Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Clathrin Light Chains: The light chain subunits of clathrin.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Auxilins: A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.COP-Coated Vesicles: TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nerve Tissue ProteinsKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.PhosphoproteinsSynaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Dynamin I: A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)alpha-L-Fucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.HexosephosphatesProton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Etorphine: A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.

Internalization and sequestration of the human prostacyclin receptor. (1/386)

Prostacyclin (PGI(2)), the major product of cyclooxygenase in macrovascular endothelium, mediates its biological effects through its cell surface G protein-coupled receptor, the IP. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of human (h) IP is a critical determinant of agonist-induced desensitization (Smyth, E. M., Hong Li, W., and FitzGerald, G. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23258-23266). The regulatory events that follow desensitization are unclear. We have examined agonist-induced sequestration of hIP. Human IP, tagged at the N terminus with hemagglutinin (HA) and fused at the C terminus to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), was coupled to increased cAMP (EC(50) = 0.39 +/- 0.09 nm) and inositol phosphate (EC(50) = 86. 6 +/- 18.3 nm) generation when overexpressed in HEK 293 cells. Iloprost-induced sequestration of HAhIP-GFP, followed in real time by confocal microscopy, was partially colocalized to clathrin-coated vesicles. Iloprost induced a time- and concentration-dependent loss of cell surface HA, indicating receptor internalization, which was prevented by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated trafficking and partially reduced by cotransfection of cells with a dynamin dominant negative mutant. Sequestration (EC(50) = 27.6 +/- 5.7 nm) was evident at those concentrations of iloprost that induce PKC-dependent desensitization. Neither the PKC inhibitor GF109203X nor mutation of Ser-328, the site for PKC phosphorylation, altered receptor sequestration indicating that, unlike desensitization, internalization is PKC-independent. Deletion of the C terminus prevented iloprost-induced internalization, demonstrating the critical nature of this region for sequestration. Internalization was unaltered by cotransfection of cells with G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK)-2, -3, -5, -6, arrestin-2, or an arrestin-2 dominant negative mutant, indicating that GRKs and arrestins do not play a role in hIP trafficking. The hIP is sequestered in response to agonist activation via a PKC-independent pathway that is distinct from desensitization. Trafficking is dependent on determinants located in the C terminus, is GRK/arrestin-independent, and proceeds in part via a dynamin-dependent clathrin-coated vesicular endocytotic pathway although other dynamin-independent pathways may also be involved.  (+info)

Deltorphin II-induced rapid desensitization of delta-opioid receptor requires both phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. (2/386)

Similar to other G protein-coupled receptors, rapid phosphorylation of the delta-opioid receptor in the presence of agonist has been reported. Hence, agonist-induced desensitization of the delta-opioid receptor has been suggested to be via the receptor phosphorylation, arrestin-mediated pathway. However, due to the highly efficient coupling between the delta-opioid receptor and the adenylyl cyclase, the direct correlation between the rates of receptor phosphorylation and receptor desensitization as measured by the adenylyl cyclase activity could not be established. In the current studies, using an ecdysone-inducible expression system to control the delta-opioid receptor levels in HEK293 cells, we could demonstrate that the rate of deltorphin II-induced receptor desensitization is dependent on the receptor level. Only at receptor concentrations +info)

Properties of GST-CALM expressed in E. coli. (3/386)

Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are involved in protein and lipid trafficking between intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. CCVs are composed of clathrin and assembly proteins. The clathrin assembly protein lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) gene, encodes a homologoue of the neuronal clathrin assembly protein AP180. In this study, we characterized the properties of the CALM expressed in E. coli. The molecular weight of bacterially expressed GST-CALM fusion protein was approximately 105 kD on SDS-PAGE. The CALM protein could promote clathrin triskelia into clathrin cages and could bind the preformed clathrin cage. However, 33 kD N-terminal domain of CALM could not bind pre-assembled clathrin cages, but assemble clathrin triskelia into clathrin cages. The CALM protein was bound to SH3 domain through N-terminal domain1, in vitro. The CALM protein is proteolyzed by caspase 3, caspase 8 and calpain through C-terminal domain.  (+info)

A selective transport route from Golgi to late endosomes that requires the yeast GGA proteins. (4/386)

Pep12p is a yeast syntaxin located primarily in late endosomes. Using mutagenesis of a green fluorescent protein chimera we have identified a sorting signal FSDSPEF, which is required for transport of Pep12p from the exocytic pathway to late endosomes, from which it can, when overexpressed, reach the vacuole. When this signal is mutated, Pep12p instead passes to early endosomes, a step that is determined by its transmembrane domain. Surprisingly, Pep12p is then specifically retained in early endosomes and does not go on to late endosomes. By testing appropriate chimeras in mutant strains, we found that FSDSPEF-dependent sorting was abolished in strains lacking Gga1p and Gga2p, Golgi-associated coat proteins with homology to gamma adaptin. In the gga1 gga2 double mutant endogenous Pep12p cofractionated with the early endosome marker Tlg1p, and recycling of Snc1p through early endosomes was defective. Pep12p sorting was also defective in cells lacking the clathrin heavy or light chain. We suggest that specific and direct delivery of proteins to early and late endosomes is required to maintain the functional heterogeneity of the endocytic pathway and that the GGA proteins, probably in association with clathrin, help create vesicles destined for late endosomes.  (+info)

The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic liposomes. (5/386)

The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 has been shown to function in the sorting of proteins to the endosomal/lysosomal system. However, the mechanism of AP-3 recruitment onto membranes is poorly understood, and it is still uncertain whether AP-3 nucleates clathrin-coated vesicles. Using purified components, we show that AP-3 and clathrin are recruited onto protein-free liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes by a process that requires ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and GTP but no other proteins or nucleotides. The efficiency of recruitment onto the two sources of membranes is comparable and independent of the composition of the liposomes. Clathrin binding occurred in a cooperative manner as a function of the membrane concentration of AP-3. Thin-section electron microscopy of liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes that had been incubated with AP-3, clathrin, and ARF.GTP showed the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles. These results establish that AP-3-containing clathrin-coated vesicles form in vitro and are consistent with AP-3-dependent protein transport being mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles.  (+info)

Cellular internalization of cytolethal distending toxin from Haemophilus ducreyi. (6/386)

The chancroid bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi produces a toxin (HdCDT) which is a member of the recently discovered family of cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs). These protein toxins prevent the cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2 from being activated, thus blocking the transition of cells from the G(2) phase into mitosis, with the consequent arrest of intoxicated cells in G(2). It is not known whether these toxins act by signaling from the cell surface or intracellularly only. Here we report that HdCDT has to undergo at least internalization before being able to act. Cellular intoxication was inhibited (i) by removal of clathrin coats via K(+) depletion, (ii) by treatment with drugs that inhibit receptor clustering into coated pits, and (iii) in cells genetically manipulated to fail in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Intoxication was also completely inhibited in cells treated with bafilomycin A1 or nocodazole and in cells incubated at 18 degrees C, i.e., under conditions known to block the fusion of early endosomes with downstream compartments. Moreover, disruption of the Golgi complex by treatment with brefeldin A or ilimaquinone blocked intoxication. In conclusion, our data indicate that HdCDT enters cells via clathrin-coated pits and has to be transported via the Golgi complex in order to intoxicate cells. This is the first member of the family of CDTs for which cellular internalization and some details of the pathway have been demonstrated.  (+info)

Impaired membrane traffic in defective ether lipid biosynthesis. (7/386)

The first steps of ether lipid biosynthesis are exclusively localized to peroxisomes and hence some peroxisomal disorders are characterized by a severe deficiency of plasmalogens, the main ether lipids in humans. Here we report on gene defects of plasmalogen biosynthesis, chromosomal localization of the corresponding genes and, as a consequence of plasmalogen deficiency, on structural alterations of caveolae, clathrin-coated pits, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae, as well as on the reduced rate of transferrin receptor cycling. The data suggest that plasmalogens, analogous to cholesterol, are essential for correct membrane functioning and their deficiency results in impaired membrane trafficking.  (+info)

Dominant-interfering Hsc70 mutants disrupt multiple stages of the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle in vivo. (8/386)

Within the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) cycle, coat assembly drives the internalization of receptors from the cell surface and disassembly allows for the processing of internalized ligands. The heat shock cognate protein, hsc70, has been implicated in regulating coat disassembly. We find that in cells overexpressing ATPase-deficient hsc70 mutants, uncoating of CCVs is inhibited in vivo, and the majority of unassembled cytosolic clathrin shifts to an assembled pool that cofractionates with AP1 and AP2. Surprisingly, this assembled pool of coat proteins accumulates in the absence of cargo receptors, suggesting that disruption of hsc70 activity may cause misassembly of empty clathrin cages. The strongest effect of overexpression of hsc70 mutants is a block in transferrin receptor (TfnR) recycling, which cannot be accounted for by the degree of inhibition of uncoating of endocytic CCVs. These results suggest that hsc70 participates in multiple transport and/or sorting events between endosomal compartments. Additionally, the mutant-expressing cells are defective at internalizing transferrin. In the most potent case, the initial rate of uptake is inhibited 10-fold, and TfnR levels double at the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that hsc70 indeed regulates coat disassembly and also suggest that this chaperone broadly modulates clathrin dynamics throughout the CCV cycle.  (+info)

Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. CCSs recruit specific cell surface receptors and progressively shape the plasma membrane in receptor-containing vesicles that are released in the cytosol. This endocytosis machinery allows for nutrient uptake but also for the fine-tuned control of signaling pathways triggered by cell surface receptors. As a consequence, deregulation of endocytosis has been linked to many pathological situations, including cancers.. Tumor development is accompanied by dramatic changes in the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Also, when cancer cells invade the stroma to establish distant metastases, they migrate in an environment with different topological features than the tumor mass. However, it is not known how the physical parameters of the environment impact on CCSs and what are the consequences for the cell.. Our team addresses this general question by ...
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
How does dynamin oligomerise? Research on the mechanism of dynamin in vesicle scission and endocytosis. Research on proteins involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation. Research on membrane bending. Research on protein-lipid interactions. Research on vesicle trafficking pathways. As a group we investigate vesicle budding using a variety of structural and functional approaches.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
To obtain insights into the mechanism by which FCHo2 couples CCP growth and lifetime in CME, we analyzed the nanoscale localization of FCHo2 at CCPs. Dual-color SD-dSTORM (spectral demixing direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) analysis of the distribution of endogenous FCHo2 within CCPs followed by quantitative averaging of ,250 images revealed a marked concentration of FCHo2 in ring-like structures (about 225 nm in diameter) at the outer rim of CCPs [consistent with (27)] while being largely absent from the CCP center (Fig. 3, D and E) that eventually gives rise to the dome as CCPs invaginate. Hence, FCHo2 selectively accumulates at the rim of CCPs, consistent with its early role in coupling CCP growth and dynamics.. Different models have been proposed regarding the early endocytic function of FCHo2. According to one model, FCHo2 nucleates CCPs by acting as a plasma membrane-associated recruitment hub for early-acting endocytic proteins bound to its μ-homology domain (20). This ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. They are also important for traffic between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In this presentation, I will discuss (i) technological and analytical advances that I developed to directly visualize clathrin-mediated membrane traffic in three dimensions and in living cells; (ii) data obtained using these advances that defined a role for actin filament polymerization in counteracting membrane tension during clathrin-coated vesicle budding at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells; and (iii) how these advances can be used to study a wide variety of biological processes that occur in living cells and tissues. ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20486136. Bioessays 2010 Jun;32(6):496-504. Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486136 ...
The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was
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During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it has been thought that the sensing and binding of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 to cargo and lipids leads to the recruitment of clathrin, nucleating the formation of a clathrin-coated pit. Henne et al. have now found that this process of AP2 binding may not in fact represent either the first or the nucleation event of endocytosis. Instead, ubiquitous proteins called FCHo1/2 (F-BAR proteins) bind to the plasma membrane and define the sites of endocytosis independently of AP2. The F-BAR protein can generate very low curvatures and, at higher concentrations, generates higher curvatures like those required at the neck of budding vesicles. The C terminus of the protein has a μ-homology domain (with homology to the μ domain of the AP2 complex) that interacts with Eps15 and intersectin and via these proteins recruits AP2, which further recruits clathrin. Thus, a curvature-inducing protein can act to nucleate clathrin-coated pit assembly during ...
To assess the role of clathrin in the bulk endocytic flow of rat foetal fibroblasts, the rate of internalization of fluid-phase and membrane-lipid tracers were compared, under control conditions and after inhibition of endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation. After intracellular potassium depletion or upon cell transfer into 0.35 M NaCl, the rate of internalization of receptor-bound transferrin and the residual membrane area of plasmalemmal clathrin-coated pits and vesicles were similarly decreased by approximately 90%. In contrast, the initial rate (, 5 min) of intracellular accumulation of the fluid-phase tracer HRP was not affected. Both in control and treated cells, the rate of HRP accumulation declined after approximately 5 min, and was twofold lower in treated cells, due to enhanced regurgitation. After correction for regurgitation, the endocytic rate constant was similar to measurements at shorter intervals and identical in control and treated cells. Similarly, the rate of internalization ...
The animation shows calcium-stimulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles followed by clathrin-mediated vesicle recycling. Many of the molecular components that are involved in synaptic vesicle priming, docking, fusion, and endocytosis are shown. Although the process in the animation describes synaptic vesicle cycling, similar cellular processes occur for most calcium-coupled secretory and clathrin-mediated endocytotic events. The animation could be used to help illustrate the sequence of events as. Published by Learning Registry #GoOpen. 4 Views, 0 Likes on Docs.com. #synapse #neuron #NSDL #NSDL_SetSpec_BEN #movie #signal transduction #endocytosis #Life Science
In this study, we report the interaction of amphiphysin 2 with SNX4, a partnership that might be biologically relevant between endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. On one hand, amphiphysin 2 has been shown to be important for the early steps of endocytosis in mammalian cells (Wigge and McMahon, 1998). It is now well established that amphiphysin 2 helps to recruit dynamin via its C-terminal SH3 domain, at the site of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. It may also control membrane curvature either directly or indirectly through endophilin and the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles through synaptojanins. On the other hand, SNX4 belongs to a family of molecules initially characterized for their ability to bind membrane receptors such as EGF, PDGF, insulin or leptin receptors (Kurten et al., 1996; Haft et al., 1998). SNX molecules have been conserved throughout evolution and exist in yeast where Vps5p is the ortholog of human SNX1 (Horazdovsky, 1997). In yeast cells, Vps5p associates with other ...
Immunogen = synthetic peptide: E E D P A A A F L A Q Q E S E I A G I E N D, corresp. to amino acids 23-44 of Cow Clathrin light chain. ...
The lectin isolated from Xerocomus chrysenteron (XCL) displays a toxic activity towards insects. In order to assess its possible mode of action and to gather useful data for its potential use in insect-resistant transgenic plants, we investigated the
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The tripartite DENN (after differentially expressed in neoplastic versus normal cells) domain is found in several proteins involved in Rab-mediated processes or regulation of MAPKs (Mitogen-activated preotein kinases) signaling pathways. It actually consists of three parts as the original DENN domain is always encircled on both sides by more divergent domains, called uDENN (after upstream DENN) and dDENN (for downstream DENN). The tripartite DENN domain is found associated with other domains, such as RUN, PLAT, PH, PPR, WD-40, GRAM or C1. The function of DENN domain remains to date unclear, although it appears to represent a good candidate for a GTP/GDP exchange activity [(PUBMED:11563850), (PUBMED:12906859)].. The general characteristics of DENN domains - three regions dDENN, DENN itself, and uDENN having different patterns of sequence conservation and separated by sequences of variable length - suggest that they are composed of at least three sub-domains which may feature distinct folds but ...
SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling ...
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The early events of viral infection usually involve the attachment of virus to cellular receptor molecules on the plasma membrane of host cells. This is followed by internalization, uncoating, and subsequent virus gene transcription and/or translation at specific locations in cells. Studies have clearly demonstrated that animal viruses can utilize different internalization and trafficking pathways that allow specific localization within the cells upon entry for a successful infection (15). For enveloped viruses, the entry process can occur either via the fusion of virus envelope glycoproteins at the plasma membrane at neutral pH to promote the internalization of viral nucleocapsids or virus particles undergoing endocytosis prior to fusion with endocytic membrane. For the latter, conformational change of the virus fusion protein to expose the hydrophobic fusion peptide is induced by an acidic pH for the release of the viral nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm (14).. In the present study, a variety ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a critical process through which a wide variety of extracellular material is internalized. The primary component, clathrin, forms a cargo-selective lattice at the plasma membrane, as well as on endosomes and the TGN, though the cargo-selective components are incompletely defined. An ideal tool for understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the clathrin coat and the cargo selected is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM), which permits selective imaging of events closely apposed to the ventral plasma membrane. Previously, observation of the clathrin coat has shown both static and dynamic populations, with some dynamic structures undergoing microtubule-dependent motion; the 70-110 nm decay constant of the TIR-FM field has led to the assumption that these are all representative of coated pits. Here, I demonstrate that the dynamic population of clathrin is primarily endosomal, as it lacks colocalization with the plasma membrane-specific ...
The animation shows calcium-stimulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles followed by clathrin-mediated vesicle recycling. Many of the molecular components that are involved in synaptic vesicle priming, docking, fusion, and endocytosis are shown. Although the process in the animation describes synaptic vesicle cycling, similar cellular processes occur for most calcium-coupled secretory and clathrin-mediated endocytotic events. The animation could be used to help illustrate the sequence of events associated with both exocytosis and endocytosis, as well as aid in understanding the processes involved in neurotransmitter release in response to nerve stimulation.. [Resource Details] ...
Our understanding of transcytosis comes largely from studies in polarized epithelial cells expressing pIgR (Mostov and Cardone, 1995). The first step in the transcytotic movement of immunoglobulins is the binding to specific high-affinity receptors on the plasma membrane followed by internalization in clathrin-coated vesicles that pinch off from the membrane and fuse with underlying early endosomes. Some of the ligand thus internalized remains associated with the receptor, possibly in an endocytic subcompartment of higher pH than the classic endosome, is packaged into specific carrier vesicles, and is transported to the opposite plasma membrane where release of the ligand occurs. In this work we provide evidence that in polarized hippocampal and sympathetic neurons Tf and its receptor follow a similar "classic" transcytotic pathway from the dendrites to the axons. First, exogenous Tf added to Tf-starved cells is taken up from the dendritic surface where the receptor is located (Figs. 1, 3). ...
Lysosomes are membrane-delimited organelles in animal cells serving as the cells main digestive compartment to which all sorts of macromolecules are delivered for degradation. They contain more than 40 hydrolases in an acidic environment (pH of about 5). After synthesis in the ER, lysosomal enzymes are decorated with mannose-6-phosphate residues, which are recognized by mannose-6-phosphate receptors in the trans-Golgi network. They are packaged into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to late endosomes. Substances for digestion are acquired by the lysosomes via a series of processes including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key metabolic pathway that plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and drug carriers into cells. In this study, we model the interactions of lipid membranes with different types of protein scaffolds and active forces to provide mechanistic insights into CME. To this end, we develop and employ an extended theoretical framework of lipid membranes that entertains spatial heterogeneity and local anisotropy that could arise from membrane-protein interactions. We show that a departure from homogeneity and isotropy can lead to a variable surface tension field, conventionally assumed to be a constant parameter. We model the impact of resting tension in a cell and discuss its consequences on the minimal protein machinery needed to complete vesicle formation. Based on our quantitative model and findings, we highlight the physical principles that unify CME in apparently distinct yeast and mammalian cells.
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Information about CCV healthcare management. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand.
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Cell-surface viral proteins most frequently enter the cell through clathrin or caveolae endocytosis. Respiratory syncytial virus antigen internalization by immune cells is via caveolin, however, uptake of paramyxovirus cell membrane proteins by non-immune cells is done through clathrin-coated pits. In this work, the uptake of respiratory syncytial virus cell surface glycoproteins by non-immune human epithelial cells was investigated through indirect immunofluorescence with polyclonal anti-RSV antibody and confocal lasser-scanner microscopy. Clathrin and caveolae internalization pathways were monitored through specific inhibitors monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), respectively. Internalization of RSV antigens was inhibited by MDC but not by MBCD, implying that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major uptake route of RSV antigens by an epithelial human cell line.
PICALM, the gene encoding phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly (picalm) protein, was recently shown to be associated with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Picalm is a key component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It recruits clathrin and adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) to the plasma membrane and, along with, AP-2 recognizes target proteins. The attached clathrin triskelions cause membrane deformation around the target proteins enclosing them within clathrin-coated vesicles to be processed in lysosomes or endosomes. We examined the distribution of picalm in control and AD brain tissue and measured levels of picalm messenger RNA (mRNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunolabeling of brain tissue showed that picalm is predominately present in endothelial cells. This was further supported by the demonstration of picalm in human cerebral microvascular cells grown in culture. Picalm mRNA was elevated in relation to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase but not factor VIII-related ...
Zwiewka, M; Nodzynski, T; Robert, S; Vanneste, S; Friml, J, 2015: Osmotic Stress Modulates the Balance between Exocytosis and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. MOLECULAR PLANT 8(8), p. 1175 - 1187, doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.03.007. Research Groups:. ...
Adapter protein that functions as clathrin-associated sorting protein (CLASP) required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of selected cargo proteins. Can bind and assemble clathrin, and binds simultaneously to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) and cargos containing non-phosphorylated NPXY internalization motifs, such as the LDL receptor, to recruit them to clathrin-coated pits. Can function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis independently of the AP-2 complex. Involved in endocytosis of integrin beta-1; this function seems to redundant with the AP-2 complex and seems to require DAB2 binding to endocytosis accessory EH domain-containing proteins such as EPS15, EPS15L1 and ITSN1. Involved in endocytosis of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator/CFTR. Involved in endocytosis of megalin/LRP2 lipoprotein receptor during embryonal development. Required for recycling of the TGF-beta receptor. Involved in CFTR trafficking to the late endosome. Involved in several receptor-mediated
In this report we have addressed the biological consequence of endofin-mediated TOM1 recruitment onto endosomes. Our results collectively suggest that TOM1 serves as an adaptor for endofin to recruit clathrin heavy chain onto the endosomes. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence as described in our study.. First, via large-scale pull-down experiments using immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), we have recovered clathrin heavy chain as the major and specific partner for TOM1. This conclusion was corroborated by analytical pull-down experiments showing that clathrin heavy chain was very efficiently retained by immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), so much so that it was depleted from the cytosol. The specific interaction between TOM1 and clathrin heavy chain was further defined by our identification of three sites in the carboxyl-terminal region of TOM1, which seem to act together for efficient interaction with clathrin. Moreover, the specific blockage of interaction between TOM1 and clathrin ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB35 that acts as a regulator of T-cell receptor (TCR) internalization in TH2 cells (PubMed:20154091, PubMed:20937701, PubMed:24520163, PubMed:26774822). Acts by promoting the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound RAB35 into its active GTP-bound form (PubMed:20154091, PubMed:20937701). Plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (PubMed:20154091). Controls cytokine production in TH2 lymphocytes by controlling the rate of TCR internalization and routing to endosomes: acts by mediating clathrin-mediated endocytosis of TCR via its interaction with the adapter protein complex 2 (AP-2) and GEF activity (PubMed:26774822). Dysregulation leads to impaired TCR down-modulation and recycling, affecting cytokine production in TH2 cells (PubMed:26774822 ...
Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates α-factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of α-factor, I hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. I report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, I found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells. I also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, I found that in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1∆tor2ts mutant cells was also
Coatomer subunit beta-1; The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non- clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins (948 aa ...
Like someone whos moved from a house to an apartment, cells in an early embryo run into space limitations. The embryo remains the same size for its first few divisions, so the cells have to become much smaller, shrinking by as much as 99%. Some components, such as individual mitochondria and clathrin-coated vesicles, seemingly remain the same size as cells miniaturize. But the centrosome, mitotic spindle, and nucleus contract. For more than a century researchers have known that cells in early embryos also compact their chromosomes. To prevent tangling during mitosis, the biggest chromosomes cant exceed half the length of the mitotic spindle (2). However, researchers didnt know which cues cells rely on to determine chromosome size. One research group addressed the question by allowing small nuclei to stew in extracts from large cells for an entire cell cycle (3). The nuclei expanded, suggesting that chromosome size tracks cell size. Another group concluded that chromosome size tracks nuclear ...
Involved in cell growth regulation. May be involved in the regulation of mitogenic signals and control of cell proliferation. Involved in the internalization of ligand-inducible receptors of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) type, in particular EGFR. Plays a role in the assembly of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Acts as a clathrin adapter required for post-Golgi trafficking. Seems to be involved in CCPs maturation including invagination or budding. Involved in endocytosis of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and transferrin receptor (TFR); internalization of ITGB1 as DAB2-dependent cargo but not TFR seems to require association with DAB2. ...
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
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Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA,
Constitutive secretory vesicles carrying heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were identified in isolated rat hepatocytes by pulse-chase experiments with [35S]sulfate and purified by velocity-controlled sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by equilibrium density centrifugation in Nycodenz. Using this procedure, the vesicles were separated from plasma membranes, Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), ER, endosomes, lysosomes, transcytotic vesicles, and mitochondria. The diameter of these vesicles was approximately 100-200 nm as determined by electron microscopy. A typical coat structure as described for intra-Golgi transport vesicles or clathrin-coated vesicles could not be seen, and the vesicles were not associated with the coat protein beta-COP. Furthermore, the vesicles appear to represent a low density compartment (1.05-1.06 g/ml). Other constitutively secreted proteins (rat serum albumin, apolipoprotein E, and fibrinogen) could not be detected in purified HSPG-carrying vesicles, but banded in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - LRP1-Dependent endocytic mechanism governs the signaling output of the bmp system in endothelial cells and in angiogenesis. AU - Pi, Xinchun. AU - Schmitt, Christopher E.. AU - Xie, Liang. AU - Portbury, Andrea L.. AU - Wu, Yaxu. AU - Lockyer, Pamela. AU - Dyer, Laura A.. AU - Moser, Martin. AU - Bu, Guojun D. AU - Flynn, Edward J.. AU - Jin, Suk Won. AU - Patterson, Cam. PY - 2012/8/17. Y1 - 2012/8/17. N2 - Rationale: Among the extracellular modulators of Bmp (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling, Bmper (Bmp endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator) both enhances and inhibits Bmp signaling. Recently we found that Bmper modulates Bmp4 activity via a concentration-dependent, endocytic trap-and-sink mechanism. Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms required for endocytosis of the Bmper/Bmp4 and signaling complex and determine the mechanism of Bmpers differential effects on Bmp4 signaling. Methods and Results: Using an array of biochemical and cell biology ...
The central finding of the present study is that Mt3 plays a key role in the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Aβ in astrocytes. In Mt3 −/− astrocytes, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the mechanism responsible for Aβ endocytosis, was markedly decreased, whereas caveolin-mediated endocytosis was not altered. Astrocytes are likely key players in the clearance of extracellular Aβ; thus, our results suggest that changes in the Mt3 expression in astrocytes may have clinical relevance in AD. Taken together with our previous findings that Mt3 helps to maintain lysosomal degradation in astrocytes, the reduction in Mt3 in astrocytes may aggravate Aβ accumulation in the extracellular space.. Early studies showed that AD brain extracts induce more neurite outgrowth in cell cultures than do control brain extracts [27], suggesting upregulation of a growth-inducing factor or downregulation of a growth-inhibitory factor (GIF) in AD brains. The latter was shown to be the case, and a subsequent study ...
Involved in cell growth regulation. May be involved in the regulation of mitogenic signals and control of cell proliferation. Involved in the internalization of ligand-inducible receptors of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) type, in particular EGFR. Plays a role in the assembly of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Acts as a clathrin adapter required for post-Golgi trafficking. Seems to be involved in CCPs maturation including invagination or budding. Involved in endocytosis of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and transferrin receptor (TFR); internalization of ITGB1 as DAB2-dependent cargo but not TFR seems to require association with DAB2.
S. Majumder*, J. Garamella*, Y.-L. Wang, M. DeNies, V. Noireaux, A.P. Liu, Cell-sized mechanosensitive and biosensing compartment programmed by DNA, ChemComm, 52, 7349-7352, 2017. [article link] * equal contribution; A.P. Liu and V. Noireaux are co-corresponding authors.. Y. Zheng*, S. Wang*, X. Xue, A. Xu, W. Liao, A. Deng, G. Dai, A.P. Liu, J. Fu, Dll4-Notch signaling in regulating angiogenesis in a 3D biomimetic environment, Lab on a Chip, 17. 1948-1959, 2017. [article link] * equal contribution; A.P. Liu and J. Fu are co-corresponding authors.. A.P. Liu*, O. Chaudhuri*, S. Parekh*, New advances in probing cell-extracellular matrix interactions, Integrative Biology, 9, 383-405, 2017. [article link] * equal contribution and corresponding author (top 10 downloaded article published in Integrative Biology in 2017). K.K.Y. Ho, J.W. Lee, G. Durand, S. Majumder, A.P. Liu, Protein aggregation with poly(vinyl) alcohol surfactant reduces double emulsion-encpasulated mammalian cell-free expression, ...
Sometimes blood work is also recommended at the yearly exam for animals that seem perfectly healthy. Geriatric patients are generally dogs over 6 years of age for larger breeds and 8 years of age for small breeds and cats. With these older patients we often recommend baseline blood work as up to 40% of geriatric patients may have abnormal blood work despite not showing any outward signs of disease. This allows us to make an earlier diagnosis and start treatment before the condition is as severe. Even if blood work is perfectly normal we have gained valuable information in knowing the pets "normal values" so that if he or she does become sick we can monitor any changes or trends ...
Buy DENND4C elisa kit, Human DENN/MADD domain containing 4C ELISA Kit-NP_060395.5 (MBS9328048) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Calories in Clint & Sons Black Label Beef Jerky. Find nutrition facts for Clint & Sons Black Label Beef Jerky and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
Study VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases flashcards from Clint Benson Valdeavilla's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Sarah had on heading activities for developing the synthetic SITC base read clint eastwood loaded on the set. transfer broke share some of the useful solutions and major. Ali did clinical in the Critical sex, catalog, and resolve of The Observatory.
U jen do z t ka m te jedine nou mo nost zhl dnout v stavu n meck v tvarnice Claudie Olendrowicz The guest principle v Galerii Kostka v MeetFactory. V stava je pro div ka tak trochu mal m dobrodru stv m. Bude toti nucen hledat. Autorka jemn m zp sobem intervenuje do soukrom ch i ve ejn ch m st. Sv z sahy dokumentuje prost ednictv m fotografi a jej pr ci je bl zk postava hosta, kter se sice dlouho nezdr , ale p esto z sadn zm n prostor kolem sebe. Op r se o pozn mky a kresby putuj c ho J. W. Goetha a historicky vzd len postavy herce a re is ra Bustera Keatona.. ...
In endocytosis, substances are internalized by a cell through the formation of vesicles. Types of endocytosis include phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Mills IG, Praefcke GJ, Vallis Y, Peter BJ, Olesen LE, Gallop JL, Butler PJ, Evans PR, McMahon HT. EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2003 Jan 20;160(2):213-22. Epub 2003 Jan 21. PMID:12538641 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200208023 ...
Prof. Andrea Rentmeister markiert Biomoleküle, insbesondere RNA. Die dafür notwendigen chemischen Reaktionen müssen hochselektiv und besonders schonend sein, denn sie werden an lebenden Zellen durchgeführt. Besonders wichtig ist ihr, immer akkurat zu arbeiten. So lässt sich nämlich auch herausfinden, woran es liegt, wenn einmal etwas nicht klappt. Zum Interview ...
Plasmid mEos4b-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid mEos4a-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
No. You are not. But, were odd like that. We also yell, No one expects the Spanish Inquisition! whenever anybody says that they didnt expect something. Im not sure these are things to brag about.. ...
article{1864472, abstract = {Endocytosis is a crucial mechanism by which eukaryotic cells internalize extracellular and plasma membrane material, and it is required for a multitude of cellular and developmental processes in unicellular and multicellular organisms. In animals and yeast, the best characterized pathway for endocytosis depends on the function of the vesicle coat protein clathrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has recently been demonstrated also in plant cells, but its physiological and developmental roles remain unclear. Here, we assessed the roles of the clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis in plants by genetic means. We interfered with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function through mutants and dominant-negative approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana and established tools to manipulate clathrin function in a cell type-specific manner. The chc2 single mutants and dominant-negative CHC1 (HUB) transgenic lines were defective in bulk endocytosis as well as in internalization of ...
Geoffrey Lewis, a prolific character actor who appeared opposite frequent collaborator Clint Eastwood in several movies, has died. He was 79.
In fact, while I dont have many (uh, make that any) finished pieces to show, I dont think I have ever tried so many new (or gotten back into old!) techniques in such a short time. And while I may not have been active online much, the blogs I follow have been my daily dose of inspiration and muse fodder ...
In May 2005 FERC adopted standard "small generator" procedures for the interconnection of generators no larger than 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The rule harmonises state and federal practices and directs public utilities to amend their Order No. 888 open access transmission tariffs to offer non-discriminatory, standardised interconnection service for small generators. The FERCs standards apply only to facilities already subject to the jurisdiction of the commission; mostly, these are not local distribution facilities but systems that interconnect at the transmission level. The FERCs standards include a Small Generator Interconnection Procedures (SGIP) document and a Small Generator Interconnection Agreement (SGIA ...
How do you define health? Physical? Mental? Social? Health goes beyond medical care. Its how we take care of ourselves, how we interact with our communities, how we take care of each other ...
so, i just bought a Kustom Tube 12. 12 watts, 8 inch Celestion speaker, all tube (i think), and it sounds amazing. of course i am comparing it to my o...
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Epsin 1兔多克隆抗体(ab82688)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Tumblr is a place to express yourself, discover yourself, and bond over the stuff you love. Its where your interests connect you with your people.
The structure of the appendage domain of β2 adaptin is similar to that of α‐adaptin in that it has two subdomains with similar topology, but with a difference of ∼46° in the orientation between the two subdomains. Like the α‐appendage, the β2‐appendage domain binds AP180, epsin and eps15, and therefore is likely to be involved in recruiting proteins involved in controlling CCV formation to sites of coated pit formation in vivo. The two proteins possess a partly conserved binding site of high hydrophobic potential on the C‐terminal platform domain, suggesting that they bind similar motifs i.e. DΦF/W. The binding site residues are also conserved in β1‐adaptin from the adaptor AP1, so this homologue would be predicted to bind the same ligands as β2. Indeed, a GSTβ1 appendage construct does bind to eps15, and weakly to clathrin and epsin (data not shown). Although the α and β2 appendages share some of the same ligands, they bind to them with different relative affinities: the ...
Endocytosis is an essential and well‐regulated process in higher eukaryotes [35], [51], [52]. Sustained neurotransmission imposes a greater demand on the precision and efficiency of endocytic pathways as vesicles are recycled locally to balance continued exocytosis [1], [2], [3]. While numerous players and regulators of endocytosis have been characterized in neurons [3], [13], [14], [15], inhibitors are rare. This work reveals the cellular function of Syt11 as a novel inhibitor in the vesicle retrieval pathways.. Using an RNAi approach, we revealed the function of Syt11 in neuronal endocytosis. Membrane capacitance recording to monitor the somatic exocytosis and endocytosis in DRG neurons showed that Syt11 KD greatly accelerated exo‐endocytosis, and this was often accompanied by an excessive membrane retrieval as evidenced by Cm overshoot, indicating an unbalanced coupling of endocytosis to exocytosis (Figs 1B-G and 3A-F). Furthermore, FM1‐43, dextran, and HRP uptake assays demonstrated an ...
PhD Project - High resolution cryo-electron microscopy of clathrin cage networks at University of Warwick, listed on FindAPhD.com
Coatomer subunit gamma ; The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non- clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins (899 aa ...
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Virology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Looking for coated pit? Find out information about coated pit. A cell surface depression that is coated with clathrin on its cytoplasmic surface and functions in receptor-mediated endocytosis Explanation of coated pit
OregonPizza Pit,来自TripAdvisor(猫途鹰)用户的Pizza Pit点评,为您推荐Pizza Pit美食与独特Pizza Pit体验。Coming from Illinois its been difficult to find a good pizza. This also...
Es gibt seit letzter Woche ein neues, deutsches Forum das ich Euch hier mal vorstelle. Was mir besonders gefällt ist die Übersichtlichkeit, denn die ging in manchen Foren mit der Zeit ziemlich verloren. Schaut doch mal rein, Adid Franizzi die auch schon Forenerfahrung gesammelt hat, freut sich bestimmt sehr über neue Mitglieder. Ausserdem gibt es…
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission in the brain has been proposed as a cellular substrate for learning and memory. The expression of LTD in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) required clathrin-dependent endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs. NAc LTD was blocked by a dynamin-derived peptide that inhibited clathrin-mediated endocytosis or by a GluR2-derived peptide that blocked regulated AMPAR endocytosis. Systemic or intra-NAc infusion of the membrane-permeable GluR2 peptide prevented the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in the rat. ...
The mechanism of PAR1 activation is strikingly irreversible. Cleavage of PAR1 by thrombin is irrevocable, and the tethered ligand generated cannot diffuse away from the receptor. In the absence of the reversible ligation that characterizes most receptor systems, how is PAR1 shut off? The β2-adrenergic receptor has served as a prototype for dissecting the molecular events responsible for G protein-coupled receptor desensitization and resensitization (10-13). Upon activation, β2-adrenergic receptor is rapidly phosphorylated. It then binds arrestin, preventing further interaction with G proteins. Arrestin also mediates internalization of β2-adrenergic receptors via clathrin-coated pits (14, 15). Within an endosomal compartment, receptors dissociate from ligand, are dephosphorylated, and recycle back to the cell surface competent to signal again. Thus trafficking serves to remove activated β2-adrenergic receptors from the cell surface and to return the receptors to the surface in an off state, ...
Members of ECOBA the European Association for Use of the By-products of Coal-Fired Power-Stations are producers and utilizers of coal combustion by-products socalled CCPs. CCPs are products resulting from combustion of coal or desulphurization
Clint Miller Exterminating offers free cockroach inspections and roach exterminating services in Mt. Pleasant, Concord, Salisbury, and surrounding areas. Schedule your roach inspection today.
On Thursday, October 26th, The Mental Health Association of Westchester welcomed former NHL all-star goalie Clint Malarchuk and his wife Joanie for a riveting and unforgettable evening of conversation.
Kniha navazuje na pov dkovou sb rku Posledn pomoc a d v ten i nahl dnout do dal ivotn etapy jednoho smola e. Mu e, kter nep ijal v udyp tomn autority a z kony za sv a rad ji s m sebe, pro dobro v t iny, vy lenil ze spole nosti p ijet m zcela inovativn ivotn filozofie. Jak mlad ho anarchistu p evychovala arm da, i nau ila zodpov dnosti slu ba u z chrann ch sbor ? Kolik gener l a vrchn ch sester volilo rad ji odchod do p ed asn ho d chodu/kulku? i jak slo it je v dne n dob koupit oby ejnou postel, nest t se objet s atkov podvodnice, a nebo se jen ve zdrav vr tit s p l kilem kokainu z dovolen v Mexiku? Na tyto a mnoh dal neoby ejn p b hy z oby ejn ho ivota se m ete t it v bohat ilustrovan m rom nu autora Martina Posp ila ...
Inn Augustmaand geiht dat los, un de Spinnen fangt an, sik to paaren. Faken kummt dat vor, datt dor de lüttjeren Heken vun de grötteren Seken bi upfreten weert. De Heken spinnt dor en Bruutfaden bi an dat Nett vun dat Seken un tuust dor an. Dat Seken weet vunwegen dat Tusen, datt dor en Heken an sitt. Hett se Lust, sik to paaren, geiht se na dat Heken hen. De Paaren duert man bloß en paar Sekunnen un warrt meist fökener unnernahmen. Inn Harvst leggt dat Seken denn siene Eier in en Kokon ut sunnerlich fiene Fadens. Düsse Kokon is wat geel. Achternah geiht dat Seken doot. De Eier overwintert inn Kokon un de Jungen kruupt ut inn April/Maimaand. De Jungen overwintert denn nochmol un sünd eerst in dat neegste Johr sowiet, datt se sik vermehren könnt. ...
Špeciálne vyvinutý krém pre vyhladenie a intenzívne omladenie pleti. Hydratuje pokožku, výrazne redukuje hĺbku vrások a spevňuje kontúry tváre. Vysoký obsah kolagénu a extraktu z morských rias pleť vypína a obnovuje jej pružnosť a sviežosť.
Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... subscription required) Pearse, B. M. (1987). "Clathrin and coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal. 6 (9): 2507-12. PMC 553666 . ... doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(75)80024-6. Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual ... Pearse, B. M. F. (1975). "Coated vesicles from pig brain: Purification and biochemical characterization". Journal of Molecular ...
The best characterized type of vesicle is the clathrin coated vesicle (CCV). The formation of a COPII vesicle at the ... Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra ... COPII and clathrin vesicles structure of COPI coat from this publication, free with free registration Video description of the ... but the coat of COPI is not closely related to the coats of either CCVs or COPII vesicles. AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, ...
Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... "A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing". eLife. 3. doi: ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ...
... s may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. In addition to its ... Little is known about the role plant Epsin plays in clathrin coated vesicle formation. ... membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin-coated vesicles. ... The two paralogs, epsin-1 and epsin-2 are members that contribute to the clathrin coated endocytotic machinery and are ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved in ... binds a conformationally labile domain of clathrin light chain LCa to stimulate ATP hydrolysis". Cell. 62 (5): 875-87. doi: ... vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin ... the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and ...
Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication ... Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. J Gen Virol 91(12):3032-3041 Sukhu L, Fasina O, Burger L, ...
The best-characterized coated vesicles are the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The coats on CCVs are primarily of clathrin, ... Her interest was in clathrin-coated vesicles that binds to cargo. She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat ... She also discovered different combinations of adapting, when together with clathrin, form a coat around vesicles that bud from ... Continuing, Margaret discovered that there were two different populations of clathrin-coated vesicles, one that uses AP-2 at ...
Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ... Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ... in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and ...
Korolchuk VI, Banting G (Jun 2002). "CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles". Traffic. 3 (6 ... Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E (May 2000). "Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat ... Fölsch H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I (Feb 2001). "Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
In general, reelin binds VLDLR and undergoes endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Meanwhile, an intracellular protein, ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... Endocytosis is mediated through NPxY sequences known to signal for receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits. The ... The NPxY motif functions in signal transduction and the targeting of receptors to coated pits and consists of the sequence ...
1999). "Clathrin-coated vesicles bearing GAIP possess GTPase-activating protein activity in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... 1998). "RGS-GAIP, a GTPase-activating protein for Galphai heterotrimeric G proteins, is located on clathrin-coated vesicles". ... 2000). "Membrane-associated GAIP is a phosphoprotein and can be phosphorylated by clathrin-coated vesicles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
November 2004). "Evolving nature of the AP2 α-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis". BMC Genomics. 23 (22 ...
... complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and lipids to clathrin at ... Clathrin coats contain both clathrin (acts as a scaffold) and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated ... These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction ... This is an adaptor protein which helps the formation of a clathrin coat around a vesicle. This entry represents a subdomain of ...
1991). "Beta-COP, a 110 kd protein associated with non-clathrin-coated vesicles and the Golgi complex, shows homology to beta- ... a component of non-clathrin-coated vesicles essential for membrane traffic". J Biol Chem. 269 (48): 30073-6. PMID 7982906. ... a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles". Nature. 349 (6306): 248-51. ... Orcl L, Palmer DJ, Amherdt M, Rothman JE (1993). "Coated vesicle assembly in the Golgi requires only coatomer and ARF proteins ...
... a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles". Nature. 349 (6306): 248-51. ... Lowe M, Kreis TE (1997). "In vivo assembly of coatomer, the COP-I coat precursor". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (48): 30725-30. doi: ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
Forgac M (January 1999). "The vacuolar H+ -ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione ... V-ATPase acidifies synaptic vesicles. Norepinephrine enters vesicles by V-ATPase. V-ATPases are also found in the plasma ... V-ATPases are found within the membranes of many organelles, such as endosomes, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles, where they ... Vma21p coordinates assembly of the Vo subunits as well as escorting the Vo domain into vesicles for transport to the Golgi ( ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles bud from immature Weibel-Palade bodies, reducing their volumes, condensing their contents, and ... The Golgi then buds off clathrin-coated vesicles which consist almost exclusively of vWF. Immature Weibel-Palade bodies remain ... Weibel-Palade bodies may also coalesce into larger vesicles called secretory pods for multigranular exocytosis. Secretory pod ...
"Extraction of Cholesterol with Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Perturbs Formation of Clathrin-coated Endocytic Vesicles". Molecular ...
Le Borgne R, Hoflack B (1997). "Mannose 6-phosphate receptors regulate the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles in the TGN". J ... in a clathrin-coated vesicle. This targeting away from the secretory pathway is achieved by the presence of a specific sorting ...
Drake MT, Zhu Y, Kornfeld S (2001). "The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic ... Odorizzi G, Cowles CR, Emr SD (1998). "The AP-3 complex: a coat of many colours". Trends Cell Biol. 8 (7): 282-8. doi:10.1016/ ... AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane and may be directly involved in protein sorting to the ... and surface expression of the AQP4 water channel are coordinated by serial and regulated interactions with different clathrin- ...
Endocytosis usually involves clathrin-coated vesicles, though non-clathrin-coated vesicles may also be used. After the ... endocytic vesicles lose their clathrin coat, however, they usually do not fuse with larger, low pH endosomes, as they do during ... decreasing synaptic vesicle exocytosis and modulating the mechanisms governing synaptic vesicle recovery and endocytosis. These ... This release in vesicles, regardless of which pool they are released from, is considered a form of short term synaptic ...
September 2006). "Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly". PLoS Biol. 4 ... As an example matricity has been used to describe the interaction of polymerised clathrin with adaptor complexes bound to the ...
"Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. 20 (14 ... Buss F, Luzio JP, Kendrick-Jones J (Nov 2001). "Myosin VI, a new force in clathrin mediated endocytosis". FEBS Letters. 508 (3 ... Aschenbrenner L, Lee T, Hasson T (Jul 2003). "Myo6 facilitates the translocation of endocytic vesicles from cell peripheries". ... Aschenbrenner L, Lee T, Hasson T (Jul 2003). "Myo6 facilitates the translocation of endocytic vesicles from cell peripheries". ...
... which is a molecular chaperone responsible for the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles during endocytosis. The clathrin- ... At pH 7 GAK allows Hsc70 to uncoat clathrin baskets and at pH 6 Hsc70 binds clathrin baskets without uncoating clathrin. ... "Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells". The Journal of Biological ... The domain of interest is the C-terminal domain which consists of three subdomains such as a C-terminal J domain, a clathrin- ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight ...
... to cell membranes at sites of coated-pit formation and clathrin-vesicle assembly. May be required to determine the amount of ... Involved in AP2-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction. Plays a crucial role in fetal and adult ... Assembly protein recruiting clathrin and adapter protein complex 2 (AP2) ... membrane to be recycled, possibly by regulating the size of the clathrin cage. ...
In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first ... a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role ... in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. ... It starts by clathrin-coated pit (CCP) and vesicle (CCV) ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. ... Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. Clathrin molecules ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles were the first discovered and remain the most extensively characterized transport vesicles. They ... Clathrin-coated vesicle formation and protein sorting: an integrated process.. Schmid SL1. ... Cell-free assays for coat assembly, membrane binding, and coated vesicle budding have provided detailed functional and ... Coat constituents not only serve to shape the budding vesicle, but also play a direct role in the packaging of cargo, ...
Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles.. Murakami N1, Bolton D, Hwang ... We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. Multiple ... Among them, we identified clathrin heavy chain and dynamin 1 as potential candidates. An overlay assay using purified and ... Under native conditions, Dyrk1A precipitated with newly formed clathrin cages and with dynamin via the GST-amphiphysin SH3 ...
Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis.. Praefcke GJ1, Ford MG, Schmid EM, ... Evolving nature of the AP2 α-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis ... Evolving nature of the AP2 α-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis ... Evolving nature of the AP2 α-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis ...
Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, ... into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies, Techniques for the Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles ... Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Phase Behavior of Charged Vesicles Under ... Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, ...
AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ...
clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Rattus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Sus scrofa) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Xenopus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Canis familiaris) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Rattus norvegicus) * Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Rattus ... Vesicle-mediated transport (Rattus norvegicus) * * Membrane Trafficking (Rattus norvegicus) * ... PI(4)P:p-T156 AP-2:clathrin:ITSNs:EPS15:REPS1:SGIP1:NECAPs:AAK1:CLASP proteins:cargo:F-BAR proteins:BAR domain proteins:ARP2/3 ... complex:WASL:f-actin:HIP dimers:DNM:GDP:SYNJs [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) ...
Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Bos taurus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Canis familiaris) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Gallus gallus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Sus scrofa) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ...
In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were ... Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in ... especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. ... Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1- ...
clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP2A2(1-939) [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] ( ... AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) AP-2 complex large subunits [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
Ii clathrin coated vesicle (Danio rerio) * Clathrin coated MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [clathrin-coated endocytic ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2dab [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2dab [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) * CLASP proteins:cargo [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) * VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] ( ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) * CLASP proteins:cargo [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) * VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] ( ...
clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * 3xCLTC:3(CLTA,B) [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... Clta [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * Cltb [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus ... WNT5A:FZD4:p-DVL2:AP-2:clathrin [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * ...
These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction ... We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis ... Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells.. *T Greener, X Zhao, H Nojima ... 2-25-2003 AP-1 binding to sorting signals and release from clathrin-coated vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. *Pradipta ...
Ii clathrin coated vesicle (Homo sapiens) * Clathrin coated MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [clathrin-coated endocytic ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... Uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles and fusion with endosomes (Homo sapiens) * Clathrin coated MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii ...
DAB2,LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ... DAB2,LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ... DAB2,LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ... DAB2,LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * LDLRAP1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ...
Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of vesicles. The AP2 complex mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to ... Both BDNF and NGF treatment recruits clathrin and AP2 (adaptor protein 2) proteins to the plasma membrane. ...
VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * VAMP3 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus ... VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * VAMP3 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus ... VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * VAMP3 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus ... VAMP2,3,8 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) * VAMP3 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus ...
SFTPs translocate from extracellular region to clathrin-coated vesicle (Bos taurus) SFTPs translocate from extracellular region ... to clathrin-coated vesicle (Mus musculus) SFTPs translocate from extracellular region to clathrin-coated vesicle (Rattus ... cells but can also determine surfactant uptake into alveolar macrophages and its degradation via clathrin-coated vesicles. The ... SFTPAs [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle] (Homo sapiens) * SFTPB dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle] (Homo sapiens) ...
Ii clathrin coated vesicle (Gallus gallus) * Clathrin coated MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [clathrin-coated endocytic ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Gallus gallus) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Gallus gallus) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway for selective uptake of surface receptors and their bound ligands into ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle Schmid, Sandra L. Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle. Schmid, Sandra L. / University of Texas Sw Medical Center Dallas. $475,570. ... The Clathrin Coated Vesicle Cycle. Schmid, Sandra L. / University of Texas Sw Medical Center Dallas. $533,419. ...
clathrin-coated vesicles;. GPCR,. G protein-coupled receptor;. PCT,. proximal convoluted tubule;. OK,. opossum kidney;. DA,. ... Preparation of Clathrin-Coated Vesicles (CCV).. Isolation of CCV was performed as described by Hammond and Verroust (18). ... we determined whether they colocalize with clathrin during the formation of coated pits and vesicles. DA clearly promoted a ... Effect of DA and Oxy on NKA activity, α-subunit phosphorylation and its abundance in clathrin vesicles, early and late ...
  • Once the lysosomal enzyme has been translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum an oligosaccharide composed of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is transferred en bloc to the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 RIPs consist of an A chain that is functionally equivalent to a type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a B chain that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate transport of the A-B protein complex from the cell surface, via vesicle carriers, to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat dissociation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auxilin depletion causes self-assembly of clathrin into membraneless cages in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the ubiquitous auxilin 2 in HeLa cells only moderately impairs clathrin-dependent trafficking. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Hsc70 molecular chaperone effects the uncoating reaction, and is guided to appropriate locations on clathrin lattices by the J-domain-containing co-chaperone molecule auxilin. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have used electron cryomicroscopy to determine 12-A-resolution structures of in-vitro-assembled clathrin coats in association with a carboxy-terminal fragment of auxilin that contains both the clathrin-binding region and the J domain. (nih.gov)
  • Auxilin binding produces a local change in heavy-chain contacts, creating a detectable global distortion of the clathrin coat. (nih.gov)
  • It works with auxilin to remove clathrin coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin G-associated kinase is homologous in function to the protein auxilin which when in association with Hsc70 uncoats clathrin in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without taking into account GAK's kinase domain, GAK is 43% identical to auxilin, a neuronal cell uncoating clathrin cofactor, in its amino acid composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAK initiates the assembly of clathrin baskets stoichiometrically, but at the different pHs it will either bind the Hsc70 to the baskets or induce the Hsc70 to uncoat the clathrin baskets catalytically which is one difference between auxilin and GAK. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unit explains the function of the cytoskeleton and its role in controlling transport of vesicles between different subcellular compartments. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • However, several observations (described above) have now demonstrated that it is more likely that transport between these two compartments occurs by a maturation process, rather than vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, perturbation of N-WASP-CK2 complex function showed that N-WASP controls the presence of F-actin at clathrin-coated structures. (biologists.org)
  • In dendritic cells, may control the movement of class II-containing cytoplasmic vesicles along the actin cytoskeleton by connecting them with the actin network via ARL14EP and ARL14 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)