Clathrin Light Chains
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Clathrin Heavy Chains
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Immunoglobulin Light Chains
Myosin Light Chains
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Adaptor Protein Complex 2
Epidermal Growth Factor
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
5' Untranslated Regions
Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
Mice, Inbred NOD
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (Hip1) and Hip1-related protein (Hip1R) bind the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains and thereby influence clathrin assembly in vitro and actin distribution in vivo. (1/30)Clathrin heavy and light chains form triskelia, which assemble into polyhedral coats of membrane vesicles that mediate transport for endocytosis and organelle biogenesis. Light chain subunits regulate clathrin assembly in vitro by suppressing spontaneous self-assembly of the heavy chains. The residues that play this regulatory role are at the N terminus of a conserved 22-amino acid sequence that is shared by all vertebrate light chains. Here we show that these regulatory residues and others in the conserved sequence mediate light chain interaction with Hip1 and Hip1R. These related proteins were previously found to be enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles and to promote clathrin assembly in vitro. We demonstrate Hip1R binding preference for light chains associated with clathrin heavy chain and show that Hip1R stimulation of clathrin assembly in vitro is blocked by mutations in the conserved sequence of light chains that abolish interaction with Hip1 and Hip1R. In vivo overexpression of a fragment of clathrin light chain comprising the Hip1R-binding region affected cellular actin distribution. Together these results suggest that the roles of Hip1 and Hip1R in affecting clathrin assembly and actin distribution are mediated by their interaction with the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains. (+info)
Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) regulates clathrin assembly through direct binding to the regulatory region of the clathrin light chain. (2/30)Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a component of clathrin coats. We previously demonstrated that HIP1 promotes clathrin assembly through its central helical domain, which binds directly to clathrin light chains (CLCs). To better understand the relationship between CLC binding and clathrin assembly we sought to dissect this interaction. Using C-terminal deletion constructs of the HIP1 helical domain, we identified a region between residues 450 and 456 that is required for CLC binding. Within this region, point mutations showed the importance of residues Leu-451, Leu-452, and Arg-453. Mutants that fail to bind CLC are unable to promote clathrin assembly in vitro but still mediate HIP1 homodimerization and heterodimerization with the family member HIP12/HIP1R. Moreover, HIP1 binding to CLC is necessary for HIP1 targeting to clathrin-coated pits and clathrin-coated vesicles. Interestingly, HIP1 binds to a highly conserved region of CLC previously demonstrated to regulate clathrin assembly. These results suggest a role for HIP1/CLC interactions in the regulation of clathrin assembly. (+info)
Clathrin heavy and light chain isoforms originated by independent mechanisms of gene duplication during chordate evolution. (3/30)In humans, there are two isoforms each of clathrin heavy chain (CHC17 and CHC22) and light chain (LCa and LCb) subunits, all encoded by separate genes. CHC17 forms the ubiquitous clathrin-coated vesicles that mediate membrane traffic. CHC22 is implicated in specialized membrane organization in skeletal muscle. CHC17 is bound and regulated by LCa and LCb, whereas CHC22 does not functionally interact with either light chain. The imbalanced interactions between clathrin subunit isoforms suggest a distinct evolutionary history for each isoform pair. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis placed both heavy and light chain gene duplications during chordate evolution, 510-600 million years ago. Genes encoding CHC22 orthologues were found in several vertebrate species, with only a pseudogene present in mice. Multiple paralogons surrounding the CHC genes (CLTC and CLTD) were identified, evidence that genomic or large-scale gene duplication produced the two CHC isoforms. In contrast, clathrin light chain genes (CLTA and CLTB) apparently arose by localized duplication, within 1-11 million years of CHC gene duplication. Analysis of sequence divergence patterns suggested that structural features of the CHCs were maintained after gene duplication, but new interactions with regulatory proteins evolved for the CHC22 isoform. Thus, independent mechanisms of gene duplication expanded clathrin functions, concomitant with development of neuromuscular sophistication in chordates. (+info)
Non-stoichiometric relationship between clathrin heavy and light chains revealed by quantitative comparative proteomics of clathrin-coated vesicles from brain and liver. (4/30)We used tandem mass spectrometry with peptide counts to identify and to determine the relative levels of expression of abundant protein components of highly enriched clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from rat liver. The stoichiometry of stable protein complexes including clathrin heavy chain and clathrin light chain dimers and adaptor protein (AP) heterotetramers was assessed. We detected a deficit of clathrin light chain compared with clathrin heavy chain in non-brain tissues, suggesting a level of regulation of clathrin cage formation specific to brain. The high ratio of AP-1 to AP-2 in liver CCVs is reversed compared with brain where there is more AP-2 than AP-1. Despite this, general endocytic cargo proteins were readily detected in liver but not in brain CCVs, consistent with the previous demonstration that a major function for brain CCVs is recycling synaptic vesicles. Finally we identified 21 CCV-associated proteins in liver not yet characterized in mammals. Our results further validate the peptide accounting approach, reveal new information on the properties of CCVs, and allow for the use of quantitative proteomics to compare abundant components of organelles under different experimental and pathological conditions. (+info)
Membrane-associated STAT3 and PY-STAT3 in the cytoplasm. (5/30)Signal transduction from the plasma membrane to the nucleus by STAT proteins is widely represented as exclusively a soluble cytosolic process. Using cell-fractionation methods, we observed that approximately 5% of cytoplasmic STAT3 was constitutively associated with the purified early endosome (EE) fraction in human Hep3B liver cells. By 15-30 min after interleukin-6 (IL-6) treatment, up to two-thirds of cytoplasmic Tyr-phosphorylated STAT3 can be associated with the purified early endosome fraction (Rab-5-, EEA1-, transferrin receptor-, and clathrin-positive fraction). Electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and detergent dissection approaches confirmed the association of STAT3 and PY-STAT3 with early endosomes. STAT3 was constitutively associated with clathrin heavy chain in membrane and in the 1- to 2-MDa cytosolic complexes. The membrane association was dynamic in that, within 15 min of treatment with the vicinal-thiol cross-linker phenylarsine oxide, there was a dramatic increase in bulk STAT3 association with sedimentable membranes. The functional contribution of PY-STAT3 association with the endocytic pathway was evaluated in transient transfection assays using IL-6-inducible STAT3-reporter-luciferase constructs and selective regulators of this pathway. STAT3-transcriptional activation was inhibited by expression constructs for dominant negative dynamin K44A, epsin 2a, amphiphysin A1, and clathrin light chain but enhanced by that for the active dynamin species MxA. Taken together, these studies emphasize the contribution of the endocytic pathway to productive IL-6/STAT3 signaling. (+info)
Clathrin light chain b is capable of affecting potently a major protein phosphatase from microtubules (MT-PP1). (6/30)Clathrin light chain (CL) b purified from bovine brain postmicrotubule supernatant and identified by mass spectrometry potently inhibited a catalytic activity of a major protein phosphatase (PP) that was copurified with microtubules and recognized by antiPP1 antibodies. CLb similarly affected the catalytic subunit and holoenzyme of the PP, little inhibiting the activity of PP2A. Although the CLb from clathrin-coated vesicles was several hundredfold weaker than our purified CLb, the CLb in the postmicrotubule supernatant, independent of whether it was sedimentable or soluble, was as active as the purified CLb. Thus CLb may be a potent regulator of the PP. (+info)
Calcyon, a novel partner of clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (7/30)In the central nervous system, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is crucial for efficient synaptic transmission. Clathrin-coated vesicle assembly and disassembly is regulated by some 30 adaptor and accessory proteins, most of which interact with clathrin heavy chain. Using the calcyon cytosolic domain as bait, we isolated clathrin light chain in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The interaction domain was mapped to the heavy chain binding domain and C-terminal regions of light chain. Further, the addition of the calcyon C terminus stimulated clathrin self-assembly in a dose-dependent fashion. Calcyon, which is a single transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in brain, localized to vesicular compartments within pre- and postsynaptic structures. There was a high degree of overlap in the distribution of LC and calcyon in neuronal dendrites, spines, and cell bodies. Co-immunoprecipitation studies further suggested an association of calcyon with the clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery. Compared with controls, HEK293 cells overexpressing calcyon exhibited significantly enhanced transferrin uptake but equivalent levels of recycling. Conversely, transferrin uptake was largely abolished in neocortical neurons obtained from mice homozygous for a calcyon null allele, whereas recycling proceeded at wild type levels. Collectively, these data indicate a role for calcyon in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in brain. (+info)
Novel function of clathrin light chain in promoting endocytic vesicle formation. (8/30)Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway for uptake of lipid and protein cargo at the plasma membrane. The lattices of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles are comprised of triskelions, each consisting of three oligomerized heavy chains (HC) bound by a light chain (LC). In addition to binding HC, LC interacts with members of the Hip1/R family of endocytic proteins, including the budding yeast homologue, Sla2p. Here, using in vivo analysis in yeast, we provide novel insight into the role of this interaction. We find that overexpression of LC partially restores endocytosis to cells lacking clathrin HC. This suppression is dependent on the Sla2p binding region of LC. Using live cell imaging techniques to visualize endocytic vesicle formation, we find that the N-terminal Sla2p binding region of LC promotes the progression of arrested Sla2p patches that form in the absence of HC. We propose that LC binding to Sla2p positively regulates Sla2p for efficient endocytic vesicle formation. (+info)
Gentaur Molecular :ACR \ Clathrin light chain B \ GTX101938
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Publications | Bednarek Lab | Biochemistry | UW-Madison
Backues, S.K. and Bednarek, S.Y. (2010). Arabidopsis Dynamin-Related Protein 1A polymers bind, but do not tubulate, liposomes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 393, 734-739 [PDF]. Konopka, C. A. and Bednarek, S. Y. (2008). Comparison of the Dynamics and Functional Redundancy of the Arabidopsis Dynamin-Related Isoforms DRP1A and DRP1C during Plant Development. Plant Physiol. 147, 1590-1602. [PDF]. Konopka, C. A., Backues, S. K. and Bednarek, S. Y. (2008). Dynamics of Arabidopsis Dynamin-Related Protein 1C and a Clathrin Light Chain at the Plasma Membrane. Plant Cell 20, 1363-1380. [PDF]. Park, S., Rancour, D.M., and Bednarek, S.Y. (2008). In Planta analysis of the cell cycle-dependent localization of AtCDC48A and its critical roles in cell division, expansion and differentiation. Plant Phys. 148, 246-258 [PDF]. Park, S., Rancour, D.M., and Bednarek, S.Y. (2007). Protein domain-domain interactions and requirements for the negative regulation of Arabidopsis CDC48/P97 by the Plant Ubiquitin Regulatory ...
CiNii 論文 - Imaging of plant dynamin-related proteins and clathrin around the plasma membrane...
Endocytosis is an essential phenomenon in eukaryotic cells. In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. Here, we observed the localization pattern and behavior of GFP-labeled ,i,Arabidopsis,/i, dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). GFP fusions of DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC were observed as dot-like puncta 200-500 nm in diameter. The puncta moved to and away from the cell surface or also assembled and disassembled. The localization pattern and behavior of the puncta were similar to those of animal dynamin and clathrin signals reported previously. These results raise the possibility that DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC are involved in membrane trafficking around the plasma membrane, including endocytosis.. ...
Clathrin, light chain (SPM174) | ALZFORUM
Immunogen = synthetic peptide: E E D P A A A F L A Q Q E S E I A G I E N D, corresp. to amino acids 23-44 of Cow Clathrin light chain. ...
JCI - Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 is overexpressed in prostate and colon cancer and is critical for cellular survival
Interaction of all HIP1 mutants except HIP1/ΔC with full-length HIP1. Myc-tagged full-length HIP1 was cotransfected with various mutants as indicated. Cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with myc antibody, and pellets (P) and supernatants (S) were collected. These were then immunoblotted with HIP1 polyclonal antibody (top panel) and myc antibody (bottom panel). Note that endogenous HIP1 is co-immunoprecipitated with myc-tagged HIP1 in all lanes ...
Probable palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC13 (EC 2.3.1.-) (Zinc finger DHHC domain-containing protein 13) (DHHC-13) (Huntingtin-interacting protein 14-related protein) (HIP14-related protein) (Huntingtin- interacting protein HIP3RP) (Putative NF-kappa-B-activati [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:Q8IUH4 ...
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Clathrin is spindle-associated but not essential for mitosis. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Clathrin is a multimeric protein involved in vesicle coat assembly. Recently clathrin distribution was reported to change during the cell cycle and was found to associate with the mitotic spindle. Here we test whether the recruitment of clathrin to the spindle is indicative of a critical functional contribution to mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously a chicken pre-B lymphoma cell line (DKO-R) was developed in which the endogenous clathrin heavy chain alleles were replaced with the human clathrin heavy chain under the control of a tetracycline-regulatable promoter. Receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis were significantly inhibited in this line following clathrin knockout, and we used this to explore the significance of clathrin heavy chain expression for cell cycle progression. We confirmed using confocal microscopy that clathrin colocalised with tubulin at mitotic spindles. Using a propidium iodide flow cytometric assay we found no statistical difference in the cell
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2
Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to
Tissue expression of ABCB1 - Staining in rectum - The Human Protein Atlas
Expression of ABCB1 (ABC20, CD243, CLCS, GP170, MDR1, P-gp, PGY1) in rectum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA002199 and CAB001716 in immunohistochemistry.
Tissue expression of ABCB1 - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas
Summary of ABCB1 (ABC20, CD243, CLCS, GP170, MDR1, P-gp, PGY1) expression in human tissue. Membranous expression in a few tissues, most abundant in adrenal gland. Distinct expression in endothelial cells of CNS.
Endofin recruits clathrin to early endosomes via TOM1 | Journal of Cell Science
In this report we have addressed the biological consequence of endofin-mediated TOM1 recruitment onto endosomes. Our results collectively suggest that TOM1 serves as an adaptor for endofin to recruit clathrin heavy chain onto the endosomes. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence as described in our study.. First, via large-scale pull-down experiments using immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), we have recovered clathrin heavy chain as the major and specific partner for TOM1. This conclusion was corroborated by analytical pull-down experiments showing that clathrin heavy chain was very efficiently retained by immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), so much so that it was depleted from the cytosol. The specific interaction between TOM1 and clathrin heavy chain was further defined by our identification of three sites in the carboxyl-terminal region of TOM1, which seem to act together for efficient interaction with clathrin. Moreover, the specific blockage of interaction between TOM1 and clathrin ...
Functional Characterization of HIP1R in Parkinson s Disease | Parkinsons Disease
Intracellular vesicle trafficking is an important mechanism for delivering proteins to their proper location where they can function within cells. Various genes involved in vesicle trafficking have been associated with Parkinson s disease (PD) including the recently identified huntingtin-interacting protein-1 related (HIP1R) gene. We have identified a rare mutation on HIP1R in a PD patient. Our study aims to (i) identify additional mutations on HIP1R in PD patients; (ii) study genetic interactions between HIP1R, LRRK2 and SNCA; and (iii) to characterize the effects of HIP1R mutations on function.. Hypothesis ...
The non-canonical roles of clathrin and actin in pathogen internalization, egress and spread | Nature Reviews Microbiology
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is exploited by bacterial and viral pathogens during internalization. Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function as a signalling platform during pathogen entry, and other studies revealing that, in conjunction with actin, clathrin is involved in pathogen cell-cell spread and release. The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have
3217565 - CellBiology
The structure of Clathrin is known as a triskeleion structure with there being three bent legs extending from a central point known as the central trimerization domain. Clathrin is made up of six chains of protein that are braided together in such a way to form to form its distinct shape. Three of these chains are known as heavy chains and form the backbone of Clathrin, they consist of two sub domains a N-terminal zone and a proximal leg domain. A seven bladed β-propeller structure is what the N-terminal domain consists off. While the proximal leg consists of a super Helix (Conner and Schmid, 2002). The other three chains are known as light chains and regulate formation and disassembly of the Clathrin and can be found connected to the proximal portion of the heavy chains. Multiple Clathrin molecules have the ability to form a variety of complex shapes when they interact, they can form 5 or 6 sided rings with the 5 sided kind having a greature curvature and when enough get together they can form ...
Plasmid mEos4a-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid mEos4b-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Characterization of a Gene Encoding Clathrin Heavy Chain in Maize Up-Regulated by Salicylic Acid,...
Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA,
Item 2. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. The following discussion and analysis of the condensed consolidated results of operations and financial condition of Cell Source, Inc. (CSI, Cell Source, the Company, us, we, our,) as of June 30, 2020 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 should be read in conjunction with our unaudited financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 30, 2020.. This Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements as that term is defined in the federal securities laws. The events described in forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report may not occur. Generally these statements relate to business plans ...
Clathrin, heavy chain | ALZFORUM
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
SSO mediated functional uptake in MHT cells is AP2M1 de | Open-i
From uncertain beginnings: Initiation mechanisms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis | JCB
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Castle Triskelion: November 2015
A blog about an Advanced Dungeons and Dragons (AD&D) First Edition or OSRIC compatible megadungeon. Get a free dungeon room every day.
The nuclear export signal within clathrin assembly lymp | Open-i
The nuclear export signal within clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM) is critical for in vitro immortalization of cells by CALM-AF10. (a)
A tale of two CLCs: biophysical insights toward understanding ClC-5 and ClC-7 function in endosomes and lysosomes. - Department...
The CLC protein family comprises both Cl(-) channels and H(+) -coupled anion transporters. The understanding of the critical role of CLC proteins in a number of physiological functions has greatly contributed to a revision of the classical paradigm that attributed to Cl(-) ions only a marginal role in human physiology. The endosomal ClC-5 and the lysosomal ClC-7 are the best characterized human CLC transporters. Their dysfunction causes Dents disease and osteopetrosis, respectively. It had been originally proposed that they would provide a Cl(-) shunt conductance allowing efficient acidification of intracellular compartments. However, this model seems to conflict with the transport properties of these proteins and with recent physiological evidence. Currently, there is no consensus on their specific physiological role. CLC proteins present also a number of peculiar biophysical properties, such as the dimeric architecture, the co-existence of intrinsically different thermodynamic modes of transport
Western Carolinian :: North Carolina Newspaper Digitization Project
wm voi 11 salasywllvi js c t\n^v,.\^i w 3torya % misted am reiiusiien r.vrnir tcesiiav j by bingham ic white the sr.me season on the leaves of cot 1 ton even in its healthful state ; and that if they ure most numerous among the diseased plants this is r.n effect of rust afid not the cause of it will carefully avoiu iluctivc of dissension agricultural draw their attention irom t tell.vs : common concern the subscription to the wsstbeh c arolini an , s three dollurs per annum payable half-yearly in advance r no paper will bc discontinued until al tfrearages are paid unless at the discretion of ike editors j and any subscriber foiling to give notice of bis wish to discontinue at the end of a year will be considered as wishing to continue the paper which vvill be sent accordingly whoever vvill become responsible for the payment of nine papery shall receive a tenth every member subscribing these arti clcs shall contribute one dollar or more annually for a fund to bc applied to the purposes of the ...
LetsGoPens.com • View topic - LGP Science Thread
mmmmm cow brains the concept centers on a particular protein called clathrin which has a unique knack for assembling itself into versatile structures that foster the formation of complex molecules clathrin is present in every cell in the human body but cows possess a vast wealth of it in their bovine brains that make them an ideal source for the stuff and given the right biochemical directions researchers think they can coax clathrin into creating better batteries and solar cells http www popsci com science article - protein-cow-brains-could-build-better-batteries-solar-cells
BSN: Profile for Neeraj J Agrawal
Development of a Standardised Method for the Quantified Determination of Contact Lens Disinfectant Efficacy Against...
Purpose: : Although standards exist for determining the efficacy of contact lens care solutions (CLCS) against bacteria and fungi (ISO 14729) none exist for Acanthamoeba. As such, conflicting findings on the effectiveness of CLCS against the organism have been reported. Here we describe a quantifiable, reproducible and reliable method for assessing the disinfection of Acanthamoeba by CLCS. Methods: : A. castellanii Results: : After a 6 hour contact time, the log reduction in trophozoite viability for the solutions were: MPS-1 (2.5 ±0.2 n=8), MPS-2 (1.8 ±0.2 n=8), MPS-3 (0.1 ±0.1 n=3), MPS-4 (2.7 ±0.2 n=8), PER-1 (3.8 ±0.2 n=8). For the cysts the values were: MPS-1 (2.9 ±0.3 n=3), MPS-2 (2.5 ±0.2 n=3), MPS-3 (0.7 ±0.1 n=3), MPS-4 (0.2 ±0.1 n=6) and PER-1 (2.7 ±0.3 n=3). Conclusions: : The method is relatively simple to perform and enables the reproducible and quantifiable determination of CLCS efficacy against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. This will facilitate the introduction of ...
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Picalm - Phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Picalm gene & protein
Assembly protein recruiting clathrin and adapter protein complex 2 (AP2) to cell membranes at sites of coated-pit formation and clathrin-vesicle assembly. May be required to determine the amount of membrane to be recycled, possibly by regulating the size of the clathrin cage. Involved in AP2-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction. Plays a crucial role in fetal and adult hematopoiesis, and normal prenatal and postnatal growth and viability.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: what works for small, also works for big | Research - Institut Pasteur
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20486136. Bioessays 2010 Jun;32(6):496-504. Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486136 ...
Community Learning Centers (CLC) | APD India
Contribute To This Initiative. There are over one lakh children with multiple disabilities in Karnataka in the age group of 3-13 years, according to our estimates. These children suffer from severe incidences of disability like cerebral palsy, locomotor disability, and speech & hearing impairment. They are usually unable to manage their activities of daily living (ADLs) independently and have no exposure to formal learning.. APDs Community Learning Centre program has been operational since 2007. We enroll children from surrounding urban slums and low income families. At the CLCs, APDs trained staff works with these children for 2-3 years in a school-readiness curriculum. This equips them to cope with ADLs and inculcates disability and age appropriate learning skills. It is run in partnership with the community and parents/caregivers. APD has successfully transitioned 15% of children from CLCs to mainstream schools including our own Shradhanjali Integrated School. Such education empowers these ...
There are two forms of clathrin light chains, designated a and b. The main clathrin heavy chain, located on chromosome 17 in ... The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to ... The clathrin triskelion is composed of three clathrin heavy chains interacting at their C-termini, each ~190 kDa heavy chain ... It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. When the triskelia interact they ...
... which activates myosin II directly by phosphorylation of the myosin light chain and also inhibits myosin phosphatase by ... large amounts of membrane material are removed via clathrin-mediated endocytosis  Eventually, the edges of the cell plate ... a striking process that is clearly visible through a light microscope. The cytokinetic furrow ingresses until a midbody ...
G protein-coupled receptor
... clathrin adaptor molecules); thus, the arrestin here acts as a scaffold assembling the components needed for clathrin-mediated ... This mechanism is used, for example, with rhodopsin in retina cells to compensate for exposure to bright light. In many cases, ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... which in turn recruits another protein called clathrin. If enough receptors in the local area recruit clathrin in this manner, ...
Over-expression of normal myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) in mRFP (monomeric red fluorescent protein) tagged tissue and ... where the vesicle collapses fully into the plasma membrane and is then later retrieved by a clathrin-coat-dependent process. ...
Short linear motif
A Dynein Light Chain binding motif in Rabies virus is vital for host infection). The extent of human SLiM mimicry is surprising ... November 2004). "Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
... while the bulky steroid and the hydrocarbon chain is embedded in the membrane, alongside the nonpolar fatty acid chains of the ... Low-density lipoproteins are taken into the cell by LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits, and then ... Photo taken under polarized light.. කොලෙස්ටරෝල්(Cholesterol) යනු ලිපිඩමය ඇලෙනසුලු ඇල්කොහොල් විශේෂයකි.මෙය සතුන් ගේ පටකය හා රුධිර ... Cholesterol is essential for the structure and function of invaginated caveolae and clathrin-coated pits, including caveola- ...
The N-terminus (one end) of a polypeptide chain (i.e., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which ... The ER was observed with light microscope by Garnier in 1897, who coined the term "ergastoplasm". With electron ... either secreted constitutively with no tag or secreted in a regulatory manner involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids ... to the side-chain nitrogen of Asn. ...
Zhang C, Zhou S, Groppelli E, Pellegrino P, Williams I, Borrow P, Chain BM, Jolly C (2015). "Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T ... More recently, however, productive infection by pH-independent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of HIV-1 has also been reported ... But urban migration rose, increasing sexual contacts and leading to red-light districts.. ... a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot or, less commonly, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA)). Only specimens that are ...
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Barbara Pearse discovered the major components of clathrin-coated vesicles, structures formed during endocytosis, and a low ... J. A. Steitz, (1969) "Polypetide Chain Initiation: Nucleotide Sequences of the Three Ribosomal Binding Sites in Bacteriophage ... the parent MRC ensured that the quinquennial assessment had a light touch: only a brief explanation of past achievements and an ...
Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine
"WHO backs AstraZeneca COVID vaccine amid clotting concerns; green lights Johnson & Johnson shots". UN News. 12 March 2021. ... January 2021 after a controversy that the price each country paid depended on production cost and differences in supply chain, ... "SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway". Cell Research ...
Clathrin, light chain (SPM174) | ALZFORUM
CiNii 論文 - Imaging of plant dynamin-related proteins and clathrin around the plasma membrane...
Functional evidence for the identification of an Arabidopsis clathrin light chain polypeptide SCHEELE U ... and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle ... In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of ... The localization pattern and behavior of the puncta were similar to those of animal dynamin and clathrin signals reported ...
Publications | Bednarek Lab | Biochemistry | UW-Madison
Clathrin light and heavy chain interface: alpha-helix binding superhelix loops via critical tryptophans. - PubMed - NCBI
Clathrin light and heavy chain interface: alpha-helix binding superhelix loops via critical tryptophans.. Chen CY1, Reese ML, ... Clathrin light chain subunits (LCa and LCb) contribute to regulation of coated vesicle formation to sort proteins during ... 2. Parallel interaction at the C-termini of clathrin heavy and light chains. Plate growth and β-galactosidase (β-gal) filter ... 5. Double mutation of tryptophan to arginine at clathrin light chain LCb residues 105 and 138 abrogates the binding to HC, and ...
Clathrin Light Chain Antibody (PA5-100442)
Invitrogen Anti-Clathrin Light Chain Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-100442. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF) and ... Clathrin light chain A; Clathrin light chain B; clathrin, light chain (Lca); clathrin, light chain (Lcb); clathrin, light chain ... A; clathrin, light chain B; clathrin, light polypeptide (Lca); clathrin, light polypeptide (Lcb); clathryn light chain (LCA2); ... Cite Clathrin Light Chain Polyclonal Antibody. The following product was used in this experiment: Clathrin Light Chain ...
WikiGenes - CLTA - clathrin, light chain A
Clathrin heavy and light chain isoforms originated by independent mechanisms of gene duplication during chordate evolution. ... Chromosomal location and some structural features of human clathrin light-chain genes (CLTA and CLTB). Ponnambalam, S., Jackson ... encoding the LCa light chain maps to the long arm of chromosome 12 at 12q23-q24 and that encoding the LCb light chain (CLTB) ... In contrast, clathrin light chain genes (CLTA and CLTB) apparently arose by localized duplication, within 1-11 million years of ...
Clathrin light chains' role in Endocytosis: Cargo in Focus - White Rose eTheses Online
Clathrin light chains (CLCs) control selective uptake of a range of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although the mechanism ... Maib, Hannes (2018) Clathrin light chains role in Endocytosis: Cargo in Focus. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield. ... These findings link auxilin-mediated clathrin exchange to early stages of CCP invagination in a cargo-specific manner. This ... This transition is dependent on efficient clathrin exchange regulated by CLCb phosphorylation and mediated through auxilin. ...
Gentaur Molecular :ACR \ Clathrin light chain B \ GTX82294
Clathrin light chain B \ GTX82294 for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : Clathrin light chain B Related products : Clathrin light chain B ... WP59: Electron Transport Chain. WP772: Electron Transport Chain. WP884: Electron Transport Chain. Related Genes :. [ARP4 ... WP2434: very-long-chain-fatty-acid-biosynthesis. WP295: Electron Transport Chain. WP542: Electron Transport Chain. ...
Gentaur Molecular :ACR \ Clathrin light chain A \ NBP1-05035
Clathrin light chain A \ NBP1-05035 for more molecular products just contact us ... We have also other products like : Clathrin light chain A Related products : Clathrin light chain A ... WP59: Electron Transport Chain. WP772: Electron Transport Chain. WP884: Electron Transport Chain. Related Genes :. Bibliography ... WP2434: very-long-chain-fatty-acid-biosynthesis. WP295: Electron Transport Chain. WP542: Electron Transport Chain. ...
The non-canonical roles of clathrin and actin in pathogen internalization, egress and spread | Nature Reviews Microbiology
The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during ... Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have put the spotlight on its role in pathogen spread. Here ... In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these ... Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function ...
Clathrin - Wikipedia
There are two forms of clathrin light chains, designated a and b. The main clathrin heavy chain, located on chromosome 17 in ... The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to ... The clathrin triskelion is composed of three clathrin heavy chains interacting at their C-termini, each ~190 kDa heavy chain ... It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. When the triskelia interact they ...
CLTB Gene - GeneCards | CLCB Protein | CLCB Antibody
Clathrin Light Chain B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Clathrin coats are formed from molecules containing 3 heavy chains and 3 light chains. Interacts (via N-terminus) with HIP1. ... bind the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains and thereby influence clathrin assembly in vitro and actin distribution in ... Clathrin is a large, soluble protein composed of heavy and light chains. It functions as the main structural component of the ...
Frontiers | Clathrin in Chara australis: Molecular Analysis and Involvement in Charasome Degradation and Constitutive...
Analysis of Chara australis clathrin proteins revealed two heavy chains and several light chains with sequence peculiarities, ... They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of ... The data obtained indicate that clathrin plays a central role not only in constitutive endocytosis but also in the degradation ... Charasome formation is reversible to allow cells to adapt to different light conditions.Here we show that darkness-induced ...
The light chains of kinesin-1 are autoinhibited | PNAS
2014) Clathrin adaptors. AP2 controls clathrin polymerization with a membrane-activated switch. Science 345(6195):459-463. ... The carboxyl-terminal domain of the heavy chains is largely unstructured. The light chains associate with the heavy-chain ... We show that, like the kinesin heavy chain, the light chains of kinesin-1 exist in a dynamic conformational state that is ... Full-length, wild-type mouse kinesin light chain-2 (KLC2) and rat kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC, Kif5C) were cloned into the ...
Association and Colocalization of Eps15 with Adaptor Protein-2 and Clathrin | JCB
1 and the heavy and light chains of clathrin that form the clathrin lattice (for review see Schmid, 1992). It has been shown ... heavy chain. LC. light chain. NH. hemagglutinin. TAPS. N-Tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-3-amino-propanesulfonic acid buffer. ... Eps15 also associates with the EGF receptor and with the clathrin light chain (LC). The interaction of Eps15 with α-adaptin and ... Moreover, the clathrin triskelions might also be components of the Eps15-AP-2 complex, since Eps15 is present in a clathrin LC ...
Design principles for robust vesiculation in clathrin-mediated endocytosis | PNAS
2015) Effect of clathrin light chains on the stiffness of clathrin lattices and membrane budding. Traffic 16(5):519-533. ... 22) in the presence or absence of clathrin light chains which have been shown to modulate the stiffness of the clathrin lattice ... The bending rigidity of clathrin-coated vesicles was estimated to be κ. CCV. =. 285. k. B. T. =. 2280. pN. ⋅. nm. from atomic ... In light of our findings, it is probable that the high tension induced by hypoosmotic shock resulted in a regime where the coat ...
Neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated protein 1 (P42857) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated protein (IPR009431) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Calcyon, a novel partner of clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.. J. Biol. Chem. 281 15182-93 2006 ... GO:0048268 clathrin coat assembly GO:0007212 dopamine receptor signaling pathway Molecular Function. GO:0032051 clathrin light ... Neuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon has implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is exclusively expressed in ... that calcyon-containing vesicles might transport D1DR by associating calcyon with D1DR through their assembly to clathrin [PMID ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | New Insights into Functional Roles of the Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein | HTML
A role for clathrin light chains in the recognition of clathrin cages by 'uncoating ATPase' - Fingerprint - University of...
Improving the photostability of bright monomeric orange and red fluorescent proteins. - PubMed - NCBI
Small Interfering RNA Profiling Reveals Key Role of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Early Endosome Formation for Infection by...
... clathrin light chain A (sc-28276), clathrin light chain B (sc-28277), dynamin I (sc-12724), dynamin II (sc-6400), PAK-1 (sc-882 ... and two clathrin light chains targeted, only the Rab5A, dynamin 3, WASF2, and clathrin light chain B siRNA pools reduced ... Together with clathrin heavy chains, the light chains form distinct structures, termed triskelions, upon which the clathrin ... Clathrin light chains A and B are the main protein coating the cytoplasmic faces of clathrin-coated pits, and they control pit ...
ENTH and ANTH domain proteins participate in AP2-independent clathrin-mediated endocytosis | Journal of Cell Science
Plot generated using Coulson Plot Generator (Field et al., 2013). CHC, clathrin heavy chain; CLC, clathrin light chain; β-arr, ... Note phase-light vacuolar structures reminiscent of the big-eye phenotype observed following clathrin heavy chain depletion ( ... 4) colocalising with clathrin heavy chain, suggesting a location at clathrin-coated vesicles (supplementary material Fig. S2). ... TbCALM and TbEpsinR function synergistically in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of the clathrin heavy chain in T. ...
RCSB PDB - 1XI4: Clathrin D6 Coat
Chains. Sequence Length. Organism. Details. Image. Clathrin light chain A. J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R. 70. Bos taurus. Mutation( ... Chains. Sequence Length. Organism. Details. Image. Clathrin heavy chain. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I. 1630. Bos taurus. Mutation( ... We also define the position of the central helical segment of the light chain. A helical tripod, the carboxy-terminal parts of ... We trace most of the 1,675-residue clathrin heavy chain by fitting known crystal structures of two segments, and homology ...
NSG1 Gene - GeneCards | NSG1 Protein | NSG1 Antibody
View source for Clathrin - wikidoc
There are two forms of clathrin light chains, designated a and b. The main clathrin heavy chain, located on [[Chromosome 17 ( ... Clathrin-link , Name = Clathrin heavy-chain linker , image = PDB 1b89 EBI.jpg , width = , caption = clathrin heavy chain repeat ... The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to ... A second clathrin heavy chain gene, on [[chromosome 22 (human),chromosome 22]], is expressed in muscle. Clathrin heavy chain is ...
Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. Clathrin molecules ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... The connection of the clathrin scaffold to the membrane is mediated by clathrin adaptors, which can bind directly to both the ... clathrin. Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the ...
end4 - Endocytosis protein end4 - Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain 972 / ATCC 24843) (Fission yeast) - end4 gene & protein
clathrin light chain binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based propagation ... clathrin light chain binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based propagation ... clathrin adaptor activity Source: PomBase. *clathrin binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. " ... clathrin adaptor activity Source: PomBase. *clathrin binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. " ...
Epsin deficiency impairs endocytosis by stalling the actin-dependent invagination of endocytic clathrin-coated pits | eLife
Epsin has a key role in the coupling of actin to endocytic clathrin coated pits that is required for their maturation and helps ... A-D) Immunofluorescence staining for α-adaptin (A and B) and clathrin light chain (C and D) indicates an increase of clathrin- ... Immunostaining of TKO cells for α-adaptin (a subunit of the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2) and for clathrin-light chain (CLC) ... F) TIRF microscopy of WT and TKO cells expressing clathrin light chain-GFP (CLC-GFP) and the F-actin binding protein utrophin- ...
Auxilin depletion causes self-assembly of clathrin into membraneless cages in vivo.
... knockdown of the ubiquitous auxilin 2 in HeLa cells only moderately impairs clathrin-dependent trafficking. In this study, w ... Auxilin is a cofactor for Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) ... Dynamics of clathrin exchange To assess the dynamics of clathrin exchange, cells were transfected with GFP-clathrin light chain ... Control cells or cells depleted of both auxilins were transfected with GFP-tagged clathrin light chain. The plasma membrane (A ...
Dr Corinne Smith
Hsc70-induced changes in clathrin-auxilin cage structure suggest a role for clathrin light chains in cage disassembly. Traffic ... Investigating the pivotal role of clathrin light chains in vesicle transport. Royal Society. 01 Sep 2012. 30 Aug 2013. ... During endocytosis a clathrin-coated vesicle is formed which contains only specifically selected cargo. The clathrin coat is ... Defining clathrin network interactions using advanced cryo-electron microscopy. Royal Society. 01 Oct 2016. 30 Sep 2017. ...
Plasma membraneEndocytosisVesiclesProteinsCLTAAdaptorsCoatLatticeCoated pitsControl of clathrinDistribution of clathrinCargoCagesPathwayMolecularComplexesCLTBMoleculeAntibodyVitroBrodskyDepletionSubunitsInvaginationStructuralTriskelionsInternalizationSchmidTriskelion shapePhosphorylationGenesAuxilinMembranesRegulatesTriskeliaGeneCoatsMammalian cellsRetinal pigment epithelialMechanismHsc70ChromosomeCage
- Clathrin light chain subunits (LCa and LCb) contribute to regulation of coated vesicle formation to sort proteins during receptor-mediated endocytosis and organelle biogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Figure 1: Stages of mammalian clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
- McMahon, H. T. & Boucrot, E. Molecular mechanism and physiological functions of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
- Single-molecule live-cell imaging demonstrating that the recruitment of AP2 and clathrin defines the initial steps of endocytosis. (nature.com)
- Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
- They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans -Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
- The darkness-induced degradation of charasomes can be inhibited by 1-2 μM ikarugamycin (IKA), which is considered to be a specific inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
- The absence of an additive effect, when applied together with IKA, suggests that charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis (measured via styryl dye uptake) is not inhibited due to membrane retrieval via lipid rafts, but due to clathrin coat formation requirement of a specific set of sterols. (frontiersin.org)
- The data obtained indicate that clathrin plays a central role not only in constitutive endocytosis but also in the degradation of charasomes, thereby representing a valuable system for studying targeted exo- and endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
- Numerous studies have shown that clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the main pathway for plasma membrane recycling in plant cells (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
- Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is initiated at the plasma membrane with the recruitment of coat machinery and cargo proteins into clathrin-coated membrane invaginations the so called clathrin coated pits (CPs). (frontiersin.org)
- In particular, recent experimental studies have shown that membrane tension inhibits membrane budding processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (pnas.org)
- The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and mechanical environments suggests that the protein machinery in this process has evolved to take advantage of some set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesiculation against opposing forces like membrane tension. (pnas.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), an essential cellular process in eukaryotes, is an archetypal example of a membrane-deformation process that takes as input multiple variables, such as membrane bending, tension, protein-induced spontaneous curvature, and actin-mediated forces, and generates vesicular morphologies as its output ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Neuron-specific vesicular protein calcyon has implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Calcyon, a novel partner of clathrin light chain, stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
- In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. (nii.ac.jp)
- Surprisingly, RSV infection was potently inhibited by siRNAs targeting genes associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including clathrin light chain. (asm.org)
- The important role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis was confirmed by the expression of well-characterized dominant-negative mutants of genes in this pathway and by using the clathrin endocytosis inhibitor chlorpromazine. (asm.org)
- We conclude that, while RSV may be competent to enter at the cell surface, clathrin function and endocytosis are a necessary and important part of a productive RSV infection, even though infection is strictly independent of pH. (asm.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a major route of entry into eukaryotic cells. (biologists.org)
- Ultrastructural analysis of TbCALM and TbEpsinR double-knockdown cells demonstrated severe defects to clathrin-coated pit formation and morphology associated with a dramatic inhibition of endocytosis. (biologists.org)
- Intensive study in both animal and yeast systems has identified many, if not most, of the proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) (e.g. (biologists.org)
- alt=Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikidoc.org)
- Additionally, a robust impairment in clathrin-mediated endocytosis was observed, with an accumulation of early and U-shaped pits. (elifesciences.org)
- This defect correlated with a perturbation of the coupling between the clathrin coat and the actin cytoskeleton, which we confirmed in a cell-free assay of endocytosis. (elifesciences.org)
- Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is one of the mechanisms used by cells to internalize specific proteins (cargo) from their surface. (elifesciences.org)
- Epsin binds to several other proteins implicated in clathrin-dependent endocytosis, including clathrin itself, and to plasma membrane proteins specifically 'tagged' for internalization. (elifesciences.org)
- The normal linking of the actin filaments to the clathrin coat does not occur, and another protein called Hip1R that also participates in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and links clathrin to actin, no longer accumulates at the clathrin-coated pits. (elifesciences.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves a complex set of factors besides clathrin itself and the classical clathrin adaptors. (elifesciences.org)
- In this study, we show that HeLa cells also express auxilin 1, previously thought to be neuron specific, and that both auxilins need to be depleted for inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and intracellular sorting. (biomedsearch.com)
- The research in my laboratory involves investigating the structure and mechanism of clathrin coated vesicle formation during clathrin-mediated endocytosis using a range of structural and biophysical techniques. (warwick.ac.uk)
- During endocytosis a clathrin-coated vesicle is formed which contains only specifically selected cargo. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a fascinating mechanical phenomenon that drives the selective internalisation of molecules into cells. (findaphd.com)
- In order to work properly, clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires accurate and timely assembly of a clathrin lattice and coordination with a network of more than 20 adaptor proteins to form a coated vesicle which will be able to select molecules from the outside of the cell for delivery to specific destinations. (findaphd.com)
- This is a fabulous opportunity to apply cutting edge techniques to discovering how clathrin and its adaptor proteins drive clathrin mediated endocytosis. (findaphd.com)
- During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-coated pits invaginate to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CVs). (rupress.org)
- However, surprisingly FRAP studies on clathrin-coated pits labeled with green fluorescent protein-clathrin light chains in HeLa cells show that even when endocytosis is blocked by expression of a dynamin mutant or depletion of cholesterol from the membrane, replacement of photobleached clathrin in coated pits on the membrane occurs at almost the same rate and magnitude as when endocytosis is occurring. (rupress.org)
- On the other hand, consistent with the in vitro data both potassium depletion and hypertonic sucrose, which have been reported to transform clathrin-coated pits into clathrin cages just below the surface of the plasma membrane, not only block endocytosis but also block exchange of clathrin. (rupress.org)
- Significantly, NGF signaled through TrkA to induce an increase in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking, as revealed in the increased endocytosis of transferrin. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, as is the case for a number of other cell surface receptors [e.g., the transferrin receptor (TfnR) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ( Schmid, 1997 )], clathrin-coated membranes may mediate the endocytosis of Trk receptors. (jneurosci.org)
- In the lateral PM region, markers for clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) have been shown to accumulate. (frontiersin.org)
- Taken together, these results demonstrate that Japanese encephalitis virus enters porcine kidney epithelial PK15 cells through cholesterol- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (antibodies-online.com)
- Brett, T.J., Traub, L.M. and Fremont, D.H. Accessory protein recruitment motifs in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (springer.com)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major route of receptor internalization at the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
- We use hot-wired endocytosis to describe the functional interactions between clathrin and AP2. (rupress.org)
- It has previously been demonstrated that there are distinct saturable components involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( 40 ) and that saturation of the endocytic pathway for the transferrin (Tf) receptor (TfR) does not affect the endocytosis of the EGFR ( 39 ). (asm.org)
- This finding could potentially support the contention that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the EGFR is independent of adaptor protein 2 (AP2), in contrast to clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the TfR ( 8 , 22 ). (asm.org)
- Clathrin heavy chain (Chc) co-immunopurifies with Bic-D in embryos and ovaries, and a fraction of Chc colocalizes with Bic-D. Both proteins control posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte and endocytosis. (biologists.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, an essential process for plasma membrane homeostasis and cell signaling, is characterized by stunning heterogeneity in the size and lifetime of clathrin-coated endocytic pits (CCPs). (sciencemag.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is an essential cell physiological process that dynamically controls the composition of the plasma membrane and thereby regulates a plethora of functions ranging from nutrient uptake and cell signaling to the formation of morphogen gradients and synaptic transmission ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is conserved among eukaryotes and has been extensively analyzed at a molecular level. (asm.org)
- However, since arp2 / 3 cells are still able to endocytose lipids and fluid-phase markers, but not the Ste2 and Mup1 plasma membrane proteins, there must be an alternate clathrin-independent pathway we term Arp2/3-independent endocytosis (AIE). (asm.org)
- Overall, C. albicans contains an alternative endocytic pathway (AIE) that relies on actin cable function to permit clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) and provides a system to further explore alternate endocytic routes that likely exist in fungal species. (asm.org)
- IMPORTANCE There is a well-established process of endocytosis that is generally used by eukaryotic cells termed clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). (asm.org)
- One of the first described endocytic pathways is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles which entrap specific macromolecules during receptor-mediated endocytosis. (ptglab.com)
- Clathrin light chains' role in selective endocytosis influences antibody isotype switching. (ptglab.com)
- Using the tip-growing pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum as a model to investigate endocytosis mechanisms, we show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 6 (PIP5K6) regulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
- RNA interference-induced suppression of PIP5K6 expression impaired tip growth and inhibited clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
- Dhonukshe P, Aniento F, Hwang I, Robinson DG, Mravec J, Stierhof YD, Friml J (2007) Clathrin-mediated constitutive endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
- Clathrin is a proteic complex found in coated pits and vesicles, organelles which are important in membrane trafficking functions such as endocytosis and Golgi sorting. (humpath.com)
- Clathrin is the main structural component of the lattice covering the cytoplasmic face of the coated pits and coated vesicles in which specific macromolecules are entrapped in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis . (humpath.com)
- We found that C-TSHR-Abs entered the cell through clathrin-mediated endocytosis but did not trigger endosomal maturation and failed to undergo normal vesicular sorting and trafficking. (sciencemag.org)
- Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles. (thermofisher.com)
- Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles . (wikipedia.org)
- Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. (wikipedia.org)
- At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). (frontiersin.org)
- We are the first to present evidence, based on fine structure investigation, that IKA does not interfere with the formation of clathrin coat, but inhibits the detachment and/or further processing of coated vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
- These observations indicate that Eps15 is present in coated pits and coated vesicles of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, but not in early endosomes. (rupress.org)
- Neither AP-2 nor clathrin are required for the binding of Eps15 to coated pits or coated vesicles, since in membranes lacking AP-2 and clathrin, Eps15 still shows the same staining pattern. (rupress.org)
- A recent study suggested that calcyon-containing vesicles might transport D1DR by associating calcyon with D1DR through their assembly to clathrin [ PMID: 16595675 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. (rcsb.org)
- Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi network connecting the trans-Golgi network, endosomes, lysosomes and the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
- Although these cells can form clathrin-coated pits, they struggle to develop into vesicles. (elifesciences.org)
- Auxilin is a cofactor for Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (biomedsearch.com)
- T cell receptor (TCR) internalization by clathrin-coated vesicles after encounter with antigen has been implicated in the regulation of T cell responses. (rupress.org)
- Clathrin is a major protein component of the cytoplasmic face of intracellular organelles, called coated vesicles and coated pits. (antibodies-online.com)
- Tandem MS analysis of brain clathrin-coated vesicles reveals their critical involvement in synaptic vesicle recycling. (springer.com)
- A clathrin-binding protein fragment ("hook") is inducibly attached to an "anchor" protein at the plasma membrane, which triggers the formation of new clathrin-coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
- Dissociation of clathrin from coated vesicles by the uncoating ATPase. (semanticscholar.org)
- Clathrin is a protein centrally involved in the formation of the membrane-bound cellular packages known as vesicles. (fsu.edu)
- Studies have convincingly shown, however, that clathrin coats are involved in the process of protein sorting and that an enzyme known as uncoating ATPase is central to removing the lattices from vesicles. (fsu.edu)
- 7 ), and it is becoming increasingly clear that specific interactions between recruited coat subunits and cargo proteins direct the incorporation of cargo into budding vesicles and that adaptor molecules other than AP2 can interact with phosphatidylinositol (PI) (4,5), P 2 and clathrin ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- Component of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, that may link the endocytic machinery to the actin cytoskeleton. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Engqvist-Goldstein, Kessels, Chopra, Hayden, Drubin: An actin-binding protein of the Sla2/Huntingtin interacting protein 1 family is a novel component of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. (antikoerper-online.de)
- More info: The triskelion shape of the clathrin molecule enables it to form the polyhedral protein network that covers clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. (dnatube.com)
- The β-propeller at the 'foot' of clathrin contains multiple binding sites for interaction with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Clathrin cannot bind to membrane or cargo directly and instead uses adaptor proteins to do this. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene encodes one of two clathrin light chain proteins which are believed to function as regulatory elements. (genecards.org)
- Analysis of Chara australis clathrin proteins revealed two heavy chains and several light chains with sequence peculiarities, suggesting functional and/or species specific differences. (frontiersin.org)
- AP2 and accessory proteins recruit clathrin subunits directly from the cytoplasm to the nucleation site. (frontiersin.org)
- These regions contain a number of proteins, including the adaptor proteins (APs) 1 and the heavy and light chains of clathrin that form the clathrin lattice (for review see Schmid, 1992 ). (rupress.org)
- dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). (nii.ac.jp)
- Turning fluorescent proteins into energy-saving light bulbs. (nih.gov)
- Still a third set of endocytic pathways are neither caveolin nor clathrin associated but may involve Arf-related proteins ( 37 ) and, like caveolae, are involved in the uptake of lipid rafts. (asm.org)
- Recruitment of clathrin to the plasma membrane, concentration of endocytic cargo and clathrin-coated pit (CCP) formation all depend on an array of accessory proteins or adaptors. (biologists.org)
- The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) binds clathrin and functions as a central adaptor hub in CME, mediating membrane recruitment through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5) P 2 ] binding, and cargo selection by recognition of endocytic motifs on cargo proteins (e.g. (biologists.org)
- In the first we use 3D cryo-electron microscopy techniques to analyse the structure of purified clathrin cages bound to a range of proteins including Hsc70 and auxilin. (warwick.ac.uk)
- We are now broadening our studies to investigate the part played by adaptor proteins and nucleotide exchange factors in the formation and disassembly of clathrin cage complexes. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Our aim is to understand how the proteins involved in the network of clathrin and its adaptor proteins interact to achieve clathrin-coated vesicle formation. (findaphd.com)
- In this project you will use high resolution 3D cryo-electron microscopy to visualise adaptor proteins binding to clathrin cages and biophysical approaches such as dynamic light scattering, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and isothermal titrating calorimetry to investigate how clathrin-adaptor interactions result in formation of a functional coated vesicle network. (findaphd.com)
- We conclude that NT signaling increases clathrin-coated membrane formation and clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking and speculate that this effect contributes to their trophic actions via the increased internalization of receptors and other proteins that are present in clathrin-coated membranes. (jneurosci.org)
- Clathrin functions in the absence of heterotetrameric adaptors and AP180-related proteins in yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
- These proteins, like clathrins, are involved in vacuolar maintenance and protein sorting. (embl.de)
- The CHCR repeats in these proteins could mediate protein-protein interactions, or possibly represent clathrin-binding domains, or perform clathrin-like functions. (embl.de)
- Together with some previously well known deregulated proteins in CRC (β-catenin, c-MYC, or p63), we found new potential markers preferentially expressed in CRC tumors: cytokeratin 13, calcineurin, CHK1, clathrin light chain, MAPK3, phospho-PTK2/focal adhesion kinase (Ser-910), and MDM2. (mcponline.org)
- CME is initiated by the adaptor-mediated assembly of metastable clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that dynamically exchange their components with soluble endocytic proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- The reliance of modern microscopy techniques on photoactivatable fluorescent proteins prompted development of mCherry variants that are initially dark but become red fluorescent after violet-light irradiation. (nih.gov)
- In C. albicans , Arp2/3 function remains essential for CME as all 15 proteins tested that participate in CME, including clathrin, lose their characteristic dynamics observed in wild-type (WT) cells. (asm.org)
- We validated that a class I PDZ-binding motif mediated binding of ACE2 to the scaffolding proteins SNX27, NHERF3, and SHANK, and that a binding site for the clathrin adaptor AP2 μ2 in ACE2 overlaps with a phospho-dependent binding site for the SH2 domains of Src family tyrosine kinases. (sciencemag.org)
- Clathrin-binding proteins: got a motif? (humpath.com)
- Chromosomal location and some structural features of human clathrin light-chain genes (CLTA and CLTB). (wikigenes.org)
- Each clathrin triskelion is composed of three identical heavy chains (180 kDa) and three light chains of two types, LCA (CLTA) and LCB (CLTB) (30-40 kDa). (ptglab.com)
- Clathrin is a large, soluble protein composed of heavy chains (CLTC) (molecular size, about 192 kD) and light chains CLTA and CLTB (molecular size, about 32-38 kD). (humpath.com)
- Here, we characterise two phosphoinositide-binding monomeric clathrin adaptors, T. brucei (Tb)EpsinR and TbCALM, which in trypanosomes are represented by single genes, unlike the expansions present in animals and fungi. (biologists.org)
- In addition to the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, numerous monomeric clathrin adaptors are known. (biologists.org)
- The connection of the clathrin scaffold to the membrane is mediated by clathrin adaptors, which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes. (uniprot.org)
- Identification and characterization of clathrin-coated vesicle cargo and adaptors. (uhealthsystem.com)
- Role of clathrin and its adaptors in autophagy in yeast. (uhealthsystem.com)
- The smallest clathrin cage commonly imaged, called a mini-coat, has 12 pentagons and only two hexagons. (wikipedia.org)
- In animal cells, multiple endocytic pathways exist, but the best understood requires the vesicle coat protein clathrin. (biologists.org)
- CCVs that bud from the cell membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, clathrin. (uniprot.org)
- Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and are considered a major clathrin adaptor contributing the CCV formation. (uniprot.org)
- Epsin is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic clathrin adaptor whose most critical function(s) in clathrin coat dynamics remain(s) elusive. (elifesciences.org)
- another clathrin coat associated protein. (elifesciences.org)
- WPB biogenesis at the trans‐Golgi network depends on recruitment of an AP‐1/clathrin coat to support the tubulation of VWF multimers. (bl.uk)
- The basic subunit of the clathrin coat is composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. (abnova.com)
- Edeling MA, Smith C, Owen D. Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures . (humpath.com)
- Using live-cell microscopy we are exploring how signalling cargo modulates clathrin coated pit dynamics via posttranslational modifications of the clathrin coat and how this impacts on downstream signalling. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- This is how clathrin gets its name, from the Latin clathratus meaning like a lattice. (wikipedia.org)
- The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to regulate the formation and disassembly of a clathrin lattice. (wikipedia.org)
- We report the structure of a clathrin lattice at subnanometre resolution, obtained from electron cryomicroscopy of coats assembled in vitro. (rcsb.org)
- Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. (uniprot.org)
- Clathrin molecules self-assemble together to make a spherical clathrin lattice structure, a polyhedron made of regular pentagons and hexagons. (uniprot.org)
- The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. (uniprot.org)
- An alternative view is that clathrin does not act as a bridge, but as a lattice or matrix that can support spindle fibres. (biologists.org)
- Our findings exclude the `lattice' model and support the `bridge hypothesis' for clathrin function in mitosis. (biologists.org)
- The precise mechanisms involved in the formation of clathrin baskets are not yet known, nor are the exact mechanisms associated with the removal of the lattice, though both areas are currently being intensely researched. (fsu.edu)
- FCHo2 assembles at the rim of CCPs to control CCP growth and lifetime by coupling the invagination of early endocytic intermediates to clathrin lattice assembly. (sciencemag.org)
- We demonstrate that phosphorylation of CLCb is required for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) through the transition of flat lattices into invaginated buds. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Our results indicate that a key evolutionary conserved function of epsin, in addition to other roles that include, as we show here, a low affinity interaction with SNAREs, is to help generate the force that leads to invagination and then fission of clathrin-coated pits. (elifesciences.org)
- The deep invagination of clathrin-coated pits that leads to fission is assisted by actin, a protein that assembles into filaments that are suggested to generate the forces needed for this process. (elifesciences.org)
- Overall, these results suggest that a main role of epsin is to help actin interact with the clathrin-coated pits and generate the force required for a pit to develop into a vesicle. (elifesciences.org)
- Since clathrin-coated pits are planar structures, whereas CVs are spherical, there must be a structural rearrangement of clathrin as invagination occurs. (rupress.org)
- This could occur through simple addition of clathrin triskelions to the edges of growing clathrin-coated pits with very little exchange occurring between clathrin in the pits and free clathrin in the cytosol, or it could occur through large scale exchange of free and bound clathrin. (rupress.org)
- Bennett, E.M., Chen, C.Y., Engqvist-Goldstein, A.E., Drubin, D.G. and Brodsky, F.M. Clathrin hub expression dissociates the actin-binding protein Hip1R from coated pits and disrupts their alignment with the actin cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
- Clathrin-coated pits contain an integral membrane protein that binds the AP-2 subunit with high affinity. (semanticscholar.org)
- By immunoelectron microscopy, we found that in AP2-depleted cells, the number of clathrin-coated pits was strongly reduced. (asm.org)
- Induction of clathrin-coated pits required EGFR kinase activity. (asm.org)
- Our data demonstrate that EGFR-induced signaling and Grb2 are essential for formation of clathrin-coated pits accommodating the EGFR, while activation of MAPK and PI3K is not required. (asm.org)
- Additionally, ligand-binding results in localization of the EGFR to clathrin-coated pits, from where the EGFR is endocytosed at physiological concentrations of EGF ( 21 , 42 ). (asm.org)
- Consistently, our recent data demonstrated that even though EGFR and TfR to some extent colocalized in clathrin-coated pits, more EGFR was found in TfR-negative coated pits than in TfR-positive coated pits ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- This highlights the idea of potential EGFR-specific adaptor molecules in clathrin-coated pits. (asm.org)
- We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of Grb2 with inactivating point mutations in both SH3 domains (d.n.Grb2), as well as overexpression of human Sprouty 2, inhibiting the enzymatic activity of Cbl, inhibited the EGF-induced transport of the EGFR to clathrin-coated pits. (asm.org)
- We show that OCRL visits late stage endocytic clathrin coated pits and binds the Rab5 effector APPL1 on peripheral early endosomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Clathrin coated pits are microdomains responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of cargo. (sheffield.ac.uk)
Control of clathrin5
- Based on circular dichroism data, mapping and mutagenesis, LCa and LCb were represented as alpha-helices, aligned along the HC and, using molecular dynamics, a structural model of their interaction was generated with novel implications for LC control of clathrin assembly. (nih.gov)
- Complete reconstitution of clathrin basket formation with recombinant protein fragments: adaptor control of clathrin self-assembly. (semanticscholar.org)
- Differential control of clathrin subunit dynamics measured with EW-FRAP microscopy. (genes2cognition.org)
- Cellular control of clathrin function is thought to be aimed at the LC subunit, mainly on the basis of structural information. (genes2cognition.org)
- We conclude that HCs bound both to LCa and to LCb contribute side by side to pit formation in vivo, but the affinity of LCa-free HC in pits is reduced, and the Ca(2+)- and ATP-mediated control of clathrin function is lost. (genes2cognition.org)
Distribution of clathrin2
- To explore this possibility further, we examined the distribution of clathrin in NGF- and BDNF-treated cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Alexa Fluor dyes were employed to visualize distribution of clathrin and the peroxisomal membrane protein 70 ( PMP 70 ) in the culture of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells illustrated above. (fsu.edu)
- These findings link auxilin-mediated clathrin exchange to early stages of CCP invagination in a cargo-specific manner. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- The study of pathogen entry has revealed the flexibility of clathrin to accommodate both large and small cargo. (nature.com)
- Despite its importance for a host of cellular processes and contribution to neurological, viral, and bacterial disease, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the heterotetrameric motor kinesin-1 by its light chains and the binding of its cargo are not well understood. (pnas.org)
- Here, we describe how a previously unnoticed intramolecular interaction between the light chain tetratricopeptide repeat domain (KLC2 TPR ) and a highly conserved peptide motif within an unstructured region of the molecule occludes a key cargo binding site on the light-chain TPR domain. (pnas.org)
- Thus, like the motor-bearing kinesin heavy chains, KLCs exist in a dynamic conformational state that is regulated by self-interaction and cargo binding. (pnas.org)
- The pit grows deeper over time as more clathrin molecules assemble, eventually resulting in a deeply invaginated clathrin-coated pit that encloses the cargo to be taken up by the cell. (elifesciences.org)
- CCV fractions isolated from auxilin-depleted cells have an approximately 1.5-fold increase in clathrin content and more than fivefold increase in the amount of AP-2 adaptor complex and other endocytic machinery, with no concomitant increase in cargo. (biomedsearch.com)
- When and where a clathrin-coated pit will form and what cargo it will contain are difficult to foresee. (rupress.org)
- CCP assembly is accompanied or followed by the progressive invagination of the membrane, eventually leading to the dynamin-dependent scission of a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) that delivers its cargo to the endosomal system ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Our lab is interested in the molecular mechanisms of cargo sorting along the endocytic pathway with particular emphasis on the regulation of the clathrin coated vesicle cycle by rab5 and reversible phosphorylation. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- Auxilin depletion causes self-assembly of clathrin into membraneless cages in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
- In addition, the structures isolated from auxilin-depleted cells are on average smaller than CCVs from control cells and are largely devoid of membrane, indicating that they are not CCVs but membraneless clathrin cages. (biomedsearch.com)
- Together, these findings indicate that the two auxilins have overlapping functions and that they not only facilitate the uncoating of CCVs but also prevent the formation of nonproductive clathrin cages in the cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
- We are currently investigating how the molecular chaperone, Hsc70, and its cofactor auxilin, cause clathrin cage disassembly in vitro. (warwick.ac.uk)
- In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? (biologists.org)
- We are exploiting this improvement in capability to carry out high resolution structural analysis of clathrin cage complexes. (findaphd.com)
- A clathrin-binding site in the hinge of the beta 2 chain of mammalian AP-2 complexes. (semanticscholar.org)
- During vesicle formation, clathrin complexes are found assembled into polyhedral lattices, often referred to as clathrin baskets. (fsu.edu)
- The clathrin-coated pit then pinches off inside the cell in a process called fission to form a bubble-like structure called a vesicle, which transports the molecule to its destination. (elifesciences.org)
- These results indicate that the key structural features of clathrin that are necessary for its function in mitosis are a trimeric molecule with a spindle interaction domain at each end, supporting the bridge hypothesis for clathrin function in mitosis. (biologists.org)
- A single CHC molecule consists of an N-terminal seven-bladed β-propeller, a linker region, eight clathrin heavy chain repeat (CHCR0-7) segments, a proximal hairpin, a tripod region that is thought to be responsible for trimerisation, and a variable C-terminal segment (residues 1631-1675). (biologists.org)
- Kinetic analysis using light scattering, fluorescence and single molecule methods. (findaphd.com)
- The clathrin molecule has a triskelion shape. (ptglab.com)
- The following product was used in this experiment: Clathrin Light Chain Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-100442, RRID AB_2815815. (thermofisher.com)
- Mac?rek, Zíková, Dráberová, Dráber: Monoclonal antibody BF-06 against the heavy chain of clathrin. (antibodies-online.com)
- In the present study, we investigated this question by studying clathrin exchange both in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
- We found that in vitro clathrin in CVs and clathrin baskets do not exchange with free clathrin even in the presence of Hsc70 and ATP where partial uncoating occurs. (rupress.org)
- Chen, C.Y. and Brodsky, F.M. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (Hip1) and Hip1-related protein (Hip1R) bind the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains and thereby influence clathrin assembly in vitro and actin distribution in vivo. (springer.com)
- Mutants designed to abolish trimerisation were unable to rescue the mitotic defects caused by depletion of endogenous clathrin. (biologists.org)
- Preliminary work presented here suggests loss of clathrin heavy chain or light chain B results in the formation of shorter organelles, whilst light chain A depletion promotes the biogenesis of longer granules. (bl.uk)
- Clathrin subunits form hexameric, three legged triskelia by self-polymerization. (frontiersin.org)
- The clathrin triskelion is composed of three light chain (LC) and three heavy chain (HC) subunits. (genes2cognition.org)
- The light chain subunits are thought to regulate the formation or disassembly of clathrin coats. (ptglab.com)
- LC binding to clathrin heavy chain (HC) was characterized by genetic and structural approaches. (nih.gov)
- This was originally determined from the structure of the proximal leg domain that identified and is composed of a smaller structural module referred to as clathrin heavy chain repeat motifs. (wikipedia.org)
- Structural modeling predicts that within this domain, the region of heavy chain-light chain interaction is a bundle of three or four alpha helices. (dnatube.com)
- A helical tripod, the carboxy-terminal parts of three heavy chains, projects inward from the vertex of each three-legged clathrin triskelion, linking that vertex to 'ankles' of triskelions centred two vertices away. (rcsb.org)
- Clathrin functions as a trimer, and these trimers, or triskelions, are comprised of three legs joined by a central vertex. (embl.de)
- The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. (nature.com)
- In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these two systems and their role during pathogen internalization, egress and spread. (nature.com)
- A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. (nature.com)
- We demonstrate that TCR internalization after receptor engagement and TCR signaling involves inducible phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) in both CD4 + and CD8 + human T cells. (rupress.org)
- Fernandez, McVicker, Tuma, Tuma: Ethanol selectively impairs clathrin-mediated internalization in polarized hepatic cells. (antibodies-online.com)
- Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones corresponding to this exon revealed extensive similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence of this gene product to those of clathrin heavy chain genes of other species. (nih.gov)
- 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said genes code for HLA-A201 heavy chains. (google.com)
- However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the ubiquitous auxilin 2 in HeLa cells only moderately impairs clathrin-dependent trafficking. (biomedsearch.com)
- Hsc70-induced changes in clathrin-auxilin cage structure suggest a role for clathrin light chains in cage disassembly. (findaphd.com)
- A sequential mechanism for clathrin cage disassembly by 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and auxilin. (findaphd.com)
- NGF signaling in PC12 cells robustly redistributed the adaptor protein AP2 and the clathrin heavy chain (CHC) to surface membranes. (jneurosci.org)
- In that BDNF treatment increased AP2 and clathrin at the surface membranes of hippocampal neurons, these findings may represent a physiologically significant response to NTs. (jneurosci.org)
- Earlier findings in this laboratory suggested that clathrin-coated membranes may be used to move NTs and their receptors into signaling endosomes. (jneurosci.org)
- The triskelia comprise three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three clathrin light chains (CLCs). (frontiersin.org)
- we showed that normal mitosis could be rescued by full-length clathrin triskelia and not by the N-terminal domain alone, but this did not allow us to distinguish between these two models. (biologists.org)
- Clathrin heavy and light chain isoforms originated by independent mechanisms of gene duplication during chordate evolution. (wikigenes.org)
- A second clathrin heavy chain gene, on chromosome 22 , is expressed in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include clathrin light chain binding . (genecards.org)
- An exon representing a novel clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTCL) was isolated during gene identification studies and transcription mapping of human chromosome 22. (nih.gov)
Retinal pigment epithelial2
- Clathrin light chains (CLCs) control selective uptake of a range of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although the mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive thus far. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. (antibodies-online.com)
- HSC70 binds to the exposed loop of clathrin light chains to promote uncoating and can also bind the cytoskeleton which may facilitate cytoskeletal rearrangements. (abcam.com)
- A clathrin cage with a single triskelion highlighted in blue. (wikipedia.org)
- In the second approach we monitor the kinetics of the process of clathrin cage disassembly using a range of biophysical techniques such as fluorescence anisotropy, stopped flow kinetics, isothermal titrating calorimetry and light scattering. (warwick.ac.uk)