Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.

Internalization and sequestration of the human prostacyclin receptor. (1/386)

Prostacyclin (PGI(2)), the major product of cyclooxygenase in macrovascular endothelium, mediates its biological effects through its cell surface G protein-coupled receptor, the IP. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of human (h) IP is a critical determinant of agonist-induced desensitization (Smyth, E. M., Hong Li, W., and FitzGerald, G. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23258-23266). The regulatory events that follow desensitization are unclear. We have examined agonist-induced sequestration of hIP. Human IP, tagged at the N terminus with hemagglutinin (HA) and fused at the C terminus to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), was coupled to increased cAMP (EC(50) = 0.39 +/- 0.09 nm) and inositol phosphate (EC(50) = 86. 6 +/- 18.3 nm) generation when overexpressed in HEK 293 cells. Iloprost-induced sequestration of HAhIP-GFP, followed in real time by confocal microscopy, was partially colocalized to clathrin-coated vesicles. Iloprost induced a time- and concentration-dependent loss of cell surface HA, indicating receptor internalization, which was prevented by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated trafficking and partially reduced by cotransfection of cells with a dynamin dominant negative mutant. Sequestration (EC(50) = 27.6 +/- 5.7 nm) was evident at those concentrations of iloprost that induce PKC-dependent desensitization. Neither the PKC inhibitor GF109203X nor mutation of Ser-328, the site for PKC phosphorylation, altered receptor sequestration indicating that, unlike desensitization, internalization is PKC-independent. Deletion of the C terminus prevented iloprost-induced internalization, demonstrating the critical nature of this region for sequestration. Internalization was unaltered by cotransfection of cells with G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK)-2, -3, -5, -6, arrestin-2, or an arrestin-2 dominant negative mutant, indicating that GRKs and arrestins do not play a role in hIP trafficking. The hIP is sequestered in response to agonist activation via a PKC-independent pathway that is distinct from desensitization. Trafficking is dependent on determinants located in the C terminus, is GRK/arrestin-independent, and proceeds in part via a dynamin-dependent clathrin-coated vesicular endocytotic pathway although other dynamin-independent pathways may also be involved.  (+info)

Deltorphin II-induced rapid desensitization of delta-opioid receptor requires both phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. (2/386)

Similar to other G protein-coupled receptors, rapid phosphorylation of the delta-opioid receptor in the presence of agonist has been reported. Hence, agonist-induced desensitization of the delta-opioid receptor has been suggested to be via the receptor phosphorylation, arrestin-mediated pathway. However, due to the highly efficient coupling between the delta-opioid receptor and the adenylyl cyclase, the direct correlation between the rates of receptor phosphorylation and receptor desensitization as measured by the adenylyl cyclase activity could not be established. In the current studies, using an ecdysone-inducible expression system to control the delta-opioid receptor levels in HEK293 cells, we could demonstrate that the rate of deltorphin II-induced receptor desensitization is dependent on the receptor level. Only at receptor concentrations +info)

Properties of GST-CALM expressed in E. coli. (3/386)

Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are involved in protein and lipid trafficking between intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. CCVs are composed of clathrin and assembly proteins. The clathrin assembly protein lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) gene, encodes a homologoue of the neuronal clathrin assembly protein AP180. In this study, we characterized the properties of the CALM expressed in E. coli. The molecular weight of bacterially expressed GST-CALM fusion protein was approximately 105 kD on SDS-PAGE. The CALM protein could promote clathrin triskelia into clathrin cages and could bind the preformed clathrin cage. However, 33 kD N-terminal domain of CALM could not bind pre-assembled clathrin cages, but assemble clathrin triskelia into clathrin cages. The CALM protein was bound to SH3 domain through N-terminal domain1, in vitro. The CALM protein is proteolyzed by caspase 3, caspase 8 and calpain through C-terminal domain.  (+info)

A selective transport route from Golgi to late endosomes that requires the yeast GGA proteins. (4/386)

Pep12p is a yeast syntaxin located primarily in late endosomes. Using mutagenesis of a green fluorescent protein chimera we have identified a sorting signal FSDSPEF, which is required for transport of Pep12p from the exocytic pathway to late endosomes, from which it can, when overexpressed, reach the vacuole. When this signal is mutated, Pep12p instead passes to early endosomes, a step that is determined by its transmembrane domain. Surprisingly, Pep12p is then specifically retained in early endosomes and does not go on to late endosomes. By testing appropriate chimeras in mutant strains, we found that FSDSPEF-dependent sorting was abolished in strains lacking Gga1p and Gga2p, Golgi-associated coat proteins with homology to gamma adaptin. In the gga1 gga2 double mutant endogenous Pep12p cofractionated with the early endosome marker Tlg1p, and recycling of Snc1p through early endosomes was defective. Pep12p sorting was also defective in cells lacking the clathrin heavy or light chain. We suggest that specific and direct delivery of proteins to early and late endosomes is required to maintain the functional heterogeneity of the endocytic pathway and that the GGA proteins, probably in association with clathrin, help create vesicles destined for late endosomes.  (+info)

The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic liposomes. (5/386)

The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 has been shown to function in the sorting of proteins to the endosomal/lysosomal system. However, the mechanism of AP-3 recruitment onto membranes is poorly understood, and it is still uncertain whether AP-3 nucleates clathrin-coated vesicles. Using purified components, we show that AP-3 and clathrin are recruited onto protein-free liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes by a process that requires ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and GTP but no other proteins or nucleotides. The efficiency of recruitment onto the two sources of membranes is comparable and independent of the composition of the liposomes. Clathrin binding occurred in a cooperative manner as a function of the membrane concentration of AP-3. Thin-section electron microscopy of liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes that had been incubated with AP-3, clathrin, and ARF.GTP showed the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles. These results establish that AP-3-containing clathrin-coated vesicles form in vitro and are consistent with AP-3-dependent protein transport being mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles.  (+info)

Cellular internalization of cytolethal distending toxin from Haemophilus ducreyi. (6/386)

The chancroid bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi produces a toxin (HdCDT) which is a member of the recently discovered family of cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs). These protein toxins prevent the cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2 from being activated, thus blocking the transition of cells from the G(2) phase into mitosis, with the consequent arrest of intoxicated cells in G(2). It is not known whether these toxins act by signaling from the cell surface or intracellularly only. Here we report that HdCDT has to undergo at least internalization before being able to act. Cellular intoxication was inhibited (i) by removal of clathrin coats via K(+) depletion, (ii) by treatment with drugs that inhibit receptor clustering into coated pits, and (iii) in cells genetically manipulated to fail in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Intoxication was also completely inhibited in cells treated with bafilomycin A1 or nocodazole and in cells incubated at 18 degrees C, i.e., under conditions known to block the fusion of early endosomes with downstream compartments. Moreover, disruption of the Golgi complex by treatment with brefeldin A or ilimaquinone blocked intoxication. In conclusion, our data indicate that HdCDT enters cells via clathrin-coated pits and has to be transported via the Golgi complex in order to intoxicate cells. This is the first member of the family of CDTs for which cellular internalization and some details of the pathway have been demonstrated.  (+info)

Impaired membrane traffic in defective ether lipid biosynthesis. (7/386)

The first steps of ether lipid biosynthesis are exclusively localized to peroxisomes and hence some peroxisomal disorders are characterized by a severe deficiency of plasmalogens, the main ether lipids in humans. Here we report on gene defects of plasmalogen biosynthesis, chromosomal localization of the corresponding genes and, as a consequence of plasmalogen deficiency, on structural alterations of caveolae, clathrin-coated pits, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae, as well as on the reduced rate of transferrin receptor cycling. The data suggest that plasmalogens, analogous to cholesterol, are essential for correct membrane functioning and their deficiency results in impaired membrane trafficking.  (+info)

Dominant-interfering Hsc70 mutants disrupt multiple stages of the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle in vivo. (8/386)

Within the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) cycle, coat assembly drives the internalization of receptors from the cell surface and disassembly allows for the processing of internalized ligands. The heat shock cognate protein, hsc70, has been implicated in regulating coat disassembly. We find that in cells overexpressing ATPase-deficient hsc70 mutants, uncoating of CCVs is inhibited in vivo, and the majority of unassembled cytosolic clathrin shifts to an assembled pool that cofractionates with AP1 and AP2. Surprisingly, this assembled pool of coat proteins accumulates in the absence of cargo receptors, suggesting that disruption of hsc70 activity may cause misassembly of empty clathrin cages. The strongest effect of overexpression of hsc70 mutants is a block in transferrin receptor (TfnR) recycling, which cannot be accounted for by the degree of inhibition of uncoating of endocytic CCVs. These results suggest that hsc70 participates in multiple transport and/or sorting events between endosomal compartments. Additionally, the mutant-expressing cells are defective at internalizing transferrin. In the most potent case, the initial rate of uptake is inhibited 10-fold, and TfnR levels double at the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that hsc70 indeed regulates coat disassembly and also suggest that this chaperone broadly modulates clathrin dynamics throughout the CCV cycle.  (+info)

Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. CCSs recruit specific cell surface receptors and progressively shape the plasma membrane in receptor-containing vesicles that are released in the cytosol. This endocytosis machinery allows for nutrient uptake but also for the fine-tuned control of signaling pathways triggered by cell surface receptors. As a consequence, deregulation of endocytosis has been linked to many pathological situations, including cancers.. Tumor development is accompanied by dramatic changes in the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Also, when cancer cells invade the stroma to establish distant metastases, they migrate in an environment with different topological features than the tumor mass. However, it is not known how the physical parameters of the environment impact on CCSs and what are the consequences for the cell.. Our team addresses this general question by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles.. AU - Stone, D. K.. AU - Xie, X. S.. AU - Racker, E.. PY - 1983/4/10. Y1 - 1983/4/10. N2 - Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared from bovine brain catalyzed ATP-driven proton translocation and a 32Pi-ATP exchange reaction. Both activities were measured in the presence of 5 micrograms of oligomycin/mg of protein which completely inhibited these reactions catalyzed by submitochondrial particles. Analyses performed during the purification procedure demonstrated that the oligomycin-resistant pump was concentrated and highly purified in the fractions containing coated vesicles. Moreover, vesicles precipitated by either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against clathrin contained the H+ pump activity. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (0.5 mM) and N-ethylmaleimide (1 mM) added to the assay mixture inhibited the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, sodium azide, efrapeptin, or mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor had an ...
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
SGIP1 (SH3 domain GRB2 like endophilin interacting protein 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals, and in the recycling of transmitter receptors in neuronal soma/dendrites. The present study uses electron microscopy (EM) and immunogold EM to document the different categories of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and pits (CCP) in axons compared to soma/dendrites, and the depolarization-induced redistribution of clathrin in these two polarized compartments of the neuron. The size of CCVs in presynaptic terminals (~ 40 nm; similar to the size of synaptic vesicles) is considerably smaller than the size of CCVs in soma/dendrites (~ 90 nm). Furthermore, neuronal stimulation induces an increase in the number of CCV/CCP in presynaptic terminals, but a decrease in soma/dendrites. Immunogold labeling of clathrin revealed that in presynaptic terminals under resting conditions, the majority of clathrin molecules are unassembled and concentrated outside of synaptic vesicle clusters. Upon
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
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How does dynamin oligomerise? Research on the mechanism of dynamin in vesicle scission and endocytosis. Research on proteins involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation. Research on membrane bending. Research on protein-lipid interactions. Research on vesicle trafficking pathways. As a group we investigate vesicle budding using a variety of structural and functional approaches.
To obtain insights into the mechanism by which FCHo2 couples CCP growth and lifetime in CME, we analyzed the nanoscale localization of FCHo2 at CCPs. Dual-color SD-dSTORM (spectral demixing direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) analysis of the distribution of endogenous FCHo2 within CCPs followed by quantitative averaging of ,250 images revealed a marked concentration of FCHo2 in ring-like structures (about 225 nm in diameter) at the outer rim of CCPs [consistent with (27)] while being largely absent from the CCP center (Fig. 3, D and E) that eventually gives rise to the dome as CCPs invaginate. Hence, FCHo2 selectively accumulates at the rim of CCPs, consistent with its early role in coupling CCP growth and dynamics.. Different models have been proposed regarding the early endocytic function of FCHo2. According to one model, FCHo2 nucleates CCPs by acting as a plasma membrane-associated recruitment hub for early-acting endocytic proteins bound to its μ-homology domain (20). This ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. They are also important for traffic between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In this presentation, I will discuss (i) technological and analytical advances that I developed to directly visualize clathrin-mediated membrane traffic in three dimensions and in living cells; (ii) data obtained using these advances that defined a role for actin filament polymerization in counteracting membrane tension during clathrin-coated vesicle budding at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells; and (iii) how these advances can be used to study a wide variety of biological processes that occur in living cells and tissues. ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20486136. Bioessays 2010 Jun;32(6):496-504. Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486136 ...
The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was
Within the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) cycle, coat assembly drives the internalization of receptors from the cell surface and disassembly allows for the processing of internalized ligands. The heat shock cognate protein, hsc70, has been implicated in regulating coat disassembly. We find that in cells overexpressing ATPase-deficient hsc70 mutants, uncoating of CCVs is inhibited in vivo, and the majority of unassembled cytosolic clathrin shifts to an assembled pool that cofractionates with AP1 and AP2. Surprisingly, this assembled pool of coat proteins accumulates in the absence of cargo receptors, suggesting that disruption of hsc70 activity may cause misassembly of empty clathrin cages. The strongest effect of overexpression of hsc70 mutants is a block in transferrin receptor (TfnR) recycling, which cannot be accounted for by the degree of inhibition of uncoating of endocytic CCVs. These results suggest that hsc70 participates in multiple transport and/or sorting events between endosomal ...
The Slit diaphragm (SD) is the key filtration structure in human glomerular kidney that is affected in many types of renal diseases. SD proteins are known to undergo endocytosis and recycling to maintain the integrity of the filtration structure. However, the key components of this pathway remain unclear. Using the Drosophila nephrocyte as a genetic screen platform, we screened most genes involved in endocytosis and cell trafficking, and identified the key components of the cell trafficking pathway required for SD protein endocytosis and recycling. We discovered that the SD protein endocytosis and recycling pathway contains clathrin, dynamin, AP-2 complex, like-AP180 (Lap), auxilin and Hsc70-4 (the endocytosis part) followed by Rab11 and the exocyst complex (the recycling part). Disrupting any component in this pathway led to disrupted SD on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation of mislocalized SD proteins. We also showed the first in vivo evidence of trapped SD proteins in clathrin-coated
Eukaryotic cells constantly form and internalize plasma membrane vesicles in a process known as endocytosis. Endocytosis serves a variety of housekeeping and specialized cellular functions, and it can be mediated by distinct molecular pathways. Among them, internalization via clathrin-coated pits, l …
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During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it has been thought that the sensing and binding of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 to cargo and lipids leads to the recruitment of clathrin, nucleating the formation of a clathrin-coated pit. Henne et al. have now found that this process of AP2 binding may not in fact represent either the first or the nucleation event of endocytosis. Instead, ubiquitous proteins called FCHo1/2 (F-BAR proteins) bind to the plasma membrane and define the sites of endocytosis independently of AP2. The F-BAR protein can generate very low curvatures and, at higher concentrations, generates higher curvatures like those required at the neck of budding vesicles. The C terminus of the protein has a μ-homology domain (with homology to the μ domain of the AP2 complex) that interacts with Eps15 and intersectin and via these proteins recruits AP2, which further recruits clathrin. Thus, a curvature-inducing protein can act to nucleate clathrin-coated pit assembly during ...
To assess the role of clathrin in the bulk endocytic flow of rat foetal fibroblasts, the rate of internalization of fluid-phase and membrane-lipid tracers were compared, under control conditions and after inhibition of endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation. After intracellular potassium depletion or upon cell transfer into 0.35 M NaCl, the rate of internalization of receptor-bound transferrin and the residual membrane area of plasmalemmal clathrin-coated pits and vesicles were similarly decreased by approximately 90%. In contrast, the initial rate (, 5 min) of intracellular accumulation of the fluid-phase tracer HRP was not affected. Both in control and treated cells, the rate of HRP accumulation declined after approximately 5 min, and was twofold lower in treated cells, due to enhanced regurgitation. After correction for regurgitation, the endocytic rate constant was similar to measurements at shorter intervals and identical in control and treated cells. Similarly, the rate of internalization ...
The animation shows calcium-stimulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles followed by clathrin-mediated vesicle recycling. Many of the molecular components that are involved in synaptic vesicle priming, docking, fusion, and endocytosis are shown. Although the process in the animation describes synaptic vesicle cycling, similar cellular processes occur for most calcium-coupled secretory and clathrin-mediated endocytotic events. The animation could be used to help illustrate the sequence of events as. Published by Learning Registry #GoOpen. 4 Views, 0 Likes on Docs.com. #synapse #neuron #NSDL #NSDL_SetSpec_BEN #movie #signal transduction #endocytosis #Life Science
In this study, we report the interaction of amphiphysin 2 with SNX4, a partnership that might be biologically relevant between endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. On one hand, amphiphysin 2 has been shown to be important for the early steps of endocytosis in mammalian cells (Wigge and McMahon, 1998). It is now well established that amphiphysin 2 helps to recruit dynamin via its C-terminal SH3 domain, at the site of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. It may also control membrane curvature either directly or indirectly through endophilin and the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles through synaptojanins. On the other hand, SNX4 belongs to a family of molecules initially characterized for their ability to bind membrane receptors such as EGF, PDGF, insulin or leptin receptors (Kurten et al., 1996; Haft et al., 1998). SNX molecules have been conserved throughout evolution and exist in yeast where Vps5p is the ortholog of human SNX1 (Horazdovsky, 1997). In yeast cells, Vps5p associates with other ...
set by micropipette aspiration to be less than 1 over a wide range of spontaneous curvatures, indicating a high membrane-tension regime in their set up. Thus, our model is consistent with their observations of shallow buds observed in isotonic conditions. One result that our model cannot explain is the lack of any clathrin assembly observed under hypotonic conditions. It is possible that at extremely high membrane tensions, the coat is simply unable to stay bound to the membrane at the extremely flat morphology that would be expected.. Avinoam et al. (46) found that the size of the clathrin coat does not change substantially during membrane deformation in CME in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells. This observation is in contrast to the canonical view that the clathrin coat should directly impose its preferred curvature on the underlying membrane (8). There are two possible explanations for this observation in the context of our study. One is that the membrane tension is too high for the coat ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is exploited by bacterial and viral pathogens during internalization. Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function as a signalling platform during pathogen entry, and other studies revealing that, in conjunction with actin, clathrin is involved in pathogen cell-cell spread and release. The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have
Immunogen = synthetic peptide: E E D P A A A F L A Q Q E S E I A G I E N D, corresp. to amino acids 23-44 of Cow Clathrin light chain. ...
The lectin isolated from Xerocomus chrysenteron (XCL) displays a toxic activity towards insects. In order to assess its possible mode of action and to gather useful data for its potential use in insect-resistant transgenic plants, we investigated the
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The tripartite DENN (after differentially expressed in neoplastic versus normal cells) domain is found in several proteins involved in Rab-mediated processes or regulation of MAPKs (Mitogen-activated preotein kinases) signaling pathways. It actually consists of three parts as the original DENN domain is always encircled on both sides by more divergent domains, called uDENN (after upstream DENN) and dDENN (for downstream DENN). The tripartite DENN domain is found associated with other domains, such as RUN, PLAT, PH, PPR, WD-40, GRAM or C1. The function of DENN domain remains to date unclear, although it appears to represent a good candidate for a GTP/GDP exchange activity [(PUBMED:11563850), (PUBMED:12906859)].. The general characteristics of DENN domains - three regions dDENN, DENN itself, and uDENN having different patterns of sequence conservation and separated by sequences of variable length - suggest that they are composed of at least three sub-domains which may feature distinct folds but ...
Toshima, Junko, Chika Horikomi, Asuka Okada, Makiko Hatori, Makoto Nagano, Atsushi Masuda, Wataru Yamamoto, Daria E Siekhaus, and Jiro Toshima. Srv2/CAP Is Required for Polarized Actin Cable Assembly and Patch Internalization during Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis. Journal of Cell Science 129, no. 2 (2016): 367-79. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.176651 ...
The Berro lab is interested in how forces are produced and sensed at the molecular scale in cells. Our research is currently focused on unraveling how the molecular machinery of clathrin-mediated endocytosis generates forces to deform the plasma membrane and conversely how this machinery senses membrane tension and adapts to it. To answer these questions, the lab develops new experimental and computational quantitative methods for cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics.. ...
Rapid and efficient clathrin-mediated endocytosis revealed in genome-edited mammalian cells. [Doyon JB, Zeitler B, Cheng J, Cheng AT, Cherone JM, Santiago Y, Lee AH, Vo TD, Doyon Y, Miller JC, Paschon DE, Zhang L, Rebar EJ, Gregory PD, Urnov FD and Drubin DG (2011) Nat. Cell Biol. 13(3):331-7] [Link] ...
SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling ...
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What is endocytosis? Here is a definite meaning, types , and process of endocytosis that is welll explained by our biology professors
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The early events of viral infection usually involve the attachment of virus to cellular receptor molecules on the plasma membrane of host cells. This is followed by internalization, uncoating, and subsequent virus gene transcription and/or translation at specific locations in cells. Studies have clearly demonstrated that animal viruses can utilize different internalization and trafficking pathways that allow specific localization within the cells upon entry for a successful infection (15). For enveloped viruses, the entry process can occur either via the fusion of virus envelope glycoproteins at the plasma membrane at neutral pH to promote the internalization of viral nucleocapsids or virus particles undergoing endocytosis prior to fusion with endocytic membrane. For the latter, conformational change of the virus fusion protein to expose the hydrophobic fusion peptide is induced by an acidic pH for the release of the viral nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm (14).. In the present study, a variety ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a critical process through which a wide variety of extracellular material is internalized. The primary component, clathrin, forms a cargo-selective lattice at the plasma membrane, as well as on endosomes and the TGN, though the cargo-selective components are incompletely defined. An ideal tool for understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the clathrin coat and the cargo selected is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM), which permits selective imaging of events closely apposed to the ventral plasma membrane. Previously, observation of the clathrin coat has shown both static and dynamic populations, with some dynamic structures undergoing microtubule-dependent motion; the 70-110 nm decay constant of the TIR-FM field has led to the assumption that these are all representative of coated pits. Here, I demonstrate that the dynamic population of clathrin is primarily endosomal, as it lacks colocalization with the plasma membrane-specific ...
The animation shows calcium-stimulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles followed by clathrin-mediated vesicle recycling. Many of the molecular components that are involved in synaptic vesicle priming, docking, fusion, and endocytosis are shown. Although the process in the animation describes synaptic vesicle cycling, similar cellular processes occur for most calcium-coupled secretory and clathrin-mediated endocytotic events. The animation could be used to help illustrate the sequence of events associated with both exocytosis and endocytosis, as well as aid in understanding the processes involved in neurotransmitter release in response to nerve stimulation.. [Resource Details] ...
The function of the different organelles that comprise the secretory and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells is determined by the complement of resident proteins present within the respective organelle. The mechanisms that govern membrane protein localisation to the different organelles rely on intrinsic information in the membrane protein such as sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain and extrinsic factors such as coat-proteins that recognise the sorting motifs.. A well-studied example of these concepts is the sorting of membrane proteins by the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) adaptor proteins through recognition of the YXXΦ sorting motif. This tetra-peptide motif, comprising Tyr-X-X (where X is any amino acid)-bulky hydrophobic, is bound by the medium chain (μ) subunit of adaptor complexes resulting in the protein containing the YXXΦ motif being concentrated in CCVs (Ohno et al., 1995; Owen and Evans, 1998) (reviewed in Bonifacino and Traub, 2003). Another example of sorting motifs ...
Our understanding of transcytosis comes largely from studies in polarized epithelial cells expressing pIgR (Mostov and Cardone, 1995). The first step in the transcytotic movement of immunoglobulins is the binding to specific high-affinity receptors on the plasma membrane followed by internalization in clathrin-coated vesicles that pinch off from the membrane and fuse with underlying early endosomes. Some of the ligand thus internalized remains associated with the receptor, possibly in an endocytic subcompartment of higher pH than the classic endosome, is packaged into specific carrier vesicles, and is transported to the opposite plasma membrane where release of the ligand occurs. In this work we provide evidence that in polarized hippocampal and sympathetic neurons Tf and its receptor follow a similar classic transcytotic pathway from the dendrites to the axons. First, exogenous Tf added to Tf-starved cells is taken up from the dendritic surface where the receptor is located (Figs. 1, 3). ...
Lysosomes are membrane-delimited organelles in animal cells serving as the cells main digestive compartment to which all sorts of macromolecules are delivered for degradation. They contain more than 40 hydrolases in an acidic environment (pH of about 5). After synthesis in the ER, lysosomal enzymes are decorated with mannose-6-phosphate residues, which are recognized by mannose-6-phosphate receptors in the trans-Golgi network. They are packaged into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to late endosomes. Substances for digestion are acquired by the lysosomes via a series of processes including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key metabolic pathway that plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and drug carriers into cells. In this study, we model the interactions of lipid membranes with different types of protein scaffolds and active forces to provide mechanistic insights into CME. To this end, we develop and employ an extended theoretical framework of lipid membranes that entertains spatial heterogeneity and local anisotropy that could arise from membrane-protein interactions. We show that a departure from homogeneity and isotropy can lead to a variable surface tension field, conventionally assumed to be a constant parameter. We model the impact of resting tension in a cell and discuss its consequences on the minimal protein machinery needed to complete vesicle formation. Based on our quantitative model and findings, we highlight the physical principles that unify CME in apparently distinct yeast and mammalian cells.
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Doctor Eckstein BioKosmetik pflegt Ihre Haut und bewahrt ihre Gesundheit und Schönheit. Denn die Qualität der Produkte basiert auf einem fundiertem biokosmetischen und pharmazeutischen Wissen sowie einer in Jahrzehnten gewachsenen Erfahrung in der Produktentwicklung.
Doctor Eckstein BioKosmetik pflegt Ihre Haut und bewahrt ihre Gesundheit und Schönheit. Denn die Qualität der Produkte basiert auf einem fundiertem biokosmetischen und pharmazeutischen Wissen sowie einer in Jahrzehnten gewachsenen Erfahrung in der Produktentwicklung.
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Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... "Clathrin and coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal. 6 (9): 2507-12. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1987.tb02536.x. PMC 553666. PMID ... Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 85-101. ... Pearse, B. M. F. (1975). "Coated vesicles from pig brain: Purification and biochemical characterization". Journal of Molecular ...
Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... "A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing". eLife. 3. doi: ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ...
The best characterized type of vesicle is the clathrin coated vesicle (CCV). The formation of a COPII vesicle at the ... Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles" (PDF). Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID ... COPII and clathrin vesicles structure of COPI coat from this publication, free with free registration Video description of the ... but the coat of COPI is not closely related to the coats of either CCVs or COPII vesicles. AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, ...
... s may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. In addition to its ... Little is known about the role plant Epsin plays in clathrin coated vesicle formation. ... membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin-coated vesicles. ... The two paralogs, epsin-1 and epsin-2 are members that contribute to the clathrin coated endocytotic machinery and are ...
VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin ... the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin from coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved ... binds a conformationally labile domain of clathrin light chain LCa to stimulate ATP hydrolysis". Cell. 62 (5): 875-87. doi: ... in vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and ... Dudleenamjil, E; Lin, C.-Y; Dredge, D; Murray, B. K; Robison, R. A; Johnson, F. B (2010). "Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin- ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication ...
The best-characterized coated vesicles are the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The coats on CCVs are primarily of clathrin, ... Her interest was in clathrin-coated vesicles that binds to cargo. She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat ... She also discovered different combinations of adapting, when together with clathrin, form a coat around vesicles that bud from ... Continuing, Margaret discovered that there were two different populations of clathrin-coated vesicles, one that uses AP-2 at ...
Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ... Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ... in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and ...
Korolchuk VI, Banting G (Jun 2002). "CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles". Traffic. 3 (6 ... Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E (May 2000). "Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat ... Fölsch H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I (Feb 2001). "Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
In general, reelin binds VLDLR and undergoes endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Meanwhile, an intracellular protein, ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... Endocytosis is mediated through NPxY sequences known to signal for receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits. The ... The NPxY motif functions in signal transduction and the targeting of receptors to coated pits and consists of the sequence ...
1999). "Clathrin-coated vesicles bearing GAIP possess GTPase-activating protein activity in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... 1998). "RGS-GAIP, a GTPase-activating protein for Galphai heterotrimeric G proteins, is located on clathrin-coated vesicles". ... 2000). "Membrane-associated GAIP is a phosphoprotein and can be phosphorylated by clathrin-coated vesicles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
November 2004). "Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. ...
... complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and lipids to clathrin at ... Clathrin coats contain both clathrin (acts as a scaffold) and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated ... These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction ... This is an adaptor protein which helps the formation of a clathrin coat around a vesicle. This entry represents a subdomain of ...
1991). "Beta-COP, a 110 kd protein associated with non-clathrin-coated vesicles and the Golgi complex, shows homology to beta- ... a component of non-clathrin-coated vesicles essential for membrane traffic". J Biol Chem. 269 (48): 30073-6. PMID 7982906. ... a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles". Nature. 349 (6306): 248-51. ... Orcl L, Palmer DJ, Amherdt M, Rothman JE (1993). "Coated vesicle assembly in the Golgi requires only coatomer and ARF proteins ...
... a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles". Nature. 349 (6306): 248-51. ... Lowe M, Kreis TE (1997). "In vivo assembly of coatomer, the COP-I coat precursor". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (48): 30725-30. doi: ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
Forgac M (January 1999). "The vacuolar H+-ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione". ... In synaptic transmission in neuronal cells, V-ATPase acidifies synaptic vesicles. Norepinephrine enters vesicles by V-ATPase. V ... Vma21p coordinates assembly of the Vo subunits as well as escorting the Vo domain into vesicles for transport to the Golgi. The ... V-ATPases are found within the membranes of many organelles, such as endosomes, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles, where they ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles bud from immature Weibel-Palade bodies, reducing their volumes, condensing their contents, and ... The Golgi then buds off clathrin-coated vesicles which consist almost exclusively of vWF. Immature Weibel-Palade bodies remain ... Weibel-Palade bodies may also coalesce into larger vesicles called secretory pods for multigranular exocytosis. Secretory pod ...
"Extraction of Cholesterol with Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Perturbs Formation of Clathrin-coated Endocytic Vesicles". Molecular ...
Le Borgne R, Hoflack B (1997). "Mannose 6-phosphate receptors regulate the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles in the TGN". J ... in a COPII-coated vesicle. This targeting away from the secretory pathway is achieved by the presence of a specific sorting ...
Two further studies confirmed this hypothesis using V-ATPase from bovine clathrin coated vesicles. They showed that application ... inhibited proton flow through Vo and that this inhibition could be overcome by adding back the Vo domain to the coated vesicles ... Isoforms a1 and a2 target V-ATPase intracellularly, to synaptic vesicles and endosomes respectively. Subunits a3 and a4, ... As it promotes the acidification of lysosomes, endosomes, and secretory vesicles, V-ATPase contributes to processes including: ...
Drake MT, Zhu Y, Kornfeld S (2001). "The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic ... Odorizzi G, Cowles CR, Emr SD (1998). "The AP-3 complex: a coat of many colours". Trends Cell Biol. 8 (7): 282-8. doi:10.1016/ ... AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane and may be directly involved in protein sorting to the ... and surface expression of the AQP4 water channel are coordinated by serial and regulated interactions with different clathrin- ...
"Eps15 homology domain-NPF motif interactions regulate clathrin coat assembly during synaptic vesicle recycling". The Journal of ... localization in endocytic-coated pits, interactions with clathrin, and the impact of overexpression on clathrin-mediated ... "Tandem arrangement of the clathrin and AP-2 binding domains in amphiphysin 1 and disruption of clathrin coat function by ... Clathrin coat assembly protein AP180 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNAP91 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Endocytosis usually involves clathrin-coated vesicles, though non-clathrin-coated vesicles may also be used. After the ... endocytic vesicles lose their clathrin coat, however, they usually do not fuse with larger, low pH endosomes, as they do during ... decreasing synaptic vesicle exocytosis and modulating the mechanisms governing synaptic vesicle recovery and endocytosis. These ... This release in vesicles, regardless of which pool they are released from, is considered a form of short term synaptic ...
September 2006). "Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly". PLoS Biol. 4 ... As an example matricity has been used to describe the interaction of polymerised clathrin with adaptor complexes bound to the ...
"Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. 20 (14 ... "Clathrin light chain A drives selective myosin VI recruitment to clathrin-coated pits under membrane tension". Nature ... Buss F, Luzio JP, Kendrick-Jones J (Nov 2001). "Myosin VI, a new force in clathrin mediated endocytosis". FEBS Letters. 508 (3 ... Sennacherib L, Lee T, Hasson T (Jul 2003). "Myo6 facilitates the translocation of endocytic vesicles from cell peripheries". ...
... which is a molecular chaperone responsible for the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles during endocytosis. The clathrin- ... At pH 7 GAK allows Hsc70 to uncoat clathrin baskets and at pH 6 Hsc70 binds clathrin baskets without uncoating clathrin. ... "Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells". The Journal of Biological ... The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of three subdomains such as a C-terminal J domain, a clathrin- ...
"The thyrotropin-releasing hormone-receptor complex and G11alpha are both internalised into clathrin-coated vesicles". Cellular ...
"Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly". PLOS Biol. 4 (9): e262. doi: ... "Eps15R is a tyrosine kinase substrate with characteristics of a docking protein possibly involved in coated pits-mediated ... "Epsin is an EH-domain-binding protein implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". Nature. 394 (6695): 793-7. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly". PLOS Biology. 4 (9): e262. doi ... Conner SD, Schmid SL (Mar 2002). "Identification of an adaptor-associated kinase, AAK1, as a regulator of clathrin-mediated ... Conner SD, Schmid SL (Sep 2003). "Differential requirements for AP-2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The Journal of Cell ... Conner SD, Schröter T, Schmid SL (Dec 2003). "AAK1-mediated micro2 phosphorylation is stimulated by assembled clathrin". ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight ...
In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ... After a vesicle buds into the cytoplasm, the coat rapidly disassembles, allowing the clathrin to recycle while the vesicle gets ... Clathrin performs critical roles in shaping rounded vesicles in the cytoplasm for intracellular trafficking. Clathrin-coated ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Biological process. • positive ... clathrin-coated pit. • secretory granule lumen. • endosome membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • ... vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late endosome. • blood microparticle. • basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle ... it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The pH of the vesicle is reduced ...
... allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell membrane and become a cytoplasmic vesicle.[63] Once the clathrin coat ... consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting proteins, is the ... Jung N, Haucke V (September 2007). "Clathrin-mediated endocytosis at synapses". Traffic. 8 (9): 1129-36. doi:10.1111/j.1600- ... Long-term depression enacts mechanisms to decrease AMPA receptor density in selected dendritic spines, dependent on clathrin ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. العمليات الحيوية. • luteinizing hormone signaling pathway. • positive regulation of epidermal ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cell membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of epidermal growth factor ...
5) In the periactive zone the membrane proteins are sequestered and are endocytosed forming a clathrin coated vesicle. (6) The ... the vesicle to be ready for vesicle fusion and release of neurotransmitter (see below: releasable pool). After the vesicle is ... Vesicle pools[edit]. The synapse contains at least two clusters of synaptic vesicles, the readily releasable pool and the ... 2010). "Intersectin 1 forms complexes with SGIP1 and Reps1 in clathrin-coated pits". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • integral component of membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • شبکه آندوپلاسمی. • endoplasmic ... Golgi-associated vesicle membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum Sec complex. • extracellular exosome. • سیتوزول. • endosome membrane ... vesicle docking involved in exocytosis. • transmembrane transport. • sperm capacitation. • positive regulation of insulin ...
membrane coat. • clathrin-coated pit. • clathrin adaptor complex. • AP-2 adaptor complex. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. ... endocytic vesicle membrane. • cytosol. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • membrane. • clathrin coat. • Cellbilen. ... clathrin-dependent endocytosis. • clathrin coat assembly. • protein transport. • intracellular protein transport. • vesicle- ... "Clathrin adaptors. AP2 controls clathrin polymerization with a membrane-activated switch. ". Science. 2014. PMID 25061211. ...
"Amphiphysin is a component of clathrin coats formed during synaptic vesicle recycling at the lamprey giant synapse". Traffic. 5 ... synaptic vesicle membrane. • cytoskeleton. • membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • synaptic vesicle. • leading edge membrane. • ... "Tandem arrangement of the clathrin and AP-2 binding domains in amphiphysin 1 and disruption of clathrin coat function by ... In the brain, its primary function is thought to be the recruitment of dynamin to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. There ...
This mechanism was not agreed upon, and other mechanisms involving clathrin-dependent endocytosis have been suggested.[10][11] ... Colloidal QD emission can be modulated from UV-Vis to the infrared by using different types of coating agents, such as ZnS, CdS ... "Interaction and structure induction of cell-penetrating peptides in the presence of phospholipid vesicles". Biochimica et ...
... it is now an endocytic vesicle. At this point, the adapter molecules and clathrin have dissociated, and the receptor is either ... of beta-arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor is required for the clustering of beta 2-adrenergic receptor into clathrin-coated pits ... clathrin adaptor molecules); thus, the arrestin here acts as a scaffold assembling the components needed for clathrin-mediated ... which in turn recruits another protein called clathrin. If enough receptors in the local area recruit clathrin in this manner, ...
... forming a clathrin-coated vesicle that then uncoats and typically fuses to a sorting endosome. Once fused, the endocytosed ... Budding of the plasma membrane then occurs, forming a clathrin coated pit.[1] Other receptors can nucleate a clathrin-coated ... "Quantifying the dynamic interactions between a clathrin-coated pit and cargo molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... it is possible to follow the internalization of cargo molecules and the evolution of a clathrin-coated pit by fluorescence ...
... coated vesicle) moodustumisel osaleb valk dünamiin. Vesiikul kaetakse klatriiniga, et toimuks suunatud liikumine Golgi ... Kasutatakse CLIC (clathrin-independent carrier) ehk klatriinisõltumatu kandjate ja GEEC (GPI-anchored protein-enriched early ... "Clathrin-independent carriers form a high capacity endocytic sorting system at the leading edge of migrating cells". Inglise ... Selle mehhanismi puhul on retseptorid kogunenud plasmamembraani teatud piirkonda, mida nimetatakse kaetud lohuks (coated-pit). ...
Vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. COPII targets vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and COPI marks ... either secreted constitutively with no tag or secreted in a regulatory manner involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids ... Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. Rab proteins are key ... These are areas where the transport vesicles that contain lipids and proteins made in the ER, detach from the ER and start ...
... and clathrin vesicle coats". Cell. 142 (1): 123-132. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.030. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 2943847. PMID 20579721 ... A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 (6244): 195-198. doi: ... Electron micrograph of in vitro-formed COPI-coated vesicles. Average vesicle diameter at the membrane level is 60 nm. ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein ...
... clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles) and secretory vesicles (including synaptosome, acrosomes, ...
There are three well known types of vesicles. They are clathrin-coated, COPI-coated, and COPII-coated vesicles. Each performs ... clathrin-coated vesicles transport substances between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. COPI- and COPII-coated ... Vesicles[edit]. Main article: Vesicle (biology). Vesicles are small membrane-enclosed transport units that can transfer ... These vesicles in transit to another part of the cell are called transport vesicles.[23][26] An alternative mechanism for ...
Barbara Pearse discovered the major components of clathrin-coated vesicles, structures formed during endocytosis, and a low ...
endocytic vesicle membrane. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • endosome. • Golgi apparatus. • trans-Golgi network ... transport vesicle membrane. • MHC class II protein complex. • lysosomal membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • ER to Golgi ... transport vesicle membrane. • lysosome. • integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • endosome ...
Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles.. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). 2015-12, 16 (12): 1210-38 [2020-02-12]. PMID 26403691 ... 運輸囊泡(Transport vesicles)在真核生物中,通過在不同細胞器及細胞表面進行轉運發揮它的作用。目前已知的運輸囊泡有網格蛋白囊泡、外被體蛋白(英语:Coat protein)Ⅰ(coat protein、COPI(英语:COPI)囊泡)和 ... Lee, C; Goldberg, J. Structure of coatomer cage proteins and the relationship among COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle
... a specific sorting signal on the vesicles, a clathrin coat, as well as an increase in intracellular calcium. Exocytosis in ... Vesicle fusionEdit. Further information: Vesicle fusion. Transient vesicle fusion is driven by SNARE proteins, resulting in ... Vesicle retrievalEdit. Retrieval of synaptic vesicles occurs by endocytosis. Some synaptic vesicles are recycled without a full ... Vesicle traffickingEdit. Certain vesicle-trafficking steps require the transportation of a vesicle over a moderately small ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • extracellular space. • secretory granule. • dendrite. Biological process. • negative ... It then travels down the axon of that cell, which terminates in the posterior pituitary, and is released from vesicles into the ...
Oligomers of caveolin form the coat of these domains. Cells that lack caveolins also lack caveolae. Many functions are ascribed ...
"The vacuolar H+-ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (3): ...
... where such units are concentrated and then stabilized by a framework of clathrins. A pinched-off coated pit is internalized and ... Thus receptors have been found in the uterus, sperm, seminal vesicles, prostate, skin, breast, adrenals, thyroid, neural retina ... The bound LCGR complex is brought by lateral migration to a coated pit, ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. • مركب بروتيني. • apical part of cell. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • ruffle. • عصارة ... endocytic vesicle. • حويصلة سيتوبلازمية. • خيوط الأكتين. • macromolecular complex. • clathrin-coated vesicle. • filopodium. ... "Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. 20 (14 ... clathrin-coated pit. • filamentous actin. • غشاء خلوي. • غشاء نووي. • سيتوبلازم. • قشرة الخلية. • زغيبة. • جهاز غولجي. • ...
... with clathrin, clathrin-adaptors and various binding proteins.[18] ... vesicles which transports cargo molecules to the trans-golgi network (TGN). ... "A membrane coat complex essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport in yeast". The Journal of Cell Biology. 142 (3): ... "Major histocompatibility complex class II-peptide complexes internalize using a clathrin- and dynamin-independent endocytosis ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. ... Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. Clathrin molecules ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles were the first discovered and remain the most extensively characterized transport vesicles. They ... Clathrin-coated vesicle formation and protein sorting: an integrated process.. Schmid SL1. ... Cell-free assays for coat assembly, membrane binding, and coated vesicle budding have provided detailed functional and ... Coat constituents not only serve to shape the budding vesicle, but also play a direct role in the packaging of cargo, ...
Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles.. Murakami N1, Bolton D, Hwang ... We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. Multiple ... Among them, we identified clathrin heavy chain and dynamin 1 as potential candidates. An overlay assay using purified and ... Under native conditions, Dyrk1A precipitated with newly formed clathrin cages and with dynamin via the GST-amphiphysin SH3 ...
Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, ... into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies, Techniques for the Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles ... Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Phase Behavior of Charged Vesicles Under ... Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, ...
AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ...
clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Rattus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Sus scrofa) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Xenopus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Canis familiaris) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Rattus norvegicus) * Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Rattus ... Vesicle-mediated transport (Rattus norvegicus) * * Membrane Trafficking (Rattus norvegicus) * ... PI(4)P:p-T156 AP-2:clathrin:ITSNs:EPS15:REPS1:SGIP1:NECAPs:AAK1:CLASP proteins:cargo:F-BAR proteins:BAR domain proteins:ARP2/3 ... complex:WASL:f-actin:HIP dimers:DNM:GDP:SYNJs [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) ...
Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Bos taurus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Canis familiaris) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Gallus gallus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Sus scrofa) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ...
In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were ... Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in ... especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. ... Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1- ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been ... 1996). Clathrin-coated vesicles in plants. Int. Rev. Cytol 167, 1-35. ... 1994). Identification of a-typeadaptin in plant clathrin-coated vesicles. J. Cell Sci 107, 945-953. ... Transport of storage proteins to the vacuole is mediated by vesicles without a clathrin coat ...
These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction ... We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis ... Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells.. *T Greener, X Zhao, H Nojima ... 2-25-2003 AP-1 binding to sorting signals and release from clathrin-coated vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. *Pradipta ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway for selective uptake of surface receptors and their bound ligands into ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle Schmid, Sandra L. Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle. Schmid, Sandra L. / University of Texas Sw Medical Center Dallas. $475,570. ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle. Schmid, Sandra L. / University of Texas Sw Medical Center Dallas. $533,419. ...
clathrin-coated vesicles;. GPCR,. G protein-coupled receptor;. PCT,. proximal convoluted tubule;. OK,. opossum kidney;. DA,. ... Preparation of Clathrin-Coated Vesicles (CCV).. Isolation of CCV was performed as described by Hammond and Verroust (18). ... we determined whether they colocalize with clathrin during the formation of coated pits and vesicles. DA clearly promoted a ... Effect of DA and Oxy on NKA activity, α-subunit phosphorylation and its abundance in clathrin vesicles, early and late ...
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to ... Clathrin-coated vesicles from bovine brain were used for comparison (right). (B) Clathrin-coated vesicles purified from mouse ... Clathrin-coated vesicles from bovine brain were used for comparison (right). (B) Clathrin-coated vesicles purified from mouse ... 50-100 nm in diameter with a coat lattice reminiscent of clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 B). ...
Purification of Clathrin-Coated Vesicles from Adult Rat Brain.. ---. 12 2018. Retrograde Transport by Clathrin-Coated Vesicles ... Isolating HeLa cell fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles.. ---. 25 2014. Isolation of clathrin-coated vesicles from ... Architecture of the AP2/clathrin coat on the membranes of clathrin-coated vesicles.. CME. ... associated with brain coated vesicles.. NP185. 96 1988. A neuronal protein (NP185) associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. ...
... Object List (links open in MetaCore):. CFTR, AP ... Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2006 Jan;7(1):32-44 * ... wtCFTR and delta508 traffic/ Clathrin coated vesicles formation (norm and CF). The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance ... CFTR may be internalizated from plasma membrane in a Clathrin -dependent manner. The classical key components of Clathrin- ...
... Academic Article * Authors ... We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis ... These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction ...
Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein- ... An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and ... the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. ... of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin- ...
title = "An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles.",. abstract = "Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared ... An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Clathrin-Coated Vesicles ... Stone, D. K. ; Xie, X. S. ; Racker, E. / An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles. In: Journal of Biological ... Stone DK, Xie XS, Racker E. An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1983 Apr 10 ...
Clathrin-coated vesicle. - Cytoplasm. - Cytoplasmic vesicle. - Cytoskeleton. - Cytosol. - Endoplasmic reticulum. - Endosome. - ...
Clathrin-coated vesicle. - Cytoplasm. - Cytoplasmic vesicle. - Cytoskeleton. - Cytosol. - Endoplasmic reticulum. - Endosome. - ... Perinuclear vesicle. - Peroxisome. - Plasma membrane. - Secretory granule. - Soluble fraction. Note: You are able to find and ...
Jin, A. J., Prasad, K., Smith, P. D., Lafer, E. M., & Nossal, R. (2006). Measuring the elasticity of clathrin-coated vesicles ... Jin AJ, Prasad K, Smith PD, Lafer EM, Nossal R. Measuring the elasticity of clathrin-coated vesicles via atomic force ... Measuring the elasticity of clathrin-coated vesicles via atomic force microscopy. Albert J. Jin, Kondury Prasad, Paul D. Smith ... Jin, AJ, Prasad, K, Smith, PD, Lafer, EM & Nossal, R 2006, Measuring the elasticity of clathrin-coated vesicles via atomic ...
keywords = "Amantadine, Clathrin, Clathrin coated vesicle, Hydrophobic amine, Tromantadine",. author = "Yupa Phonphok and ... Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other hydrophobic amines. FEBS Letters. 1991 Apr 9; ... Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other hydrophobic amines. / Phonphok, Yupa; Rosenthal ... Phonphok, Y., & Rosenthal, K. S. (1991). Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ...
Epsins may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. In addition to its ... Little is known about the role plant Epsin plays in clathrin coated vesicle formation. ... membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin-coated vesicles. ... The two paralogs, epsin-1 and epsin-2 are members that contribute to the clathrin coated endocytotic machinery and are ...
clathrin coated vesicle N X 핢 E ACCV claudin N [ f B ... germinal vesicle j E AGV glial cell derived neurotrophic factor ...
1986). Clathrin-coated vesicles contain two protein kinase activities. Phosphorylation of clathrin beta-light chain by casein ... which ultimately result in fission and formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) (Ungewickell and Hinrichsen, 2007). Coat- ... Clathrin-coated vesicle purification. After overnight starvation in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) containing 0.1% ... 2002). CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles. Traffic 3, 428-439. ...
... which in turn can interact with each other and indirectly with clathrin. In the final coated vesicle, most appendage binding ... vesicle scission and uncoating. This network is initially assembled around adaptor protein (AP) appendage domains, which are ... Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves the assembly of a network of proteins that select cargo, modify membrane shape and drive ... the functional status of the appendage domain as an interaction hub is temporal and transitory giving directionality to vesicle ...
Retrograde Transport by Clathrin-Coated Vesicles is Involved in Intracellular Transport of PrPSc in Persistently Prion-Infected ... Retrograde Transport by Clathrin-Coated Vesicles is Involved in Intracellular Transport of PrPSc in Persistently Prion-Infected ... PrPSc was co-localized with components of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) as well as those of the retromer complex, which are ... Knockdown of clathrin interactor 1, which is one of the clathrin adaptor proteins involved in retrograde transport, did not ...
GO:0005905 clathrin-coated pit GO:0030136 clathrin-coated vesicle Contributing signatures. Signatures from InterPro member ... GO:2000369 regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis Molecular Function. GO:0003779 actin binding GO:0030276 clathrin ... domain that binds both inositol phospholipids and proteins that contribute to the nucleation and formation of clathrin coats on ... They are adaptor proteins that link actin to clathrin and endocytosis in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. They ...
Clathrin-Coated Vesicles / virology * Dynamins / metabolism * Endocytosis* * Epithelial Cells / virology* * HSC70 Heat-Shock ... The human strain Wa, porcine strain TFR-41, and bovine strain UK seem to enter the cell through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, ... Different rotavirus strains enter MA104 cells through different endocytic pathways: the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis J ... alpha2 beta1 and alphav beta3 and the heat shock protein hsc70 as receptors and enters MA104 cells through a non-clathrin-, non ...
  • We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A conserved clathrin assembly motif essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of auxilin or AP180 inhibits endocytosis by mislocalizing clathrin: evidence for formation of nascent pits containing AP1 or AP2 but not clathrin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oxymetazoline counteracted the action of dopamine on NKA activity, and this effect was achieved not by preventing α-subunit phosphorylation, but by impaired endocytosis of α-subunits into clathrin vesicles and early and late endosomes. (pnas.org)
  • increased Ins P 6 in response to G protein-coupled receptor signals blocks the recruitment of AP-2 and thereby clathrin-dependent endocytosis of NKA. (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway for selective uptake of surface receptors and their bound ligands into cells. (grantome.com)
  • By defining the minimum machinery required for CCV formation and establishing a robust, quantitative and physiologically relevant assay for measuring this process we will have established the means to fully understand the mechanistic underpinnings of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (grantome.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway for selective uptake of surface receptors and their bound ligands into cells and the major pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling required to maintain neurotransmission. (grantome.com)
  • Dynamics of clathrin and adaptor proteins during endocytosis. (dbcls.jp)
  • Endocytosis: clathrin-mediated membrane budding. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Epsins contribute to membrane deformations like endocytosis , and block vesicle formation during mitosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves spatially and temporally restricted molecular dynamics, to which protein kinases and actin contribute. (biologists.org)
  • Recruitment and concentration of cargos into clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) on the plasma membrane and selective receptor-mediated uptake of nutrients and signalling molecules are hallmarks of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells ( Conner and Schmid, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves the assembly of a network of proteins that select cargo, modify membrane shape and drive invagination, vesicle scission and uncoating. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals, and in the recycling of transmitter receptors in neuronal soma/dendrites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to axons, clathrin-labeled CCVs and CCPs were prominent in soma/dendrites under resting conditions, and became inconspicuous upon depolarization with high K + . Thus, EM examination suggests that the regulation and mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis differ between axon and dendrite, and that clathrin redistributes differently in these two neuronal compartments upon depolarization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a fundamental process of all mammalian cells that enables internalization of receptors and cargos from the plasma membrane (PM) [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIP1R may have a role in actin regulation during endocytosis and is shown to promote clathrin assembly. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • They are adaptor proteins that link actin to clathrin and endocytosis in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: Coated vesicle assembly. (endocytosis.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells constantly form and internalize plasma membrane vesicles in a process known as endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Among them, internalization via clathrin-coated pits, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis/phagocytosis are the most extensively characterized. (nih.gov)
  • This review provides a critical evaluation of the selectivity of the most widely used pharmacological inhibitors of clathrin-mediated, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis/phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles allows cells to communicate, to transfer nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we show that HeLa cells also express auxilin 1, previously thought to be neuron specific, and that both auxilins need to be depleted for inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and intracellular sorting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fungal lectin, XCL, is internalized via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and facilitates uptake of other molecules. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In particular, recent experimental studies have shown that membrane tension inhibits membrane budding processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and mechanical environments suggests that the protein machinery in this process has evolved to take advantage of some set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesiculation against opposing forces like membrane tension. (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), an essential cellular process in eukaryotes, is an archetypal example of a membrane-deformation process that takes as input multiple variables, such as membrane bending, tension, protein-induced spontaneous curvature, and actin-mediated forces, and generates vesicular morphologies as its output ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Endophilin has been assigned as a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Clathrin-independent, endophilin-dependent endocytosis of GPCR. (nature.com)
  • Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release. (nature.com)
  • Endophilin is required for synaptic vesicle endocytosis by localizing synaptojanin. (nature.com)
  • Endophilin/SH3p4 is required for the transition from early to late stages in clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Andersson, F., Low, P. & Brodin, L. Selective perturbation of the BAR domain of endophilin impairs synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Taylor, M. J., Perrais, D. & Merrifield, C. J. A high precision survey of the molecular dynamics of mammalian clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • This protein is involved in cargo-specific control of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, specifically controlling the internalization of a specific protein receptor. (genecards.org)
  • May function in transferrin receptor internalization at the plasma membrane through a cargo-specific control of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (genecards.org)
  • Plays a role in endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, but also clathrin-independent, actin-dependent fluid-phase endocytosis. (abcam.com)
  • The muniscin protein family was initially defined in 2009 as proteins having 2 homologous domains that are involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) and have been reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 1: Stages of mammalian clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • McMahon, H. T. & Boucrot, E. Molecular mechanism and physiological functions of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Single-molecule live-cell imaging demonstrating that the recruitment of AP2 and clathrin defines the initial steps of endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes involves the recruitment of clathrin and AP-2 adaptor complexes to the presynaptic plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Synaptic vesicle (SV) * membranes are formed and recycled by clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the presynaptic plasmalemma. (rupress.org)
  • In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans -Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The darkness-induced degradation of charasomes can be inhibited by 1-2 μM ikarugamycin (IKA), which is considered to be a specific inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absence of an additive effect, when applied together with IKA, suggests that charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis (measured via styryl dye uptake) is not inhibited due to membrane retrieval via lipid rafts, but due to clathrin coat formation requirement of a specific set of sterols. (frontiersin.org)
  • The data obtained indicate that clathrin plays a central role not only in constitutive endocytosis but also in the degradation of charasomes, thereby representing a valuable system for studying targeted exo- and endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous studies have shown that clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the main pathway for plasma membrane recycling in plant cells (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is initiated at the plasma membrane with the recruitment of coat machinery and cargo proteins into clathrin-coated membrane invaginations the so called clathrin coated pits (CPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell surface receptor uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and subsequent intracellular sorting for degradation or recycling regulates the strength and specificity of downstream signaling. (rupress.org)
  • The uptake of macromolecules across the PM, a process called endocytosis, occurs via multiple pathways, all involving the inward budding of vesicles that carry cargo (e.g., receptors and their bound ligands, membrane transporters, and adhesion molecules) into the cell ( Conner and Schmid, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. (psu.edu)
  • Dynamin, synaptojanin, and endophilin are functional partners in synaptic vesicle recycling via interconnected actions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and actin dynamics in neurons. (jci.org)
  • have identified clathrin-mediated endocytosis as a central mechanism by which the function and structural integrity of the slit diaphragm are maintained. (jci.org)
  • C) Protein domain structure and interactions for clathrin and clathrin assemblies in receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and synaptic transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin is a proteic complex found in coated pits and vesicles, organelles which are important in membrane trafficking functions such as endocytosis and Golgi sorting. (humpath.com)
  • Clathrin is the main structural component of the lattice covering the cytoplasmic face of the coated pits and coated vesicles in which specific macromolecules are entrapped in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis . (humpath.com)
  • The clathrin adaptor Dab2 recruits EH domain scaffold proteins to regulate integrin beta1 endocytosis. (proteopedia.org)
  • Plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in neurons. (rcsb.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi network connecting the trans-Golgi network, endosomes, lysosomes and the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • CCVs that bud from the cell membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, clathrin. (uniprot.org)
  • The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. (uniprot.org)
  • The connection of the clathrin scaffold to the membrane is mediated by clathrin adaptors, which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes. (uniprot.org)
  • Cell-free assays for coat assembly, membrane binding, and coated vesicle budding have provided detailed functional and structural information about how the major coat constituents, clathrin and the adaptor protein complexes, interact with each other, with membranes, and with the sorting signals found on cargo molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits ( Coated pits , Cell-membrane ) invaginate and pinch off. (jove.com)
  • Confocal microscopy confirmed that oxymetazoline prevents incorporation of NKA molecules into clathrin vesicles by inhibiting the ability of dopamine to recruit clathrin to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The membrane-bound γ-adaptin represents AP-1 bound to the donor compartment as well as AP-1 present in transport vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The in vitro assay utilizes supported lipid bilayers with excess membrane reservoir or 'SUPER'templates, which provide a robust and facile assay system for vesicle formation that is amenable to both biochemical analysis and real-time imaging. (grantome.com)
  • Selective membrane recruitment of EEA1 suggests a role in directional transport of clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes. (dbcls.jp)
  • CFTR may be internalizated from plasma membrane in a Clathrin -dependent manner. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • BIN1 ) are involved in membrane invagination and Clathrin rearrangements. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • deltaF508-CFTR membrane expression is reduced compare with wtCFTR , but clathrin coated vesiales formation deltaF508-CFTR and wtCFTR is regulated in similar manner. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We model CCVs as multilayered elastic spherical shells and, from AFM measurements, estimate their bending rigidity to be 285 ± 30 k B T, i.e., ∼20 times that of either the outer clathrin cage or inner vesicle membrane. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Further analysis reveals a flexible coupling between the clathrin coat and the membrane, a structural property whose modulation may affect vesicle biogenesis and cellular function. (uthscsa.edu)
  • [1] The role of the ENTH domain is to bind membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin -coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two paralogs, epsin-1 and epsin-2 are members that contribute to the clathrin coated endocytotic machinery and are localized at the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epsins may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neurons, CME plays an important role in synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling in axon terminals [ 3 , 4 ], preventing unlimited enlargement of surface membrane area due to exocytosis of SVs during stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ENTH/ANTH proteins and clathrin-mediated membrane budding. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of an integral membrane proton channel (V(B)) and a peripheral catalytic sector (V(C)). Native enzyme can catalyze the hydrolysis of both MgATP and CaATP and support proton pumping when reconstituted into liposomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Clathrin recruitment, membrane bending and scission molecules etc. (endocytosis.org)
  • AP180 is illustrated here because this is a very efficient recruitment protein that binds to PiP2 in the plasma membrane and also induces the polymerisation of clathrin into a lattice (see AP180 pages). (endocytosis.org)
  • As illustrated for epsin, this protein dips into the membrane and displaces lip ids in one leaflet and also binds to clathrin (see Epsin pages). (endocytosis.org)
  • The large GTPase dynamin forms a helical collar around the neck of an invaginating clathrin-coated vesicle, where it may regulate, pinch or pop the vesicle from the parent membrane. (endocytosis.org)
  • We have shown that GTP hydrolysis is coupled to vesicle scission and that on GTP hydrolysis dynamin spirals undergo a length-wise extension in vitro- which we believe drives the vesicle away from the membrane causing lipid fission. (endocytosis.org)
  • In a cell, clathrin triskelion in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein that has bound membrane, linking one of its three feet to the membrane at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin cannot bind to membrane or cargo directly and instead uses adaptor proteins to do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depleting both auxilins cause an approximately 50% reduction in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane but enhances the association of clathrin and adaptors with intracellular membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, the structures isolated from auxilin-depleted cells are on average smaller than CCVs from control cells and are largely devoid of membrane, indicating that they are not CCVs but membraneless clathrin cages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Involved in the targeting and/or fusion of transport vesicles to their target membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • Na + gradient-dependent transport systems in renal proximal tubule brush border membrane vesicles. (springer.com)
  • We have identified a mathematical relationship between the curvature-generating capability of the protein coat and membrane tension that can predict whether the coat alone is sufficient to produce closed buds. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, we show that a combination of increased coat rigidity and applied force from actin polymerization can produce closed buds at high membrane tensions. (pnas.org)
  • These findings are general to any membrane-budding process, suggesting that biology has evolved to take advantage of a set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesicle formation across a range of organisms and mechanical environments. (pnas.org)
  • A critical step in cellular-trafficking pathways is the budding of membranes by protein coats, which recent experiments have demonstrated can be inhibited by elevated membrane tension. (pnas.org)
  • Using a theoretical model for membrane mechanics and membrane protein interaction, we have systematically investigated the influence of membrane rigidity, curvature induced by the protein coat, area covered by the protein coat, membrane tension, and force from actin polymerization on bud formation. (pnas.org)
  • Under low tension, the membrane smoothly evolves from a flat to budded morphology as the coat area or spontaneous curvature increases, whereas the membrane remains essentially flat at high tensions. (pnas.org)
  • At intermediate, physiologically relevant, tensions, the membrane undergoes a "snap-through instability" in which small changes in the coat area, spontaneous curvature or membrane tension cause the membrane to "snap" from an open, U-shape to a closed bud. (pnas.org)
  • This instability can be smoothed out by increasing the bending rigidity of the coat, allowing for successful budding at higher membrane tensions. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, a combination of increased coat rigidity and force from actin polymerization enables robust vesiculation even at high membrane tensions. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane. (abcam.com)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Activated small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) attract coat proteins to specific membrane export sites, thereby linking coatomers to export cargos. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As coat proteins polymerise, vesicles are formed and budded from membrane-bound organelles. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, the structure of the dimer, with its concave face oriented toward the plasma membrane, is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we discuss the manipulation of clathrin by pathogens, with specific attention to the processes that occur at the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Traub, L. M. Clathrin couture: fashioning distinctive membrane coats at the cell surface. (nature.com)
  • Brodsky, F. M. Living with clathrin: its role in intracellular membrane traffic. (nature.com)
  • dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). (nii.ac.jp)
  • This polyhedral protein lattice coats eukaryotic cell membranes (vesicles) and is involved in protein secretion and membrane trafficking. (sciencephoto.com)
  • E. Sztul , Transcytotic Vesicle Fusion with the Plasma Membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • On the other hand for conductive systems operating in cells and vesicles, isotopic techniques can still be very useful when used under conditions where a large chemical gradient of the ion is established across the membrane and a radio-labeled tracer of the ion is placed at the low concentration side (Garty et al . (springer.com)
  • 1983). In such conditions, the diffusion potential created across the membrane by the transportable ion will drive the isotopic species into the vesicles at a rate commensurate with the potential and the intrinsic conductivity of the channel tested (Landry et al. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of Cl channels in membrane vesicles from the kidney outer medulla , J. Membr. (springer.com)
  • Epsin is an endocytic protein that binds Clathrin, the plasma membrane, Ubiquitin, and also a variety of other endocytic proteins through well-characterized motifs. (stanford.edu)
  • Membrane sorting between secretory and endocytic organelles is predominantly controlled by small carrier vesicles or tubules that have specific protein coats on their cytoplasmic surfaces. (humpath.com)
  • As clathrin assembles under a patch of plasma membrane, the clathrin-coated pit soon (about a minute) pinches off from the surface and forms a clathrin-coated endocytotic vesicle. (humpath.com)
  • Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoblots of highly purified CCV preparations and immunogold labelling with antibodies to the storage proteins vicilin and legumin, indicate that the dense vesicles, but not the CCV, are involved in storage protein transport in pea cotyledons. (biologists.org)
  • We suggest on the basis of these data that storage proteins and other vacuolar proteins such as acid hydrolases are not sorted by the same mechanism and are transported by different types of vesicles to different types of vacuoles. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, these results indicate that the concentration of the MPRs, i.e., the major transmembrane proteins sorted toward the endosomes, determines the number of clathrin-coated vesicles formed in the TGN. (nih.gov)
  • Typically, the dense fractions contained the clathrin light chain, the γ- and α-adaptins, as well as transmembrane proteins like the transferrin receptor and the CI-MPR, as determined by Western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • The best studied components are the coat proteins, clathrin and adaptor proteins, and the GTPase dynamin. (grantome.com)
  • These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction between these proteins is required for CCV uncoating. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Knockdown of clathrin interactor 1, which is one of the clathrin adaptor proteins involved in retrograde transport, did not change the amount of PrPSc, but it altered the distribution of PrPSc from ERCs to peripheral regions, including late endosomes/lysosomes. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Clathrin molecules exist as individual triskelia in the cytoplasm, and are assembled on PM via adaptor and accessary proteins forming a clathrin-coated pit (CCP), which can then be pinched off to become a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) in the cytoplasm [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They contain the ENTH and ANTH (E/ANTH) domain that binds both inositol phospholipids and proteins that contribute to the nucleation and formation of clathrin coats on membranes [ PMID: 14657269 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Yeast Sla2p has been extensively studied: Sla2p arrives at existing endocytic patches with a ~25 seconds delay relative to clathrin and dissociates simultaneously with clathrin upon recruitment of actin-related proteins [ PMID: 15059611 , PMID: 9362070 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In fact we believe that clathrin-coated pit formation is initiated when a network of interacting proteins are stabilized by their associations with cargo and PiP2. (endocytosis.org)
  • Clathrin can be recruited to membranes by a variety of proteins including AP180, epsin, amphiphysin and adaptors. (endocytosis.org)
  • Adaptor proteins bind to cargo proteins and sequester these proteins into the forming clathrin bud. (endocytosis.org)
  • Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β-propeller at the 'foot' of clathrin contains multiple binding sites for interaction with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordinated actions of actin and BAR proteins upstream of dynamin at endocytic clathrin-coated pits. (nature.com)
  • Adaptor proteins (APs) play key roles in this process by recruiting coat proteins and selecting cargos for different vesicle carriers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Proteins synthesised on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This traffic is bidirectional, to ensure that proteins required to form vesicles are recycled. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transfer [ PMID: 15261670 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • While clathrin mediates endocytic protein transport, and transport from ER to Golgi, coatomers primarily mediate intra-Golgi transport, as well as the reverse Golgi to ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins [ PMID: 14690497 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • For example, the coatomer COP1 (coat protein complex 1) is responsible for reverse transport of recycled proteins from Golgi and pre-Golgi compartments back to the ER, while COPII buds vesicles from the ER to the Golgi [ PMID: 11208122 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents the C-terminal domain of the beta subunit from coatomer proteins (Beta-coat proteins). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphoinositides have been implicated in nucleating coat assembly by directly binding to several endocytotic proteins including AP-2 and AP180. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of Chara australis clathrin proteins revealed two heavy chains and several light chains with sequence peculiarities, suggesting functional and/or species specific differences. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both pathways can be classified according to their cargo, as well as the proteins and lipids involved in vesicle production and trafficking. (frontiersin.org)
  • AP2 and accessory proteins recruit clathrin subunits directly from the cytoplasm to the nucleation site. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-binding proteins: got a motif? (humpath.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and are considered a major clathrin adaptor contributing the CCV formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Using a new scheme based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigate mechanical properties of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (uthscsa.edu)
  • PrPSc was co-localized with components of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) as well as those of the retromer complex, which are known as machineries for retrograde transport. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • These rearrangements are crucial for the efficient completion of single endocytic events, which ultimately result in fission and formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) ( Ungewickell and Hinrichsen, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • similar to the size of synaptic vesicles) is considerably smaller than the size of CCVs in soma/dendrites (~ 90 nm). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study also investigated the potential ultrastructural identity of stable "hot spots" of endocytic sites [ 5 , 6 ] on soma/dendrites, whether the formation of somal/dendritic CCPs is influenced by the juxtaposed cellular elements, and compared the structural organization of the clathrin-labeled patches on multivesicular body (MVB) to those of CCVs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous immunogold EM studies have demonstrated that unassembled clathrin molecule itself is not visible until many of them assemble to form a coat on CCPs and CCVs [ 7 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, most LM study on clathrin in neurons have focused on soma/dendrites, perhaps because the larger CCVs in soma/dendrites made them easier to image than the smaller sized CCVs in axon terminals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Auxilin is a cofactor for Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Together, these findings indicate that the two auxilins have overlapping functions and that they not only facilitate the uncoating of CCVs but also prevent the formation of nonproductive clathrin cages in the cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) play important roles in nutrient uptake, downregulation of signaling receptors, pathogen invasion and biogenesis of endosomes and lysosomes. (humpath.com)
  • Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin molecules self-assemble together to make a spherical clathrin lattice structure, a polyhedron made of regular pentagons and hexagons. (uniprot.org)
  • At the morphological level, these fractions contained only spherical structures of ∼50-100 nm in diameter with a coat lattice reminiscent of clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 B). (nih.gov)
  • After the Clathrin lattice is formed, dynamins (e.g. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Our AFM imaging resolves clathrin lattice polygons and provides height deformation in quantitative response to AFM-substrate compression force. (uthscsa.edu)
  • When the triskelia interact they form a polyhedral lattice that surrounds the vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is how clathrin gets its name, from the Latin clathratus meaning like a lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to regulate the formation and disassembly of a clathrin lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • To enclose a vesicle, exactly 12 pentagons must be present in the lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report the structure of a clathrin lattice at subnanometre resolution, obtained from electron cryomicroscopy of coats assembled in vitro. (rcsb.org)
  • We report that the amount of AP-1 bound to membranes and associated with clathrin-coated vesicles depends on the expression level of the MPRs and on the integrity of their cytoplasmic domains. (nih.gov)
  • Coatomers reversibly associate with Golgi (non-clathrin-coated) vesicles to mediate protein transport and for budding from Golgi membranes [ PMID: 17041781 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These data suggest that clathrin-dependent retrieval of SV membranes may at least in part depend on phosphoinositide metabolism. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles were the first discovered and remain the most extensively characterized transport vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • M.E. Groesch, G. Rossi, and S. Ferro-Novick , Reconstitution of ER to Golgi Transport in Yeast: Use of an in Vitro Assay to Characterize Secretory Mutants and Functional Transport Vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of a protein phosphatase 2A holoenzyme that dephosphorylates the clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2. (dbcls.jp)
  • The carboxyl terminus of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator binds to AP-2 clathrin adaptors. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • The C-terminus contains multiple binding sites, for example for clathrin and AP2 adaptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • The transport of the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the secretory pathway to the endocytic pathway is mediated by carrier vesicles coated with the AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly protein and clathrin. (nih.gov)
  • At the synapse, CME is the major pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling and thus for maintaining neurotransmission. (grantome.com)
  • The functional relationship between the Cdc50p-Drs2p putative aminophospholipid translocase and the Arf GAP Gcs1p in vesicle formation in the retrieval pathway from yeast early endosomes to the TGN. (dbcls.jp)
  • Mu 2 binding directs the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • The best-studied strain, RRV, which is sensitive to neuraminidase (NA) treatment of the cells, uses integrins alpha2 beta1 and alphav beta3 and the heat shock protein hsc70 as receptors and enters MA104 cells through a non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated pathway that depends on a functional dynamin and on the presence of cholesterol on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • For synaptic vesicle retrieval by this pathway the network is centred around the AP2 adaptor complex. (endocytosis.org)
  • We show that XCL is endocytosed by the clathrin-dependent pathway, and is delivered to late endosome/lysosome compartments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ligand binding induces RTK activation and internalization (only clathrin-mediated pathway is shown). (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we show in mammalian cells that endophilin marks and controls a fast-acting tubulovesicular endocytic pathway that is independent of AP2 and clathrin, activated upon ligand binding to cargo receptors, inhibited by inhibitors of dynamin, Rac, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, PAK1 and actin polymerization, and activated upon Cdc42 inhibition. (nature.com)
  • Coatomer protein complex I (COPI)-coated vesicles are involved in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi but also participate in transport from early to late endosomes within the endocytic pathway [ PMID: 12893528 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Our lab is interested in the molecular mechanisms of cargo sorting along the endocytic pathway with particular emphasis on the regulation of the clathrin coated vesicle cycle by rab5 and reversible phosphorylation. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin eventually sheds from CCV and becomes disassembled in the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An endophilin-dynamin complex promotes budding of clathrin-coated vesicles during synaptic vesicle recycling. (nature.com)
  • Mannose 6-phosphate receptors regulate the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles in the TGN. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, differentiation is stimulated by catalytically active NGF receptors in vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • May have a role in transport via clathrin-coated vesicles from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes. (abcam.com)
  • clathrin-coated vesicles (Patterson & Russell, 1983) and into endosomes for further processing. (psu.edu)
  • Soon after forming, the clathrin-coated vesicles release their associated clathrin and become competent to fuse with early endosomes. (humpath.com)
  • Glutamate uptake occurs at an early stage of synaptic vesicle recycling. (dbcls.jp)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin coated pits are microdomains responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of cargo. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Characterizing chloride-dependent acidification in brain clathrin-coated vesicles 1. (dbcls.jp)
  • Amantadine and related compounds stabilized the structure of purified pig brain clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) at biologically relevant concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • These include the giant Mimivirus and clathrin-coated vesicles, imaged in situ in their normal intracellular contexts. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin-clathrin-adaptor coats function in many steps of intracellular transport. (humpath.com)
  • Immunogold labeling of clathrin revealed that in presynaptic terminals under resting conditions, the majority of clathrin molecules are unassembled and concentrated outside of synaptic vesicle clusters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. (nature.com)
  • The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. (nature.com)
  • In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these two systems and their role during pathogen internalization, egress and spread. (nature.com)
  • Formation of the ligand-receptor complex also initiates internalization of the activated receptor into vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recruitment of endophilin to clathrin-coated pit necks is required for efficient vesicle uncoating after fission. (nature.com)
  • Fission and uncoating of synaptic clathrin-coated vesicles are perturbed by disruption of interactions with the SH3 domain of endophilin. (nature.com)
  • Transiently recruited to clathrin-coated pits at a late stage of clathrin-coated vesicle formation. (abcam.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been implicated in the Golgi-to-vacuole transport step. (biologists.org)
  • Concentrated in the perinuclear region and associated with clathrin-coated vesicles close to the trans-Golgi network. (abcam.com)
  • S. Tooze and W. Huttner , Cell-Free Formation of Immature Secretory Granules and Constitutive Secretory Vesicles from the Trans-Golgi Network. (elsevier.com)
  • Most, if not all, of the component parts of the clathrin- mediated endocytotic machinery have been identified but the exact of function of few of these are known. (grantome.com)
  • Notably, perturbation of N-WASP-CK2 complex function showed that N-WASP controls the presence of F-actin at clathrin-coated structures. (biologists.org)
  • Recent data have shown that many pathogens are dependent on clathrin and actin for their entry into host cells. (nature.com)
  • It has recently emerged that clathrin functions as a scaffold for actin assembly, in the context of both pathogen infection and cell biology. (nature.com)
  • A formin Bni1p nucleates actin to assemble actin cables, which guide the polarized transport of secretory vesicles in budding yeast. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat dissociation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auxilin depletion causes self-assembly of clathrin into membraneless cages in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the ubiquitous auxilin 2 in HeLa cells only moderately impairs clathrin-dependent trafficking. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CCV fractions isolated from auxilin-depleted cells have an approximately 1.5-fold increase in clathrin content and more than fivefold increase in the amount of AP-2 adaptor complex and other endocytic machinery, with no concomitant increase in cargo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coated pits and vesicles were first seen in thin sections of tissue in the electron microscope by Thomas Roth and Keith Porter in 1964. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study uses electron microscopy (EM) and immunogold EM to document the different categories of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and pits (CCP) in axons compared to soma/dendrites, and the depolarization-induced redistribution of clathrin in these two polarized compartments of the neuron. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This unit explains the function of the cytoskeleton and its role in controlling transport of vesicles between different subcellular compartments. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • P.G. Woodman and G. Warren , Isolation and Characterization of Functional, Clathrin Coated, Endocytic Vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • Coat constituents not only serve to shape the budding vesicle, but also play a direct role in the packaging of cargo, suggesting that protein sorting and vesicle budding are functionally integrated. (nih.gov)
  • The functional interplay between the coated vesicle machinery and its cargo could ensure sorting fidelity and packaging efficiency and might enable modulation of vesicular trafficking in response to demand. (nih.gov)
  • Using these assays, we will pursue three major aims: 1) To quantitatively define factors that regulate clathrin coated pit initiation and maturation in vivo, including cargo, PI4,52, v-SNAREs and AP2 interactions;2) To define the role of SH3 domain-containing dynamin-1 effectors as regulators of dynamin function in CCV formation in vivo and in vitro;and 3) To reconstitute CCV formation from SUPER templates using purified protein components. (grantome.com)
  • The study of pathogen entry has revealed the flexibility of clathrin to accommodate both large and small cargo. (nature.com)
  • Using live-cell microscopy we are exploring how signalling cargo modulates clathrin coated pit dynamics via posttranslational modifications of the clathrin coat and how this impacts on downstream signalling. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Recent findings that protein storage cells contain more than one type of vacuole have necessitated a re-examination of the role of both types of vesicles in vacuolar protein transport. (biologists.org)
  • 1986 ). The isolation and enrichment of coated vesiclesfrom suspension-cultured carrot cells. (biologists.org)
  • The in vivo assays utilize total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled with novel tracking software and statistical analyses that allow us to comprehensively and quantitatively analyze clathrin coated pit (CCP) dynamics and the kinetics of CCV formation in living cells. (grantome.com)
  • Isolation of clathrin-coated vesicles from tissue culture cells. (dbcls.jp)
  • Cell cycle-dependent changes in Golgi stacks, vacuoles, clathrin-coated vesicles and multivesicular bodies in meristematic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana: a quantitative and spatial analysis. (dbcls.jp)
  • The main clathrin heavy chain, located on chromosome 17 in humans, is found in all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invading S.aureus cells become entrapped in autophagosome-like WIPI1 positive vesicles targeted for lysosomal degradation. (genecards.org)
  • M. Pypaert and G. Warren , Morphological Studies of Formation of Coated Pits and Coated Vesicles in Broken Cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, an increased number of Foxp3 + CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory cells were observed in PBMC incubated with milk vesicle preparations. (jimmunol.org)
  • In attempts to attribute pathology of COVID-19 patients directly to tissue damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, investigators have inaccurately reported subcellular structures, including coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and vesiculating rough endoplasmic reticulum, as coronavirus particles. (cdc.gov)
  • The plus-end motor Myosin I pulls the Dynamin-2 ring in the direction of the cell surface, while the minus-end motor Myosin VI pulls the coated bud into the cytosol. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Vesicles in the cytosol. (brainscape.com)
  • Here, we show that the stimulatory effect of ATP and GTPγS on clathrin coat recruitment is mediated at least in part by increased levels of PIP 2 . (rupress.org)
  • We are the first to present evidence, based on fine structure investigation, that IKA does not interfere with the formation of clathrin coat, but inhibits the detachment and/or further processing of coated vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles from bovine brain were used for comparison (right). (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared from bovine brain catalyzed ATP-driven proton translocation and a 32Pi-ATP exchange reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we show that darkness-induced degradation of charasomes involves the formation of coated pits and coated vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Edeling MA, Smith C, Owen D. Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures . (humpath.com)
  • Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have put the spotlight on its role in pathogen spread. (nature.com)
  • Vesicle Shrinking and Enlargement Play Opposing Roles in the Release of Exocytotic Contents. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. (uniprot.org)
  • When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 A). Beside a few contaminants, the clathrin heavy and light chains as well as the different subunits of the APs were easily detected. (nih.gov)
  • Mapping two functional domains of clathrin light chains with monoclonal antibodies. (dbcls.jp)
  • [1] It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of clathrin light chains, designated a and b. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triskelia comprise three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three clathrin light chains (CLCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin is a large, soluble protein composed of heavy chains (CLTC) (molecular size, about 192 kD) and light chains CLTA and CLTB (molecular size, about 32-38 kD). (humpath.com)
  • Incubation of purified CCV for 30 min at 25°C or 37°C caused the release clathrin, as determined by a centrifugation assay, and a reduction in the number of coated vesicles, by electron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • We found that the vesicles displayed a typical exosome-like size and morphology as analyzed by electron microscopy. (jimmunol.org)
  • We isolated vesicles from colostrum and mature milk by differential ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient fractionation and characterized them both morphologically by electron microscopy (EM) and phenotypically by flow cytometry, Western blot and mass spectrometry (MS). We found that these vesicles display similar shapes, sizes, and densities as those of previously described exosomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The localization pattern and behavior of the puncta were similar to those of animal dynamin and clathrin signals reported previously. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Purification of Clathrin-Coated Vesicles from Adult Rat Brain. (dbcls.jp)
  • Analyses performed during the purification procedure demonstrated that the oligomycin-resistant pump was concentrated and highly purified in the fractions containing coated vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • T. Serafini and J.E. Rothman , Purification of Golgi Cisternae-Derived COP-Coated Vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • M.G. Waters, C.J.M. Beckers, and J.E. Rothman , Purification of Coat Protomers. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolating HeLa cell fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles. (dbcls.jp)
  • she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clathrin triskelion is composed of three clathrin heavy chains interacting at their C-termini , each ~190 kDa heavy chain has a ~25 kDa light chain tightly bound to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • A helical tripod, the carboxy-terminal parts of three heavy chains, projects inward from the vertex of each three-legged clathrin triskelion, linking that vertex to 'ankles' of triskelions centred two vertices away. (rcsb.org)
  • Interacts with clathrin heavy chains. (rcsb.org)
  • Clathrin interactor 1 (CLINT1), also known as EPSIN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLINT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)