin signaling and a phenotype similar to ...
show that the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition transcription factor Snail induces claudin-11 expression and suppresses RhoA ... Supplementary Figure 5 Tyrosine-phosphorylated claudin-11 recruits and activates Src.. (a) Amino acid sequence of claudin-11 ( ... Shang, X., Lin, X., Alvarez, E., Manorek, G. & Howell, S. B. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 control tumor ... Supplementary Figure 7: Expression of Snail or claudin-11 correlates with an advanced HNSCC and a worse prognosis.. ...
Diverse regulation of claudin-1 and claudin-4 in atopic dermatitis.. 26109060. 2015. Prognostic and clinical significance of ... increased claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression may play a postive role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer. ... claudin 1 and claudin 4 are differentially involved in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. ... that claudin-4 can be helpful at least in making a reliable differential diagnosis of spiradenoma when overlapping morphologic ...
Compare Claudin 7 ELISA Kits from LifeSpan BioSciences from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Claudin 7 ELISA Kits from LifeSpan BioSciences. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Mouse/Human/Rat Phospho-CLDN7 / Claudin 7 (Tyr210) ELISA Kit (Cell-Based Phosphorylation ELISA) LifeSpan BioSciences ... Mouse/Human/Rat CLDN7 / Claudin 7 ELISA Kit (Cell-Based ELISA) LifeSpan BioSciences ...
show that a disease-causing effect of claudin-19 mutations is due to a defective visual cycle from a decreased expression of ... This study explains why claudin-19 mutations alter the expression of RPE signature gene… ... In the kidney, claudin-19 must be complexed with claudin-16 to reach the cell surface27,45. However, human RPE delivers claudin ... ARPE-19 and the kidney cell lines, MDCK and LLC-PK1, do not express claudin-16 or claudin-19. Nonetheless, when claudin-19 is ...
Claudin-4 qPCR primer pairs, Claudin-4 are screened with high specificity & sensitivity, validated by strict process ... Claudin-4 cDNA ORF Clone, Rat, C-GFPSpark® tag. RG80641-ACG. Claudin-4 Lentiviral cDNA ORF Clone, Rat, C-GFPSpark® tag. RG80641 ... Claudin-4 cDNA ORF Clone, Human, C-GFPSpark® tag. HG16358-ACG. Claudin-4 Lentiviral cDNA ORF Clone, Human, C-GFPSpark® tag. ... Claudin-4 Background Information. CLDN4 (encoding claudin-4), a cell tight junction (TJ) protein, is highly expressed in human ...
Claudin 4) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit ... Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin ... Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin 4) ELISA Kit Rabbit CLDN4 (Claudin ...
This work shows synergy between MET and TP53 loss for claudin-low breast cancer, identifies a restricted claudin-low gene ... Met synergizes with p53 loss to induce mammary tumors that possess features of claudin-low breast cancer.. Knight JF1, Lesurf R ... In both models, MET activity is required for maintenance of the claudin-low morphological phenotype, in which MET inhibitors ... Treatment of spindloid tumor cells with pharmacological MET inhibitors leads to reversal of the claudin-low phenotype. MMTV-Met ...
The name claudin comes from Latin word claudere ("to close"), suggesting the barrier role of these proteins. A recent review ... All human claudins (with the exception of Claudin 12) have domains that let them bind to PDZ domains of scaffold proteins. ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (June 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins ... "A systems proteomics view of the endogenous human claudin protein family". J Proteome Res. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00769. ...
claudin 4. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins that are ...
The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:186.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Claudin-18 gene structure, regulation, and expression is evolutionary conserved in mammals. Gene. 2011;481:83-92.PubMedCrossRef ... Claudin-18 is an early-stage marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:942-952.PubMedCentralPubMed ... miR-1303 Claudin-18 Stomach neoplasms Proliferation Invasion This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ...
While some claudin family members play essential roles in the formation of impermeable barriers, others mediate the ... Often, several claudin family members are coexpressed and interact with each other, and this determines the overall ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ...
  • Recent investigations revealed that a highly conserved glycine-leucine-tryptophan ( 115 G-L-W 117 ) motif in the first extracellular segment (ESC1) of claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin 16 function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A 33-year-old female presented with 4 years history of recurrent acute pyelonephritis without other notable past medical history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • they demonstrate ion and size selectivity, and their barrier function varies significantly in tightness, depending on the cell type and physiologic requirements ( 4 , 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The simulations suggest that the selectivity filter is formed by a cage of four aspartic acid residues (D55), contributed by four claudin-15 molecules, which creates a negative electrostatic potential to favor cation flux over anion flux. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, our model provides an atomic view of claudin channels, their transport function, and a potential three-dimensional organization of its selectivity filter. (rupress.org)
  • Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with integrin α2 in Cldn7 +/+ mouse intestines where claudin-7 was highly expressed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼20% of cases and contributes to basal and claudin-low molecular subclasses of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • The pivotal role of EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasingly recognized and various molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular EMT have been identified ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to build and refine an atomic model of claudin-15 channels and study its transport properties. (rupress.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 was studied by ICC, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. (open.ac.uk)
  • ICC revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of endothelial monolayers was greatly enhanced by TGF-β1 treatment, and immunoprecipitation of cell lysates showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. (open.ac.uk)
  • These results indicate that claudin-4 is dispensable for the barrier property of TJs in wild-type as well as claudin-2 knockout MDCK II cells. (bireme.br)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of healthy and colitis mouse colon sections (untreated and treated with enoxaparin) labeling claudin-4 with ab15104 at 1/200. (abcam.com)
  • Bartholow TL, Chandran UR , Becich MJ , Parwani AV. Immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-3 in primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. (pitt.edu)
  • OSP/claudin-11 forms a complex with a novel member of the tetraspanin super family and beta1 integrin and regulates proliferation and migration of oligodendrocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). (biocare.net)
  • In this thesis, monomeric architectures of claudin-3, -4, and -19 were developed using in silico homology modeling. (syr.edu)
  • It was recently demonstrated that heterogeneous claudin species are copolymerized to form individual TJ strands as heteropolymers and that, between adjacent TJ strands, claudin molecules adhere to each other in both homotypic and heterotypic manners, except in some combinations ( 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Importantly, detailed analyses suggested that variations in the tightness of individual paired TJ strands are determined by the combinations and mixing ratios of claudin species ( 3 , 15 - 17 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, corresponding to a region within internal sequence amino acids 97-126 of Human Claudin 22 (NP_001104789.1). (abcam.com)
  • Claudin de Sermisy (c. 1490 - 13 October 1562) was a French composer of the Renaissance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it has been shown that ameloblasts repeatedly alternate between an SA and an RA morphology during enamel maturation, the presence of claudin-1 in the Golgi cisterns may indicate the presence of tight junction precursors before transportation to the junctional area. (frontiersin.org)