The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.

Functional organization of clathrin in coats: combining electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography. (1/110)

The sorting of specific proteins into clathrin-coated pits and the mechanics of membrane invagination are determined by assembly of the clathrin lattice. Recent structures of a six-fold barrel clathrin coat at 21 A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy and of the clathrin terminal domain and linker at 2.6 A by X-ray crystallography together show how domains of clathrin interact and orient within the coat and reveal the strongly puckered shape and conformational variability of individual triskelions. The beta propeller of the terminal domain faces the membrane so that recognition segments from adaptor proteins can extend along its lateral grooves. Clathrin legs adapt to different coat environments in the barrel by flexing along a segment at the knee that is free of contacts with other molecules.  (+info)

ADP-ribosylation factor 6 and endocytosis at the apical surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (2/110)

We report that the small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), is present only on the apical surface of polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Overexpression of a mutant of ARF6, ARF6-Q67L, which is predicted to be in the GTP-bound form, stimulates endocytosis exclusively at this surface. Surprisingly, overexpression of the mutant ARF6-T27N, which is predicted to be in the GDP-bound form, also stimulated apical endocytosis, though to a lesser extent. ARF6-stimulated endocytosis is inhibited by a dominant-negative form of dynamin, or a dominant-negative hub fragment of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that it is mediated by clathrin. Correspondingly, overexpression of either mutant of ARF6 leads to an increase in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the apical plasma membrane. When ARF6-Q67L is overexpressed in the presence of the dominant-negative dynamin, the ARF6-Q67L colocalizes with clathrin and with IgA bound to its receptor. We conclude that ARF6 is an important modulator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the apical surface of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Human monocyte activation by cleaved form of alpha-1-antitrypsin involvement of the phagocytic pathway. (3/110)

Production of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) by human monocytes is an important factor in controlling tissue damage by proteases in the microenvironment of inflammation. Increases, of four- to eightfold, in numbers of macrophages and levels of AAT and its cleavage fragments have been found in various inflammatory loci. We have found that the C-terminal peptide (C-36) of AAT, produced by specific proteinase cleavage when added in its fibrillar form at concentrations >/=5 microM to monocytes in culture for 24 h, significantly increases low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding and uptake, up-regulates levels of LDL receptors and also induces proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) production and glutathione reductase activity. Because it is known that various cells selectively internalize surface receptors and their ligands through receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, we tested whether antibodies raised against the clathrin heavy chain would block the effects of the fibrillar form of C-36 on human monocytes in culture. Addition of excess anti-(clathrin HC) with 10 microM fibrillar C-36 diminished the stimulatory effects of the latter on LDL binding, uptake and LDL receptor levels. In contrast, however, in the presence of anti-(clathrin HC), the potentially cytotoxic effects of fibrils, such as induction of cytokines, free radicals and cytosolic activity of cathepsin D, were much greater than those observed when cells were treated with fibrils alone. These results suggest that endocytosis is the pathway by which C-36 fibrils upregulate LDL receptors, and may be the natural mechanism for fibril clearance. We infer that human monocytes clear C-36 fibrils by a clathrin-dependent pathway, presumably endocytotic, and that loss of this pathway amplifies the cytotoxic effects of the fibrils by increasing their availability to other specific or nonspecific sites through which they exert their cytotoxic effects.  (+info)

Role for Drs2p, a P-type ATPase and potential aminophospholipid translocase, in yeast late Golgi function. (4/110)

ADP-ribosylation factor appears to regulate the budding of both COPI and clathrin-coated transport vesicles from Golgi membranes. An arf1Delta synthetic lethal screen identified SWA3/DRS2, which encodes an integral membrane P-type ATPase and potential aminophospholipid translocase (or flippase). The drs2 null allele is also synthetically lethal with clathrin heavy chain (chc1) temperature-sensitive alleles, but not with mutations in COPI subunits or other SEC genes tested. Consistent with these genetic analyses, we found that the drs2Delta mutant exhibits late Golgi defects that may result from a loss of clathrin function at this compartment. These include a defect in the Kex2-dependent processing of pro-alpha-factor and the accumulation of abnormal Golgi cisternae. Moreover, we observed a marked reduction in clathrin-coated vesicles that can be isolated from the drs2Delta cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis indicate that Drs2p localizes to late Golgi membranes containing Kex2p. These observations indicate a novel role for a P-type ATPase in late Golgi function and suggest a possible link between membrane asymmetry and clathrin function at the Golgi complex.  (+info)

Spatially regulated recruitment of clathrin to the plasma membrane during capping and cell translocation. (5/110)

Clathrin-coated vesicles bud from selected cellular membranes to traffic-specific intracellular proteins. To study the dynamic properties of clathrin-coated membranes, we expressed clathrin heavy chain tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Dictyostelium cells. GFP-clathrin was functional and retained the native properties of clathrin: the chimeric protein formed classic clathrin lattices on cellular membranes and also rescued phenotypic defects of clathrin null cells. GFP-clathrin distributed into punctate loci found throughout the cytoplasm, on the plasma membrane, and concentrated to a perinuclear location. These clathrin-coated structures were remarkably motile and capable of rapid and bidirectional transport across the cell. We identified two local domains of the plasma membrane as sites for clathrin recruitment in motile cells. First, as cells translocated or changed shape and retracted their tails, clathrin was transiently concentrated on the membrane at the back of the cell tail. Second, as cells capped their cell surface receptors, clathrin was recruited locally to the membrane under the tight cap of cross-linked receptors. This suggests that local sites for clathrin polymerization on specific domains of the plasma membrane undergo rapid and dynamic regulation in motile cells.  (+info)

Clathrin heavy chain, light chain interactions. (6/110)

Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures.  (+info)

Biochemical and immunological studies on clathrin light chains and their binding sites on clathrin triskelions. (7/110)

Clathrin light chains from bovine brain tissue (LC alpha and LC beta) are monomeric proteins with an average mol. wt. of approximately 33,000, as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Solution studies on purified light chains indicate a large Stokes radius (Re = 3.3 nm) and little defined secondary structure. Both light chains bind specifically and with high affinity (KA approximately 5 x 10(7)/M) to overlapping sites on clathrin heavy chains. These binding sites are contained within a 125,000 dalton heavy chain fragment that forms truncated triskelions with legs, 15 nm shorter than those of intact triskelions. As judged by immuno-electron microscopy, light chain-specific IgG molecules bind mostly to the center of triskelions, but there are also sites that are scattered some 16 nm along the proximal part of triskelion legs. From heterologous binding experiments using human placenta light chains and heavy chain fragments from bovine brain clathrin, it is concluded that the domains of light and heavy chains that are involved in the interaction are conserved across tissue and species boundaries.  (+info)

NGF signals through TrkA to increase clathrin at the plasma membrane and enhance clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. (8/110)

Neurotrophin (NT) signals may be moved from axon terminals to neuron cell bodies via signaling endosomes-organelles in which NTs continue to be bound to their activated receptors. Suggesting that clathrin-coated membranes serve as one source of signaling endosomes, in earlier studies we showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment increased clathrin at the plasma membrane and resulted in colocalization of clathrin with TrkA, the receptor tyrosine kinase for NGF. Strikingly, however, we also noted that most clathrin puncta at the surface of NGF-treated cells did not colocalize with TrkA, raising the possibility that NGF induces a general increase in clathrin-coated membrane formation. To explore this possibility further, we examined the distribution of clathrin in NGF- and BDNF-treated cells. NGF signaling in PC12 cells robustly redistributed the adaptor protein AP2 and the clathrin heavy chain (CHC) to surface membranes. Using confocal and epifluorescence microscopy, as well as biochemical assays, we showed the redistribution of clathrin to be attributable to the activation of TrkA. Significantly, NGF signaled through TrkA to induce an increase in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking, as revealed in the increased endocytosis of transferrin. In that BDNF treatment increased AP2 and clathrin at the surface membranes of hippocampal neurons, these findings may represent a physiologically significant response to NTs. We conclude that NT signaling increases clathrin-coated membrane formation and clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking and speculate that this effect contributes to their trophic actions via the increased internalization of receptors and other proteins that are present in clathrin-coated membranes.  (+info)

Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA,
In this report we have addressed the biological consequence of endofin-mediated TOM1 recruitment onto endosomes. Our results collectively suggest that TOM1 serves as an adaptor for endofin to recruit clathrin heavy chain onto the endosomes. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence as described in our study.. First, via large-scale pull-down experiments using immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), we have recovered clathrin heavy chain as the major and specific partner for TOM1. This conclusion was corroborated by analytical pull-down experiments showing that clathrin heavy chain was very efficiently retained by immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), so much so that it was depleted from the cytosol. The specific interaction between TOM1 and clathrin heavy chain was further defined by our identification of three sites in the carboxyl-terminal region of TOM1, which seem to act together for efficient interaction with clathrin. Moreover, the specific blockage of interaction between TOM1 and clathrin ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. They are also important for traffic between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In this presentation, I will discuss (i) technological and analytical advances that I developed to directly visualize clathrin-mediated membrane traffic in three dimensions and in living cells; (ii) data obtained using these advances that defined a role for actin filament polymerization in counteracting membrane tension during clathrin-coated vesicle budding at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells; and (iii) how these advances can be used to study a wide variety of biological processes that occur in living cells and tissues. ...
Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), microtubules and their motors form a transport machinery that localizes a remarkable diversity of mRNAs to specific cellular regions during oogenesis and embryogenesis. Bic-D family proteins also promote dynein-dependent transport of Golgi vesicles, lipid droplets, synaptic vesicles and nuclei. However, the transport of these different cargoes is still poorly understood. We searched for novel proteins that either mediate Bic-D-dependent transport processes or are transported by them. Clathrin heavy chain (Chc) co-immunopurifies with Bic-D in embryos and ovaries, and a fraction of Chc colocalizes with Bic-D. Both proteins control posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte and endocytosis. Although the role of Chc in endocytosis is well established, our results show that Bic-D is also needed for the elevated endocytic activity at the posterior of the oocyte. Apart from affecting endocytosis indirectly by its role in osk mRNA localization, Bic-D is also ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Exbio \ Clathrin heavy chain \ 11-526-C025 for more molecular products just contact us
Ischebeck, T.; Werner , S.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; Lerche, J.; Meijón, M.; Stenzel, I.; Löfke, C.; Wiessner, T.; Im , Y. J.; Perera, I. Y. et al.; Iven , T.; Feussner, I.; Busch, W.; Boss, W. F.; Teichmann, T.; Hause, B.; Persson, S.; Heilmann, I.: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell (2013 ...
chc 제조업체 주소록 - EC21에는 세계곳곳에서 등록한 3,000,000개의 chc 수입업체, 수출업체, 제조업체, 공급업체, 도매업체, 유통업체, 무역회사, 셀러 등이 있습니다. EC21을 통해 쉽게 거래선을 발굴 하세요.
BACKGROUND: Clathrin is a multimeric protein involved in vesicle coat assembly. Recently clathrin distribution was reported to change during the cell cycle and was found to associate with the mitotic spindle. Here we test whether the recruitment of clathrin to the spindle is indicative of a critical functional contribution to mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously a chicken pre-B lymphoma cell line (DKO-R) was developed in which the endogenous clathrin heavy chain alleles were replaced with the human clathrin heavy chain under the control of a tetracycline-regulatable promoter. Receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis were significantly inhibited in this line following clathrin knockout, and we used this to explore the significance of clathrin heavy chain expression for cell cycle progression. We confirmed using confocal microscopy that clathrin colocalised with tubulin at mitotic spindles. Using a propidium iodide flow cytometric assay we found no statistical difference in the cell
The kinetics of CHC phosphorylation in activated T cells was slow compared with the total protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cell lysates (not depicted). This delay suggested that other signaling events are initiated before CHC phosphorylation. We had previously found that the activation of c-Src kinase or Lyn kinase, a Src kinase family member, was required for CHC phosphorylation after EGFR and BCR stimulation, respectively (20, 21). To address whether the activity of a Src family kinase was necessary for CHC phosphorylation in activated T cells, we treated Jurkat cells with various concentrations of the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 before stimulation with soluble anti-CD3 Ab. At increasing concentrations of PP1, but not the serine/threonine kinase inhibitor H7, the level of inducible CHC phosphorylation was diminished (Fig. 2 A). Additionally, in the presence of PP1, the basal level of CHC phosphorylation in Jurkat cells before the induction of TCR internalization was also decreased, ...
In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1) and this ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is exploited by bacterial and viral pathogens during internalization. Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function as a signalling platform during pathogen entry, and other studies revealing that, in conjunction with actin, clathrin is involved in pathogen cell-cell spread and release. The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Allele \ Alleleustrious pmTFP1_Clathrin fusion vector Clathrin \ ABP-FP-TCL1000 for more molecular products just contact us
Excellent quality titanium coated stainless steel fixed blade and ceramic moving blade provide excellent cutting performance after a long time of heavy duty still can keep their ...
The structure of Clathrin is known as a triskeleion structure with there being three bent legs extending from a central point known as the central trimerization domain. Clathrin is made up of six chains of protein that are braided together in such a way to form to form its distinct shape. Three of these chains are known as heavy chains and form the backbone of Clathrin, they consist of two sub domains a N-terminal zone and a proximal leg domain. A seven bladed β-propeller structure is what the N-terminal domain consists off. While the proximal leg consists of a super Helix (Conner and Schmid, 2002). The other three chains are known as light chains and regulate formation and disassembly of the Clathrin and can be found connected to the proximal portion of the heavy chains. Multiple Clathrin molecules have the ability to form a variety of complex shapes when they interact, they can form 5 or 6 sided rings with the 5 sided kind having a greature curvature and when enough get together they can form ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
CHC Health Care, a part of CHC Group is a leading international health care KPO and BPO service provider with 10 years of rich experience
article{1864472, abstract = {Endocytosis is a crucial mechanism by which eukaryotic cells internalize extracellular and plasma membrane material, and it is required for a multitude of cellular and developmental processes in unicellular and multicellular organisms. In animals and yeast, the best characterized pathway for endocytosis depends on the function of the vesicle coat protein clathrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has recently been demonstrated also in plant cells, but its physiological and developmental roles remain unclear. Here, we assessed the roles of the clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis in plants by genetic means. We interfered with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function through mutants and dominant-negative approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana and established tools to manipulate clathrin function in a cell type-specific manner. The chc2 single mutants and dominant-negative CHC1 (HUB) transgenic lines were defective in bulk endocytosis as well as in internalization of ...
ALK a tyrosine kinase of the ALK family. Plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. Translocated and expressed as a fusion protein in anaplastic lymphoma. About one third of large-cell lymphomas are caused by a t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation that fuses ALK to nucleophosmin (NPM1A). Other cases caused by fusions of ALK to moesin, non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9, clathrin heavy chain and other genes. Several fusions also seen in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, and expression has been briefly noted in a range of tumors Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Immunogen = synthetic peptide: E E D P A A A F L A Q Q E S E I A G I E N D, corresp. to amino acids 23-44 of Cow Clathrin light chain. ...
Shop Sodium channel and clathrin linker ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sodium channel and clathrin linker Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Eps15 is a substrate of the EGF receptor, and exhibits homology with the yeast protein End3, a protein involved in the endocytosis of the α factor in S. cerevisiae (Fazioli et al., 1993; Benedetti et al., 1994). Recently, Eps15 has been shown to bind directly to the ear of α-adaptin, a component of the AP-2 complex (Benmerah et al., 1995). In this paper, we have investigated the possible role of Eps15 in EGF receptor endocytosis. We have shown that Eps15 phosphorylation is mediated by the EGF receptor, and not by PDGF or insulin receptors, which suggest a possible function of Eps15 specifically in the endocytosis of EGF receptors. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Eps15 can be co-immunoprecipitated with the EGF receptor. Moreover, the association of Eps15 with the EGF receptor increased dramatically after activation of the receptor, while the association of Eps15 with AP-2 or clathrin LC appeared to occur independently of EGF. The association of Eps15 to the EGF receptor has not been ...
SSO mediated functional uptake in MHT cells is AP2M1 dependent and clathrin independent. (A) MHT cells were treated with 25 nM control, AP2M1, clathrin or RNA
SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling ...
Plasmid pSNAP-CLC-SNAP from Dr. Xiaowei Zhuangs lab contains the insert Clathrin, light polypeptide (LCa) and is published in Nat Methods. 2011 Jun;8(6):499-508. Epub 2011 May 8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid mEos4a-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The present invention relates in a first aspect to a method of coating surfaces of substrates with a lattice-like structure. In particular, the present invention relates to an in vitro method of coating surfaces by binding of epsin or a fragment thereof on the surface and, thereafter, binding of a compound forming the lattice like structure, in particular, binding of the clathrin heavy chain, to the epsin bound on the surface, thus, obtaining a coated substrate having a lattice like structure on the surface. In another aspect, the present invention relates to an in vitro method of producing nanometer-sized liposomes having a clathrin structure on its surface. In addition, substrates, like elements or devices, with coated surfaces having a lattice-like structure on the surface are provided obtainable by a method according to the present invention.
CHC22 clathrin plays a key role in intracellular membrane traffic of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 in humans. We performed population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the CHC22-encoding CLTCL1 gene, revealing independent gene loss in at least two vertebrate lineages, after arising from gene duplication. All vertebrates retained the paralogous CLTC gene encoding CHC17 clathrin, which mediates endocytosis. For vertebrates retaining CLTCL1 , strong evidence for purifying selection supports CHC22 functionality. All human populations maintained two high frequency CLTCL1 allelic variants, encoding either methionine or valine at position 1316. Functional studies indicated that CHC22-V1316, which is more frequent in farming populations than in hunter-gatherers, has different cellular dynamics than M1316-CHC22 and is less effective at controlling GLUT4 membrane traffic, attenuating its insulin-regulated response. These analyses suggest that ancestral human dietary change influenced ...
VOLUME 21 ISSUE 12 12 2011 1655 1661 Novel functions of endocytic player clathrin in mitosis Wenxiang Fu Qing Jiang and Chuanmao Zhang The MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation and the State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology College of Life Sciences Peking University Beijing 100871 China Correspondence Chuanmao Zhang Tel 86 10 62757173 E mail zhangcm pku edu cn Clathrin has been widely recognized as a pivotal player in endocytosis in which several adaptors and accessory proteins are involved Recent studies suggested that clathrin is also essential for cell division Here this review mainly focuses on the clathrin dependent mechanisms involved in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment In mitosis clathrin forms a complex with phosphorylated TACC3 to ensure spindle stability and proper chromosome alignment The clathrin regulated mechanism in mitosis requires the crosstalk among clathrin spindle assembly factors SAFs Ran GTP and mitotic kinases ...
mmmmm cow brains the concept centers on a particular protein called clathrin which has a unique knack for assembling itself into versatile structures that foster the formation of complex molecules clathrin is present in every cell in the human body but cows possess a vast wealth of it in their bovine brains that make them an ideal source for the stuff and given the right biochemical directions researchers think they can coax clathrin into creating better batteries and solar cells http www popsci com science article - protein-cow-brains-could-build-better-batteries-solar-cells
/ X YOUTH Schwartz & et SOCIETY al. / IDENTITY / DECEMBER AND AGENCY 2005 IDENTITY AND AGENCY IN EMERGING ADULTHOOD: Two Developmental Routes in the Individualization Process SETH
TACC2兔多克隆抗体(ab96760)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Doskonała propozycja dla Pań, które chcą szybko odświeżyć fryzurę! Suchy szampon do włosów Indola Style Reviver zapewnia naturalną objętość i matowy efekt.
Po wypadku grupa znajomych trafia do opustoszałego szpitala. Psychopatyczne zachowanie personelu sprawia, że pacjenci chcą jak najszybciej stamtąd uciec. ...
Pets are a treasured part of the family, but theyre also a smelly part of the family. Whether youre tackling little box smells, dog accidents, or the general scent of
Endocytosis is an essential phenomenon in eukaryotic cells. In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. Here, we observed the localization pattern and behavior of GFP-labeled ,i,Arabidopsis,/i, dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). GFP fusions of DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC were observed as dot-like puncta 200-500 nm in diameter. The puncta moved to and away from the cell surface or also assembled and disassembled. The localization pattern and behavior of the puncta were similar to those of animal dynamin and clathrin signals reported previously. These results raise the possibility that DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC are involved in membrane trafficking around the plasma membrane, including endocytosis.. ...
Researchers of the group of cellular and molecular neurobiology of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute and the University of Barcelona, led by researcher Artur Llobet, have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons.
Ybe and Niu used X-ray crystallography to look at an area of interest on the surface of HIP1, which works in concert with clathrin to traffic nutrients into a cell, and has long been implicated as playing an important role in the development of Huntingtons disease. They learned that the potential binding surface of HIPPI in HIP1 has an unexpected shape for a binding site, a spiraling spiral called a coiled coil. This finding was contrary to predicted results that the binding surface that receives HIPPI is folded into a so-called death effector domain. Using the information from the published molecular structure of HIP1, IU biologists hope to be able to test which protein connections are ultimately responsible for triggering the chain of interactions leading to Huntingtons disease and how to block them. For example, they observed that clathrin, protein involved in bringing nutrients to the cell, binds with HIP1 right next door to where HIPPI binds. While clathrin packages nutrients for a ...
Thermodynamics of protein-mediated membrane deformation â application to clathrin dependent and clathrin independent endocytosis (2009 ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Clathrin interactor 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
A blog about an Advanced Dungeons and Dragons (AD&D) First Edition or OSRIC compatible megadungeon. Get a free dungeon room every day.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
CHC of New London started in the summer of 1992 in partnership with Lawrence and Memorial Hospital and the city, taking over a city-run clinic that had been in existence since 1970. The partnership then won state and federal support in subsequent months ...
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
Assembly protein recruiting clathrin and adapter protein complex 2 (AP2) to cell membranes at sites of coated-pit formation and clathrin-vesicle assembly. May be required to determine the amount of membrane to be recycled, possibly by regulating the size of the clathrin cage. Involved in AP2-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction. Plays a crucial role in fetal and adult hematopoiesis, and normal prenatal and postnatal growth and viability.
The nuclear export signal within clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM) is critical for in vitro immortalization of cells by CALM-AF10. (a)
set by micropipette aspiration to be less than 1 over a wide range of spontaneous curvatures, indicating a high membrane-tension regime in their set up. Thus, our model is consistent with their observations of shallow buds observed in isotonic conditions. One result that our model cannot explain is the lack of any clathrin assembly observed under hypotonic conditions. It is possible that at extremely high membrane tensions, the coat is simply unable to stay bound to the membrane at the extremely flat morphology that would be expected.. Avinoam et al. (46) found that the size of the clathrin coat does not change substantially during membrane deformation in CME in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells. This observation is in contrast to the canonical view that the clathrin coat should directly impose its preferred curvature on the underlying membrane (8). There are two possible explanations for this observation in the context of our study. One is that the membrane tension is too high for the coat ...
Clathrin (see MIM 118955)-mediated endocytosis is a major mechanism for internalization of proteins and lipids. Members of the connecdenn family, such as DENND1A, function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the early endosomal small GTPase RAB35 (MIM 604199) and bind to clathrin and clathrin adaptor protein-2 (AP2; see MIM 601024). Thus, connecdenns link RAB35 activation with the clathrin machinery (Marat and McPherson, 2010 [PubMed 20154091]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010 ...
Katya Heldwein, PhD, Principal Investigator. Katya received her PhD from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, OR where she studied ligand recognition by bacterial transcription regulators using x-ray crystallography in the laboratory of Richard Brennan. She then did her postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School in the laboratory of Stephen Harrison where she initially worked on clathrin adaptor complexes and later delved into herpesvirus cell entry. She opened her own laboratory at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Fall of 2006.. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
In a prior post I documented the global impact of the CHC theory of intelligence. Another indicator of the impact of the CHC model and taxonomy is how it has been recognized and used forimportant research functions in psychology, other disciplines, and applied settings. A number of diverse examples are summarized here.The common CHC nomenclature assists different researchers better understan...
Control of E-cadherin apical localisation and morphogenesis by a SOAP-1/AP-1/clathrin pathway in C. elegans epidermal cells. ...
Mills IG, Praefcke GJ, Vallis Y, Peter BJ, Olesen LE, Gallop JL, Butler PJ, Evans PR, McMahon HT. EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2003 Jan 20;160(2):213-22. Epub 2003 Jan 21. PMID:12538641 doi: ...
Jeśli chcą Państwo dowiedzieć się więcej na temat trendów i innowacji na rynku, zachęcamy do przejrzenia zbioru referatów i artykułów naukowych. Zachęcamy również do częstego odwiedzania naszej strony, ponieważ jest ona regularnie aktualizowana.
before she tries to conceive again after we lost DGS2 in January when he was only two weeks old. The two weeks that he was with us were so incredib

No FAQ available that match "clathrin heavy chains"

No images available that match "clathrin heavy chains"