Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Claudin-3: A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Claudin-1: An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Zonula Occludens-2 Protein: A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.Claudin-2: A claudin subtype that is associated with the formation of cation-selective channels and increased epithelial permeability. It is localized to the TIGHT JUNCTIONS of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.PhosphoproteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Transmembrane proteins in the tight junction barrier. (1/304)

Three types of transmembrane proteins have been identified within the tight junction, but it remains to be determined how they provide the molecular basis for regulating the paracellular permeability for water, solutes, and immune cells. Several of these proteins localize specifically within the continuous cell-to-cell contacts of the tight junction. One of these, occludin, is a cell adhesion molecule that has been demonstrated to influence ion and solute permeability. The claudins are a family of four-membrane spanning proteins; unexpectedly, other members of this family have already been characterized without recognizing their relationship to tight junctions. Junction adhesion molecule, the most recently identified tight junction component, is a member of the Ig superfamily and influences the paracellular transmigration of immune cells. A plaque of cytoplasmic proteins under the junction may be responsible for scaffolding the transmembrane proteins, creating a link to the perijunctional actin cytoskeleton and transducing regulatory signals that control the paracellular barrier.  (+info)

Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions. (2/304)

House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen's own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens.  (+info)

Connexin-occludin chimeras containing the ZO-binding domain of occludin localize at MDCK tight junctions and NRK cell contacts. (3/304)

Occludin is a transmembrane protein of the tight junction that functions in creating both an intercellular permeability barrier and an intramembrane diffusion barrier. Creation of the barrier requires the precise localization of occludin, and a distinct family of transmembrane proteins called claudins, into continuous linear fibrils visible by freeze-fracture microscopy. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the relative importance of the transmembrane and extracellular versus the cytoplasmic domains in localizing occludin in fibrils. To specifically address whether occludin's COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain is sufficient to target it into tight junction fibrils, we created chimeras with the transmembrane portions of connexin 32. Despite the gap junction targeting information present in their transmembrane and extracellular domains, these connexin-occludin chimeras localized within fibrils when expressed in MDCK cells, as assessed by immunofluorescence and immunogold freeze-fracture imaging. Localization of chimeras at tight junctions depends on the COOH-terminal ZO-binding domain and not on the membrane proximal domain of occludin. Furthermore, neither endogenous occludin nor claudin is required for targeting to ZO-1-containing cell-cell contacts, since in normal rat kidney fibroblasts targeting of chimeras again required only the ZO-binding domain. These results suggest an important role for cytoplasmic proteins, presumably ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, in localizing occludin in tight junction fibrils. Such a scaffolding and cytoskeletal coupling function for ZO MAGUKs is analogous to that of other members of the MAGUK family.  (+info)

Ca(2+)-independent cell-adhesion activity of claudins, a family of integral membrane proteins localized at tight junctions. (4/304)

In multicellular organisms, various compositionally distinct fluid compartments are established by epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. For these cells to function as barriers, tight junctions (TJs) are considered to create a primary barrier for the diffusion of solutes through the paracellular pathway [1] [2] [3]. In ultrathin sections viewed under electron microscopy, TJs appear as a series of apparent fusions, involving the outer leaflets of plasma membranes of adjacent cells, to form the so-called kissing points of TJs, where the intercellular space is completely obliterated [4]. Claudins are a family of 16 proteins whose members have been identified as major integral membrane proteins localized exclusively at TJs [5] [6] [7] [8]. It remains unclear, however, whether claudins have the cell-adhesion activity that would explain the unusual intercellular adhesion at TJs. Using mouse L-fibroblast transfectants expressing various amounts of claudin-1, -2 or -3, we found that these claudins possess Ca(2+)-independent cell-adhesion activity. Using ultrathin-section electron microscopy, we observed many kissing points of TJs between adjacent transfectants. Furthermore, the cell-adhesion activity of occludin, another integral membrane protein localized at TJs [9] [10] [11], was negligible when compared with that of claudins. Thus, claudins are responsible for TJ-specific obliteration of the intercellular space.  (+info)

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment removes specific claudins from tight junction strands: Evidence for direct involvement of claudins in tight junction barrier. (5/304)

Claudins, comprising a multigene family, constitute tight junction (TJ) strands. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a single approximately 35-kD polypeptide, was reported to specifically bind to claudin-3/RVP1 and claudin-4/CPE-R at its COOH-terminal half. We examined the effects of the COOH-terminal half fragment of CPE (C-CPE) on TJs in L transfectants expressing claudin-1 to -4 (C1L to C4L, respectively), and in MDCK I cells expressing claudin-1 and -4. C-CPE bound to claudin-3 and -4 with high affinity, but not to claudin-1 or -2. In the presence of C-CPE, reconstituted TJ strands in C3L cells gradually disintegrated and disappeared from their cell surface. In MDCK I cells incubated with C-CPE, claudin-4 was selectively removed from TJs with its concomitant degradation. At 4 h after incubation with C-CPE, TJ strands were disintegrated, and the number of TJ strands and the complexity of their network were markedly decreased. In good agreement with the time course of these morphological changes, the TJ barrier (TER and paracellular flux) of MDCK I cells was downregulated by C-CPE in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provided evidence for the direct involvement of claudins in the barrier functions of TJs.  (+info)

Manner of interaction of heterogeneous claudin species within and between tight junction strands. (6/304)

In tight junctions (TJs), TJ strands are associated laterally with those of adjacent cells to form paired strands to eliminate the extracellular space. Claudin-1 and -2, integral membrane proteins of TJs, reconstitute paired TJ strands when transfected into L fibroblasts. Claudins comprise a multigene family and more than two distinct claudins are coexpressed in single cells, raising the questions of whether heterogeneous claudins form heteromeric TJ strands and whether claudins interact between each of the paired strands in a heterophilic manner. To answer these questions, we cotransfected two of claudin-1, -2, and -3 into L cells, and detected their coconcentration at cell-cell borders as elaborate networks. Immunoreplica EM confirmed that distinct claudins were coincorporated into individual TJ strands. Next, two L transfectants singly expressing claudin-1, -2, or -3 were cocultured and we found that claudin-3 strands laterally associated with claudin-1 and -2 strands to form paired strands, whereas claudin-1 strands did not interact with claudin-2 strands. We concluded that distinct species of claudins can interact within and between TJ strands, except in some combinations. This mode of assembly of claudins could increase the diversity of the structure and functions of TJ strands.  (+info)

Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, with the COOH termini of claudins. (7/304)

ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, which contain three PDZ domains (PDZ1 to -3), are concentrated at tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cells. TJ strands are mainly composed of two distinct types of four-transmembrane proteins, occludin, and claudins, between which occludin was reported to directly bind to ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3. However, in occludin-deficient intestinal epithelial cells, ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 were still recruited to TJs. We then examined the possible interactions between ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 and claudins. ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3 bound to the COOH-terminal YV sequence of claudin-1 to -8 through their PDZ1 domains in vitro. Then, claudin-1 or -2 was transfected into L fibroblasts, which express ZO-1 but not ZO-2 or ZO-3. Claudin-1 and -2 were concentrated at cell-cell borders in an elaborate network pattern, to which endogenous ZO-1 was recruited. When ZO-2 or ZO-3 were further transfected, both were recruited to the claudin-based networks together with endogenous ZO-1. Detailed analyses showed that ZO-2 and ZO-3 are recruited to the claudin-based networks through PDZ2 (ZO-2 or ZO-3)/PDZ2 (endogenous ZO-1) and PDZ1 (ZO-2 or ZO-3)/COOH-terminal YV (claudins) interactions. In good agreement, PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 were also recruited to claudin-based TJs, when introduced into cultured epithelial cells. The possible molecular architecture of TJ plaque structures is discussed.  (+info)

Oncogenic Raf-1 disrupts epithelial tight junctions via downregulation of occludin. (8/304)

Occludin is an integral membrane protein of the epithelial cell tight junction (TJ). Its potential role in coordinating structural and functional events of TJ formation has been suggested recently. Using a rat salivary gland epithelial cell line (Pa-4) as a model system, we have demonstrated that occludin not only is a critical component of functional TJs but also controls the phenotypic changes associated with epithelium oncogenesis. Transfection of an oncogenic Raf-1 into Pa-4 cells resulted in a complete loss of TJ function and the acquisition of a stratified phenotype that lacked cell-cell contact growth control. The expression of occludin and claudin-1 was downregulated, and the distribution patterns of ZO-1 and E-cadherin were altered. Introduction of the human occludin gene into Raf-1-activated Pa-4 cells resulted in reacquisition of a monolayer phenotype and the formation of functionally intact TJs. In addition, the presence of exogenous occludin protein led to a recovery in claudin-1 protein level, relocation of the zonula occludens 1 protein (ZO-1) to the TJ, and redistribution of E-cadherin to the lateral membrane. Furthermore, the expression of occludin inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Raf-1-activated Pa-4 cells in soft agarose. Thus, occludin may act as a pivotal signaling molecule in oncogenic Raf- 1-induced disruption of TJs, and regulates phenotypic changes associated with epithelial cell transformation.  (+info)

*NBPF1

"Claudin-1 overexpression effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line". NCBI GEO Profiles. Retrieved 4 May 2015. Vandepoele K, Van ... Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, Member 1, or NBPF1 is a protein that is encoded by the gene NBPF1 in humans. This protein is ... The NBPF1 protein is also found to be disrupted by a chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 1 and 17 with in some cases ... Additionally, the inactivation of Far upstream element-binding protein 1 causes a decrease in NBPF1, while the inactivation of ...

*CLDN1

Claudin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN1 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Tight junctions ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN1 claudin 1". Coyne CB, Gambling TM, Boucher RC, Carson JL, Johnson LG (Nov 2003). "Role of claudin ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight ... Miyamori H, Takino T, Kobayashi Y, Tokai H, Itoh Y, Seiki M, Sato H (2001). "Claudin promotes activation of pro-matrix ...

*CLDN9

2007). "Claudin-6 and claudin-9 function as additional coreceptors for hepatitis C virus". J. Virol. 81 (22): 12465-71. doi: ... Claudin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN9 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. This gene is involved ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN9 claudin 9". Gene discovery reveals a critical protein's function in hearing Human CLDN9 genome location and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN6

Morita K, Sasaki H, Furuse M, Tsukita S (1999). "Endothelial Claudin: Claudin-5/Tmvcf Constitutes Tight Junction Strands in ... Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN6 claudin 6". Human CLDN6 genome location and CLDN6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ...

*CLDN7

Claudin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN7 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Claudins, such as ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN7 claudin 7". Human CLDN7 genome location and CLDN7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kniesel U, ... 2005). "Claudin-1 is a strong prognostic indicator in stage II colonic cancer: a tissue microarray study". Mod. Pathol. 18 (4 ... 2003). "Loss of the tight junction protein claudin-7 correlates with histological grade in both ductal carcinoma in situ and ...

*Claudin

The name claudin comes from Latin word claudere ("to close"), suggesting the barrier role of these proteins. A recent review ... All human claudins (with the exception of Claudin 12) have domains that let them bind to PDZ domains of scaffold proteins. ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (June 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins ... "A systems proteomics view of the endogenous human claudin protein family". J Proteome Res. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00769. ...

*MMP3

The WT mice were shown to have lower claudin-5 and occludin levels than the KO mice after TBI. Claudin and occludin are ... The study showed that MMP-3 accomplishes this damage by degrading claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 (another tight junction protein ... Furuse M, Fujita K, Hiiragi T, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (Jun 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing ... Both the WT and KO tissues showed a drop in claudin-5, occludin, and laminin-α1 (a basal lamina protein), suggesting that MMP-3 ...

*Cingulin

... claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin ... Paschoud S, Bongiovanni M, Pache JC, Citi S (September 2007). "Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression patterns differentiate lung ... Guillemot L, Citi S (August 2006). "Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase ... Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent ...

*PBDC1

Claudin-1 overexpression effect on lung adenocarcinoma cell line Chao YC, Pan SH, Yang SC, Yu SL, Che TF, Lin CW, Tsai MS, ... "Claudin-1 is a metastasis suppressor and correlates with clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care ... one experiment compared CXorf26 expression in lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cells either overexpressing or underexpressing Claudin- ... 24 (1): 34-6. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(98)01336-X. PMID 10087920. Huh WK, Falvo JV, Gerke LC, Carroll AS, Howson RW, Weissman JS ...

*Jane A. McKeating

2012 - In silico directed mutagenesis identifies the CD81/claudin-1 hepatitis C virus receptor interface. Davis C, Harris HJ, ... Cellular microbiology 15: 430-45 Link 2013 - Heterogeneous claudin-1 expression in human liver. Harris HJ, Wilson GK, Hübscher ... She is listed as a notable scientist in Thomson Reuters' Highly Cited Researchers 2014, ranking her among the top 1% most cited ...

*FAM76A

"Claudin-1 is a metastasis suppressor and correlates with clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma". American Journal of ... sapiens lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were compared between cultures that had claudin-1 (CLDN1) overexpression and control ... Conserved region 1 contains mostly polar amino acids; conserved region 2 contains both polar and non-polar amino acids; and the ... Of the alternatively spliced mRNAs, isoform 1 is the longest variant of the gene and is the subject of this article. The ...

*Co-receptor

Claudin family abnormalities are also common in hepatocellular carcinoma, which can result from HPV infection. It is possible ... Studies suggest that the tight junction protein Claudin-1 (CLDN1) may also play a part in HCV entry. ... "Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry". Nature. 446 (7137): 801-5. doi:10.1038/ ... HIV-1 and HIV-2 can both use the CCR8 co-receptor. The crossover of co-receptor targets for different strains and the ability ...

*Lactate dehydrogenase b

"Decreased lactate dehydrogenase B expression enhances claudin 1-mediated hepatoma cell invasiveness via mitochondrial defects ... 505 (1): 33-41. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2010.10.010. PMID 20951115. Zha X, Wang F, Wang Y, He S, Jing Y, Wu X, Zhang H (2011). " ... 71 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1668. PMID 21199794. Kim JH, Kim EL, Lee YK, Park CB, Kim BW, Wang HJ, Yoon CH, Lee ... 117B (1): 11-7. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.10015. PMID 12555229. Mazzotta S, Guerranti R, Gozzetti A, Bucalossi A, Bocchia M, ...

*Journal of Cell Biology

"Claudin-1 and −2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to Occludin". Jcb. ... May 1, 2008: New copyright policy allows authors to retain copyright to their own works and third parties to reuse JCB content ... Mike Rossner 1 and Rob O'Donnell 2 (January 5, 2004). "The JCB will let your data shine in RGB". Jcb.rupress.org. Retrieved ... On May 1, 2008, JCB changed its traditional copyright policy to allow authors to retain copyright to their own works. Authors ...

*CLDN2

Claudin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN2 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. Members of the claudin ... Claudin-2 is expressed in cation-leaky epithelia such as that of the kidney proximal tubule. Mice that are deficient in claudin ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN2 claudin 2". Muto, S.; Hata, M.; Taniguchi, J.; Tsuruoka, S.; Moriwaki, K.; Saitou, M.; Furuse, K.; Sasaki, H ... 1998). "Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to ...

*F11 receptor

... is concentrated at tight junctions through its possible interaction with claudin-1 and junctional adhesion molecule". The ... 1 (3): 287-92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMC 1083732 . PMID 11256614. Ebnet K, Suzuki A, Horikoshi Y, Hirose T, Meyer Zu ... 310 ( Pt 1) (1): 155-62. PMC 1135867 . PMID 7646439. "Entrez Gene: F11R F11 receptor". Ebnet K, Schulz CU, Meyer Zu Brickwedde ... 277 (1): 455-61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109005200. PMID 11689568. KDR protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...

*MPDZ

... is concentrated at tight junctions through its possible interaction with claudin-1 and junctional adhesion molecule". J. Biol. ... 482 (1-2): 54-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02036-6. PMID 11018522. Becamel C, Figge A, Poliak S, Dumuis A, Peles E, Bockaert J ... 424 (1-2): 63-8. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(98)00141-0. PMID 9537516. Mancini A, Koch A, Stefan M, Niemann H, Tamura T (September ... 424 (1-2): 63-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00141-0. PMID 9537516. Barritt DS, Pearn MT, Zisch AH, Lee SS, Javier RT, Pasquale ...

*CLDND1

Claudin domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDND1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... CLDND1 claudin domain containing 1". Human CLDND1 genome location and CLDND1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Liu ... 289 (1-2): 119-29. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00507-3. PMID 12036590. Zhang QH, Ye M, Wu XY, et al. (2001). "Cloning and ...

*Hepatitis C virus

Claudin-1, and Occludin. Once inside the hepatocyte, HCV takes over portions of the intracellular machinery to replicate. The ... Genotypes 1 and 4 are less responsive to interferon-based treatment than are the other genotypes (2, 3, 5 and 6). The duration ... 35 (1): 201-7. PMC 229539 . PMID 8968908. Simmonds P, Bukh J, Combet C, Deléage G, Enomoto N, Feinstone S, Halfon P, Inchauspé ... 54 (1): 62-70. doi:10.1007/s00239-001-0018-9. PMID 11734899. Sarwar MT, Kausar H, Ijaz B; et al. (2011). Viral Hepat. 1997;4 ...

*Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome

... is a cutaneous condition caused by mutations in the Claudin 1 gene. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome List of cutaneous ...

*CLDN12

Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2001). "claudin-18, a novel downstream target gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 homeodomain transcription factor, encodes lung- and ... Tsukita S, Furuse M (2003). "Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 14 (5): ... Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y (2001). "The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport". Traffic. 2 (2): ...

*Rubielos de la Cérida impact structure

Claudin, F., Ernstson, K., Rampino, M.R., and Anguita, F. 2001. Striae, polish, imprints, rotated fractures, and related ... Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U., Anguita, F. and Ernstson, T. 2001. Impact melt rocks, shock metamorphism, and ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U. & Hradil, K. (2002): The mid-Tertiary Azuara and ... and Claudin, F. 1994. Shock cratering of conglomeratic quartzite pebbles and the search and identification of an Azuara (Spain ...

*Azuara impact structure

Ernstson, K., Claudin, F., Schüssler, U., Anguita, F. and Ernstson, T. 2001. Impact melt rocks, shock metamorphism, and ... 124 p. "Norton, O.R. (2002) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites" Ernstson K. and Claudin F. (1990) Pelarda Formation ( ... Claudin, F., Schüssler, U. & Hradil, K. (2002): The mid-Tertiary Azuara and Rubielos de la Cérida paired impact structures ( ...

*Chromosome 3 (human)

Claudin domain containing 1 CPN2: Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2 CPOX: coproporphyrinogen oxidase (coproporphyria, ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... Partial list of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human chromosome 3: ALAS1: aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 APEH: ... C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C3orf23 C3orf60/NDUFAF3: encoding enzyme NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 ...

*Claudin de Sermisy

... (c. 1490 - 13 October 1562) was a French composer of the Renaissance. Along with Clément Janequin he was one ... ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Free scores by Claudin de Sermisy at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Tant que vivray ... ISBN 0-89917-034-X Isabelle Cazeaux, "Claudin de Sermisy", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. ... 1527) Tu disais que j'en mourrais Vignon, vignon, vignon, vignette Vive la serpe Aspice, Domine Isabelle Cazeaux, "Claudin d ...

*Michael Cates

JP Bouchaud and P Claudin, Physical Review Letters 81, 1841-1844 (1998) Multiple glassy states in a simple model system, KN ... He is the 19th Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and has held this position since 1 July 2015. ...
The tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry-the first step of viral infection. Due to the lack of neutralizing anti-CLDN1 antibodies, the role of CLDN1 in the viral entry process is poorly understood. In this study, we produced antibodies directed against the human CLDN1 extracellular loops by genetic immunization and used these antibodies to investigate the mechanistic role of CLDN1 for HCV entry in an infectious HCV cell culture system and human hepatocytes. Antibodies specific for cell surface-expressed CLDN1 specifically inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies specific for CLDN1, scavenger receptor B1, and CD81 show an additive neutralizing capacity compared with either agent used alone. Kinetic studies with anti-CLDN1 and anti-CD81 antibodies demonstrate that HCV interactions with both entry factors occur at a similar time in the internalization process. Anti-CLDN1 antibodies inhibit the binding of ...
The ability to invade host tissues and metastasize is the major cause of cancer-related death. During tumor invasion, metastasizing cells disrupt normal cell-matrix adhesion and acquire an invasive phenotype. Claudins are adhesion proteins localized at tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than that of apical TJs in epithelial cells. To study the basolateral function of claudin-7, claudin-7 gene silencing experiments were carried out in a lung cancer cell line using the lentivirus shRNA approach. We found that claudin-7 knockdown (KD) cells showed disrupted cell-matrix interactions. Consequently, when claudin-7 KD cells were plated on the uncoated glass surface, they were unable to attach to the glass and died the day after plating. In contrast, control cells adhered well and grew normally. Using immunofluorescent microscopy and biochemistry methods, we found that claudin-7 co-localized and ...
The results of this study show that the amount of mobile receptor and the speed at which it diffuses varies according to its location within the cell. CD81 and claudin-1 are expressed equally in the filopodia and plasma membrane, whereas SR-BI is expressed at lower levels in the filopodia compared to the plasma membrane. We show that addition of both sE2 and sE1E2 has varying affects on both the speed and mobility of CD81 and claudin-1 and that the majority of significant effects observed for claudin-1 are observed at areas of potential cell contact. Finally, we demonstrate that addition of ITX5061 affects the diffusion coefficient of CD81 and CLDN-1 and the amount of mobile SR-BI. Furthermore, the effects on SR-BI are limited to areas of cell contact or exploratory regions. In summary, we present data which we hope will further current knowledge of the activity of these receptors in relation to their role in HCV infection ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage plays a key role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. It is quite necessary to further explore the characteristic and mechanism of BBB leakage during stroke. We induced a focal cerebral ischemia model by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats for defining the time course of BBB permeability within 120 h following reperfusion and evaluate the specific role of tight junction (TJ) associated proteins claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 as well as protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) pathway in BBB leakage induced by reperfusion injury. We verified a bimodal increase in the permeability of the BBB following focal ischemia by Evans blue assay. Two peaks of BBB permeability appeared at 3 h and 72 h of reperfusion after 2 h focal ischemia, respectively. The leak at the endothelial cell was represented at the level of transmission electron microscopy. TTC staining results showed increased infarct size with time after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. The mRNA and ...
The expression of claudin-11 in benign and malignant bladder tissue and the effect of forced expression of claudin-11 on tight junction function and invasiveness of bladder cancer cells were studied. Claudin-11 expression was tested in bladder cancer cell lines (T24/83, RT 112/84 and EJ138) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in benign and malignant bladder tissue by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T24/83 cells were transfected with the pcDNA.1/NT-GFP-TOPO vector containing full-length human claudin-11 sequence. Stable-transfected cells overexpressing claudin-11 (T24Cl-11Ex), wild-type cells (T24WT) and the empty plasmid control clone (T24GFP) were compared using transurothelial resistance (TUR), in vitro adhesion, invasion and growth assays. Claudin-11 was strongly expressed in the non-invasive RT112/84 cell line compared to the invasive T24/83 and EJ138 TCC cell lines. Benign bladder tissue demonstrated equal expression of claudin-11 mRNA as ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Disruption of the cell-cell junction with concomitant changes in the expression of junctional proteins is a hallmark of cancer metastasis and invasion. Role of adherent junction proteins have been studied extensively in cancer, however the role of tight junction proteins is less understood. Claudins are the recently identified tetraspanins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJs). Recent studies have shown changes in expression/cellular localization for claudins during tumorigenesis, however a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin-1 in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal ...
Claudin-1 is an integral membrane protein component of tight junctions. The Snail family of transcription factors are repressors that play a central role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process that occurs during cancer progression. Snail and Slug members are direct repressors of E-cadherin and act by binding to the specific E-boxes of its proximal promoter. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of Slug or Snail causes a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. Overexpression of Slug and Snail in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells down-regulated Claudin-1 at protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Snail and Slug are able to effectively repress human Claudin-1-driven reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type promoter sequence, but not those with mutations in two proximal E-box elements. We also demonstrate by band-shift assay that Snail and Slug bind to the E-box motifs present in the human Claudin-1 promoter. Moreover, an inverse correlation in ...
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We detected claudin-12 protein in primary and transformed brain endothelium, but not at the TJ. In murine development, claudin-12 is predominantly seen at the TJs [4], while data on adult brain are only available at the mRNA level: findings by Belanger et al. support claudin-12 as a marker for metabolic disturbances affecting brain function in the adult [12]. In an immortalized murine cell culture model, only claudin-12 mRNA levels were down-regulated under conditions mimicking hyperammonemia. Taken together, it cannot be excluded that claudin-12 exists as an intracellular protein in the adult brain serving an as yet unknown function, or its localization to the TJ in vitro might require exquisite signaling input from other members of the neurovascular unit like pericytes and astrocytes. We did not test the hCMEC/D3 cells in co-culture with astrocytes as they are not responsive to glial cell conditioning in our experimental set-up.. So far, data on claudin-3 expression in immortalized human brain ...
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Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is a structural tight junction (TJ) protein and is expressed in differentiating keratinocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Our objective was to identify immunoreactive CLDN1 in human epidermal Langerhans cells and to examine the pattern of epidermal Langerhans cells in genetic human CLDN1 deficiency [neonatal ichthyosis, sclerosing cholangitis (NISCH) syndrome]. Epidermal cells from healthy human skin labelled with CLDN1-specific antibodies were analysed by confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Skin biopsy sections of two patients with NISCH syndrome were stained with an antibody to CD1a expressed on epidermal Langerhans cells. Epidermal Langerhans cells and a subpopulation of keratinocytes from healthy skin were positive for CLDN1. The gross number and distribution of epidermal Langerhans cells of two patients with molecularly confirmed NISCH syndrome, however, was not grossly altered. Therefore, CLDN1 is unlikely to play a critical role in ...
Claudin-4 (Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor) is a tight junction protein encoded by the gene CLDN4. Expression of Claudin-4 has been associated with either poor prognosis or a more favorable diagnosis, depending on the type of cancer. Claudin-4 has been shown to distinguish adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with 99% specificity in malignant effusions (1). Claudin-4 overexpression was able to independently predict survival in a breast cancer multivariate analysis as it was associated with poor prognosis, high tumor grade and Her2 expression and was inversely correlated with estrogen receptor staining (2). In luminal breast cancer, the increase of Claudin-4 protein was correlated with the increase of tumor grade and with Ki-67, and thus demonstrated an overall shorter life survival (3). Basal-like tumors also demonstrated overexpression of Claudin-4 (4). Counter to the above breast cancer subtypes, the presence of Claudin-4 in triple negative breast cancer was a biomarker that
Objective Helicobacter pylori strains that express the oncoprotein CagA augment risk for gastric cancer. However, the precise mechanisms through which cag+ strains heighten cancer risk have not been fully delineated and model systems that recapitulate the gastric niche are critical for understanding pathogenesis. Gastroids are three-dimensional organ-like structures that provide unique opportunities to study host-H. pylori interactions in a preclinical model. We used gastroids to inform and direct in vitro studies to define mechanisms through which H. pylori modulates expression of the cancer-associated tight junction protein claudin-7.. ...
In this work, we assessed the effects of sinomenine (SN) on intestinal octreotide (OCT) absorption both in Caco-2 cell monolayers and in rats. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms of tight junction (TJ) disruption and recovery by SN-mediated changes in the claudin-1 and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. The data showed that exposure to SN resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of claudin-1, which represented TJ weakening and paracellular permeability enhancement. Then, the recovery of TJ after SN removal required an increase in claudin-1, which demonstrated the transient and reversible opening for TJ. Meanwhile, the SN-mediated translocation of PKC-α from the cytosol to the membrane was found to prove PKC activation. Finally, SN significantly improved the absolute OCT bioavailability in rats and the transport rate in Caco-2 cell monolayers. We conclude that SN has the ability to enhance intestinal OCT absorption and that these mechanisms are related at least in part to
For every experimental group, brains from at minimum 3 distinct litter had been analyzed and when compared to the in accordance NaCl handle group. qPCR approach improvement exposed that only samples must be when compared to every other which have gone through experimental treatment, mind isolation, storage, purification and evaluation preparing steps with each other. Therefore, for every DEX-treatment the according NaCl handle group was carried out at the exact same time. In addition, owing to the large complete variety of samples, but limited sample variety which could be purified at the same time, only samples from mice at the same age and identical variety of antenatal injections ended up compared to every other by using a two-tailed Student`s t-take a look at. Data are offered as the signifies ± SEM. The major tight junction molecule and mind endothelial mobile marker claudin-five was investigated originally. Triple maternal DEX remedy drastically decreased claudin-5 mRNA expression to .54 ...
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
immune Uncategorized PA-824, Rabbit Polyclonal to C-RAF (phospho-Thr269). The blood-epididymis barrier (BEB) is formed by epithelial tight junctions mediating selective permeability from the PA-824 epididymal epithelium. the paracellular permeability had been examined by two strategies TER and FITC-Dextran-based tracer diffusion assays. Both assays soon add up to related outcomes indicating a time-dependent disruption from the BEB differentially for the three TGF? isoforms (TGF?3>TGF?1>TGF?2) inside a TGF?-recetor-1 kinase- and Smad-dependent way. The small junction proteins claudin-1 was discovered to be decreased by the procedure with TGF?s whereas occludin had not PA-824 been affected. Epididymal epithelial cells are mainly attentive to TGF?s PA-824 through the basolateral side recommending that TGF? may impact for the epididymal epithelium through the stroma cell tradition versions the knockdown of 1 of the claudins (1 -3 -4 or -7) led to dramatically reduced transepithelial electrical level ...
Epithelial barrier dysfunction is a significant factor in many allergic diseases, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Infiltrating leukocytes and tissue adaptations increase metabolic demands and decrease oxygen availability at barrier surfaces. Understanding of how these processes impact barrier is limited, particularly in allergy. Here, we identified a regulatory axis whereby the oxygen-sensing transcription factor HIF-1α orchestrated epithelial barrier integrity, selectively controlling tight junction CLDN1 (claudin-1). Prolonged experimental hypoxia or HIF1A knockdown suppressed HIF-1α-dependent claudin-1 expression and epithelial barrier function, as documented in 3D organotypic epithelial cultures. L2-IL5OXA mice with EoE-relevant allergic inflammation displayed localized eosinophil oxygen metabolism, tissue hypoxia, and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of esophageal epithelial-targeted stabilized ...
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model system to study the effects of hepatic polarity on HCV infection. We found an inverse association between HepG2-CD81 polarization and HCV pseudoparticle entry. As HepG2 cells polarize, discrete pools of claudin-1 (CLDN1) at the TJ and basal/lateral membranes develop, consistent with the pattern of receptor staining observed in liver tissue. The TJ and nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 show an altered association with CD81 and localization in response to the PKA antagonist Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPs (cAMPs). Rp-8-Br-cAMPs reduced CLDN1 expression at the basal membrane and inhibited HCV infection, supporting a model where the nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 ...
Findings: hCMEC/D3 cells express claudins-3 and -12. Claudin-3 is distinctly localized to the TJ whereas claudin -12 is observed in the perinuclear region and completely absent from TJs. We show that the expression of both proteins is lost in cell passage numbers where the BBB properties are no longer fully conserved. Expression and localization of claudin-3 is not modulated by simvastatin shown to improve barrier function in vitro and also recommended for routine hCMEC/D3 culture ...
Cytoplasmic expression of claudin-1 in metastatic melanoma cells correlates to increased migration, and increased secretion of MMP-2 in a PKC dependent manner, whereas claudin-1 nuclear expressi...
The C\terminal fragment of enterotoxin (C\CPE) modulates the tight junction protein claudin and disturbs the tight junctional barrier. epithelial cells (HPDEs) had been treated with C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19. In well\differentiated cells of the pancreatic malignancy cell collection HPAC, C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19 interrupted both the hurdle and fencing features without adjustments in manifestation of claudin\1 and \4, collectively with an boost of MAPK phosphorylation. C\CPE 194, but not really C\CPE meters19, improved the cytotoxicity of the anticancer brokers gemcitabine and H\1. In differentiated pancreatic malignancy cell collection PANC\1 badly, C\CPE 194, but not really C\CPE meters19, reduced claudin\4 phrase and improved MAPK activity and the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agencies. In regular HPDEs, C\CPE 194 and C\CPE meters19 reduced claudin\4 phrase and improved the MAPK activity, whereas they do not really influence the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agencies. Our results ...
View mouse Cldn15 Chr5:136966616-136975858 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe autosomal recessive human diarrheal disorder with characteristic intestinal epithelial dysplasia. CTE can be caused by mutations in genes encoding EpCAM, a putative adhesion molecule, and HAI-2, a cell surface protease inhibitor. A similar phenotype occurs in mice whose intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) fail to express the tight junction-associated protein claudin-7. EpCAM stabilizes claudin-7 in IECs, and HAI-2 regulates the cell surface serine protease matriptase, a known modifier of intestinal epithelial physiology. Therefore, we hypothesized that HAI-2, matriptase, EpCAM, and claudin-7 were functionally linked. Herein we have demonstrated that active matriptase cleaves EpCAM after Arg80 and that loss of HAI-2 in IECs led to unrestrained matriptase activity and efficient cleavage of EpCAM. Cleavage of EpCAM decreased its ability to associate with claudin-7 and targeted it for internalization and lysosomal degradation in conjunction with ...
Aim of this volume is to clarify the relationship between molecular structure and function of tight junction proteins, as well as their regulation and their role in diseases. Current research may form a basis for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diseases which seem to have not much in common but are characterized by defects of organ barriers, like Crohns disease, renal hypertension, inner ear deafness, and cancerous diseases. Topics include the functions of distinct tight junction proteins as barrier or channel formers for solutes and water, characteristics of the tight junction in inflammatory bowel diseases, posttranslational modifications of tight junction proteins, the relation between renal tight junction proteins and blood pressure control, and the molecular structure of claudin-claudin interactions NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas.
GGRNA , 2020-04-07 23:23:15 , RefSeq release 60 (20130726)] RefSeq ID Version Symbol GeneID Definition NM_001101389 NM_001101389.1 CLDN25 644672 Homo sapiens claudin 25 (CLDN25), mRNA. NM_001111319 NM_001111319.1 CLDN22 53842 Homo sapiens claudin 22 (CLDN22), mRNA. NM_020982 NM_020982.3 CLDN9 9080 Homo sapiens claudin 9 (CLDN9), mRNA. NM_001001346 NM_001001346.3 CLDN20 49861 Homo sapiens claudin 20 (CLDN20), mRNA. NM_001306 NM_001306.3 CLDN3 1365 Homo sapiens claudin 3 (CLDN3), mRNA. NM_012131 NM_012131.2 CLDN17 26285 Homo sapiens claudin 17 (CLDN17), mRNA. NM_016369 NM_016369.3 CLDN18 51208 Homo sapiens claudin 18 (CLDN18), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NM_001185056 NM_001185056.1 CLDN11 5010 Homo sapiens claudin 11 (CLDN11), transcript variant 2, mRNA. NM_005602 NM_005602.5 CLDN11 5010 Homo sapiens claudin 11 (CLDN11), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NM_182848 NM_182848.3 CLDN10 9071 Homo sapiens claudin 10 (CLDN10), transcript variant a, mRNA. NM_006984 NM_006984.4 CLDN10 9071 Homo sapiens claudin ...
The tight junction regulates passage of molecules throuth the paracellular spaces. Occludin and claudins are the specific trancmembrance protains present at the tight junction and are believed to regulate the cell barrier functions. To examine the response of the tight junction to hyperosmotic solutions, Ⅰinvestigated the effects of hyperosmotic glycerol on function and protein expression of the tight junction in ECV304 cells. Cell cytotoxicity analysis showed that the high (10%) concentration of glcerol damaged 64.1% of the ECV304 cells (p<0.001), and this was confirmed morphologically. Treatment with 1%, 2% or 5% glyserol increased the paracellular permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled dextran by 4.7%, 18.7% and 29.4% (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, exposure to glycerol at any concentration strongly reduced the expression of occludin, whereas enpression of claudin-1 was affected very slightly. These results suggest that hyperosmotic glycerol would certainly ...
Mouse monoclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody [mAbcam 61357] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and 5…
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
The precise regulation of intestinal epithelial TJs is crucial to maintaining barrier function between the luminal milieu and the internal environment. Recent studies have revealed an important role for Rho GTPases in regulating TJ structure/function (22, 29). In particular, TJ strand organization has been shown to be altered by constitutively active RhoA and Rac1 mutants (22) and inactivation of GTPases by C. difficile toxins is known to cause redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from membrane microdomains or membrane rafts (32). As a result, we have further explored the mechanisms whereby paracellular permeability is influenced by this family of mediators and investigated whether the inactivation of a single GTPase (RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42) has an effect on TJ distribution in such membrane rafts and whether TJ proteins involved in strand formation (such as claudin-1 and -2) are altered in this setting.. Using MDCK cell lines that express constitutively active or dominant-negative RhoA, Rac1, or ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the possible role of tight junction protein Occludin in nasal polyps. METHODS The expression of Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 in nasal polyps (n = 20) and healthy uncinate mucosa (n = 15) were examined using immunohistochemical staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The regulatory effects of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17, TGF-β, TGF-α) on the expression of Occludin in cultured human nasal epithelial cells were investigated. RESULTS The immunohistochemical results showed that Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 were detected both in the nasal polyp group and the control group. The expression sites were the cell membrane and cytoplasm of nasal mucosa epithelial cells. The mean optical density of Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 were 0.187 ± 0.076,0.172 ± 0.109 and 0.098 ± 0.035 respectively in the nasal polyp group and were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.312 ± 0.101, 0.220 ± 0.069 and 0.233
Tight junctions between epithelial and endothelial cells form selective barriers and paracellular channels and regulate paracellular transport of solutes, immune cells, and drugs. More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and endothelia. Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that allow for permeation between the cells. Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I showcases work in this area clustered around three major themes: the molecular properties of tight junctions, for example, the role of the claudin family of proteins and the formation of ion and charge-selective channels; the regulation of tight junction
In this study, we demonstrated (I) distinct expression patterns of five genes encoding for proteins involved in the formation of tight junctions in esophageal mucosa. In particular Claudin-1 in ERD and to lesser extent Claudin-2 was expressed at higher levels in patients with GERD. In contrast, ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin were not affected by the presence of GERD. (II) In general, altered gene expression of Claudin-1/-2 did not correlate with the degree of histomorphological changes in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD.. Tight junctions are composed of transmembrane proteins such as Occludin, 24 Claudins, several junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) with different isoforms, E-Cadherin as well as cytosolic binding partners [43, 44]. The selection of the five genes studied was based on functional aspects. Occludin is critical for the formation of tight junctions in most tissues [45]. Claudin-1 is one of the numerous Claudins that seals intercellular space leading to higher barrier function ...
Claudins are a family of proteins that are the most important components of the tight junctions, where they establish the paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space between the cells of an epithelium. They have four transmembrane domains, with the N-terminus and the C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Claudins are small (20-27 kilodalton (kDa)) transmembrane proteins which are found in many organisms, ranging from nematodes to human beings, and are very similar in their structure, although this conservation is not observed on the genetic level. Claudins span the cellular membrane 4 times, with the N-terminal end and the C-terminal end both located in the cytoplasm, and two extracellular loops which show the highest degree of conservation. The first extracellular loop consists on average of 53 amino acids and the second one, being slightly smaller, of 24 amino acids. The N-terminal end is usually very short (4-10 amino acids), the C-terminal end varies in length ...
The tight junctions (TJ), which are located in the apical region between epithelial and endothelial cells, regulate the paracellular diffusion of ions and small molecules and play an important role in maintaining cell polarity, cell-cell integrity, and permeability. In the lung, epithelial cells are attached by TJ structures. They provide a permeable barrier and cell communication. The loss of barrier integrity, which is maintained by the expression of claudins (Cldn), results in cellular permibilization and leads to paracellular diffusion of solutes and harmful molecules. There are 27 known Cldn homologous members in mice and human. Cldn6 is mostly expressed in embryonic stem cells and associated with the programing of epithelial cells during embryo development and lung morphogenesis. In order to test the hypothesis that Cldn6 expression affects lung morphogenesis, we analyzed the expression pattern of Cldn6 during lung ontogenesis to examine cell-specific expression pattern of Cldn6 during each
Epithelial layers are integral for many physiological processes and are maintained by intercellular adhesive structures. During disease, these structures can disassemble, leading to breakdown of epithelia. TJs (tight junctions) are one type of intercellular adhesion. Loss of TJs has been linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. The present review focuses on the role of vesicle trafficking in regulation of TJs, in particular trafficking of the TJ protein occludin. We examine how endocytosis and endosomal recycling modulate occludin localization under steady-state conditions and during stimulated TJ disassembly. ...
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in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(19), 16879-90. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen ... [more ▼]. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta inhibition independently induce the localization of epithelial tight junction components to the plasma membrane. The Ca(2+)-independent deposition of junctional proteins induced by AMPK activation and GSK-3beta inhibition is independent of E-cadherin. Furthermore, the nectin-afadin system is required for the deposition of tight junction components induced by AMPK activation, but it is not required for that induced by GSK-3beta inhibition. Phosphorylation studies demonstrate that afadin is ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Obat ketika masuk tubuh mengalami nasib yaitu: absorbsi, distribusi, metabolisme, dan ekskresi (ADME). Obat utamanya masuk ke dalam sel. Sebenarnya aliran senyawa melalui paraseluler bisa terjadi, namun ada halangan yaitu adanya tight junction, misal di SSP. Obat bisa ditransport secara pasif maupun aktif. Transport pasif artinya mengikuti gradien konsentrasi yaitu dari konsentrasi tinggi ke konsentrasi…
The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the claudin family. Claudins are integral membrane proteins that are components of the epithelial cell tight junctions, which regulate movement of solutes and ions through the paracellular space. This protein is a high-affinity receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and may play a role in internal organ development and function during pre- and postnatal life. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple systems. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Characterization of the tight junction is proceeding rapidly and has stimulated advances in the fields of cell-cell interactions and epithelial cell biology. In addition to the list of proteins now found at the tight junction, we have learned that two previously characterized tight junction components, ZO-1 and ZO-2, are members of a larger protein family that appear to function in the organization of specific areas of the cell surface (11, 21, 23, 24, 27, 41, 44). Moreover, data suggest that some members of this family are involved in signal transduction and/or tumor suppression (1, 41, 46, 47), highlighting the importance of analyzing these molecules.. Here we present evidence of a novel member of the MAGUK family of proteins found at the tight junction. This 130-kD polypeptide, named ZO-3 because of homology to ZO-1 and ZO-2 (Figs. 5, Tables II and III) and localization at the tight junction (Figs. 7 and 8), contains 3 PDZ domains, an SH3 domain and a GUK region (Fig. 3). The arrangement of ...
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This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the claudin family. The protein is a component of tight junction strands and may play a role in internal organ development and function during pre- and postnatal life. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple systems ...
The relationship between the molecular structure and function of tight junction proteins, as well as their regulation and their role in disease, is discussed.
To investigate, researchers used a mouse model infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse equivalent of an E. coli infection. Using this model, they saw an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier within just two days of infection -- well before inflammation and epithelial damage. In particular, they uncovered a critical role for interleukin-22 that in turn influences another molecule called claudin-2, previously known to be involved in causing diarrhea. They found that diarrhea resulting from the signaling of these two molecules helped promote pathogen clearance and limited disease severity ...
Restore optimal gut environment leads to great gut health with carbon rich alkaline liquid lignite extracts to strengthen tight junction cells
Complete information for CLDN18 gene (Protein Coding), Claudin 18, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The effect of Aβ on BBB integrity has been studied in several cell culture models. Gonzalez-Velasquez et al showed that treatment of cultured human brain endothelial cells with 2.5 to 10 μmol/L Aβ40 triggered the TJ protein ZO-1 to retreat from the plasma membrane, which was accompanied by decreased transendothelial electric resistance.11 Marco and Skaper demonstrated that exposing rat brain endothelial cells to 20 μmol/L Aβ42 triggered ZO-1 and claudin-5 relocation from the plasma membrane, a decrease in occludin expression, and an increase in claudin-1 expression.21 Tai et al demonstrated that Aβ40 activated microtubule-associated protein kinase, which decreased occludin expression and increased permeability in human brain endothelial cell cultures, whereas claudin-5 and ZO-1 remained unchanged.22 Carrano et al analyzed postmortem CAA patient brain slices for TJ protein and observed a loss of occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in brain microvessels.23 We show that hAβ40 decreased rat brain ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many CNS disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We have previously shown that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction complexes, and BBB integrity disruption. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that induce BBB integrity marker loss are unclear. We hypothesize that 3-chloropropanediol-induced modulation of tight junction protein expression is mediated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis we have used a mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to 3-chloropropanediol for up to 3 days. Results showed early reversible loss of sharp paracellular claudin-5 expression 90, 105, and 120 min following 3-chloropropanediol (500 μM) treatment. Sharp paracellular claudin-5 ...
Endothelium differentiates in response to tissue-specific signals; brain endothelium expresses tight junctions and transporters which are absent from other endothelia. The promoter of the tight junction protein occludin exhibited strong activity in a brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3 but was inactive in lung endothelial cells. Expression of occludin in brain endothelium corresponded with binding of Sp3 to a minimal promoter segment close to the transcription-start site. However, in lung endothelium Sp-transcription factors did not bind to this site although they are present in the cell nucleus. In contrast, repression of occludin in lung endothelium was associated with the binding of YY1 to a remote site in the promoter region, which was functionally inactive in brain endothelium. The work identified a group of transcription factors including Sp3 and YY1, which differentially interact with the occludin promoter to induce expression of occludin in brain endothelium and repression in other ...
From NCBI Gene:. Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals around cells and serving as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. These junctions are comprised of sets of continuous networking strands in the outwardly facing cytoplasmic leaflet, with complementary grooves in the inwardly facing extracytoplasmic leaflet. The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight junction strands. It is found primarily in the kidneys, specifically in the thick ascending limb of Henle, where it acts as either an intercellular pore or ion concentration sensor to regulate the paracellular resorption of magnesium ions. Defects in this gene are a cause of primary hypomagnesemia, which is characterized by massive renal magnesium wasting with hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria, resulting in ...
Tight junctions (TJs) are constructions indispensable to epithelial cells and are responsible for regulations of paracellular diffusion and maintenance of cellular polarity. interstitial tissues spaces. Located at the pinnacle of horizontal walls, TJs have both wall and barriers features. The barriers function represents a selectively permeable filtration system that adjusts paracellular diffusion of ions and solutes structured on charge and size, respectively (Gemstone, 1977 ). Barriers function is certainly firmly governed by a particular arranged of TJ protein, the claudins (Tsukita made up of a non-specific shRNA into MDCK II cells (brief hairpin non-specific control [shCtrl] cells). Specificities of RalA and RalB exhaustion had been ABT-263 decided by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence marking of endogenous protein; both RalB and RalA localised to the plasma membrane layer in subconfluent MDCK II cells, and this localization was untouched in shCtrl cells (Body 1B). In shRalA cells, ...
Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic plaque consisting of many different proteins that form large complexes. These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other pathways ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zheng Ruan, Shiqiang Liu, Yan Zhou, Shumei Mi, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Kang Yao, Houssein Assaad, Zeyuan Deng, Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin].
Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic plaque consisting of many different proteins that form large complexes. These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other pathways ...
Background The mind endothelium is a key component of the blood brain barrier which is compromised following ischemia allowing infiltration of damaging immune cells and other inflammatory molecules into the brain. that IVIg prevented the down-regulation of tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin and the decline in anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL caused by […]. ...
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TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Cell and biological adhesion Fold Symbol Gene name Gene assignment change CLDN7 claudin 7 Involved in the formation of 2.74 tight junctions between epithelial cells PCDHB5 Protocadherin Member of the 3.32 beta-5 protocadherin beta gene cluster CLDN3 Claudin 3 Member of the claudin 3.93 family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight junction strands. CNTN6 contactin 6 Contactins mediate cell 3.09 surface interactions during nervous system development. Participates in oligodendrocytes generation by acting as a ligand of NOTCH1. PKHD1 polycystic kidney Localized predominantly at 3.38 and hepatic the disease 1 apical domain of polarized epithelial cells, suggesting it may be involved in the tubulogenesis and/or maintenance of duct-lumen architecture. PCDHB2 protocadherin The extracellular domains 2.94 beta 2 interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. CDH1 E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule 3.27 (epithelial) CX3CL1 hemokine ...
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Epithelial and endothelial cells form the external lining of outer and inner body surfaces and blood vessels of multicellular organisms. Thus, they create separate compartments each exhibiting an environment optimally adjusted to their respective function. To build up such compartments epithelial and endothelial cells have to restrict the paracellular diffusion of substances. The paracellular cleft is sealed by tight junctions (TJ). In electron microscopical images TJs appear as a network of intermembranous strands in the apical region of the lateral cell membrane of epithelial and endothelial cells. Claudins (Cld) form the structural backbone of TJs. The present study provided evidence for the first time that single amino acids of the second extracellular loop (ECL) of a claudin are essential for the paracellular tightness of epithelial cells. The effect of single amino acid substitutions of the second ECL of Cld5 were studied in cells expressing various other endogenous claudins except Cld5. ...
All of us in the business talk about the blood-brain barrier, but. . .no, Im not going to end this sentence with . . .none of us do anything about it,

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Emerging Roles of Claudins in Human CancerIJMS | Free Full-Text | Emerging Roles of Claudins in Human Cancer

A recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subtype that is characterized by the enrichment of EMT and stem cell-like ... The critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of claudin expression indicates the possible application of ... in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of various cancers. Although their dysregulation in ... Altered expression of several claudin proteins, in particular claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7, has been linked to the development of ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/9/18148/xml

Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...Familial hypomagnesaemia, Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis associated with a novel mutation of the highly conserved leucine...

As a result, a novel homozygous mutation (c.346C , G, p.Leu116Val) in 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin 16 was identified. Her ... claudin 16 might be essential for stabilization of the appropriately folded ECS1 structure and conservation of normal claudin ... FHHNC in the Chinese population and identified a novel missense mutation in the highly conserved 115G-L-W117 motif of claudin ... Sixty mutations of claudin 16 coding gene have been reported in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and ...
more infohttps://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-018-0979-1

Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability...

... is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 ... alteplase; claudin 5; gadolinium pentetate; occludin; age distribution; aged; aging; animal experiment; animal model; article; ... mediated through the acute disassembly of claudin 5 and occludin. Increased T 2 values over the first hour of postreperfusion ... Both tPA and age independently increased claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation during ischemia. Early BBB permeability ...
more infohttp://nparc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/object/?id=ae12c4a7-5885-474d-9f42-8acdfa74a406

Claudin-1 Target from Cell Signaling TechnologyClaudin-1 Target from Cell Signaling Technology

Alteration in claudin protein expression pattern is associated with several types of cancer (2,3). Claudin-1 is expressed ... Alteration in claudin protein expression pattern is associated with several types of cancer (2,3). Claudin-1 is expressed ... Alteration in claudin protein expression pattern is associated with several types of cancer (2,3). Claudin-1 is expressed ... Claudin-1 Target. Polyclonal Antibody - Claudin-1 Antibody - Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting, UniProt ID O95832, Entrez ...
more infohttps://www.cellsignal.com/1/3/claudin-1-target

Cldn1 - Claudin-1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cldn1 gene & proteinCldn1 - Claudin-1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cldn1 gene & protein

While some claudin family members play essential roles in the formation of impermeable barriers, others mediate the ... Often, several claudin family members are coexpressed and interact with each other, and this determines the overall ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ... IPR006187. Claudin. IPR003548. Claudin1. IPR017974. Claudin_CS. IPR004031. PMP22/EMP/MP20/Claudin. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O88551

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody | acris-antibodies.comClaudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

... a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight junction strands. Tight junctions are… ... Recombinant protein of human claudin 1 (CLDN1). Human. > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was captured through anti-DDK ... Background of Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody. Claudin1 (CLDN1), a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and ... Western blot (WB) analysis of Claudin-1 antibody (Cat.-No.: AP06060PU-N) at 1/500 dilution Lane1:Hela whole cell lysate Lane2: ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/claudin-1-antibody-cldn1-antibody.htm?ag_source=HEK293+cells

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 - ARP33623 P050 | acris-antibodies.comClaudin-1 / CLDN1 - ARP33623 P050 | acris-antibodies.com

Claudin-1 / CLDN1, 50 µg. Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets ... Claudin-1 / CLDN1. Not available. Human > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was captured through anti-DDK affinity column ... Positive controls for Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (3 products). Catalog No.. Species. Pres.. Purity. Source. ... Proteins for Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (3 products). Catalog No.. Species. Pres.. Purity. Source. ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/antibodies/primary-antibodies/claudin-1-cldn1-arp33623-p050.htm

JCI -
Epithelial HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis regulates barrier dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitisJCI - Epithelial HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis regulates barrier dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis

Claudin-based tight junctions are crucial for the mammalian epidermal barrier: a lesson from claudin-1-deficient mice. J Cell ... Heatmaps generated from normalized data (n = 3). (E) Western blotting confirmed claudin-1 protein loss in HIF1A-KD and HIF1A-DN ... We first noted that normal human esophageal biopsies possess the primary claudin genes CLDN1, CLDN4, and CLDN7 (Figure 3C). We ... B) Mice were assessed for claudin-1 protein by Western blot, quantified by densitometry, and CLDN1 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. (C ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/126744

Probing the cis-arrangement of prototype tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-3.  - PubMed - NCBIProbing the cis-arrangement of prototype tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-3. - PubMed - NCBI

Using FRET analysis, the proximity of claudin N- and C-termini integrated in homopolymeric strands composed of claudin-3 or of ... The results indicate at least two different cis-interaction interfaces within claudin-3 homopolymers as well as within claudin- ... FRET; cell junctions; claudin; claudin strand model; live-cell imaging; tight junction architecture ... Human claudin-1 and claudin-3, fused to ECFP or EYFP at the N- or C-terminus, were expressed in the TJ-free cell line HEK ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25849148

Frontiers | Immunocytochemical Localization of Claudin-1 in the Maturation Ameloblasts of Rat Incisors | PhysiologyFrontiers | Immunocytochemical Localization of Claudin-1 in the Maturation Ameloblasts of Rat Incisors | Physiology

... the presence of claudin 1 in the Golgi cisterns may indicate the presence of tight junction precursors before transportation to ... the presence of claudin 1 in the Golgi cisterns may indicate the presence of tight junction precursors before transportation to ... and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin 1 antibodies. Since it has been shown that ameloblasts repeatedly alternate between ... and RAs stained positive with anti-claudin 1 antibodies. Since it has been shown that ameloblasts repeatedly alternate between ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2010.00150/full

CLDN1 / Claudin 1 Antibody for IHC, WB/Western LS-C331975CLDN1 / Claudin 1 Antibody for IHC, WB/Western LS-C331975

Claudin 1 antibody LS-C331975 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Claudin 1 (CLDN1) from human, mouse and rat. ... Claudin 1 antibody LS-C331975 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Claudin 1 (CLDN1) from human, mouse and rat. ... Claudin 1 antibody LS-C331975 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Claudin 1 (CLDN1) from human, mouse and rat. ... Recombinant fusion protein containing a sequence corresponding to amino acids 1-211 of human CLDN1 (NP_066924.1). ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/cldn1-antibody-claudin-1-antibody-ihc-wb-western-ls-c331975/342334

Claudin 1 (8G1) Monoclonal Antibody by Bioss, Cat. No. bsm-52037M | Lucerna-Chem AGClaudin 1 (8G1) Monoclonal Antibody by Bioss, Cat. No. bsm-52037M | Lucerna-Chem AG

Claudin 1 (8G1) Monoclonal Antibody. Catalog Number. Pack Size. List Price*. Quantity. ... Aqueous buffered solution containing 1xTBS (pH7.4), 1%BSA, 40%Glycerol and 0.05% Sodium Azide. Store at -20°C for 12 months.. ...
more infohttps://lucerna-chem.ch/shop/3170160/claudin-1-8g1-monoclonal-antibody

TUSC3 accelerates cancer growth and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulating claudin-1 in non-small-cell lung...TUSC3 accelerates cancer growth and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulating claudin-1 in non-small-cell lung...

2018 Dec 15;373(1-2):44-56. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.08.012. Epub 2018 Aug 9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... TUSC3 accelerates cancer growth and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulating claudin-1 in non-small-cell lung ... On the contrary, overexpression of TUSC3 significantly enhanced EMT progress by upregulating claudin-1 expression. Overall, our ... In addition, TUSC3 knockdown suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the expression of claudin-1, which ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30098333

a) Immunohistochemistry of claudin-1 in vaginal tissue | Open-ia) Immunohistochemistry of claudin-1 in vaginal tissue | Open-i

a) Immunohistochemistry of claudin-1 in vaginal tissue from animals of the control (Con), ovariectomy (Ovx), and ovariectomy ... b) Immunoblotting of claudin-1 in the rat vagina. The lower panels denote the means ± standard error of 6 experiments for each ... b) Immunoblotting of claudin-1 in the rat vagina. The lower panels denote the means ± standard error of 6 experiments for each ... Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4835618_BMRI2016-4394702.003&req=4

Claudin 1 promotes migration and increases sensitivity to tamoxifen and anticancer drugs in luminal-like human breast cancer...Claudin 1 promotes migration and increases sensitivity to tamoxifen and anticancer drugs in luminal-like human breast cancer...

In this study, claudin 1 promotes migration in luminal-like MCF7 human breast cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to ... Claudin 1 promotes migration and increases sensitivity to tamoxifen and anticancer drugs in luminal-like human breast cancer ... Downregulation of claudin 1, a critical tight junction protein, has been correlated with increased invasiveness in breast ... Collectively, our results suggest that claudin 1 has the potential to be used as a predictive marker for treatment efficacy for ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26288115

Rabbit Anti-Claudin 1 Polyclonal Antibody - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IF, IHC-P - Buy Now! |AbgentRabbit Anti-Claudin 1 Polyclonal Antibody - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IF, IHC-P - Buy Now! |Abgent

Rabbit Anti-Claudin 1 Polyclonal Antibody, Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IF, IHC-P (AP52052), ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Rabbit Anti-Claudin 1 Polyclonal Antibody Rabbit Anti-Claudin 1 Polyclonal Antibody. ... While some claudin family members play essential roles in the formation of impermeable barriers, others mediate the ... Often, several claudin family members are coexpressed and interact with each other, and this determines the overall ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AP52052-Rabbit-Anti-Claudin-1-Polyclonal-Antibody

The transcription factors Slug and Snail act as repressors of Claudin-1 expression in epithelial cells1 | Biochemical JournalThe transcription factors Slug and Snail act as repressors of Claudin-1 expression in epithelial cells1 | Biochemical Journal

We also demonstrate by band-shift assay that Snail and Slug bind to the E-box motifs present in the human Claudin-1 promoter. ... The transcription factors Slug and Snail act as repressors of Claudin-1 expression in epithelial cells1. Ofelia M. Martínez- ... Moreover, an inverse correlation in the levels of Claudin-1 and Slug transcripts were observed in breast cancer cell lines. E- ... Claudin-1 is an integral membrane protein component of tight junctions. The Snail family of transcription factors are ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/394/2/449

Expression of claudin 1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 in colorectal cancer and its relation with CLDN DNA methylation patternsExpression of claudin 1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 in colorectal cancer and its relation with CLDN DNA methylation patterns

... claudin 4, and claudin 7 in colorectal cancer and its relation with CLDN DNA methylation patterns. Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria ... Altered claudin expression has been described in colon, prostatic, ovarian, and breast carcinoma. However, the role of ... Tight junction, methylation, colon cancer, claudin Nationell ämneskategori Cancer och onkologi Identifikatorer. URN: urn:nbn:se ... We aimed our study to investigate whether claudin protein expression and methylation of CLDN can influence the tumorigenesis of ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1117532&c=32&searchType=SIMPLE&language=sv&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22authority-person%3A62830%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Clearance of persistent hepatitis C virus infection in humanized mice using a claudin-1-targeting monoclonal antibodyClearance of persistent hepatitis C virus infection in humanized mice using a claudin-1-targeting monoclonal antibody

CLAUDIN-1, EXPRESSION, CD81, RECEPTOR, IN-VIVO, CELL ENTRY, HUMAN LIVER, ENTRY FACTORS, HUMAN HEPATOCYTES, NEUTRALIZING ... Using a human liver-chimeric mouse model(6), we show that a monoclonal antibody specific for the TJ protein claudin-1 (ref. 7) ... Using a human liver-chimeric mouse model(6), we show that a monoclonal antibody specific for the TJ protein claudin-1 (ref. 7) ... Clearance of persistent hepatitis C virus infection in humanized mice using a claudin-1-targeting monoclonal antibody. Laurent ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/6717062

Comparative mapping of human claudin-1 (CLDN1) in great apes  - Publikationsserver der Universität RegensburgComparative mapping of human claudin-1 (CLDN1) in great apes - Publikationsserver der Universität Regensburg

The gene encoding claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been mapped to human chromosome 3 (HSA3; 3q28→q29) using a radiation hybrid panel. ... The gene encoding claudin-1 (CLDN1) has been mapped to human chromosome 3 (HSA3; 3q28→q29) using a radiation hybrid panel. ... Schempp, W und Schmid, M (2005) Comparative mapping of human claudin-1 (CLDN1) in great apes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/35291/

Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the tight junction protein claudin-1 and are present in human genetic claudin-1...Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the tight junction protein claudin-1 and are present in human genetic claudin-1...

Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is a structural tight junction (TJ) protein and is expressed in differentiating keratinocytes and Langerhans ... Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is a structural tight junction (TJ) protein and is expressed in differentiating keratinocytes and Langerhans ... Download PDF Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the tight junction protein claudin-1 and are present in human genetic ... Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the tight junction protein claudin-1 and are present in human genetic claudin-1 ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/14247/

Claudin 1 expression in basal-like breast cancer is related to patient age | BMC Cancer | Full TextClaudin 1 expression in basal-like breast cancer is related to patient age | BMC Cancer | Full Text

... even though claudin 4 did not significantly correlate with patient age. Claudin 1 knockdown in BT-20 cells resulted in ... Although the expression of one of these proteins, claudin 1, is down regulated in most invasive human breast cancers (HBC), we ... In these tumors, the claudin 1 protein, usually localized in the cell membrane, is often mislocalized to the cytoplasm. To ... The association of high claudin 1 protein levels observed in tumors derived from older women with BLBC, suggests that claudin 1 ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-13-268

Claudin 1 (CLDN1) - Molecular Target Profile - BioCentury - BCIQClaudin 1 (CLDN1) - Molecular Target Profile - BioCentury - BCIQ

Comprehensive view of all products targeting Claudin 1 (CLDN1). Includes lead product status, indications and partnerships. ... Therapeutics: Claudin 1 (CLDN1) Infectious disease INDICATION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Mouse studies suggest anti- CLDN1 ...
more infohttps://bciq.biocentury.com/targets/claudin_1

Characterization and analysis of claudin-1 expression in colorectal cancer and its metastases: A pilot studyCharacterization and analysis of claudin-1 expression in colorectal cancer and its metastases: A pilot study

2003) Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer but not in ovarian ... Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium. Cancer Res ... The expression of claudin-1 will be lost once invasion is complete. This was also the case with metastatic melanoma. Cohn et al ... Claudin-1 along with claudin-3 and claudin-5 are shown to promote pro-MMP2 whereby claudins recruit MMPs on the cell surface to ...
more infohttps://www.oatext.com/Characterization-and-analysis-of-claudin-1-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-and-its-metastases-A-pilot-study.php

Role of claudin-1 in colon tumor progression and metastasis
     - Research NebraskaRole of claudin-1 in colon tumor progression and metastasis - Research Nebraska

Role of claudin-1 in colon tumor progression and metastasis. *Dhawan, Punita (PI) ... Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell ... We further show regulation of E-cadherin expression and ?-catenin/Tcf signaling as a possible mechanism for claudin-1 dependent ... Furthermore, using genetic manipulations of claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cell lines, we demonstrate a role for claudin- ...
more infohttps://nebraska.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/role-of-claudin-1-in-colon-tumor-progression-and-metastasis
  • Here, we report a highly increased expression for claudin-1 in human primary colon carcinoma and metastatic tissues and cell lines derived from similar sources with relatively frequent nuclear localization. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. (mdpi.com)
  • The goal of this study is to examine claudin-1 expression in a tissue microarray of colorectal cancer and metastases, simultaneously, in order to assess the prognostic value of this protein in colorectal cancer. (oatext.com)
  • L2-IL5OXA mice with EoE-relevant allergic inflammation displayed localized eosinophil oxygen metabolism, tissue hypoxia, and impaired claudin-1 barrier via repression of HIF-1α/claudin-1 signaling, which was restored by transgenic expression of esophageal epithelial-targeted stabilized HIF-1α. (jci.org)
  • Collectively, these studies reveal HIF-1α's critical role in maintaining barrier and highlight the HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis as a potential therapeutic target for EoE. (jci.org)
  • Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, SCF/c-kit-JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway significantly promoted claudin-3 expression in colonic epithelium and CRC, which could contribute to epithelial barrier function maintenance and to CRC development. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, no significant association was found between claudin 1 and nodal involvement, tumor grade or tumor size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit signaling significantly promoted activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding with CLDN-3 promoter and enhanced its transcription activity. (mdpi.com)
  • We also observed an inverse relationship between upregulation of claudin 1 and TGFβ. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In mammals, humans have 23 claudin genes, whereas rats and mice have 24 genes ( Lal-Nag and Morin, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ninety-eight adult male CD-1 mice underwent 90-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, an inverse correlation in the levels of Claudin - 1 and Slug transcripts were observed in breast cancer cell lines. (biochemj.org)
  • E-box elements in the Claudin - 1 promoter were found to play a critical negative regulatory role in breast cancer cell lines that expressed low levels of Claudin - 1 transcript. (biochemj.org)
  • EoE patient biopsy analysis identified a repressed HIF-1α/claudin-1 axis, which was restored via pharmacologic HIF-1α stabilization ex vivo. (jci.org)
  • In these tumors, the claudin 1 protein, usually localized in the cell membrane, is often mislocalized to the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The association of high claudin 1 protein levels observed in tumors derived from older women with BLBC, suggests that claudin 1 has the potential to serve as a marker which can identify a specific subgroup of patients within the BLBC subtype and thus, further contribute to the characterization of these ill-defined breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Claudin-1 is expressed primarily in keratinocytes (4) and normal mammary epithelial cells, but is absent or reduced in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines (5,6). (cellsignal.com)
  • Downregulation of claudin 1, a critical tight junction protein, has been correlated with increased invasiveness in breast cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer(1). (ugent.be)
  • in particular, SERPINE 1 (PAI1) and SSP1 (osteopontin), known to inhibit EMT and cancer cell migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Association of genetic polymorphisms of claudin-1 with small vessel vascular dementia. (cdc.gov)
  • It is hypothesised that certain genetic polymorphisms of the BBB tight junction claudin-1 protein, in combination with adverse environmental risk factors, increase the risk of BBB dysfunction and small vessel VaD. (cdc.gov)
  • The results indicate at least two different cis-interaction interfaces within claudin-3 homopolymers as well as within claudin-1/claudin-3 heteropolymers. (nih.gov)