The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
The light chain subunits of clathrin.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (1/1930)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (2/1930)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (3/1930)

We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell.  (+info)

The EH and SH3 domain Ese proteins regulate endocytosis by linking to dynamin and Eps15. (4/1930)

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components.  (+info)

AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors. (5/1930)

Here we report the identification and characterization of AP-4, a novel protein complex related to the heterotetrameric AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 adaptors that mediate protein sorting in the endocytic and late secretory pathways. The key to the identification of this complex was the cloning and sequencing of two widely expressed, mammalian cDNAs encoding new homologs of the adaptor beta and sigma subunits named beta4 and sigma4, respectively. An antibody to beta4 recognized in human cells an approximately 83-kDa polypeptide that exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms. Gel filtration, sedimentation velocity, and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that beta4 is a component of a multisubunit complex (AP-4) that also contains the sigma4 polypeptide and two additional adaptor subunit homologs named mu4 (mu-ARP2) and epsilon. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that AP-4 is associated with the trans-Golgi network or an adjacent structure and that this association is sensitive to the drug brefeldin A. We propose that, like the related AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 complexes, AP-4 plays a role in signal-mediated trafficking of integral membrane proteins in mammalian cells.  (+info)

A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1930)

The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network.  (+info)

Enhancement of endocytosis due to aminophospholipid transport across the plasma membrane of living cells. (7/1930)

Formation of intracellular vesicles is initiated by membrane budding. Here we test the hypothesis that the plasma membrane surface area asymmetry could be a driving force for vesicle formation during endocytosis. The inner layer phospholipid number was therefore increased by adding exogenous aminophospholipids to living cells, which were then translocated from the outer to the inner layer of the membrane by the ubiquitous flippase. Addition of either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine led to an enhancement of endocytosis, showing that the observed acceleration does not depend on the lipid polar head group. Conversely, a closely related aminophospholipid that is not recognized by the flippase, lyso-alpha-phosphatidylserine, inhibited endocytosis, and similar results were obtained with a cholesterol derivative that also remains in the plasma membrane outer layer. Thus an increase of lipid concentration in the inner layer enhanced internalization, whereas an increase of the lipid concentration in the outer layer inhibited internalization. These experiments suggest that transient asymmetries in lipid concentration might contribute to the formation of endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (8/1930)

Porcine alveolar macrophages (AMphi) are the dominant cell type that supports the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo and in vitro. In order to determine the characteristics of the virus-receptor interaction, the attachment of PRRSV to cells was examined by using biotinylated virus in a series of flow cytometric assays. PRRSV bound specifically to AMphi in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of PRRSV to AMphi increased gradually and reached a maximum within 60 min at 4 degrees C. By confocal microscopy, it was shown that different degrees of PRRSV binding exist and that entry is by endocytosis. Virus uptake in vesicles is a clathrin-dependent process, as it was blocked by the addition of cytochalasin D and co-localization of PRRSV and clathrin was found. Furthermore, by the use of two weak bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, it was demonstrated that PRRSV uses a low pH-dependent entry pathway. In the presence of these reagents, input virions accumulated in large vacuoles, indicating that uncoating was prevented. These results indicate that PRRSV entry into AMphi involves attachment to a specific virus receptor(s) followed by a process of endocytosis, by which virions are taken into the cell within vesicles by a clathrin-dependent pathway. A subsequent drop in pH is required for proper virus replication.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Clathrin is a multimeric protein involved in vesicle coat assembly. Recently clathrin distribution was reported to change during the cell cycle and was found to associate with the mitotic spindle. Here we test whether the recruitment of clathrin to the spindle is indicative of a critical functional contribution to mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously a chicken pre-B lymphoma cell line (DKO-R) was developed in which the endogenous clathrin heavy chain alleles were replaced with the human clathrin heavy chain under the control of a tetracycline-regulatable promoter. Receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis were significantly inhibited in this line following clathrin knockout, and we used this to explore the significance of clathrin heavy chain expression for cell cycle progression. We confirmed using confocal microscopy that clathrin colocalised with tubulin at mitotic spindles. Using a propidium iodide flow cytometric assay we found no statistical difference in the cell
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals, and in the recycling of transmitter receptors in neuronal soma/dendrites. The present study uses electron microscopy (EM) and immunogold EM to document the different categories of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and pits (CCP) in axons compared to soma/dendrites, and the depolarization-induced redistribution of clathrin in these two polarized compartments of the neuron. The size of CCVs in presynaptic terminals (~ 40 nm; similar to the size of synaptic vesicles) is considerably smaller than the size of CCVs in soma/dendrites (~ 90 nm). Furthermore, neuronal stimulation induces an increase in the number of CCV/CCP in presynaptic terminals, but a decrease in soma/dendrites. Immunogold labeling of clathrin revealed that in presynaptic terminals under resting conditions, the majority of clathrin molecules are unassembled and concentrated outside of synaptic vesicle clusters. Upon
To assess the role of clathrin in the bulk endocytic flow of rat foetal fibroblasts, the rate of internalization of fluid-phase and membrane-lipid tracers were compared, under control conditions and after inhibition of endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation. After intracellular potassium depletion or upon cell transfer into 0.35 M NaCl, the rate of internalization of receptor-bound transferrin and the residual membrane area of plasmalemmal clathrin-coated pits and vesicles were similarly decreased by approximately 90%. In contrast, the initial rate (, 5 min) of intracellular accumulation of the fluid-phase tracer HRP was not affected. Both in control and treated cells, the rate of HRP accumulation declined after approximately 5 min, and was twofold lower in treated cells, due to enhanced regurgitation. After correction for regurgitation, the endocytic rate constant was similar to measurements at shorter intervals and identical in control and treated cells. Similarly, the rate of internalization ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is exploited by bacterial and viral pathogens during internalization. Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function as a signalling platform during pathogen entry, and other studies revealing that, in conjunction with actin, clathrin is involved in pathogen cell-cell spread and release. The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have
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article{1864472, abstract = {Endocytosis is a crucial mechanism by which eukaryotic cells internalize extracellular and plasma membrane material, and it is required for a multitude of cellular and developmental processes in unicellular and multicellular organisms. In animals and yeast, the best characterized pathway for endocytosis depends on the function of the vesicle coat protein clathrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has recently been demonstrated also in plant cells, but its physiological and developmental roles remain unclear. Here, we assessed the roles of the clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis in plants by genetic means. We interfered with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function through mutants and dominant-negative approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana and established tools to manipulate clathrin function in a cell type-specific manner. The chc2 single mutants and dominant-negative CHC1 (HUB) transgenic lines were defective in bulk endocytosis as well as in internalization of ...
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
The early events of viral infection usually involve the attachment of virus to cellular receptor molecules on the plasma membrane of host cells. This is followed by internalization, uncoating, and subsequent virus gene transcription and/or translation at specific locations in cells. Studies have clearly demonstrated that animal viruses can utilize different internalization and trafficking pathways that allow specific localization within the cells upon entry for a successful infection (15). For enveloped viruses, the entry process can occur either via the fusion of virus envelope glycoproteins at the plasma membrane at neutral pH to promote the internalization of viral nucleocapsids or virus particles undergoing endocytosis prior to fusion with endocytic membrane. For the latter, conformational change of the virus fusion protein to expose the hydrophobic fusion peptide is induced by an acidic pH for the release of the viral nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm (14).. In the present study, a variety ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20486136. Bioessays 2010 Jun;32(6):496-504. Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486136 ...
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Our study provides evidence for a new role of Src in the phosphorylation of the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 (via the phosphorylation of the β-subunit, i.e. β2-adaptin). We identify Y737 in the ear domain of β2-adaptin as an important Src target. We show that this residue represents a regulatory site for controlling the dissociation of β-arrestin from AP-2 in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Our results not only extend the pleiotropic function of Src in GPCR internalization, but also highlight the importance of receptor-dependent signaling in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of AT1R.. β-arrestins are multifunctional adaptors involved in the endocytosis and signaling of many GPCRs (Claing et al., 2002; Lefkowitz, 1998). They have been shown to target receptors to CCPs through binding to clathrin and the β-subunit of AP-2 (Goodman, Jr et al., 1996; Laporte et al., 1999), and to act as signal transducers by recruiting different kinases to GPCRs (Luttrell and Luttrell, 2004). We have previously ...
set by micropipette aspiration to be less than 1 over a wide range of spontaneous curvatures, indicating a high membrane-tension regime in their set up. Thus, our model is consistent with their observations of shallow buds observed in isotonic conditions. One result that our model cannot explain is the lack of any clathrin assembly observed under hypotonic conditions. It is possible that at extremely high membrane tensions, the coat is simply unable to stay bound to the membrane at the extremely flat morphology that would be expected.. Avinoam et al. (46) found that the size of the clathrin coat does not change substantially during membrane deformation in CME in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells. This observation is in contrast to the canonical view that the clathrin coat should directly impose its preferred curvature on the underlying membrane (8). There are two possible explanations for this observation in the context of our study. One is that the membrane tension is too high for the coat ...
VOLUME 21 ISSUE 12 12 2011 1655 1661 Novel functions of endocytic player clathrin in mitosis Wenxiang Fu Qing Jiang and Chuanmao Zhang The MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation and the State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology College of Life Sciences Peking University Beijing 100871 China Correspondence Chuanmao Zhang Tel 86 10 62757173 E mail zhangcm pku edu cn Clathrin has been widely recognized as a pivotal player in endocytosis in which several adaptors and accessory proteins are involved Recent studies suggested that clathrin is also essential for cell division Here this review mainly focuses on the clathrin dependent mechanisms involved in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment In mitosis clathrin forms a complex with phosphorylated TACC3 to ensure spindle stability and proper chromosome alignment The clathrin regulated mechanism in mitosis requires the crosstalk among clathrin spindle assembly factors SAFs Ran GTP and mitotic kinases ...
The structure of Clathrin is known as a triskeleion structure with there being three bent legs extending from a central point known as the central trimerization domain. Clathrin is made up of six chains of protein that are braided together in such a way to form to form its distinct shape. Three of these chains are known as heavy chains and form the backbone of Clathrin, they consist of two sub domains a N-terminal zone and a proximal leg domain. A seven bladed β-propeller structure is what the N-terminal domain consists off. While the proximal leg consists of a super Helix (Conner and Schmid, 2002). The other three chains are known as light chains and regulate formation and disassembly of the Clathrin and can be found connected to the proximal portion of the heavy chains. Multiple Clathrin molecules have the ability to form a variety of complex shapes when they interact, they can form 5 or 6 sided rings with the 5 sided kind having a greature curvature and when enough get together they can form ...
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The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was
The lectin isolated from Xerocomus chrysenteron (XCL) displays a toxic activity towards insects. In order to assess its possible mode of action and to gather useful data for its potential use in insect-resistant transgenic plants, we investigated the
We found that lipid vesicles are internalized by both clathrin-mediated and clathrin-independent endocytosis pathways which require an acidification step for liposomes destabilization and fusion with the endosomes. The fusion event possibly triggers a microtubule driven pathway which avoids classical sorting endosomes and favours an ER pathway. This is an alternate to the SV40 virus caveolar route using a pH dependent, direct plasma membrane-to-ER pathway to efficiently deliver extracellular encapsulated cargo to the ER. Whilst further studies are needed to dissect this novel pathway in more detail, the finding of a second major ER targeting route leads to the idea that the import of molecules from the outside cell into the ER could be as important for the cell function as its secretion processes ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key metabolic pathway that plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and drug carriers into cells. In this study, we model the interactions of lipid membranes with different types of protein scaffolds and active forces to provide mechanistic insights into CME. To this end, we develop and employ an extended theoretical framework of lipid membranes that entertains spatial heterogeneity and local anisotropy that could arise from membrane-protein interactions. We show that a departure from homogeneity and isotropy can lead to a variable surface tension field, conventionally assumed to be a constant parameter. We model the impact of resting tension in a cell and discuss its consequences on the minimal protein machinery needed to complete vesicle formation. Based on our quantitative model and findings, we highlight the physical principles that unify CME in apparently distinct yeast and mammalian cells.
SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling ...
mmmmm cow brains the concept centers on a particular protein called clathrin which has a unique knack for assembling itself into versatile structures that foster the formation of complex molecules clathrin is present in every cell in the human body but cows possess a vast wealth of it in their bovine brains that make them an ideal source for the stuff and given the right biochemical directions researchers think they can coax clathrin into creating better batteries and solar cells http www popsci com science article - protein-cow-brains-could-build-better-batteries-solar-cells
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Clathrin interactor 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Control of E-cadherin apical localisation and morphogenesis by a SOAP-1/AP-1/clathrin pathway in C. elegans epidermal cells. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Thermodynamics of protein-mediated membrane deformation â application to clathrin dependent and clathrin independent endocytosis (2009 ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
SSO mediated functional uptake in MHT cells is AP2M1 dependent and clathrin independent. (A) MHT cells were treated with 25 nM control, AP2M1, clathrin or RNA
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
The vesicle simulation is available in two forms, one having enough for about one and a half vesicles (vesicle.obj) and the other having enough for about three (vesicle2.obj). Both can use either the vesicle_hub.tmpl or the vesicle_no_hub.tmpl template files (the first contains a sphere at the centre of each clathrin and is more polished visually, the second is faster). Note that in some runs of the simulation many fragments of vesicles form, rather than the few complete structures ...
Mills IG, Praefcke GJ, Vallis Y, Peter BJ, Olesen LE, Gallop JL, Butler PJ, Evans PR, McMahon HT. EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2003 Jan 20;160(2):213-22. Epub 2003 Jan 21. PMID:12538641 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200208023 ...
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Sweeties,. In 2014 I am going to be fearless with my fashion choices. Im always telling women to have fun with their look or take a risk; but truth is, Im not practicing what I preach. I rarely take major fashion risks. It took me an entire year to mix prints and Im still leery about trying other trends. Its not that I dont want to, Im just too chicken to wear most of my over -the -top looks. Last year I tried this faux fur coat on at the BCBG outlet. I didnt buy it, even though I loved it. ...
About Smoking Cessation Forum - SENSATIONAL SENIORS - Morning Kitty. Should be able to find a place that needs little work. We went to our friends memory gathering yesterday. I painted the license plate holder on Subaru, It flips down if you are driving with the tailgate down and was rusted. I have to wait 5 days to put the second coat on the whole undercarriage. Have a good day. Ernie
Cell-surface viral proteins most frequently enter the cell through clathrin or caveolae endocytosis. Respiratory syncytial virus antigen internalization by immune cells is via caveolin, however, uptake of paramyxovirus cell membrane proteins by non-immune cells is done through clathrin-coated pits. In this work, the uptake of respiratory syncytial virus cell surface glycoproteins by non-immune human epithelial cells was investigated through indirect immunofluorescence with polyclonal anti-RSV antibody and confocal lasser-scanner microscopy. Clathrin and caveolae internalization pathways were monitored through specific inhibitors monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), respectively. Internalization of RSV antigens was inhibited by MDC but not by MBCD, implying that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major uptake route of RSV antigens by an epithelial human cell line.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A dynamic actin cytoskeleton functions at multiple stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. AU - Yarar, Defne. AU - Waterman-Storer, Clare M.. AU - Schmid, Sandra L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells is critical for a variety of cellular processes including nutrient uptake and cell surface receptor down-regulation. Despite the findings that numerous endocytic accessory proteins directly or indirectly regulate actin dynamics and that actin assembly is spatially and temporally coordinated with endocytosis, direct functional evidence for a role of actin during clathrin-coated vesicle formation is lacking. Here, we take parallel biochemical and microscopic approaches to address the contribution of actin polymerization/depolymerization dynamics to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. When measured using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, disruption of the F-actin assembly and ...
In this report we have addressed the biological consequence of endofin-mediated TOM1 recruitment onto endosomes. Our results collectively suggest that TOM1 serves as an adaptor for endofin to recruit clathrin heavy chain onto the endosomes. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence as described in our study.. First, via large-scale pull-down experiments using immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), we have recovered clathrin heavy chain as the major and specific partner for TOM1. This conclusion was corroborated by analytical pull-down experiments showing that clathrin heavy chain was very efficiently retained by immobilized GST-TOM1(300-492), so much so that it was depleted from the cytosol. The specific interaction between TOM1 and clathrin heavy chain was further defined by our identification of three sites in the carboxyl-terminal region of TOM1, which seem to act together for efficient interaction with clathrin. Moreover, the specific blockage of interaction between TOM1 and clathrin ...
Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA,
Assembly protein recruiting clathrin and adapter protein complex 2 (AP2) to cell membranes at sites of coated-pit formation and clathrin-vesicle assembly. May be required to determine the amount of membrane to be recycled, possibly by regulating the size of the clathrin cage. Involved in AP2-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction. Plays a crucial role in fetal and adult hematopoiesis, and normal prenatal and postnatal growth and viability.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of CAP-1A is a novel linker that binds clathrin and the voltage-gated sodium channel Na,sub,v,/sub,1.8. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. They are also important for traffic between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In this presentation, I will discuss (i) technological and analytical advances that I developed to directly visualize clathrin-mediated membrane traffic in three dimensions and in living cells; (ii) data obtained using these advances that defined a role for actin filament polymerization in counteracting membrane tension during clathrin-coated vesicle budding at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells; and (iii) how these advances can be used to study a wide variety of biological processes that occur in living cells and tissues. ...
During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it has been thought that the sensing and binding of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 to cargo and lipids leads to the recruitment of clathrin, nucleating the formation of a clathrin-coated pit. Henne et al. have now found that this process of AP2 binding may not in fact represent either the first or the nucleation event of endocytosis. Instead, ubiquitous proteins called FCHo1/2 (F-BAR proteins) bind to the plasma membrane and define the sites of endocytosis independently of AP2. The F-BAR protein can generate very low curvatures and, at higher concentrations, generates higher curvatures like those required at the neck of budding vesicles. The C terminus of the protein has a μ-homology domain (with homology to the μ domain of the AP2 complex) that interacts with Eps15 and intersectin and via these proteins recruits AP2, which further recruits clathrin. Thus, a curvature-inducing protein can act to nucleate clathrin-coated pit assembly during ...
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
PICALM, the gene encoding phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly (picalm) protein, was recently shown to be associated with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Picalm is a key component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It recruits clathrin and adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) to the plasma membrane and, along with, AP-2 recognizes target proteins. The attached clathrin triskelions cause membrane deformation around the target proteins enclosing them within clathrin-coated vesicles to be processed in lysosomes or endosomes. We examined the distribution of picalm in control and AD brain tissue and measured levels of picalm messenger RNA (mRNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunolabeling of brain tissue showed that picalm is predominately present in endothelial cells. This was further supported by the demonstration of picalm in human cerebral microvascular cells grown in culture. Picalm mRNA was elevated in relation to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase but not factor VIII-related ...
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a critical process through which a wide variety of extracellular material is internalized. The primary component, clathrin, forms a cargo-selective lattice at the plasma membrane, as well as on endosomes and the TGN, though the cargo-selective components are incompletely defined. An ideal tool for understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the clathrin coat and the cargo selected is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM), which permits selective imaging of events closely apposed to the ventral plasma membrane. Previously, observation of the clathrin coat has shown both static and dynamic populations, with some dynamic structures undergoing microtubule-dependent motion; the 70-110 nm decay constant of the TIR-FM field has led to the assumption that these are all representative of coated pits. Here, I demonstrate that the dynamic population of clathrin is primarily endosomal, as it lacks colocalization with the plasma membrane-specific ...
Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), microtubules and their motors form a transport machinery that localizes a remarkable diversity of mRNAs to specific cellular regions during oogenesis and embryogenesis. Bic-D family proteins also promote dynein-dependent transport of Golgi vesicles, lipid droplets, synaptic vesicles and nuclei. However, the transport of these different cargoes is still poorly understood. We searched for novel proteins that either mediate Bic-D-dependent transport processes or are transported by them. Clathrin heavy chain (Chc) co-immunopurifies with Bic-D in embryos and ovaries, and a fraction of Chc colocalizes with Bic-D. Both proteins control posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte and endocytosis. Although the role of Chc in endocytosis is well established, our results show that Bic-D is also needed for the elevated endocytic activity at the posterior of the oocyte. Apart from affecting endocytosis indirectly by its role in osk mRNA localization, Bic-D is also ...
PhD Project - High resolution cryo-electron microscopy of clathrin cage networks at University of Warwick, listed on FindAPhD.com
Endocytosis is an essential phenomenon in eukaryotic cells. In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. Here, we observed the localization pattern and behavior of GFP-labeled ,i,Arabidopsis,/i, dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). GFP fusions of DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC were observed as dot-like puncta 200-500 nm in diameter. The puncta moved to and away from the cell surface or also assembled and disassembled. The localization pattern and behavior of the puncta were similar to those of animal dynamin and clathrin signals reported previously. These results raise the possibility that DRP1A, DRP2B and AtCLC are involved in membrane trafficking around the plasma membrane, including endocytosis.. ...
CHC22 clathrin plays a key role in intracellular membrane traffic of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 in humans. We performed population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the CHC22-encoding CLTCL1 gene, revealing independent gene loss in at least two vertebrate lineages, after arising from gene duplication. All vertebrates retained the paralogous CLTC gene encoding CHC17 clathrin, which mediates endocytosis. For vertebrates retaining CLTCL1 , strong evidence for purifying selection supports CHC22 functionality. All human populations maintained two high frequency CLTCL1 allelic variants, encoding either methionine or valine at position 1316. Functional studies indicated that CHC22-V1316, which is more frequent in farming populations than in hunter-gatherers, has different cellular dynamics than M1316-CHC22 and is less effective at controlling GLUT4 membrane traffic, attenuating its insulin-regulated response. These analyses suggest that ancestral human dietary change influenced ...
The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. CCSs recruit specific cell surface receptors and progressively shape the plasma membrane in receptor-containing vesicles that are released in the cytosol. This endocytosis machinery allows for nutrient uptake but also for the fine-tuned control of signaling pathways triggered by cell surface receptors. As a consequence, deregulation of endocytosis has been linked to many pathological situations, including cancers.. Tumor development is accompanied by dramatic changes in the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Also, when cancer cells invade the stroma to establish distant metastases, they migrate in an environment with different topological features than the tumor mass. However, it is not known how the physical parameters of the environment impact on CCSs and what are the consequences for the cell.. Our team addresses this general question by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles.. AU - Stone, D. K.. AU - Xie, X. S.. AU - Racker, E.. PY - 1983/4/10. Y1 - 1983/4/10. N2 - Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared from bovine brain catalyzed ATP-driven proton translocation and a 32Pi-ATP exchange reaction. Both activities were measured in the presence of 5 micrograms of oligomycin/mg of protein which completely inhibited these reactions catalyzed by submitochondrial particles. Analyses performed during the purification procedure demonstrated that the oligomycin-resistant pump was concentrated and highly purified in the fractions containing coated vesicles. Moreover, vesicles precipitated by either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against clathrin contained the H+ pump activity. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (0.5 mM) and N-ethylmaleimide (1 mM) added to the assay mixture inhibited the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, sodium azide, efrapeptin, or mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor had an ...
Immunogen = synthetic peptide: E E D P A A A F L A Q Q E S E I A G I E N D, corresp. to amino acids 23-44 of Cow Clathrin light chain. ...
Zwiewka, M; Nodzynski, T; Robert, S; Vanneste, S; Friml, J, 2015: Osmotic Stress Modulates the Balance between Exocytosis and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. MOLECULAR PLANT 8(8), p. 1175 - 1187, doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2015.03.007. Research Groups:. ...
Glyvuk et al (2010) argue that the CME of SV membranes represents a kinetic bottleneck of the recycling pathway. Under conditions of sustained activity BE provides a compensatory mechanism to balance high exocytic load with matching endocytic activity. Vacuolar membrane invaginations are then consumed by undefined budding events that chop these membranes into small vesicles that may re‐enter the SV cycle (Figure 1A). It is this consumption step that the authors envision to depend on AP‐1/σ1B (Figure 1B). The experimental evidence for this model at present remains indirect. AP‐1, as its relative AP‐2, is one of the major recruitment factors for clathrin and loss of either protein complex results in depletion of clathrin‐coated pits from TGN/endosomes or the plasmalemma, respectively. Why then do AP‐1/σ1B‐KO mice accumulate clathrin‐coated pits on endosome‐like vacuoles? One possibility is that other σ1 isoproteins such as σ1A do a poor job in functionally replacing σ1B on ...
Researchers of the group of cellular and molecular neurobiology of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute and the University of Barcelona, led by researcher Artur Llobet, have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons.
Clathrin (see MIM 118955)-mediated endocytosis is a major mechanism for internalization of proteins and lipids. Members of the connecdenn family, such as DENND1A, function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the early endosomal small GTPase RAB35 (MIM 604199) and bind to clathrin and clathrin adaptor protein-2 (AP2; see MIM 601024). Thus, connecdenns link RAB35 activation with the clathrin machinery (Marat and McPherson, 2010 [PubMed 20154091]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010 ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. The complex binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids. [-] ...
When released from the 20°C block, VSVG emigrated away from membranes positive for conventional Golgi to closely apposed structures that were positive for AP-1B and Exo70. Intriguingly, Exo70 also strongly localized to Tfn- and TfnR-positive recycling endosomes. Thus, it seems possible that AP-1B-dependent cargo may at least partially enter recycling endosomes before continuing to the plasma membrane after exit from the Golgi. Our data are thus in agreement with previous observations showing that Rab11 (a recycling endosome-associated GTPase) may play a role in biosynthetic traffic, at least in nonpolarized cells (Chen et al., 1998). Moreover, both the TGN and recycling endosomes are complex sorting compartments (Mellman and Warren, 2000). In the case of epithelial cells, it is also interesting to note that polarized targeting of newly synthesized and recycling glycoproteins makes use of similar or identical sorting determinants in the TGN and in the endocytic pathway (Matter et al., 1993; ...
Expression of α-Synuclein and clathrin in Z310 cells with or without a-Syn treatment in a typical experiment (n = 5). Z310 cells are immortalized rat choro
E. M. Wenzel, S. W. Schultz, K. O. Schink, N. M. Pedersen, V. Nähs, A. Carlson, A. Brech, H. Stenmark and C. Raiborg, Concerted ESCRT and clathrin recruitment waves define the timing and morphology of intraluminal vesicle formation, Nature Communications, 9, 2018.. W. Wang, J. V. I. Timonen, A. Carlson, D.-M. Drotlef, C. T. Zhang, S. Kolle, A. Grinthal, T.-S. Wong, B. Hatton, S. H. Kang, S. Kennedy, J. Chi, R. T. Blough, M. Sitti, L. Mahadevan and J. Aizenberg, Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography, Nature, 559, 2018.. A. Carlson, Fluctuation assisted spreading of a fluid filled elastic blister, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 846, 2018.. Y. Wang, G. Amberg and A. Carlson, Local dissipation limits the dynamics of impacting droplets on smooth and rough substrates, Physical Review Fluids, 2, 2017.. A. Carlson and L. Mahadevan, Singularity and self-similarity of elastohydrodynamic touchdown, Physics of Fluids (letter), 28, 2016.. P. Johansson, A. Carlson ...
Endocytosis is required for internalization of micronutrients and turnover of membrane components. Endophilin has been assigned as a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we show in mammalian cells that endophilin marks and controls a fast-acting tubulovesicular endocytic pathway that is independent of AP2 and clathrin, activated upon ligand binding to cargo receptors, inhibited by inhibitors of dynamin, Rac, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, PAK1 and actin polymerization, and activated upon Cdc42 inhibition. This pathway is prominent at the leading edges of cells where phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate-produced by the dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate by SHIP1 and SHIP2-recruits lamellipodin, which in turn engages endophilin. This pathway mediates the ligand-triggered uptake of several G-protein-coupled receptors such as α2a- and β1-adrenergic, dopaminergic D3 and D4 receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4, the receptor tyrosine kinases ...
Ybe and Niu used X-ray crystallography to look at an area of interest on the surface of HIP1, which works in concert with clathrin to traffic nutrients into a cell, and has long been implicated as playing an important role in the development of Huntingtons disease. They learned that the potential binding surface of HIPPI in HIP1 has an unexpected shape for a binding site, a spiraling spiral called a coiled coil. This finding was contrary to predicted results that the binding surface that receives HIPPI is folded into a so-called death effector domain. Using the information from the published molecular structure of HIP1, IU biologists hope to be able to test which protein connections are ultimately responsible for triggering the chain of interactions leading to Huntingtons disease and how to block them. For example, they observed that clathrin, protein involved in bringing nutrients to the cell, binds with HIP1 right next door to where HIPPI binds. While clathrin packages nutrients for a ...
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Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
Abstract In metazoans, intracellular trafficking is mediated by many conserved pathways. The main trafficking pathways involve the Adaptor Protein complexes (AP) AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3, Clathrin and Clathrin Associated Sorting Proteins (CLASPS). These proteins direct cargoes to and from the Golgi, the endosome, the lysosome and the plasma membrane. Lipoprotein receptors are one class of proteins that use these pathways and are endocytosed by AP-2 and Disabled family proteins. Disabled family proteins are ~ conserved family of monomeric adaptor proteins and consist of a single PTB domain and have a variety of motifs associated with trafficking. C. elegans has one Disabled family member, DAB-1.1 show here that .DAB-1 is a generally expressed regulator of membrane trafficking. Loss of dab-1 function, as well as an array of molecules involved membrane trafficking, perturbs cadherin-catenin function, though I have not been able to determine the precise basis of these genetic interactions. I show that ...
Involved in cell growth regulation. May be involved in the regulation of mitogenic signals and control of cell proliferation. Involved in the internalization of ligand-inducible receptors of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) type, in particular EGFR. Plays a role in the assembly of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Acts as a clathrin adapter required for post-Golgi trafficking. Seems to be involved in CCPs maturation including invagination or budding. Involved in endocytosis of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and transferrin receptor (TFR); internalization of ITGB1 as DAB2-dependent cargo but not TFR seems to require association with DAB2. ...
In light of the presented data, we suggest that LRRK2 is part of a functional protein network that controls SV trafficking within the recycling pool by interacting with a subset of presynaptic proteins. A role of LRRK2 in vesicle trafficking involving Rab5b had already been suggested (Shin et al., 2008), but we can now show for the first time that electrophysiological properties as well as vesicular trafficking in the presynaptic pool depend on the presence of LRRK2 as an integral part of presynaptic protein complex. We have in fact identified presynaptic proteins-NSF, AP-2 complex subunits, SV2A, synapsing, and syntaxin 1-as well as actin as putative LRRK2 interactors. These proteins have been described previously as key elements of synaptic vesicle trafficking (Takamori et al., 2006). NSF catalyzes the release of the SNARE complex (SNAP-25, syntaxin 1, and Vamp) and allows the first step of the endocytic cycle (Littleton et al., 1998, 2001). The clathrin complex [clathrin, AP-2 adaptor ...
Quasi-enveloped hepatitis A virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis, followed by ALIX-dependent trafficking to lysosomes where the quasi-envelope is degraded, triggering uncoating of the RNA genome in association with lysosomal membrane rupture.
Ermanno Scervino had me at pencil skirt. His flair for joining sensual with conservative is unmatched. Ive been a fan ever since. In this … Read More … ...
The interaction between cytoplasmic coat proteins and specific signals in the cytoplasmic domains of integral membrane proteins is a general mechanism controlling protein sorting. The best-characterized sorting signal is the tyrosine-based sorting motif that is involved in various sorting events by interaction with adaptor proteins (Trowbridge et al., 1993; Mellman, 1996; Marks et al., 1997). The YRSLE sequence present in the cytoplasmic domain of the neuronal form of L1 conforms to the tyrosine-based sorting motif. We have found that the AP-2 adaptor specifically recognizes and interacts with the YRSLE sequence, resulting in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of L1 (H. Kamiguchi, K. E. Long, M. Pendergast, A. W. Schaefer, I. Rapoport, T. Kirchhausen, and V. Lemmon, unpublished observations). These observations indicate that the YRSLE sequence of L1 actually functions as a tyrosine-based sorting signal. The L1 cytoplasmic domain contains three other tyrosine residues (Hlavin and Lemmon, 1991), ...
The Berro lab is interested in how forces are produced and sensed at the molecular scale in cells. Our research is currently focused on unraveling how the molecular machinery of clathrin-mediated endocytosis generates forces to deform the plasma membrane and conversely how this machinery senses membrane tension and adapts to it. To answer these questions, the lab develops new experimental and computational quantitative methods for cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics.. ...
In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Endocytosis of plasma membrane bound viruses can occur via a number of mechanisms including caveolar, clathrin, non-clathrin, or lipid raft mediated pathways. The internalized vi
CRM) in Barcelona from June ONLINE to lucid, 2014, and from June secretory to regulatory, 2014, so. Most of them think tertiary walls, including new fabrics of brief vesicles only intently read in malformed activity annexins. The clathrin formation describes already last minutes, Periodic Orbits and Hamiltonian Systems with plans to Celestial Mechanics - a as available and extra basket of request.
Plasmid pSNAP-CLC-SNAP from Dr. Xiaowei Zhuangs lab contains the insert Clathrin, light polypeptide (LCa) and is published in Nat Methods. 2011 Jun;8(6):499-508. Epub 2011 May 8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid mEos4a-Clathrin-15 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Budding of the plasma membrane then occurs, forming a clathrin coated pit.[1] Other receptors can nucleate a clathrin-coated ... Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites ... Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many receptor types begins with the cargo ligands in the luminal compartment of the cell ... Kaksonen M, Roux A (May 2018). "Mechanisms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 19 (5): ...
... interactions with clathrin, and the impact of overexpression on clathrin-mediated traffic". Mol. Biol. Cell. 10 (8): 2687-702. ... Goodman OB, Keen JH (1995). "The alpha chain of the AP-2 adaptor is a clathrin binding subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (40): 23768 ... Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID 10966473. ... This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ...
"Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, ... Kalthoff C, Groos S, Kohl R, Mahrhold S, Ungewickell EJ (Nov 2002). "Clint: a novel clathrin-binding ENTH-domain protein at the ... Gallusser A, Kirchhausen T (Dec 1993). "The beta 1 and beta 2 subunits of the AP complexes are the clathrin coat assembly ... Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID ...
Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID 10966473. Geyer M ... 1999). "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin ... 1999). "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4". Curr ... Doray B, Kornfeld S (2001). "Gamma subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex binds clathrin: implications for cooperative binding in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated ... Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
"Tandem arrangement of the clathrin and AP-2 binding domains in amphiphysin 1 and disruption of clathrin coat function by ... Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID ... "Crystal structure of the alpha appendage of AP-2 reveals a recruitment platform for clathrin-coat assembly". Proceedings of the ... "Association and colocalization of Eps15 with adaptor protein-2 and clathrin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 136 (4): 811-21. doi ...
Kirchhausen T (2000). "Clathrin". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 69: 699-727. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.69.1.699. PMID ... "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor". ... "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4". Current ... where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic ...
However, in higher eukaryotes there are several conserved motifs such as the clathrin-binding motifs which bind clathrin heavy ... The epsin homologue of C. elegans is EPN-1. EPN-1 conserves the UIM, ENTH domain, and clathrin-binding motif. ... Chen X, Irani NG, Firml, J (2011). "Clathrin - mediated endocytosis: the gateway into plant cells". Current Opinion in Plant ... Epsin 4, which encodes the protein enthoprotin, now known as clathrin interactor 1 (CLINT1), has been shown to be involved in ...
IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 can be internalized through endocytosis in response to agonism through clathrin-dependent and clathrin- ... Electron microscopy experiments show IFNAR receptors concentrated in clathrin-coated pits, and inhibition of clathrin-mediated ... Clathrin-dependent endocytosis[edit]. Following receptor agonism, the C-terminus of IFNAR is phosphorylated, followed by its ... in the presence of stimulation when the clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway is inhibited with siRNA knockdown of clathrin or ...
Jung N, Haucke V (September 2007). "Clathrin-mediated endocytosis at synapses". Traffic. 8 (9): 1129-36. doi:10.1111/j.1600- ... Long-term depression enacts mechanisms to decrease AMPA receptor density in selected dendritic spines, dependent on clathrin ... Interactions from calcineurin activate dynamin GTPase activity, allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell ... consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting proteins, is the ...
5) In the periactive zone the membrane proteins are sequestered and are endocytosed forming a clathrin coated vesicle. (6) The ... Jung Nadja; Haucke Volker (2007). "Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis at Synapses". Traffic. 8 (9): 1129-1136. doi:10.1111/j.1600- ... 2010). "Intersectin 1 forms complexes with SGIP1 and Reps1 in clathrin-coated pits". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... clathrin and endophilin.[17] In Drosophilia the intersectin homolog, Dap160, is located in the periactive zone of the ...
Fölsch H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I (Feb 2001). "Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized ... Korolchuk VI, Banting G (Jun 2002). "CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles". Traffic. 3 (6 ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Hirst J, Robinson MS (Aug 1998). "Clathrin and adaptors". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1404 ( ...
1997). "Arrestin/clathrin interaction. Localization of the arrestin binding locus to the clathrin terminal domain". J. Biol. ... 1998). "Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the beta-adrenergic receptor is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of beta ... ter Haar E, Musacchio A, Harrison SC, Kirchhausen T (1998). "Atomic structure of clathrin: a beta propeller terminal domain ... interaction of beta-arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor is required for the clustering of beta 2-adrenergic receptor into clathrin- ...
The holotoxin can be taken up by clathrin-coated pits, as well as by clathrin-independent pathways including caveolae and ... Nichols BJ, Lippincott-Schwartz J (October 2001). "Endocytosis without clathrin coats". Trends Cell Biol. 11 (10): 406-12. doi: ...
P2 and clathrin by AP180 in the nucleation of clathrin lattices on membranes". Science. 291 (5506): 1051-5. Bibcode:2001Sci... ... Pearse, B. M. F.; Robinson, M. S. (1990). "Clathrin, Adaptors, and Sorting". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 6: 151-171. doi: ... Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required) Pearse, B. M. (1987). "Clathrin and coated ...
This process is aided by clathrin proteins. Once inside an early endosome, the endosome and the viral envelope fuse and the RNA ...
Winterpacht A, Endele S, Enklaar T, Fuhry M, Zabel B (Mar 1997). "Human CLAPS2 encoding AP17, a small chain of the clathrin- ... Byland R, Vance PJ, Hoxie JA, Marsh M (2007). "A Conserved Dileucine Motif Mediates Clathrin and AP-2-dependent Endocytosis of ... One of two major clathrin-associated adaptor complexes, AP-2, is a heterotetramer which is associated with the plasma membrane ... "Entrez Gene: AP2S1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit". Pearse BM, Smith CJ, Owen DJ (2000). "Clathrin coat ...
Examples include: Archain ARFs Clathrin Caveolin Dynamin and related proteins, such as the EHD protein family Rab proteins ... cis-Golgi Clathrin : trans-Golgi ----> Lysosomes, Plasma membrane ----> Endosomes (receptor-mediated endocytosis) Membrane ...
The clathrin-coated pit invaginates into the cytosol and forms a clathrin-coated vesicle. The clathrin proteins will then ... The particles are absorbed through the use of clathrin-coated pits. These clathrin-coated pits are short lived and serve only ... Proteins in the clathrin coat on the plasma membrane have propensity to bind and trap macromolecules or ligands. However, it is ... Clathrin Hydrolase Lysosome Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.; Green, M.M. 1991. Glossary of Genetics. ...
Once the clathrin coat detaches, other proteins can interact directly with the AMPARs using PDZ carboxyl tail domains; for ... The complex, consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting ... Long-term depression enacts mechanisms to decrease AMPA receptor density in selected dendritic spines, dependent on clathrin ... Interactions from calcineurin activate dynamin GTPase activity, allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell ...
The AP2 adaptor complex is a multimeric protein that works on the cell membrane to internalize cargo in clathrin-mediated ... The alpha and beta appendage domains bind to accessory proteins and to clathrin. Their interactions allow the temporal and ... "Clathrin coat construction in endocytosis". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 10 (2): 220-8. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00) ... spatial regulation of the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles and their endocytosis. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer ...
"Tandem arrangement of the clathrin and AP-2 binding domains in amphiphysin 1 and disruption of clathrin coat function by ... In the brain, its primary function is thought to be the recruitment of dynamin to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. There ... A ubiquitous splice form of amphiphysin 2 that does not contain clathrin or adaptor interactions is highly expressed in muscle ... McMahon HT, Wigge P, Smith C (August 1997). "Clathrin interacts specifically with amphiphysin and is displaced by dynamin". ...
The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ... Clathrin interactor 1 (CLINT1), also known as EPSIN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLINT1 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CLINT1 clathrin interactor 1". Wasiak S, Legendre-Guillemin V, Puertollano R, Blondeau F, Girard M, de Heuvel E, ... Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... This complex is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in ... Foti M, Mangasarian A, Piguet V, Lew DP, Krause KH, Trono D, Carpentier JL (Oct 1997). "Nef-mediated clathrin-coated pit ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
Sec13/Sec31 complex forms a cage-like outer coat (similar to the formation of clathrin vesicles). Sar1p is a GTPase that acts ... COPI vesicles Clathrin vesicles PDB: 3EH1​; Mancias JD, Goldberg J (November 2008). "Structural basis of cargo membrane protein ... of the Sec13/31 complex with other Sec13/31 complexes to form a cuboctahedron with a broader lattice than its Clathrin vesicle ...
February 2001). "Simultaneous binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and clathrin by AP180 in the nucleation of clathrin lattices on ... HIP1; HIP1R; PICALM; SNAP91; "Clathrin and its interactions with AP180". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. de Camilli P ... The domain is involved in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding and is a universal adaptor for nucleation of clathrin ... endocytotic accessory protein that has been implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated pits. ...
"Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-containing carriers". Cell Reports. 2 (5): 1111-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... The involvement of the heterotetramer of COPI is similar to that of the AP/clathrin situation, but the coat of COPI is not ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (August 2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell ... AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, SPG11 and SPG15, which have some structural similarity to clathrin, and may form the coat ...
Raiborg C, Bache KG, Mehlum A, Stang E, Stenmark H (2001). "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): 5008-21 ... "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): 5008-21. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.17.5008. PMC 125612. PMID 11532964. ...
Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... Henne WM, Boucrot E, Meinecke M, Evergren E, Vallis Y, Mittal R, McMahon HT (2010). "FCHo proteins are nucleators of clathrin- ... The muniscin protein family was initially defined in 2009 as proteins having 2 homologous domains that are involved in clathrin ... Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ...
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ... This is how clathrin gets its name, from the Latin clathratus meaning like a lattice. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to ... During mitosis, clathrin binds to the spindle apparatus, in complex with two other proteins: TACC3 and ch-TOG/CKAP5. Clathrin ... Model of Clathrin assembly). *. Pérez-Gómez J, Moore I (March 2007). "Plant endocytosis: it is clathrin after all". Current ...
Endocytosis without clathrin coats.. Nichols BJ1, Lippincott-Schwartz J.. Author information. 1. MRC Laboratory of Molecular ... Many markers for clathrin-independent endocytosis are found in detergent-resistant membrane fractions, or lipid rafts. We will ... Various non-clathrin endocytic mechanisms have been identified, including uptake through caveolae, macropinosomes and via a ... To date, most studies on endocytosis in mammalian cells have focused on pathways that start with uptake through clathrin-coated ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) are prevalent tubulovesicular membranes responsible for non-clathrin mediated endocytic ...
Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. Clathrin molecules ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... The connection of the clathrin scaffold to the membrane is mediated by clathrin adaptors, which can bind directly to both the ... clathrin. Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the ...
Aftiphilin contains a clathrin box, with two identified clathrin-binding motifs [PMID: 15811338, PMID: 15758025]. ... Aftiphilin is a component of the clathrin machinery in neurons.. FEBS Lett. 579 2177-84 2005 ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. We report the structure of a clathrin lattice at ... Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. We report the structure of a clathrin lattice at ... Clathrin light chain A. J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R. 70. Bos taurus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CLTA. ... Clathrin heavy chain. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I. 1630. Bos taurus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CLTC. ...
... which in most cases involves the protein clathrin. Endophilin has been thought to be a component of clathrin-mediated ... Endophilin has been assigned as a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we show in mammalian cells that endophilin ... We call this new endocytic route fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME). This study describes a fast, clathrin-independent ... endocytosis, but two studies published in this issue of Nature show that this protein mediates a fast-acting, clathrin- ...
Immunogen = synthetic peptide derived from within residues 1650 to the C-terminus of human Clathrin heavy chain conj. to KLH ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis persists during unperturbed mitosis.. Tacheva-Grigorova SK1, Santos AJ, Boucrot E, Kirchhausen T. ... The dynamics of clathrin-coated pit formation and the uptake of transferrin are maintained in naturally dividing cells but are ... B) Surface density of clathrin/AP2-coated structures (CCS/100 µm2) calculated from the number of AP2 spots at the top and ... C) Total number of clathrin/AP2-coated structures (CCS per cell) on the plasma membrane of a cell as determined by counting the ...
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2015) Effect of clathrin light chains on the stiffness of clathrin lattices and membrane budding. Traffic 16(5):519-533. ... 22) in the presence or absence of clathrin light chains which have been shown to modulate the stiffness of the clathrin lattice ... The bending rigidity of clathrin-coated vesicles was estimated to be κ. CCV. =. 285. k. B. T. =. 2280. pN. ⋅. nm. from atomic ... Clathrin assembles into a lattice-like cage on the membrane with the assistance of adaptor proteins that directly bind lipids ( ...
Vassilopoulos et al. (see the Perspective by Orme and Bogan) now describe a function for CHC22 clathrin, a second isoform of ... A role for the CHC22 clathrin heavy-chain isoform in human glucose metabolism. Science 324, 1192-1196 (2009). [Abstract] [Full ... clathrin that is present in humans and not in mice. CHC22 participates in the biogenesis of the intracellular compartment that ...
This binding then stimulates clathrin lattice assembly. HIP1 is an obligate binding partner for Huntingtin, and loss of this ... Huntingtin-interacting protein 1, clathrin-binding domain (IPR032422). Short name: HIP1_clath-bd ... Clathrin light-chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin ... It carries a highly conserved HADLLRKN sequence motif at its N terminus which effects the binding of HIP1R to clathrin light- ...
Very few clathrin coats continue to assemble after AP-2 knockdown. Moreover, there is a total absence of clathrin-containing ... Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic clathrin coated-pit and coated-vesicle ... They also indicate that under normal conditions, functional endocytic clathrin coated pits are required for LDL internalization ... the formation of clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membranes of BSC1 and HeLa cells depleted by RNAi of the clathrin ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves cargo selection and membrane budding into vesicles with the aid of a protein coat. ... membrane and subsequent budding of vesicles is an energetically demanding process that involves the cooperation of clathrin ... Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin Nature. 2002 Sep 26;419(6905):361-6. doi: 10.1038/nature01020. ... Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves cargo selection and membrane budding into vesicles with the aid of a protein coat. ...
They found that clathrin takes over from adaptors as a hub as clathrin assembles into a coat. This shift requires collaboration ... Sharing Responsibility for Clathrin Coat Assembly. Aug 16, 2006 - 8:58:00 AM, Reviewed by: Dr. Priya Saxena. ... Clathrin coat formation, Schmid et al. propose, is an outgrowth of increasingly stable interactions among a shifting network of ... Clathrin molecules three-pronged pinwheel-shaped proteins form an elaborate lattice coat around the vesicles, which ultimately ...
... have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons. ... The dogma of the clathrin Study investigators have sought to determine the role of clathrin in synaptic plasticity. "This ... presynaptic levels of clathrin decrease reversibly. Ie levels clathrin are a dynamic property of the terminals". "This is not ... Presynaptic Clathrin Levels Are a Limiting Factor for Synaptic Transmission. The Journal of Neuroscience. Doi: 10.1523/JNEUOSCI ...
Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Clathrin. This plasmid is available through Addgene. ... mEos4b-Clathrin-15 was a gift from Michael Davidson (Addgene plasmid # 57506 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:57506 ; RRID:Addgene_ ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in Mathematical ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ... This is how clathrin gets its name, from the Latin clathratus meaning like a lattice. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to ... Biochemistry Biological Models Biology Cell Cell Biology Cellular Biology Chemistry Clathrin Clathrin Cage Enzyme Molecular ...
The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during ... Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have put the spotlight on its role in pathogen spread. Here ... In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these ... Humphries and Way review recent studies which highlight the fact that, in addition to a structural role, clathrin can function ...
In clathrin-coated vesicles clathrin is the main component of the coat and forms a polymeric mechanical scaffold on the vesicle ... A protein complex that consists of three clathrin heavy chains and three clathrin light chains, organized into a symmetrical ... clathrin complex. Known as: clathrin complex location, clathrin triskelion A protein complex that consists of three clathrin ... The uncoating ATPase has been shown to dissociate clathrin from both clathrin-coated vesicles and synthetic clathrin baskets… ( ...
Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, ... In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery ... Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High- ... In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction. Daniel Feliciano1, Jarred J. Bultema1, Andrea L. Ambrosio1, ...
Involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the synapse. Plays a role in neuronal development and in synaptic vesicle ... AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in ... clathrin-coated vesicle By similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ... Involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the synapse. Plays a role in neuronal development and in synaptic vesicle ...
An exon representing a novel clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTCL) was isolated during gene identification studies and ... Cloning and characterization of a novel human clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTCL) Genomics. 1996 Aug 1;35(3):466-72. doi: 10.1006 ... Its location overlaps the domain putatively involved in clathrin light chain binding and is adjacent to the heavy chain self- ... An exon representing a novel clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTCL) was isolated during gene identification studies and ...
Abstract: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of the major pathway through which cells internalize nutrients and ... It occurs on the membrane via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). In this thesis, we studied CCPs behavior when cells are under ...
Inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation was inhibited by incubating cells in hypertonic ... The internalization process of CFTR is dependent upon the formation of clathrin coated vesicles. Inhibition of clathrin- ... Cytoplasmic Tails Direct Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis of CFTR Contact Person: Gergely Lukacs ([email protected]). ... 3: Internalization of the Tac-CFTR chimeras is clathrin dependent.. To delineate the potential sorting signals, alanine ...
Clathrin-link , Name = Clathrin heavy-chain linker , image = PDB 1b89 EBI.jpg , width = , caption = clathrin heavy chain repeat ... Clathrin_propel , Name = Clathrin propeller repeat , image = PDB 1c9l EBI.jpg , width = , caption = Clathrin terminal domain , ... Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.,Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.]] {{infobox protein , Name = Clathrin ... This is how clathrin gets its name, from the [[Latin]] clathratus meaning like a lattice. Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends upon the interaction of accessory proteins with the alpha-ear of the AP-2 adaptor. We ... Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends upon the interaction of accessory proteins with the alpha-ear of the AP-2 adaptor. We ... Accessory protein recruitment motifs in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.. Brett, T.J., Traub, L.M., Fremont, D.H.. (2002) ... AP-2 CLATHRIN ADAPTOR ALPHA-APPENDAGE IN COMPLEX WITH EPS15 DPF PEPTIDE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1KYU/pdb ...
  • Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis without clathrin coats. (nih.gov)
  • To date, most studies on endocytosis in mammalian cells have focused on pathways that start with uptake through clathrin-coated pits. (nih.gov)
  • Many markers for clathrin-independent endocytosis are found in detergent-resistant membrane fractions, or lipid rafts. (nih.gov)
  • Endophilin has been assigned as a component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Clathrin-independent, endophilin-dependent endocytosis of GPCR. (nature.com)
  • Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release. (nature.com)
  • Endophilin/SH3p4 is required for the transition from early to late stages in clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Taylor, M. J., Perrais, D. & Merrifield, C. J. A high precision survey of the molecular dynamics of mammalian clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis persists during unperturbed mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, recent experimental studies have shown that membrane tension inhibits membrane budding processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and mechanical environments suggests that the protein machinery in this process has evolved to take advantage of some set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesiculation against opposing forces like membrane tension. (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), an essential cellular process in eukaryotes, is an archetypal example of a membrane-deformation process that takes as input multiple variables, such as membrane bending, tension, protein-induced spontaneous curvature, and actin-mediated forces, and generates vesicular morphologies as its output ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves cargo selection and membrane budding into vesicles with the aid of a protein coat. (nih.gov)
  • This highly complex process, called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, requires a constellation of accessory proteins that interact with key protein hubs. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Figure 1: Stages of mammalian clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • McMahon, H. T. & Boucrot, E. Molecular mechanism and physiological functions of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Single-molecule live-cell imaging demonstrating that the recruitment of AP2 and clathrin defines the initial steps of endocytosis. (nature.com)
  • Involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the synapse. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of the major pathway through which cells internalize nutrients and membrane proteins. (umich.edu)
  • The role of clathrin-dependent pathway in CFTR endocytosis was evaluated in cells exposed to hypertonic medium, potassium depletion or intracellular acid load. (mcmaster.ca)
  • alt=Mechanism of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends upon the interaction of accessory proteins with the alpha-ear of the AP-2 adaptor. (rcsb.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that Japanese encephalitis virus enters porcine kidney epithelial PK15 cells through cholesterol- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Whereas anti-dynamin antibodies blocked RE, anti-clathrin antibodies did not, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles are not involved in this form of endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we show that HeLa cells also express auxilin 1, previously thought to be neuron specific, and that both auxilins need to be depleted for inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and intracellular sorting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Elevated tension in a cell hinders clathrin-mediated endocytosis through inhibition of de novo coat initiation, elongation of clathrin coat lifetimes, and reduction of high magnitude growth rates. (biologists.org)
  • A review of the current knowledge of the timeline of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the budding yeast S . cerevisiae , including discussion of recent works that focus on how this process is regulated. (biologists.org)
  • In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Phuc LTM, Taniguchi A. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Model of clathrin-mediated endocytosis suggested by the authors' findings. (fredhutch.org)
  • The clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway is a major route for endocytosis, the mechanism by which many essential substances are transported into cells, particularly large polar molecules. (fredhutch.org)
  • Membrane receptors compose some of the cargoes that are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). (fredhutch.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a central and well-studied trafficking process in eukaryotic cells. (rupress.org)
  • During the early stages of endocytosis three components-adaptor and accessory proteins, cargo, and lipids-come together at the plasma membrane to begin the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the process by which cargo-containing clathrin-coated vesicles bud off from the plasma membrane and are taken up into the cell. (rupress.org)
  • Although the budding of clathrin-coated vesicles in vitro has recently been shown to only require the presence of clathrin, an adaptor protein, and dynamin ( Dannhauser and Ungewickell, 2012 ), endocytosis in vivo is a lot more complex. (rupress.org)
  • A) In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , clathrin-mediated endocytosis is polarized to the growing bud. (rupress.org)
  • B) After signal propagation at the synapse, exocytosis of the neurotransmitter is accompanied by a compensatory increase in clathrin-mediated endocytosis to maintain synaptic plasma membrane area and recycle synaptic vesicle components. (rupress.org)
  • C) Many viruses enter the host cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • However, both in the presence and absence of serum, nanoparticle entry depends upon clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (dovepress.com)
  • Clathrin is a proteic complex found in coated pits and vesicles, organelles which are important in membrane trafficking functions such as endocytosis and Golgi sorting. (humpath.com)
  • Clathrin is the main structural component of the lattice covering the cytoplasmic face of the coated pits and coated vesicles in which specific macromolecules are entrapped in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis . (humpath.com)
  • Although it is well established that hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the possible roles of clathrin in other steps of the viral cycle remain unexplored. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE HCV entry into hepatocytes depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (asm.org)
  • However, clathrin-independent endocytosis is also responsible for a proportion of the toxin uptake in some cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In these cell lines, one can study the role of dynamin and clathrin on endosome-to-Golgi transport because they, as shown here, still internalize Shiga toxin when dynamin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis is blocked. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. (gatech.edu)
  • Thus, saline stress reconfigures clathrin-independent endocytosis and remodels endomembrane systems, forming large vacuoles in the inner cell layers, both processes correlated by the requirement of VPS9a activity. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The darkness-induced degradation of charasomes can be inhibited by 1-2 μM ikarugamycin (IKA), which is considered to be a specific inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absence of an additive effect, when applied together with IKA, suggests that charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis (measured via styryl dye uptake) is not inhibited due to membrane retrieval via lipid rafts, but due to clathrin coat formation requirement of a specific set of sterols. (frontiersin.org)
  • The data obtained indicate that clathrin plays a central role not only in constitutive endocytosis but also in the degradation of charasomes, thereby representing a valuable system for studying targeted exo- and endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous studies have shown that clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the main pathway for plasma membrane recycling in plant cells (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is initiated at the plasma membrane with the recruitment of coat machinery and cargo proteins into clathrin-coated membrane invaginations the so called clathrin coated pits (CPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), although this has been widely studied, the role of NEU3 and gangliosides in this cellular process has not yet been established. (portlandpress.com)
  • Fungal lectin, XCL, is internalized via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and facilitates uptake of other molecules. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. (mdpi.com)
  • In animal cells, depending on the machinery involved, endocytosis is roughly classified into clathrin-mediated (CME) and clathrin-independent (CIE) endocytosis [ 1 , 3 - 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Significantly, NGF signaled through TrkA to induce an increase in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking, as revealed in the increased endocytosis of transferrin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, as is the case for a number of other cell surface receptors [e.g., the transferrin receptor (TfnR) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ( Schmid, 1997 )], clathrin-coated membranes may mediate the endocytosis of Trk receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition to the classical clathrin-dependent mechanism of endocytosis, several pathways that do not use a clathrin coat are emerging. (humpath.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is conserved among eukaryotes and has been extensively analyzed at a molecular level. (asm.org)
  • However, since arp2 / 3 cells are still able to endocytose lipids and fluid-phase markers, but not the Ste2 and Mup1 plasma membrane proteins, there must be an alternate clathrin-independent pathway we term Arp2/3-independent endocytosis (AIE). (asm.org)
  • Overall, C. albicans contains an alternative endocytic pathway (AIE) that relies on actin cable function to permit clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) and provides a system to further explore alternate endocytic routes that likely exist in fungal species. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE There is a well-established process of endocytosis that is generally used by eukaryotic cells termed clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). (asm.org)
  • One of the first described endocytic pathways is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a fascinating mechanical phenomenon that drives the selective internalisation of molecules into cells. (findaphd.com)
  • In order to work properly, clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires accurate and timely assembly of a clathrin lattice and coordination with a network of more than 20 adaptor proteins to form a coated vesicle which will be able to select molecules from the outside of the cell for delivery to specific destinations. (findaphd.com)
  • This is a fabulous opportunity to apply cutting edge techniques to discovering how clathrin and its adaptor proteins drive clathrin mediated endocytosis. (findaphd.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the major pathway for ligand internalization into eukaryotic cells, is thought to be initiated by the clustering of clathrin and adaptors around receptors destined for internalization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the process by which cargo is internalized into vesicles with the aid of adaptors [such as the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2)] and the coat-protein clathrin ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, FBP17-another F-BAR protein implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( 6 )-was recruited at later stages to some (3 ± 1%) CCPs (fig. S2E). (sciencemag.org)
  • A complete loss of CCPs was observed when FCHo1+2 levels were greatly reduced by using double RNA interference (RNAi) ( Fig. 1, C and D , and fig. S3, A to D) with a concomitant reduction in internalization of three known cargoes for clathrin-mediated endocytosis: transferrin (Tf), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ( Fig. 1E ). (sciencemag.org)
  • FCHo1/2 function was not limited to fibroblasts but was also associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis in primary astrocytes and the recycling of synaptic vesicle markers (synaptotagmin1 and synaptophysin) after stimulated exocytosis in hippocampal neurons cultured for 4 days in vitro (fig. S4). (sciencemag.org)
  • Entry of a novel marine DNA virus, Singapore grouper iridovirus, into host cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in a pH-dependent manner. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SGIV infection in host cells was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with drugs blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including sucrose and chlorpromazine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast, disruption of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin had no effect on virus infection, suggesting that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway and macropinocytosis but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, using single-virus tracking technology in combination with biochemical assays, we investigated the crucial events during SGIV entry and demonstrated that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway in a pH-dependent manner but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A novel post-translational modification of threonine , β- N -acetylglucosaminyl-phosphate, was recently discovered on assembly protein AP180, a protein which plays a crucial role in clathrin coated vesicle formation in synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE). (rsc.org)
  • Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification. (ugent.be)
  • Clathrin heavy chain (Chc) co-immunopurifies with Bic-D in embryos and ovaries, and a fraction of Chc colocalizes with Bic-D. Both proteins control posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte and endocytosis. (biologists.org)
  • Here we report that intact vesicles from H. pylori are internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and further dynamin-dependent processes, as well as in a cholesterol-sensitive manner. (asm.org)
  • Both chemical inhibition and RNA interference in combination with the qIS assay showed that H. pylori vesicles enter gastric epithelial cells via both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and additional endocytic processes that are dependent on dynamin. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, however, knockdown of components required for caveolae had no significant effect on internalization and knockdown of components required for clathrin-independent carrier (CLIC) endocytosis increased internalization of H. pylori vesicles. (asm.org)
  • With the combination of a fluorescence-based quantification assay that quantifies internalized vesicles in a large number of cells and either chemical inhibition or RNA interference, we show that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major pathway for uptake of Helicobacter pylori vesicles and that lipid microdomains of the host cell membrane affect uptake of vesicles via clathrin-independent pathways. (asm.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) utilizes complex protein machinery, with clathrin, adaptor protein 2 (AP-2), and dynamin as its core components. (asm.org)
  • In animal cells, dynamin and clathrin play central roles in vesicle formation in the process of endocytosis, but the roles of similar proteins in plants are less well understood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Clathrin mediates endocytosis and pol. (ugent.be)
  • In animals and yeast, the best characterized pathway for endocytosis depends on the function of the vesicle coat protein clathrin. (ugent.be)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has recently been demonstrated also in plant cells, but its physiological and developmental roles remain unclear. (ugent.be)
  • Here, we assessed the roles of the clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis in plants by genetic means. (ugent.be)
  • Interference with clathrin-mediated endocytosis led to defects in constitutive endocytic recycling of PIN auxin transporters and their polar distribution in embryos and roots. (ugent.be)
  • Clathrin mediates endocytosis and polar distribution of PIN auxin transporters in Arabidopsis," PLANT CELL , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1920-1931, 2011. (ugent.be)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key metabolic pathway that plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and drug carriers into cells. (purdue.edu)
  • Additionally, a robust impairment in clathrin-mediated endocytosis was observed, with an accumulation of early and U-shaped pits. (elifesciences.org)
  • This defect correlated with a perturbation of the coupling between the clathrin coat and the actin cytoskeleton, which we confirmed in a cell-free assay of endocytosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is one of the mechanisms used by cells to internalize specific proteins (cargo) from their surface. (elifesciences.org)
  • Epsin binds to several other proteins implicated in clathrin-dependent endocytosis, including clathrin itself, and to plasma membrane proteins specifically 'tagged' for internalization. (elifesciences.org)
  • The normal linking of the actin filaments to the clathrin coat does not occur, and another protein called Hip1R that also participates in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and links clathrin to actin, no longer accumulates at the clathrin-coated pits. (elifesciences.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves a complex set of factors besides clathrin itself and the classical clathrin adaptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using the tip-growing pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum as a model to investigate endocytosis mechanisms, we show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 6 (PIP5K6) regulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
  • RNA interference-induced suppression of PIP5K6 expression impaired tip growth and inhibited clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
  • It has previously been demonstrated that there are distinct saturable components involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( 40 ) and that saturation of the endocytic pathway for the transferrin (Tf) receptor (TfR) does not affect the endocytosis of the EGFR ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • This finding could potentially support the contention that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the EGFR is independent of adaptor protein 2 (AP2), in contrast to clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the TfR ( 8 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • We have used synapses of dynamin 1 and 3 double knock-out neurons, where clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dramatically impaired, to gain insight into the poorly understood mechanisms underlying this process. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recently, however, a mechanism of vesicle membrane endocytosis that does not involve clathrin was identified. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, formation of vesicles from the vacuoles generated by bulk endocytosis appeared to be clathrin-independent. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we show that PA triggers the ubiquitination of its receptors in a β-arrestin-dependent manner and that this step is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we identify some of the key players that allow efficient heptamerization of PA and subsequent ubiquitin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the anthrax toxin. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that clathrin is, as predicted, involved in endocytosis but that the anthrax toxin follows a non-canonical clathrin-dependent route that depends of β-arrestins and the heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1. (prolekare.cz)
  • Clathrin mediated endocytosis is the most common type of endocytosis. (cam.ac.uk)
  • During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-coated pits invaginate to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CVs). (rupress.org)
  • However, surprisingly FRAP studies on clathrin-coated pits labeled with green fluorescent protein-clathrin light chains in HeLa cells show that even when endocytosis is blocked by expression of a dynamin mutant or depletion of cholesterol from the membrane, replacement of photobleached clathrin in coated pits on the membrane occurs at almost the same rate and magnitude as when endocytosis is occurring. (rupress.org)
  • On the other hand, consistent with the in vitro data both potassium depletion and hypertonic sucrose, which have been reported to transform clathrin-coated pits into clathrin cages just below the surface of the plasma membrane, not only block endocytosis but also block exchange of clathrin. (rupress.org)
  • We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A conserved clathrin assembly motif essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of auxilin or AP180 inhibits endocytosis by mislocalizing clathrin: evidence for formation of nascent pits containing AP1 or AP2 but not clathrin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain in transformed cells may be linked to previously observed transformation-dependent alterations in receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligands such as EGF and thrombin. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin. (pasteur.fr)
  • Plasma membrane domains specialized for clathrin-mediated endocytosis " by Karl D. Bellve, Deborah Leonard et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Clathrin assembly at the plasma membrane is a fundamental process required for endocytosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • These results reveal that large clathrin assemblies are active regions of endocytosis in mammalian cells and highlight the importance of understanding the mechanistic basis for this organization. (umassmed.edu)
  • Best characterized is the formation of clathrin coats for endocytosis at the plasma membrane involving the adaptor protein complex AP-2. (unibas.ch)
  • Our results indicate that amphiphysin 1 and 2 function not only in clathrin coated vesicle formation for endocytosis at the plasma membrane, but are also part of the machinery forming AP-1/clathrin coats at the TGN and endosomes. (unibas.ch)
  • The main function of proteins containing this domain appears to be to act as accessory clathrin adaptors in endocytosis, epsin is able to recruit and promote clathrin polymerisation on a lipid monolayer, but may have additional roles in signalling and actin regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin performs critical roles in shaping rounded vesicles in the cytoplasm for intracellular trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for multiple membrane traffic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epsin also recruits clathrin to membranes and promotes its polymerization, and can help deform the membrane, and thus clathrin-coated vesicles can bud. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi network connecting the trans-Golgi network, endosomes, lysosomes and the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Fission and uncoating of synaptic clathrin-coated vesicles are perturbed by disruption of interactions with the SH3 domain of endophilin. (nature.com)
  • An endophilin-dynamin complex promotes budding of clathrin-coated vesicles during synaptic vesicle recycling. (nature.com)
  • Formation of invaginated pits on the plasma membrane and subsequent budding of vesicles is an energetically demanding process that involves the cooperation of clathrin with many different proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin molecules three-pronged pinwheel-shaped proteins form an elaborate lattice coat around the vesicles, which ultimately bud off from the membrane and transport their cargo to their cellular destination. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Dissociation of clathrin from coated vesicles by the uncoating ATPase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results suggest that internalization of CFTR occurs by clathrin-coated vesicles, which may be regulated by protein phosphorylation. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Clathrin interactor 1 Antibody [NBP1-85570] - Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-251 MG shows localization to vesicles. (novusbio.com)
  • Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles. (thermofisher.com)
  • Clathrin is a major protein component of the cytoplasmic face of intracellular organelles, called coated vesicles and coated pits. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Auxilin is a cofactor for Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Altering sphingolipid acyl chain length causes oxidative stress, reducing transcription of Hsc70 via Sp1, which leads to lower levels of Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. (biologists.org)
  • Cargo-consisting of transmembrane receptors and extracellular soluble ligands-is taken up by clathrin-coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • These observations indicate that Eps15 is present in coated pits and coated vesicles of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, but not in early endosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Neither AP-2 nor clathrin are required for the binding of Eps15 to coated pits or coated vesicles, since in membranes lacking AP-2 and clathrin, Eps15 still shows the same staining pattern. (rupress.org)
  • At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). (frontiersin.org)
  • We are the first to present evidence, based on fine structure investigation, that IKA does not interfere with the formation of clathrin coat, but inhibits the detachment and/or further processing of coated vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • CME initiates at the plasma membrane with the recruitment of cargo and the coat machinery into foci called clathrin coated pits (CCPs) that eventually mature and scission off to form clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs). (mdpi.com)
  • More info: The triskelion shape of the clathrin molecule enables it to form the polyhedral protein network that covers clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. (dnatube.com)
  • Confocal microscopy revealed that H. pylori vesicles colocalized with clathrin and dynamin II and with markers of subsequent endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, uptake of vesicles by both clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways was sensitive to depletion, but not sequestering, of cholesterol in the host cell membrane suggesting that membrane fluidity influences the efficiency of H. pylori vesicle uptake. (asm.org)
  • The different pathways are characterized by the proteins and lipids that are involved in the internalization process, and the most-studied pathway involves the formation of uniform clathrin-coated vesicles ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 7q22.1 that encodes a subunit of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1, which is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, CALM:R-SNARE interactions ensure that R-SNAREs, required for the fusion of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles with endosomes and also for subsequent postendosomal trafficking, are sorted into endocytic vesicles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although these cells can form clathrin-coated pits, they struggle to develop into vesicles. (elifesciences.org)
  • 7 ), and it is becoming increasingly clear that specific interactions between recruited coat subunits and cargo proteins direct the incorporation of cargo into budding vesicles and that adaptor molecules other than AP2 can interact with phosphatidylinositol (PI) (4,5), P 2 and clathrin ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The animation shows calcium-stimulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles followed by clathrin-mediated vesicle recycling. (docs.com)
  • Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. (rupress.org)
  • These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. (pasteur.fr)
  • For example, the auxillin DNA J‐domain protein recruits and activates Hsc70 on clathrin‐coated vesicles to facilitate uncoating, a prerequisite for downstream fusion steps ( Ungewickell et al , 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • Direct visualization of transferrin revealed that it bound onto large arrays of clathrin, internalizing through vesicles that emerge from these domains. (umassmed.edu)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles are also involved in retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane following neurotransmitter release and in vesicle formation on the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. (enacademic.com)
  • The β-propeller at the 'foot' of clathrin contains multiple binding sites for interaction with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin cannot bind to membrane or cargo directly and instead uses adaptor proteins to do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordinated actions of actin and BAR proteins upstream of dynamin at endocytic clathrin-coated pits. (nature.com)
  • Vesicle formation has traditionally been described as a linear process with the core proteins being clathrin and adaptor protein (AP) complexes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Clathrin functions in the absence of heterotetrameric adaptors and AP180-related proteins in yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • These proteins, like clathrins, are involved in vacuolar maintenance and protein sorting. (embl.de)
  • The CHCR repeats in these proteins could mediate protein-protein interactions, or possibly represent clathrin-binding domains, or perform clathrin-like functions. (embl.de)
  • Although the adaptor proteins Dab2 and AP2 are found together in most clathrin-coated structures (CCS), their receptors, integrin beta 1 and TfnR, do not localize to the same structures. (fredhutch.org)
  • Internalization of a clathrin structure is driven by adaptors being bound simultaneously to both their cognate receptors (blue or green) and to active EH domain proteins (orange). (fredhutch.org)
  • The adaptor proteins bind to internalization signals in the cytoplasmic tails of specific receptors, which causes these cargoes to become tethered to clathrin and the cell membrane. (fredhutch.org)
  • Another class of adaptor proteins consists of monomeric clathrin-associated sorting proteins, such as Dab2. (fredhutch.org)
  • The key players involved in these stages are clathrin adaptors and accessory proteins, cargo, and lipids ( Fig. 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Adaptor proteins, cargo, lipids, and clathrin accumulate at the plasma membrane to make up the nascent endocytic site. (rupress.org)
  • The tails of adaptor proteins bind and recruit clathrin triskelions to the plasma membrane where they polymerize to form the clathrin coat. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin-binding proteins: got a motif? (humpath.com)
  • A clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway that internalizes transmembrane proteins functions in all cell layers, while a sterol-dependent, clathrin-independent pathway that takes up lipid and lipid-anchored proteins but not transmembrane proteins is restricted to the epidermal layer. (ncbs.res.in)
  • These regions contain a number of proteins, including the adaptor proteins (APs) 1 and the heavy and light chains of clathrin that form the clathrin lattice (for review see Schmid, 1992 ). (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of Chara australis clathrin proteins revealed two heavy chains and several light chains with sequence peculiarities, suggesting functional and/or species specific differences. (frontiersin.org)
  • AP2 and accessory proteins recruit clathrin subunits directly from the cytoplasm to the nucleation site. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that NT signaling increases clathrin-coated membrane formation and clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking and speculate that this effect contributes to their trophic actions via the increased internalization of receptors and other proteins that are present in clathrin-coated membranes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In C. albicans , Arp2/3 function remains essential for CME as all 15 proteins tested that participate in CME, including clathrin, lose their characteristic dynamics observed in wild-type (WT) cells. (asm.org)
  • Our aim is to understand how the proteins involved in the network of clathrin and its adaptor proteins interact to achieve clathrin-coated vesicle formation. (findaphd.com)
  • In this project you will use high resolution 3D cryo-electron microscopy to visualise adaptor proteins binding to clathrin cages and biophysical approaches such as dynamic light scattering, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and isothermal titrating calorimetry to investigate how clathrin-adaptor interactions result in formation of a functional coated vesicle network. (findaphd.com)
  • However, here we report that the membrane-sculpting F-BAR domain-containing Fer/Cip4 homology domain-only proteins 1 and 2 (FCHo1/2) were required for plasma membrane clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) budding and marked sites of CCV formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • We investigated the possibility that membrane-sculpting proteins play an early role in invagination even before AP2 and clathrin recruitment. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the absence of FCHo proteins, both AP2 and clathrin were cytosolic. (sciencemag.org)
  • dynamin-related proteins (DRP1A and DRP2B), and clathrin light chain (AtCLC) around the plasma membrane in tobacco suspension cells by using variable incidence angle fluorescence microscopy (VIAFM). (nii.ac.jp)
  • clathrin adaptor proteins - (= HA1 and HA2 adaptors) Family of proteins that bind to clathrin and promote its assembly into vesicle coats. (enacademic.com)
  • Clathrin, in combination with different adaptor proteins, is the major coat protein for vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, endosomes, and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (unibas.ch)
  • Clathrin and AP-2 were shown to be at the centre of a complex interactome of proteins accessory to vesicle formation. (unibas.ch)
  • All three proteins are expressed in brain and known to be involved in AP-2/clathrin coat formation. (unibas.ch)
  • The connection of the clathrin scaffold to the membrane is mediated by clathrin adaptors, which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes. (uniprot.org)
  • They found that clathrin takes over from adaptors as a hub as clathrin assembles into a coat. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Depleting both auxilins cause an approximately 50% reduction in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane but enhances the association of clathrin and adaptors with intracellular membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During this process, clathrin and endocytic adaptors co-assemble to form clathrin-coated pits (CCP) in the membrane. (fredhutch.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that cytoplasm acidification dramatically affects the dynamics and recruitment of clathrin and associated adaptors, and leads to reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate from the plasma membrane. (ugent.be)
  • Amphiphysin 1 and 2 in addition contain a middle domain with binding sites for adaptors and clathrin. (unibas.ch)
  • We will discuss these emerging new findings and their implications for the nature of lipid rafts themselves, as well as for the potential roles of non-clathrin endocytic pathways in remodeling of the plasma membrane and in regulating the membrane composition of specific intracellular organelles. (nih.gov)
  • C) Total number of clathrin/AP2-coated structures (CCS per cell) on the plasma membrane of a cell as determined by counting the number of fluorescent AP2 spots detected in each whole z stack obtained by 3D live-cell imaging. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we discuss the manipulation of clathrin by pathogens, with specific attention to the processes that occur at the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Two different adapter protein complexes link the clathrin lattice either to the plasma membrane or to the trans-Golgi network. (thermofisher.com)
  • Suggesting that clathrin-coated membranes serve as one source of signaling endosomes, in earlier studies we showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment increased clathrin at the plasma membrane and resulted in colocalization of clathrin with TrkA, the receptor tyrosine kinase for NGF. (jneurosci.org)
  • Flat clathrin lattices: stable features of the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular exchange of clathrin triskelia between the cytosolic pool and CCSs at the plasma membrane remains a contentious topic. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that the R-SNAREs VAMP8, VAMP3, and VAMP2, which cycle between the plasma membrane and endosomes, bind directly to the ubiquitously expressed, PtdIns4,5P 2 -binding, endocytic clathrin adaptor CALM/PICALM. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This causes the protein clathrin to assemble into a lattice at the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane and deform the membrane into a pit. (elifesciences.org)
  • We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The demonstration that nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the number of coated pits at the plasma membrane of sympathetic neurons ( 9 ) and that NGF signaled through tyrosine kinase receptor A to increase clathrin at the plasma membrane and in this way enhanced clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking ( 2 ) could argue that NGF would induce formation of new clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • It was also demonstrated that ligand-binding to the EGFR, the T cell receptor, and the B cell receptor through Src-induced phosphorylation of clathrin influenced the distribution of clathrin at the plasma membrane ( 10 , 37 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Induced formation of coated pits at the plasma membrane was recently demonstrated in the case of viruses, where influenza viruses taking the clathrin pathway were demonstrated to enter cells via de novo formation of clathrin-coated pits at sites of virus binding ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The majority of clathrin on the plasma membrane of these cells (>60%) was found in large clathrin patches that displayed virtually no lateral mobility and persisted for many minutes, and a smaller amount was found in small spots that appeared and disappeared rapidly. (umassmed.edu)
  • This is how clathrin gets its name, from the Latin clathratus meaning like a lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three heavy chains provide the structural backbone of the clathrin lattice, and the three light chains are thought to regulate the formation and disassembly of a clathrin lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin molecules self-assemble together to make a spherical clathrin lattice structure, a polyhedron made of regular pentagons and hexagons. (uniprot.org)
  • The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. (uniprot.org)
  • We report the structure of a clathrin lattice at subnanometre resolution, obtained from electron cryomicroscopy of coats assembled in vitro. (rcsb.org)
  • This binding then stimulates clathrin lattice assembly. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular model of a complete clathrin lattice. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Various non-clathrin endocytic mechanisms have been identified, including uptake through caveolae, macropinosomes and via a separate constitutive pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show in mammalian cells that endophilin marks and controls a fast-acting tubulovesicular endocytic pathway that is independent of AP2 and clathrin, activated upon ligand binding to cargo receptors, inhibited by inhibitors of dynamin, Rac, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, PAK1 and actin polymerization, and activated upon Cdc42 inhibition. (nature.com)
  • Saline stress induces a third pathway that is clathrin-independent, nondiscriminatory in its choice of cargo, and operates across all layers of the root. (ncbs.res.in)
  • We show that XCL is endocytosed by the clathrin-dependent pathway, and is delivered to late endosome/lysosome compartments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results of this study for the first time demonstrate that not only the clathrin-dependent pathway but also macropinocytosis are involved in fish DNA enveloped virus entry, thus providing a convenient tactic for exploring the life cycle of DNA viruses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interestingly, we show for the first time that AP-4 is localized with the clathrin coat machinery in the Golgi complex and in the endocytic pathway. (portlandpress.com)
  • These findings support the existence of a pathway for SV reformation that bypasses the requirement for clathrin and dynamin 1/3 and that operates during intense synaptic activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • These findings point to the occurrence of a pathway of synaptic vesicle recycling that bypasses the need for dynamin 1 and 3 as well as for clathrin. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results indicate a mechanism, whereby retromer can regulate endosomal clathrin dynamics through RME‐8 and Hsc70, promoting the sorting of recycling cargo into the retrograde pathway. (embopress.org)
  • The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. (nature.com)
  • In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these two systems and their role during pathogen internalization, egress and spread. (nature.com)
  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. (nature.com)
  • Internalization of the Tac-CFTR chimeras was also abrogated by inhibition of clathrin-coated vesicle formation. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Fernandez, McVicker, Tuma, Tuma: Ethanol selectively impairs clathrin-mediated internalization in polarized hepatic cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In contrast, internalization of cholera toxin β-subunit, which is endocytosed by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms, remained unaltered. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using these approaches, we report that HDL internalization requires dynamin but not clathrin heavy chain and that its internalization and transcytosis are saturable. (frontiersin.org)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Clathrin Heavy Chain 2/CHC22/CLTCL1. (novusbio.com)
  • Salt-induced remodeling of spatially restricted clathrin-independent endocytic pathways in Arabidopsis root. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Fluoresceinylated polyplexes (F-His-pLK or F-pDNA) were internalized by clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
  • Clathrin light-chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding [ PMID: 20179344 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent data have shown that many pathogens are dependent on clathrin and actin for their entry into host cells. (nature.com)
  • It has recently emerged that clathrin functions as a scaffold for actin assembly, in the context of both pathogen infection and cell biology. (nature.com)
  • The deep invagination of clathrin-coated pits that leads to fission is assisted by actin, a protein that assembles into filaments that are suggested to generate the forces needed for this process. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overall, these results suggest that a main role of epsin is to help actin interact with the clathrin-coated pits and generate the force required for a pit to develop into a vesicle. (elifesciences.org)
  • The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. (pasteur.fr)
  • [1] It forms a triskelion shape composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of clathrin light chains, designated a and b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin is a large heterohexameric protein complex composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. (uniprot.org)
  • Novel functions of clathrin light chains: clathrin heavy chain trimerization is defective in light chain-deficient yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clathrin is a large, soluble protein composed of heavy chains (CLTC) (molecular size, about 192 kD) and light chains CLTA and CLTB (molecular size, about 32-38 kD). (humpath.com)
  • The triskelia comprise three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three clathrin light chains (CLCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Hsc70-induced changes in clathrin-auxilin cage structure suggest a role for clathrin light chains in cage disassembly. (findaphd.com)
  • Clathrin light chains (CLCs) control selective uptake of a range of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although the mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive thus far. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • clathrin - Protein composed of 3 heavy chains (180 kD) and 3 light chains (34 and 36 kD), that forms the basketwork of triskelions around a coated vesicle. (enacademic.com)
  • The basic subunit of the clathrin coat is composed of three heavy chains and three light chains (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Researchers of the group of cellular and molecular neurobiology of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the University of Barcelona, led by researcher Artur Llobet, have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of importance, the interaction between clathrin light and heavy chain is very stable, such that the molecular dynamics of LCb-RFP faithfully represents the behavior of clathrin triskelia subunits (Hoffmann et al. (nih.gov)
  • Cleveland analysis of the in vivo and in vitro clathrin heavy chain phosphopeptides, generated by protease V8 digestion, show labeled proteolytic fragments of similar molecular weight, suggesting that pp60v-src could be directly responsible for the in vivo phosphorylation of clathrin. (rupress.org)
  • Immunogen = synthetic peptide derived from within residues 1650 to the C-terminus of human Clathrin heavy chain conj. (alzforum.org)
  • Mouse anti human clathrin heavy chain antibody recognizes clathrin heavy chain, also known as clathrin heavy chain on chromosome 17 or CLH-17. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Human clathrin heavy chain antibody detects a band of 192 kDa. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • It recruits clathrin to membranes and also promotes its polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) are prevalent tubulovesicular membranes responsible for non-clathrin mediated endocytic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • NGF signaling in PC12 cells robustly redistributed the adaptor protein AP2 and the clathrin heavy chain (CHC) to surface membranes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In that BDNF treatment increased AP2 and clathrin at the surface membranes of hippocampal neurons, these findings may represent a physiologically significant response to NTs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Earlier findings in this laboratory suggested that clathrin-coated membranes may be used to move NTs and their receptors into signaling endosomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • A 24uM affinity is weak, but clathrin (its interacting partner) is a triskelion and thus its interaction with membranes relies on the combined affinities of 3xAP180 molecules (see experiments on clathrin avidity below). (cam.ac.uk)
  • AP2 alone does not strongly promote clathrin association with membranes, while AP180 very strongly recruits clathrin to membranes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This demonstrates the high avidity of clathrin for AP180 bound to membranes (see above), and is partly due to the effect of AP180 in promoting clathrin polymerisation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We confirmed that clathrin was indeed polymerised in the presence of AP180 and membranes using electron microscopy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • the AP complexes recruit clathrin to membranes and recognise sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Clathrin interactor 1 Antibody [NBP1-85570] - Staining of human colon shows strong granular cytoplasmic positivity in glandular cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Clathrin Light Chain Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-100442, RRID AB_2815815. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mac?rek, Zíková, Dráberová, Dráber: Monoclonal antibody BF-06 against the heavy chain of clathrin. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates probed with clathrin heavy chain antibody followed by detection with HRP conjugated Goat anti Mouse IgG (1/10,000, STAR207P ) and visualized on the ChemicDoc™ MP with 4 second exposure. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • E) Upper panel: plot of the individual lifetimes of clathrin/AP2 pits from HeLa and BSC1 cells calculated from 4D time series obtained from the bottom and top surfaces during metaphase and cytokinesis, or from 2D and 4D time series from the bottom and top surfaces of interphase cells. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin-coated pits contain an integral membrane protein that binds the AP-2 subunit with high affinity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It occurs on the membrane via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). (umich.edu)
  • EGFR and PTEN localize to short-lived clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), and PTEN regulates CCP dynamics and signaling, suggesting compartmentalized signaling is crucial for proper signaling transduction. (biologists.org)
  • It has previously been shown that Shiga toxin, despite being bound to a glycolipid receptor, can be efficiently endocytosed from clathrin-coated pits. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our results indicate that a key evolutionary conserved function of epsin, in addition to other roles that include, as we show here, a low affinity interaction with SNAREs, is to help generate the force that leads to invagination and then fission of clathrin-coated pits. (elifesciences.org)
  • By immunoelectron microscopy, we found that in AP2-depleted cells, the number of clathrin-coated pits was strongly reduced. (asm.org)
  • Induction of clathrin-coated pits required EGFR kinase activity. (asm.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that EGFR-induced signaling and Grb2 are essential for formation of clathrin-coated pits accommodating the EGFR, while activation of MAPK and PI3K is not required. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, ligand-binding results in localization of the EGFR to clathrin-coated pits, from where the EGFR is endocytosed at physiological concentrations of EGF ( 21 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Consistently, our recent data demonstrated that even though EGFR and TfR to some extent colocalized in clathrin-coated pits, more EGFR was found in TfR-negative coated pits than in TfR-positive coated pits ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • This highlights the idea of potential EGFR-specific adaptor molecules in clathrin-coated pits. (asm.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of Grb2 with inactivating point mutations in both SH3 domains (d.n.Grb2), as well as overexpression of human Sprouty 2, inhibiting the enzymatic activity of Cbl, inhibited the EGF-induced transport of the EGFR to clathrin-coated pits. (asm.org)
  • Since clathrin-coated pits are planar structures, whereas CVs are spherical, there must be a structural rearrangement of clathrin as invagination occurs. (rupress.org)
  • This could occur through simple addition of clathrin triskelions to the edges of growing clathrin-coated pits with very little exchange occurring between clathrin in the pits and free clathrin in the cytosol, or it could occur through large scale exchange of free and bound clathrin. (rupress.org)
  • rather, it is caused by a rapid ATP-dependent exchange of clathrin in the pits with free clathrin in the cytosol. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that phosphorylation of CLCb is required for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) through the transition of flat lattices into invaginated buds. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • CCVs that bud from the cell membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, clathrin. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • The clathrin triskelion is composed of three clathrin heavy chains interacting at their C-termini , each ~190 kDa heavy chain has a ~25 kDa light chain tightly bound to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • A helical tripod, the carboxy-terminal parts of three heavy chains, projects inward from the vertex of each three-legged clathrin triskelion, linking that vertex to 'ankles' of triskelions centred two vertices away. (rcsb.org)
  • The dynamics of clathrin-coated pit formation and the uptake of transferrin are maintained in naturally dividing cells but are nearly absent in mitotic cells arrested chemically by treatment with nocodazole, S-Trityl-L-cysteine, or RO-3306. (nih.gov)
  • This increase was not due to slowed or inhibited clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) budding [as with epsin1 overexpression (fig. S5B) or dynamin inhibition by dynasore ( 12 )] because CCPs were dynamic (increased nucleation rate) and functional (increased Tf uptake) during FCHo1 or 2 overexpression ( Fig. 1, F to H , fig. S5, and movie S1). (sciencemag.org)
  • A clathrin cage with a single triskelion highlighted in blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • CryoEM map EMD_5119 was rendered in UCSF Chimera and one clathrin triskelion was highlighted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a cell, clathrin triskelion in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein that has bound membrane, linking one of its three feet to the membrane at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Image averaging of flexible fibrous macromolecules: the clathrin triskelion has an elastic proximal segment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Domains within the clathrin heavy chain that are responsible for maintaining triskelion shape and function were identified and localized. (dnatube.com)
  • Study investigators have sought to determine the role of clathrin in synaptic plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Interestingly, the regulation of Shiga toxin transport in untreated and butyric-acid-treated cells differs when it comes to the role of clathrin, because only cells that are sensitized to Shiga toxin with butyric acid need functional clathrin for endosome-to-Golgi transport. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To investigate the role of clathrin-mediated trafficking during the Leishmania lifecycle, open reading frames encoding clathrin heavy chain and the β-adaptins, major components of the adaptor complexes, have been analysed both in silico and experimentally. (dur.ac.uk)
  • NEU3-expressing cells showed an altered subcellular distribution of clathrin adaptor AP-2 (adaptor protein 2), but did not reveal any changes in the membrane distribution of clathrin, PtdIns(4,5) P 2 or caveolin-1. (portlandpress.com)
  • To explore this possibility further, we examined the distribution of clathrin in NGF- and BDNF-treated cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • We interfered with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function through mutants and dominant-negative approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana and established tools to manipulate clathrin function in a cell type-specific manner. (ugent.be)
  • Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and are considered a major clathrin adaptor contributing the CCV formation. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, the structures isolated from auxilin-depleted cells are on average smaller than CCVs from control cells and are largely devoid of membrane, indicating that they are not CCVs but membraneless clathrin cages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Together, these findings indicate that the two auxilins have overlapping functions and that they not only facilitate the uncoating of CCVs but also prevent the formation of nonproductive clathrin cages in the cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2011). Furthermore, completion of CME requires the active disassembly of clathrin from CCVs by Hsc70 and auxillin/GAK (Schlossman et al. (nih.gov)
  • This PM abnormality was apparently due to excessive clathrin-dependent membrane invagination because this defect was suppressed by the expression of a dominant-negative mutant of clathrin heavy chain. (plantcell.org)
  • These findings link auxilin-mediated clathrin exchange to early stages of CCP invagination in a cargo-specific manner. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • This points to a pioneering role for epsin in vesicle budding, as it provides both a driving force and a link between membrane invagination and clathrin polymerisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sequential mechanism for clathrin cage disassembly by 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and auxilin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A mechanism of clathrin assembly regulation is suggested by three different AP-2 engagement modes. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. (mdpi.com)
  • Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We found that in vitro clathrin in CVs and clathrin baskets do not exchange with free clathrin even in the presence of Hsc70 and ATP where partial uncoating occurs. (rupress.org)
  • The other large subunit (β1-β3) recruits clathrin through a clathrin-binding sequence termed the clathrin box. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated this question by studying clathrin exchange both in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin heavy chain is a substrate for pp60v-src in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • The study of pathogen entry has revealed the flexibility of clathrin to accommodate both large and small cargo. (nature.com)
  • CCV fractions isolated from auxilin-depleted cells have an approximately 1.5-fold increase in clathrin content and more than fivefold increase in the amount of AP-2 adaptor complex and other endocytic machinery, with no concomitant increase in cargo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The pit grows deeper over time as more clathrin molecules assemble, eventually resulting in a deeply invaginated clathrin-coated pit that encloses the cargo to be taken up by the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Endosome‐associated clathrin also affects the recycling of retrograde cargo and has been shown to function in the formation of endosomal subdomains. (embopress.org)
  • Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones corresponding to this exon revealed extensive similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence of this gene product to those of clathrin heavy chain genes of other species. (nih.gov)
  • Chromosomal location and some structural features of human clathrin light-chain genes (CLTA and CLTB). (wikigenes.org)
  • Clathrin functions as a trimer, and these trimers, or triskelions, are comprised of three legs joined by a central vertex. (embl.de)
  • Aftiphilin is a component of the clathrin machinery in neurons. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Epsin is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic clathrin adaptor whose most critical function(s) in clathrin coat dynamics remain(s) elusive. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have put the spotlight on its role in pathogen spread. (nature.com)
  • However, epsin also performs many other roles, including recruiting a membrane protein (a so-called SNARE) that directs the fate of the vesicle to the clathrin-coated pit. (elifesciences.org)
  • The FCHo F-BAR membrane-bending activity was required, leading to the proposal that FCHo1/2 sculpt the initial bud site and recruit the clathrin machinery for CCV formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The main clathrin heavy chain, located on chromosome 17 in humans, is found in all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second clathrin heavy chain gene, on chromosome 22 , is expressed in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exon representing a novel clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTCL) was isolated during gene identification studies and transcription mapping of human chromosome 22. (nih.gov)
  • B) Surface density of clathrin/AP2-coated structures (CCS/100 µm 2 ) calculated from the number of AP2 spots at the top and bottom surfaces of HeLa and BSC1 cells imaged during interphase, metaphase, and cytokinesis prior to abscission. (nih.gov)
  • The result was an increase in large clathrin-coated structures (CCS) on the surface of the cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • The clathrin structures that formed in these manipulated cells recruited integrin β1 normally. (fredhutch.org)
  • Although most of the clathrin structures were found to contain both Dab2 and AP2, the authors showed that integrin β1 and TfnR do not co-localize on the cell surface. (fredhutch.org)
  • Edeling MA, Smith C, Owen D. Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures . (humpath.com)
  • The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. (ipbs.fr)