Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Claudin-2: A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It is localized to the TIGHT JUNCTIONS of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.PhosphoproteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Phosphorylation of claudin-2 on serine 208 promotes membrane retention and reduces trafficking to lysosomes. (1/13)

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Epithelial permeability alterations in an in vitro air-liquid interface model of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. (2/13)

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Myofibroblast keratinocyte growth factor reduces tight junctional integrity and increases claudin-2 levels in polarized Caco-2 cells. (3/13)

The colonic epithelium is composed of a polarized monolayer sheathed by a layer of pericryptal myofibroblasts (PCMFs). We mimicked these cellular compartments in vitro to assess the effects of paracrine-acting PCMF-derived factors on tight junction (TJ) integrity, as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Coculture with 18Co PCMFs, or basolateral administration of 18Co conditioned medium, significantly reduced TER of polarized Caco-2 cells. Among candidate paracrine factors, only keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) reduced Caco-2 TER; basolateral KGF treatment led to time- and concentration-dependent increases in claudin-2 levels. We also demonstrate that amphiregulin (AREG), produced largely by Caco-2 cells, increased claudin-2 levels, leading to epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated TER reduction. We propose that colonic epithelial TJ integrity can be modulated by paracrine KGF and autocrine AREG through increased claudin-2 levels. KGF-regulated claudin-2 induction may have implications for inflammatory bowel disease, where both KGF and claudin-2 are upregulated.  (+info)

Effects of a high-sodium diet on renal tubule Ca2+ transporter and claudin expression in Wistar-Kyoto rats. (4/13)

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STAT6 deficiency ameliorates severity of oxazolone colitis by decreasing expression of claudin-2 and Th2-inducing cytokines. (5/13)

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The junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin modulate the expression of tight junction protein genes through GATA-4. (6/13)

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Epithelial barrier assembly requires coordinated activity of multiple domains of the tight junction protein ZO-1. (7/13)

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Scanning ion conductance microscopy measurement of paracellular channel conductance in tight junctions. (8/13)

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*Manuel Azcárate

ISBN 978-84-7222-878-8. Azcárate, Manuel; Fernando Claudin (1979). Marc Abeles; Charles-Albert Ryng, eds. L'Europe de ... ISBN 2-7071-1102-3. Azcárate, Manuel (1980). Interrogantes ante la izquierda (in Spanish). Marc Abeles, Charles-Albert Ryng, ... ISBN 2-13-037918-4. ISSN 0398-7922. Azcárate, Manuel (1986). La izquierda europea (in Spanish). Madrid: Ediciones El País. ... ISBN 2-7157-1054-2. Azcárate, Manuel (1982). La crisis del eurocomunismo. Primera plana (in Spanish). Barcelona: Argos Vergara ...

*Protein inhibitor of activated STAT

Van Itallie CM, Mitic LL, Anderson JM (July 2012). "SUMOylation of claudin-2". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1258 ... 554 (1-2): 111-8. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)01116-5. PMID 14596924. Wong KA, Kim R, Christofk H, Gao J, Lawson G, Wu H (June ... 14 (2): 121-41. doi:10.1101/gad.14.2.121. PMID 10652267. Ogata Y, Osaki T, Naka T, Iwahori K, Furukawa M, Nagatomo I, Kijima T ... 229 (1-2): 109-16. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00033-5. PMID 10095110. Betz A, Lampen N, Martinek S, Young MW, Darnell JE (August ...

*CLDN7

Claudin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN7 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudins, such as ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN7 claudin 7". Human CLDN7 genome location and CLDN7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... 2005). "Claudin-1 is a strong prognostic indicator in stage II colonic cancer: a tissue microarray study". Mod. Pathol. 18 (4 ... 2003). "Loss of the tight junction protein claudin-7 correlates with histological grade in both ductal carcinoma in situ and ...

*CLDN8

Claudin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN8 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN8 claudin 8". Human CLDN8 genome location and CLDN8 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...

*CLDN2

Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Saitou, M.; Furuse, K.; Sasaki, H ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ... Furthermore, claudin-2 has been shown to form paracellular channels for water. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165376 - ...

*CLDN11

Claudin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN11 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. The protein encoded ... 2001). "Osp/Claudin-11 Forms a Complex with a Novel Member of the Tetraspanin Super Family and β1 Integrin and Regulates ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN11 claudin 11 (oligodendrocyte transmembrane protein)". Human CLDN11 genome location and CLDN11 gene details ... 2000). "CNS myelin and sertoli cell tight junction strands are absent in Osp/claudin-11 null mice". Cell. 99 (6): 649-59. doi: ...

*CLDN12

Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2001). "claudin-18, a novel downstream target gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 homeodomain transcription factor, encodes lung- and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... 2004). "Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-4, -8, and -12 in bladder epithelium". Am. J. ...

*CLDN17

Claudin-17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN17 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. It forms anion- ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN17 claudin 17". Krug SM, Günzel D, Conrad MP, Rosenthal R, Fromm A, Amasheh S, Schulzke JD, Fromm M (2012). " ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...

*CLDN14

Claudin-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN14 gene. It belongs to a related family of proteins called ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN14 claudin 14". Baker M, Reynolds LE, Robinson SD, Lees DM, Parsons M, Elia G, et al. (2013). "Stromal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Sticky cells, blood vessels and cancer - the paradox of Claudin-14 - Marianne Baker, Cancer Research UK Science Update blog, 14 ...

*CLDN5

Claudin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN5 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN5 claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome)". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, ... Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, Rizzolo LJ (2002). "Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2002). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN9

2007). "Claudin-6 and claudin-9 function as additional coreceptors for hepatitis C virus". J. Virol. 81 (22): 12465-71. doi: ... Claudin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN9 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene is involved ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN9 claudin 9". Gene discovery reveals a critical protein's function in hearing Human CLDN9 genome location and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN1

"Entrez Gene: CLDN1 claudin 1". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... Claudin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN1 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... Miyamori H, Takino T, Kobayashi Y, Tokai H, Itoh Y, Seiki M, Sato H (2001). "Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix ...

*CLDN3

Claudin 3, also known as CLDN3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN3 gene. It is a member of the claudin ... CLDN3 claudin 3". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin interactions in airway ... "Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium". Cancer Res ... The protein encoded by this intron-less gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component ...

*CLDN18

... claudin 18". Niimi T, Nagashima K, Ward JM, et al. (2001). "claudin-18, a Novel Downstream Target Gene for the T/EBP/ ... Claudin 18.2) is abundant in gastric tumors. Experimental antibody IMAB362 targets Claudin 18.2 to help treat gastric cancers. ... Claudin-18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN18 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. CLDN18 belongs to ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN19

Claudin-19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN19 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudin-19 has been ... CLDN19 claudin 19". Naeem, M.; Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. (2011). "Mutation in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 (CLDN19) and ... 2006). "Kidney claudin-19: localization in distal tubules and collecting ducts and dysregulation in polycystic renal disease". ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN15

Claudin-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN15 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Among its related ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ... CLDN15 claudin 15". Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "CLDN15 Gene - GeneCards , CLD15 Protein , CLD15 Antibody". www.genecards. ...

*CLDN16

Claudin-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN16 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... 2004). "A Novel Claudin 16 Mutation Associated with Childhood Hypercalciuria Abolishes Binding to ZO-1 and Results in Lysosomal ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN16 claudin 16". "Salmonella infection data for Cldn16". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter ...

*Chromosome 3

CLDND1: Claudin domain containing 1. *CPN2: Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2. *CPOX: coproporphyrinogen oxidase (coproporphyria, ... 978-1-136-84407-2. .. *^ a b c Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). ... ZBED2: encoding protein Zinc finger BED-type containing 2. *ZNF9: zinc finger protein 9 (a cellular retroviral nucleic acid ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN ...

*CLDN10

Claudin-10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN10 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN10 claudin 10". Human CLDN10 genome location and CLDN10 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel ... 2005). "Claudin-10 expression level is associated with recurrence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (2 ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*Epiboly

Claudin E is a molecule found in tight junctions that appears to be expressed in the EVL and required for normal zebrafish ... "The tight junction component claudin E is required for zebra fish epiboly". Developmental Dynamics. 239. doi:10.1002/dvdy.22172 ... 83 (1-2): 77-94. doi:10.1016/S0925-4773(99)00036-2. PMID 10381569. Conway G, Margoliath A, Wong-Madden S, Roberts RJ, Gilbert W ... 346 (2): 272-83. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.07.037. PMC 2956273 . PMID 20692251. Fang Lin; Songhai Chen; Diane S. Sepich; ...

*IMAB362

... (Claudiximab) is a monoclonal antibody against isoform 2 of Claudin-18. It is under investigation for the treatment of ...

*CLDN4

Claudin 4, also known as CLDN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN4 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins ... This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the claudin family. The protein is a component of tight ... 2003). "Claudin-4 expression decreases invasiveness and metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer". Cancer Res. 63 (19): 6265- ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN6

Morita K, Sasaki H, Furuse M, Tsukita S (1999). "Endothelial Claudin: Claudin-5/Tmvcf Constitutes Tight Junction Strands in ... Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN6 claudin 6". Human CLDN6 genome location and CLDN6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*Cingulin

... claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin-2 and ZO-3 ... Paschoud S, Bongiovanni M, Pache JC, Citi S (September 2007). "Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung ... Guillemot L, Citi S (August 2006). "Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase ... Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent ...

*MMP3

The WT mice were shown to have lower claudin-5 and occludin levels than the KO mice after TBI. Claudin and occludin are ... The study showed that MMP-3 accomplishes this damage by degrading claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 (another tight junction protein ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (Jun 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing ... Both the WT and KO tissues showed a drop in claudin-5, occludin, and laminin-α1 (a basal lamina protein), suggesting that MMP-3 ...

*망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전

Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the development of the retinal pigment epithelium. J Membr Biol 186: 81-88, 2002 ... 2] IPM에 의하여 망막색소상피 전구체가 망막색소상피세포로 성숙된다.[3] 해부학적 위치[편집]. 망막색소상피세포는 육각형 모양의 세포들이 단일층을 구성하고 있다. [4] 이 세포들은 색소 과립 (pigmented ... 기형종(Teratoma, 테라토마) : 인체 내의 3배엽 중에서 한 가지 배엽 이상의 세포가 발견되는 암을 의미함.(출처 : [[2]]) 혹은, 3배엽(외배엽, 내배엽, 중배엽) 유래의 세포나 조직이 관찰되는 종양을 의미한다.[ ...
In previous studies we have shown that protein kinase inhibitors and extracellular calcium can affect dramatically the assembly of tight junctions (TJ) and the localization of the TJ protein cingulin at sites of cell-cell contact in renal epithelial (MDCK) cells. To characterize in more detail the relationships between kinase activity and junction organization, we have studied the effects of the protein kinase C agonist phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on the intracellular localization of cingulin, E-cadherin, desmoplakin and actin microfilaments in confluent MDCK monolayers. To study cingulin phosphorylation, MDCK cells were metabolically labelled with [32P]orthophosphate and immunoprecipitates were prepared with anti-cingulin antiserum. We show here that cingulin is phosphorylated in vivo on serine, and its specific phosphorylation is not significantly changed by treatment of confluent MDCK monolayers with PMA, with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7, or with the calcium chelator EGTA. Metabolic ...
Park NX-Bio enables that with its innovative in-liquid imaging Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) and its highly acclaimed Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technology.
in Anticancer Research (2007), 27. The viability, cytolysis and apoptosis-mediated cellular death induced by giganteosides D and E (Gig-D and Gig-E) and hederacolchisides A and A1 (Hcol-A and Hcol- A1) were analysed in HL-60 cells ... [more ▼]. The viability, cytolysis and apoptosis-mediated cellular death induced by giganteosides D and E (Gig-D and Gig-E) and hederacolchisides A and A1 (Hcol-A and Hcol- A1) were analysed in HL-60 cells. Materials and Methods: the end-point metabolic (WST1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, DNA laddering and caspase 3 analyses. Results: the HL-60 cell line was more sensitive to Hcol-A1 and Gig-D (IC50 3-5 ÌM) than to Gig-E and Hcol-A (IC50 8-13 ÌM; WST1 assay). This was related to LDH release. The induction of apoptosis could be detected without caspase 3 activation after 24 h of treatment. DNA fragmentation could be detected only with Gig-D. With Hcol- A1 and Gig-D, an ...
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a powerful technique for examining the diffusive, convective, and migratory transport of solutes. In SECM, an ultramicroelectrode (UME), attached to piezoelectric positioners, is mobile in three dimensions. The UME can be positioned close to an interface with submicron precision, and can probe the topography, reactivity, or permeability of that interface with high spatial resolution (Bard et al., 1991b; Barker et al., 1999). SECM has been applied to the study of a number of synthetic membranes and biomaterials including skin (Bath et al., 1998; Scott et al., 1991; 1993a, b; 1995), dentine (Macpherson et al., 1995a, b; Unwin et al., 1997), and bilayer lipid membranes (Matsue et al., 1994). SECM has the advantage over scanning ion conductance microscopy, which has found some application in the investigation of membrane transport (Hansma et al., 1989; Korchev et al., 1997), in that it can selectively detect both neutral and charged species, rather than ...
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a powerful technique for examining the diffusive, convective, and migratory transport of solutes. In SECM, an ultramicroelectrode (UME), attached to piezoelectric positioners, is mobile in three dimensions. The UME can be positioned close to an interface with submicron precision, and can probe the topography, reactivity, or permeability of that interface with high spatial resolution (Bard et al., 1991b; Barker et al., 1999). SECM has been applied to the study of a number of synthetic membranes and biomaterials including skin (Bath et al., 1998; Scott et al., 1991; 1993a, b; 1995), dentine (Macpherson et al., 1995a, b; Unwin et al., 1997), and bilayer lipid membranes (Matsue et al., 1994). SECM has the advantage over scanning ion conductance microscopy, which has found some application in the investigation of membrane transport (Hansma et al., 1989; Korchev et al., 1997), in that it can selectively detect both neutral and charged species, rather than ...
Application archive. Nov. 26, 2018Applications Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy - Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Since the inception of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) [1],
The avian basilar papilla is composed of hair and supporting cells arranged in a regular pattern in which the hair cells are surrounded and isolated from each other by supporting cell processes. This arrangement of cells, in which the apical borders of hair cells do not contact one another, may be generated by contact-mediated lateral inhibition. Little is known, however, about the way in which hair and supporting cells are organized during development. Whole mounts double-labeled with antibodies to the 275 kDa hair-cell antigen and the tight junction protein cingulin were therefore used to examine the development of cell patterns in the basilar papilla. Hair cells that contact each other at their apical borders are seen during early development, especially on embryonic days (E) 8 and 9, but are no longer observed after E12. Hair and supporting cell patterns were analyzed in three different areas of the papilla at E9 and E12. In two of these regions between E9 and E12, the ratio of supporting ...
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on
Upon viral infection, the major defense mounted by the host innate immune system is activation of the IFN- and apoptosis-mediated antiviral pathway. In order to complete their life cycle, viruses that are obligatory intracellular parasites must modulate these host immune responses. We have previously shown that the γHV68 latency-associated M2 protein effectively downregulates STAT1 and STAT2, resulting in the inhibition of type I and II IFN-mediated transcriptional activation. Here, we demonstrate that M2 interacts with ATM, a DNA damage signal transducer, and the DDB1/COP9/cullin DNA damage effector complex. This interaction blocked DNA damage-sensing activity as well as DNA damage repair activity, thereby rendering cells resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that γHV68 encodes M2, a latency-associated gene, to antagonize both IFN- and apoptosis-mediated host innate immunities and thus is important in establishing and maintaining viral latency in infected ...
Our data reveal that the H,K-ATPase ion pump is required for apoptosis-mediated head size and organ scaling throughout the animal. Morphallactic defects in Smed-H,K-ATPase(RNAi) regenerates were observed in: head and pharyngeal resizing; pharyngeal A/P placement; anterior neural, brain and intestinal tract remodeling; and the re-establishment of anterior identity in previously more posterior tissues. All these remodeling defects occurred without inhibiting new tissue proliferation associated with blastema growth (epimorphosis). Therefore, when H,K-ATPase is lost during regeneration, head is made from new tissues and stays small because remodeling failures prevent old tissues from contributing to it, whereas the pharynx stays large because apoptosis fails to sculpt it to the correct size. This suggests that morphallactic remodeling of pre-existing tissues is an independent pathway from epimorphic blastema growth, a distinction that was previously unclear (Agata et al., 2007).. The working ...
Food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diarrhea and other gastrointestinal diseases have something in common: all have been linked to epithelial barrier loss. The gut epithelial barrier-that critical lining of cells in the gut that must allow nutrients into the body while keeping food-borne microbes out-can be compromised during intestinal inflammation and cause disease. While many of the molecular mechanisms that trigger gastrointestinal diseases remain a mystery, previous research has found that one enzyme, known as myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), plays a critical role. However, MLCK is also essential for critical functions in gut epithelia and other cell types. This makes direct inhibition of MLCK impossible, as it would result in many toxic and systemic side effects. A team led by investigators from Brigham and Womens Hospital has now developed an alternative approach. In a study published in Nature Medicine, the researchers report new evidence suggesting that ...
Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
The expression of claudin-11 in benign and malignant bladder tissue and the effect of forced expression of claudin-11 on tight junction function and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were studied. Claudin-11 expression was tested in bladder cancer cell lines (T24/83, RT 112/84 and EJ138) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in benign and malignant bladder tissue by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T24/83 cells were transfected with the pcDNA.1/NT-GFP-TOPO vector containing full-length human claudin-11 sequence. Stable-transfected cells overexpressing claudin-11 (T24Cl-11Ex), wild-type cells (T24WT) and the empty plasmid control clone (T24GFP) were compared using transurothelial resistance (TUR), in vitro adhesion, invasion and growth assays. Claudin-11 was strongly expressed in the non-invasive RT112/84 cell line compared to the invasive T24/83 and EJ138 TCC cell lines. Benign bladder tissue demonstrated equal expression of claudin-11 mRNA as ...
Objective Helicobacter pylori strains that express the oncoprotein CagA augment risk for gastric cancer. However, the precise mechanisms through which cag+ strains heighten cancer risk have not been fully delineated and model systems that recapitulate the gastric niche are critical for understanding pathogenesis. Gastroids are three-dimensional organ-like structures that provide unique opportunities to study host-H. pylori interactions in a preclinical model. We used gastroids to inform and direct in vitro studies to define mechanisms through which H. pylori modulates expression of the cancer-associated tight junction protein claudin-7.. ...
Read "Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of the cell-cell junction with concomitant changes in the expression of junctional proteins is a hallmark of cancer metastasis and invasion. Role of adherent junction proteins have been studied extensively in cancer, however the role of tight junction proteins is less understood. Claudins are the recently identified tetraspanins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJs). Recent studies have shown changes in expression/cellular localization for claudins during tumorigenesis, however a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin-1 in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal ...

Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...

As a result, a novel homozygous mutation (c.346C , G, p.Leu116Val) in 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin 16 was identified. Her ... claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin ... FHHNC in the Chinese population and identified a novel missense mutation in the highly conserved 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin ... Sixty mutations of claudin 16 coding gene have been reported in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and ...
more infohttps://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-018-0979-1

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Emerging Roles of Claudins in Human CancerIJMS | Free Full-Text | Emerging Roles of Claudins in Human Cancer

A recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subtype that is characterized by the enrichment of EMT and stem cell-like ... The critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of claudin expression indicates the possible application of ... in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of various cancers. Although their dysregulation in ... Altered expression of several claudin proteins, in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/9/18148/xml

ASMscience | |span class=jp-italic|Clostridium perfringens|/span| Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin ProductionASMscience | |span class='jp-italic'|Clostridium perfringens|/span| Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production

CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... CPE binds to claudin receptors to form small complexes. Those small complexes then oligomerize on the host cell surface to form ... Human claudin-8 and -14 are receptors capable of conveying the cytotoxic effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. MBio 4 ... Identification of a claudin-4 residue important for mediating the host cell binding and action of Clostridium perfringens ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0022-2015

Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...

... is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 ... alteplase; claudin 5; gadolinium pentetate; occludin; age distribution; aged; aging; animal experiment; animal model; article; ... mediated through the acute disassembly of claudin 5 and occludin. Increased T 2 values over the first hour of postreperfusion ... Both tPA and age independently increased claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation during ischemia. Early BBB permeability ...
more infohttp://nparc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/object/?id=ae12c4a7-5885-474d-9f42-8acdfa74a406

WikiGenes - CLDN2 - claudin 2WikiGenes - CLDN2 - claudin 2

Claudin-1 and claudin-2 differentiate fetal and embryonal components in human hepatoblastoma. Halász, J., Holczbauer, A., Páska ... Membrane-bound claudin 3 and 4 expression was seen in all cases of Pagets disease, whereas claudin 5 was seen in 50% of cases ... IL-17 induced formation of tight junctions correlated with up-regulation of claudin-1 and claudin-2 gene transcription [6]. ... Claudin-1 and claudin-2 differentiate fetal and embryonal components in human hepatoblastoma [1]. ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/9075.html

Cldn2 - Claudin-2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cldn2 gene & proteinCldn2 - Claudin-2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cldn2 gene & protein

IPR006187 Claudin. IPR005411 Claudin2. IPR017974 Claudin_CS. IPR004031 PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... IPR006187 Claudin. IPR005411 Claudin2. IPR017974 Claudin_CS. IPR004031 PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... Belongs to the claudin family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix. Phylogenomic databases. ... "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing at tight junctions with no sequence similarity to occludin.". ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O88552

Claudin-2 - Semantic ScholarClaudin-2 - Semantic Scholar

A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It ... Claudin-1 and claudin-2 expression is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease and may contribute to early neoplastic ... Claudin-2. Known as: Claudin 2, Claudin-2 [Chemical/Ingredient] A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of ... Tight junction proteins claudin-2 and -12 are critical for vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ absorption between enterocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Claudin-2/1080667

Claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells.  - PubMed - NCBIClaudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells. - PubMed - NCBI

However, confocal microscopy revealed a marked subjunctional localization of claudin-1 in C11 cells, indicating that claudin-1 ... Genuine expression of claudin-1 and claudin-2, but not of occludin or claudin-3, was reciprocal to transepithelial resistance. ... Claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells.. Amasheh S1, Meiri N, Gitter AH ... Overexpression of claudin-2 in the originally tight epithelium with claudin-2 cDNA resulted in a 5.6-fold higher paracellular ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12432083?dopt=Abstract

Tight junction protein claudin-2 promotes self-renewal of human colorectal cancer stem-like cells | Cancer ResearchTight junction protein claudin-2 promotes self-renewal of human colorectal cancer stem-like cells | Cancer Research

Tight junction protein claudin-2 promotes self-renewal of human colorectal cancer stem-like cells. Sophie Paquet-Fifield, Shir ... Claudin-2 enhanced self-renewal of ALDHHigh CSC and increased their proportion in CRC cell populations, limiting their ... While several of these biological processes are features of the CSC phenotype, a role for claudin-2 in the regulation of these ... Among these, miR-222-3p was instrumental for the regulation of self-renewal by claudin-2, and enhancement of this self-renewal ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2018/03/06/0008-5472.CAN-17-1869

Anti-CLDN2 / Claudin 2 Antibody | Rabbit anti-Human Polyclonal  | LSBioAnti-CLDN2 / Claudin 2 Antibody | Rabbit anti-Human Polyclonal | LSBio

Claudin 2 antibody LS-C254955 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Claudin 2 (CLDN2). Validated for ELISA ... Claudin 2 antibody LS-C254955 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Claudin 2 (CLDN2). Validated for ELISA ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/cldn2-antibody-claudin-2-antibody-aa174-201-biotin-elisa-flow-ihc-wb-western-ls-c254955/263831

Microbial-Derived Butyrate Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function through IL-10 Receptor-Dependent Repression of Claudin-2 | The...Microbial-Derived Butyrate Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function through IL-10 Receptor-Dependent Repression of Claudin-2 | The...

claudin-2. Fwd. forward. GEO. Gene Expression Omnibus. GF. germ free. GPCR. G-protein coupled receptor. GPR109a. G-protein ... Claudin-2 as a mediator of leaky gut barrier during intestinal inflammation. Tissue Barriers 3: e977176. ... Claudin switching: physiological plasticity of the tight junction. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 42: 22-29. ... HIF-dependent regulation of claudin-1 is central to intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity. Mol. Biol. Cell 26: 2252- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/199/8/2976

Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal...Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal...

"Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2, The Journal ... Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2. Angelow, ... Claudin-8 also affects the trafficking of claudin-2, which was displaced specifically from the junctions at which claudin-8 was ... Claudin-8 Expression in Renal Epithelial Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier by Replacing Endogenous Claudin-2. Claudin-8 ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/claudin-8-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells-augments-the-ptRFDYG8Z9

Kinetics of Adhesion Mediated by Extracellular Loops of Claudin-2 as Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy |...Kinetics of Adhesion Mediated by Extracellular Loops of Claudin-2 as Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy |...

Kinetics of Adhesion Mediated by Extracellular Loops of Claudin-2 as Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy. ... Kinetics of Adhesion Mediated by Extracellular Loops of Claudin-2 as Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy. Journal of ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/85339

The distinct expression patterns of claudin-2, -6, and −11 between human gastric neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues ...The distinct expression patterns of claudin-2, -6, and −11 between human gastric neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues ...

... and claudin-6 was down regulated in gastric cancer tissue while the expression of claudin-11 was up regulated. Correlations ... To explore the correlations of the tight junction proteins claudin-2,-6, and −11 in the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of ... Recent data indicate that expression of the tight junction claudin proteins is involved in the etiology and progression of ... The positive expression rates of claudin-2 in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 25% and 68% respectively (P , ...
more infohttps://diagnosticpathology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-1596-8-133

NOD2: a potential target for regulating liver injury | Laboratory InvestigationNOD2: a potential target for regulating liver injury | Laboratory Investigation

Ochratoxin A, citrinin and deoxynivalenol decrease claudin-2 expression in mouse rectum CMT93-II cells *Hideaki Nakayama ... Figure 2. Nod2−/− mice are protected from ConA-induced hepatitis. Nod2−/− mice (n=27) and Nod2+/+ mice (n=24) were injected ... In ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA levels peaked at 4 and 2 h respectively (Figure 1b). NOD2 mRNA peaked ... 2. Girardin SE, Travassos LH, Herve M, et al. Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by Nod1 and Nod2. J Biol ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/3700716?error=cookies_not_supported&code=0b024f14-62a1-49f8-818e-1ff94c10c406

Snail-induced claudin-11 prompts collective migration for tumour progression | Nature Cell BiologySnail-induced claudin-11 prompts collective migration for tumour progression | Nature Cell Biology

show that the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition transcription factor Snail induces claudin-11 expression and suppresses RhoA ... Supplementary Figure 5 Tyrosine-phosphorylated claudin-11 recruits and activates Src.. (a) Amino acid sequence of claudin-11 ( ... Shang, X., Lin, X., Alvarez, E., Manorek, G. & Howell, S. B. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 control tumor ... Supplementary Figure 7: Expression of Snail or claudin-11 correlates with an advanced HNSCC and a worse prognosis.. ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41556-018-0268-z?error=cookies_not_supported&code=d22dac5d-3016-44f7-9e80-aca6b5934119

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT - WikipediaProtein inhibitor of activated STAT - Wikipedia

Van Itallie CM, Mitic LL, Anderson JM (July 2012). "SUMOylation of claudin-2". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1258 ... 554 (1-2): 111-8. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)01116-5. PMID 14596924. Wong KA, Kim R, Christofk H, Gao J, Lawson G, Wu H (June ... 14 (2): 121-41. doi:10.1101/gad.14.2.121. PMID 10652267. Ogata Y, Osaki T, Naka T, Iwahori K, Furukawa M, Nagatomo I, Kijima T ... 229 (1-2): 109-16. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00033-5. PMID 10095110. Betz A, Lampen N, Martinek S, Young MW, Darnell JE (August ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_inhibitor_of_activated_STAT

CLDN2 - WikipediaCLDN2 - Wikipedia

Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Saitou, M.; Furuse, K.; Sasaki, H ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ... Furthermore, claudin-2 has been shown to form paracellular channels for water. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165376 - ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CLDN2

Dr Katalin Szaszis Profile - The Kidney Foundation of Canada | La Fondation canadienne du reinDr Katalin Szaszi's Profile - The Kidney Foundation of Canada | La Fondation canadienne du rein

Claudin-2 as a regulator of RhoA and epithelial phenotype in tubular cells. 2017-2019: $100,000 , Biomedical Research Grants , ... We found that one of the proteins residing in the tight junctions, claudin-2, is lost in a chronic kidney disease mouse model. ... Third, we have designed interventions that can interfere with the loss of claudin-2 and will test whether these can improve the ... Second, we wish to demonstrate in animal models that claudin-2 indeed has the ability to control the generation of fibrosis. ...
more infohttps://www.kidney.ca/dr-katalin-szaszi-profile

Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I, Volume 1257 | WileyBarriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I, Volume 1257 | Wiley

... the role of the claudin family of proteins and the formation of ion and charge-selective channels; the regulation of tight ... Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) ... Overexpression of claudin-5 but not claudin-3 induces formation of trans-interaction-dependent multilamellar bodies. Jan Rossa ... Charge-selective claudin channel. Susanne M. Krug, Dorothee Günzel, Marcel P. Conrad, In-Fah M. Lee, Salah Amasheh, Michael ...
more infohttps://www.wiley.com/en-us/Barriers+and+Channels+Formed+by+Tight+Junction+Proteins+I%2C+Volume+1257-p-9781573318730

KAKEN - Research Projects | シリア・中心体系のダイナミズムにおける基底小体・細胞骨格相互作用KAKEN - Research Projects | シリア・中心体系のダイナミズムにおける基底小体・細胞骨格相互作用

Presentation] Claudin-based Tight Junction(TJ)-Apical Complex as an Organizer of Biological Systems2015. *. Author(s). 月田 早智子 ... Journal Article] Claudin-based paracellular proton barrier in the stomach.2012. *. Author(s). Tamura A., et al ... Presentation] Tight Junction Claudin-based Foundations of Biological Systems: Advances in the Field of Barriology2014. *. ... Presentation] Claudin species-specific biological functions in Digestive Epithelial Cells. *. Author(s). Sachiko Tsukita ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PLANNED-24113002/

CREB (Ser133) Polyclonal Antibody - Allele BiotechCREB (Ser133) Polyclonal Antibody - Allele Biotech

Claudin 5 (CLN5) polyclonal antibody $175.00 Quick view Add to Cart Dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 1 (DPM1 ...
more infohttp://www.allelebiotech.com/creb-ser133-polyclonal-antibody/

KAKEN - Research Projects | 骨格筋で癌を阻害するー食品と運動のパッケージにKAKEN - Research Projects | 骨格筋で癌を阻害するー食品と運動のパッケージに

Journal Article] Targeting claudin-4 enhances CDDP-chemosensitivity of gastric cancer2019. *. Author(s). Nishiguchi Y, Fujiwara ... Journal Article] Anti-claudin-4 extracellular domain antibody enhances the antitumoral effects of chemotherapeutic and antibody ... 近年、中鎖脂肪酸(MCFA)は、高カロリーにおいても、生体内の代謝が速く体内蓄積も無いことから、サルコペニアの栄養介入において注目されているが、骨格筋における直接的効果を検
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-17K19923/

View source for Pagets disease of the breast pathophysiology - wikidocView source for Paget's disease of the breast pathophysiology - wikidoc

Claudin 4 , style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px;" ,100% ,- , style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px;" ,Claudin 5 , style ... Claudin 2]] , style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px;" ,32% ,- , style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px;" ,[[Claudin 3]] , ... volume=86 ,issue=2 ,pages=150-6 ,date=August 2002 ,pmid=12144821 ,doi= ,url=}},/ref> * The single most useful stain for ... This is thought to result in migration of these [[cells]] to the [[nipple]] [[epidermis]]. *[[HER-2/neu]] has been shown to ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Paget%27s_disease_of_the_breast_pathophysiology&action=edit
  • There is no evident difference in renal phenotypes between patients with mutations in CLDN16 and CLDN19, however, severe ocular involvement has been described in CLDN19 patients that might be attributed to extra-renal expression of claudin-19 in nervous system and retina [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent investigations revealed that a highly conserved glycine-leucine-tryptophan ( 115 G-L-W 117 ) motif in the first extracellular segment (ESC1) of claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin 16 function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lack of claudin-4 expression in ovarian small cell carcinomas of hypercalcemic type suggests that these tumors may be better regarded as sarcomas rather than carcinomas. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Claudin-2 enhanced self-renewal of ALDHHigh CSC and increased their proportion in CRC cell populations, limiting their differentiation and promoting the phenotypic transition of non-CSC towards the ALDHHigh phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is the first study to show how TGF-beta (zeige TGFB1 Antikörper ) regulates the expression of Claudin-4 through c-Jun (zeige JUN Antikörper ) signaling and how this pathway contributes to the migratory and tumorigenic phenotype of lung tumor cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Distal junction area of ruffle-ended ameloblasts (RA) and the Golgi apparatus of a sub-population of smooth-ended ameloblasts (SA) and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin-1 antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • miR-1303 could bind to the putative binding sites in CLDN18 mRNA 3′-UTR and visibly lower the expression of claudin-18. (springer.com)
  • Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to lung enlargement, parenchymal expansion, increased abundance and proliferation of known distal lung progenitors, the alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), increased organ size, and tumorigenesis in mice. (jci.org)
  • CLDN18 and YAP interacted and colocalized at cell-cell contacts, while loss of CLDN18 decreased YAP interaction with Hippo kinases p-LATS1/2. (jci.org)
  • H ) IP with anti-p-LATS1/2 Ab shows decreased p-LATS1/2 and decreased association of p-LATS1/2 with p-YAP in Cldn18 -/- (lane 4) compared with WT (lane 3) AT2 cell membranes. (jci.org)
  • IgG = negative control IP with WT and Cldn18 -/- lysates (lanes 1 and 2, respectively). (jci.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 60 Claudin 18 (CLDN18) Antikörper von 14 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Bile duct adenocarcinoma cells overexpress claudin-18 via the EGFR (zeige EGFR Antikörper )/ RAS / ERK (zeige EPHB2 Antikörper ) pathway, contributing to cell proliferation and invasion. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • expression of claudin-4 is highly specific for true epithelial differentiation and may be useful to distinguish SWI (zeige SMARCA1 Antikörper )/ SNF (zeige SNRPA Antikörper ) complex-deficient undifferentiated carcinomas from sarcomas with epithelioid morphology. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Here, we show that this is not because of relocalization of claudin-2 into the cytosolic pool but primarily due to a decrease in gene expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • We confirmed these findings in vivo in rats after status epilepticus and in brain capillaries from male mice lacking cytosolic phospholipase A 2 . (jneurosci.org)
  • DNA methylation of claudin-6 promotes breast cancer cell migration and invasion by recruiting MeCP2 and deacetylating H3Ac and H4Ac. (nih.gov)
  • Title: TLR2 activation induced by H. pylori LPS promotes the differential expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 via either STAT3 and ERK1/2 in AGS cells. (nih.gov)
  • Claudin-6 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer, and has been shown to be regulated by DNA methylation and histone modification in breast cancer lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases and mainly includes three distant histological subtypes, i.e., lung adenocarcinoma (AC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and large cell carcinoma [ 2 ] . (medsci.org)
  • Claudin 6 expression is useful to distinguish myxofibrosarcomas from other myxoid soft tissue tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity, and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2 h MCAO. (qxmd.com)
  • Here we report that elevated claudin-2 expression in stage II/III colorectal tumors is associated with poor recurrence-free survival following 5-FU-based chemotherapy, an outcome in which CSC play an instrumental role. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. (qxmd.com)
  • Che J, Yue D, Zhang B, Zhang H, Huo Y, Gao L, Zhen H, Yang Y, Cao B. Claudin-3 Inhibits Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Invasion via Suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway. (medsci.org)
  • Second, we wish to demonstrate in animal models that claudin-2 indeed has the ability to control the generation of fibrosis. (kidney.ca)