Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Book Classification: A general term covering bibliographical and bibliothecal classifications. It mostly refers to library CLASSIFICATION for arrangement of books and documents on the shelves. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p85)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.United StatesProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Nursing Process: The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.EuropeStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Wavelet Analysis: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.JapanHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.GermanyThymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.BrazilFalse Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

HICLAS: a taxonomic database system for displaying and comparing biological classification and phylogenetic trees. (1/1056)

MOTIVATION: Numerous database management systems have been developed for processing various taxonomic data bases on biological classification or phylogenetic information. In this paper, we present an integrated system to deal with interacting classifications and phylogenies concerning particular taxonomic groups. RESULTS: An information-theoretic view (taxon view) has been applied to capture taxonomic concepts as taxonomic data entities. A data model which is suitable for supporting semantically interacting dynamic views of hierarchic classifications and a query method for interacting classifications have been developed. The concept of taxonomic view and the data model can also be expanded to carry phylogenetic information in phylogenetic trees. We have designed a prototype taxonomic database system called HICLAS (HIerarchical CLAssification System) based on the concept of taxon view, and the data models and query methods have been designed and implemented. This system can be effectively used in the taxonomic revisionary process, especially when databases are being constructed by specialists in particular groups, and the system can be used to compare classifications and phylogenetic trees. AVAILABILITY: Freely available at the WWW URL: http://aims.cps.msu.edu/hiclas/ CONTACT: [email protected]; [email protected]  (+info)

Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins. (2/1056)

Genomic DNA from reference strains and biovars of the genus Brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. Electrophoresis of DNA digested with the restriction endonuclease XbaI produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. Included in this study were strains isolated from marine mammals. The PFGE profiles from these strains were compared with those obtained from the reference strains and biovars. Isolates from dolphins had similar profiles that were distinct from profiles of Brucella isolates from seals and porpoises. Distance matrix analyses were used to produce a dendrogram. Biovars of B. abortus were clustered together in the dendrogram; similar clusters were shown for biovars of B. melitensis and for biovars of B. suis. Brucella ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae differed from each other and from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The relationship between B. abortus strain RB51 and other Brucella biovars was compared because this strain has replaced B. abortus strain 19 for use as a live vaccine in cattle and possibly in bison and elk. These results support the current taxonomy of Brucella species and the designation of an additional genomic group(s) of Brucella. The PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis was a useful tool for calculating genetic relatedness among the Brucella species.  (+info)

Numerical taxonomy of some yellow-pigmented bacteria isolated from plants. (3/1056)

Phenetic data on over 60 heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow chromogenic bacteria from plant material were collected and analysed using numerical taxonomic methods. Marker strains representing 42 taxa were included in the analyses. At similarity levels of 80% or above, eight distinct clusters were obtained, the first four of which included yellow chromogens. Custer I contained isolates from green healthy leaves of Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanata, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis, and clusters 2 and 3 consisted of isolates from Holcus lanata seeds and leaves of P. pratensis respectively. Cluster 4 contained seven subgroups and was equated with the family Enterobacteriaceae. Erwinia herbicola strains from a variety of sources formed a homogeneous subgroup, readily distinguishable from authentic strains of E. amylovora, E. carotovora, other representative erwiniae, and from all other enterobacteria studied. These data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of yellow-pigmented bacteria from plants, and support the inclusion of E. herbicola and other Erwinia species in the Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. (4/1056)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

Zebrafish in context: uses of a laboratory model in comparative studies. (5/1056)

With the recent interest in the reintegration of evolutionary and developmental biology has come a growing need for understanding the phylogenetic relations and degree of generality of the model organisms upon which we rely so heavily. In vertebrate biology the zebrafish Danio rerio has become a paradigmatic system for studies at levels of organization from molecular to interspecific. Studies of model systems in development are often techniques-driven rather than questions-based; however, informative hypotheses for developmental research can be derived from phylogenetic distributions of characters. With some understanding of how general the characters of interest are, a thoughtful comparison of the requirements of the questions with the lists of available embryos, reagents, and protocols can guide choices of new vertebrate models. We describe here the phylogenetic placement of zebrafish within the vertebrate world and discuss how generally observations on zebrafish can be taken to apply. We outline a practical protocol for investigating development in a comparative context, illustrated with an example from an ongoing study of teleost tail fin evolution. The principles and procedures presented here apply equally well to any comparative study with an interest in evolution, at any level of phylogeny from intraspecific studies to comparisons across phyla.  (+info)

Proposal for a standardized temporal scheme of biological classification for extant species. (6/1056)

With respect to conveying useful comparative information, current biological classifications are seriously flawed because they fail to (i) standardize criteria for taxonomic ranking and (ii) equilibrate assignments of taxonomic rank across disparate kinds of organisms. In principle, these problems could be rectified by adopting a universal taxonomic yardstick based on absolute dates of the nodes in evolutionary trees. By using procedures of temporal banding described herein, a simple philosophy of biological classification is proposed that would retain a manageable number of categorical ranks yet apply them in standardized fashion to time-dated phylogenies. The phylogenetic knowledge required for a time-standardized nomenclature arguably may emerge in the foreseeable future from vast increases in multilocus DNA sequence information (coupled with continued attention to phylogeny estimation from traditional systematic data). By someday encapsulating time-dated phylogenies in a familiar yet modified hierarchical ranking scheme, a temporal-banding approach would improve the comparative information content of biological classifications.  (+info)

The classification of smile patterns. (7/1056)

Although "smile therapy" is still in its infancy, society has already placed a great demand on dentists to evaluate and treat smiles. The smile classification scheme and vocabulary presented in this article will aid in discussions between patient and dentist regarding esthetic treatment.  (+info)

An ontology for bioinformatics applications. (8/1056)

MOTIVATION: An ontology of biological terminology provides a model of biological concepts that can be used to form a semantic framework for many data storage, retrieval and analysis tasks. Such a semantic framework could be used to underpin a range of important bioinformatics tasks, such as the querying of heterogeneous bioinformatics sources or the systematic annotation of experimental results. RESULTS: This paper provides an overview of an ontology [the Transparent Access to Multiple Biological Information Sources (TAMBIS) ontology or TaO] that describes a wide range of bioinformatics concepts. The present paper describes the mechanisms used for delivering the ontology and discusses the ontology's design and organization, which are crucial for maintaining the coherence of a large collection of concepts and their relationships. AVAILABILITY: The TAMBIS system, which uses a subset of the TaO described here, is accessible over the Web via http://img.cs.man.ac.uk/tambis (although in the first instance, we will use a password mechanism to limit the load on our server). The complete model is also available on the Web at the above URL.  (+info)

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Scientific names of different types of snails varies. The link below categories the varies snail species and their scientific names.. ...
Scientific names are labels used in place of lengthy descriptions. A scientific name corresponds to a set of formally defined attributes. The meanings of scientific names are internationally understood. Vernacular names or common names are also labels. Vernacular names seen in medical publications include fungi, prokaryotes, meningococcus, and St Johns wort. Vernacular names cannot be assumed to correspond to formally defined sets of attributes and vary by region and language. In scientific writing, scientific names should be used when the labeled entity verifiably corresponds to the set of attributes associated with the scientific name, at least at first mention. Subsequently
Scientific names are labels used in place of lengthy descriptions. A scientific name corresponds to a set of formally defined attributes. The meanings of scientific names are internationally understood. Vernacular names or common names are also labels. Vernacular names seen in medical publications include fungi, prokaryotes, meningococcus, and St Johns wort. Vernacular names cannot be assumed to correspond to formally defined sets of attributes and vary by region and language. In scientific writing, scientific names should be used when the labeled entity verifiably corresponds to the set of attributes associated with the scientific name, at least at first mention. Subsequently
This semester, in BIOS 101, I asked my students to actually go to the library, handle primary literature (bound journals) in biology, select a paper from the year they were born, select a scientific name from that paper, then photocopy the paper as material for their extemporaneous Friday writings this semester. The name is their organism for the semester, and they will spend the rest of their lives (at least the next 15 weeks) using that name in various ways. This is the first time in UNL history in which well over a hundred freshmen have gone to the library, actually handled real paper publications, primary literature, during their first few days at the university ...
Get an answer for What is another/scientific name for the brain?My science teacher asked us this question and I mightve gotten the question wrong but I think he said something that started with neur-. Thanks! and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Find the fascicles article Early scientific names of Amphibia Anura I. Introduction on the website of Scientific Publications of the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle, Paris
Play, streaming, watch and download 10 Ridiculous Scientific Names video (08:07) , you can convert to mp4, 3gp, m4a for free. There arent as many rules to naming a scientific discovery
Oxyuris equi is the scientific name for the pin worm. Adult pinworms, Oxyuris equi, are more common in horses <18 mo old and are found primarily in the terminal portion of the large intestine. The females are 7.5–15 cm long; males are smaller and fewer in number. The gravid females pass toward the rectum to lay their eggs, “cementing” them to the perineum around the anus. Masses of eggs and cement around the anus appear as a white to yellow, crusty mass. The eggs, which - ProProfs Discuss
uBio is a networked information service for biological information resources. This service is based upon the Taxonomic Name Server (TNS), a thesaurus of taxonomic information.
uBio is a networked information service for biological information resources. This service is based upon the Taxonomic Name Server (TNS), a thesaurus of taxonomic information.
This guest post by Tony Rees describes his quest to track all genus names ever published (plus a subset of the species…).. A "holy grail" for biodiversity informatics is a suitably quality controlled, human- and machine-queryable list of all the worlds species, preferably arranged in a suitable taxonomic hierarchy such as kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus or other. To make it truly comprehensive we need fossils as well as extant taxa (dinosaurs as well as dinoflagellates) and to cover all groups from viruses to vertebrates (possibly prions as well, which are, well, virus-like). Linnaeus had some pretty good attempts in his day, and in the internet age the challenge has been taken up by a succession of projects such as the "NODC Taxonomic Code" (a precursor to ITIS, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System - currently 722,000 scientific names), the Species 2000 consortium, and the combined ITIS+SP2000 product "Catalogue of Life", now in its 16th annual edition, with current holdings ...
Bugs can often be hard to identify and developers spend a large amount of time locating and fixing them. Bug prediction strives to identify code defects using machine learning and statistical analysis and therefore decreasing time spent on bug localization. With bug prediction, awareness of bugs can be increased and software quality can be improved in significantly less time. Machine learning models are used in most modern bug prediction tools and with recent advances in machine learning, new models and possibilities have arisen that further improve the possibilities and performance in bug prediction. In our studies, we test the performance of "Doc2Vec - a current model that is used to vectorize plain text - on source code to perform classification. Instead of relying on code metrics, we analyze and vectorize plain-text source code and try to identify bugs based on similarity to learned paragraph vectors. Testing two different implementations of the Doc2Vec model, we find that no usable results ...
Bugs can often be hard to identify and developers spend a large amount of time locating and fixing them. Bug prediction strives to identify code defects using machine learning and statistical analysis and therefore decreasing time spent on bug localization. With bug prediction, awareness of bugs can be increased and software quality can be improved in significantly less time. Machine learning models are used in most modern bug prediction tools and with recent advances in machine learning, new models and possibilities have arisen that further improve the possibilities and performance in bug prediction. In our studies, we test the performance of "Doc2Vec - a current model that is used to vectorize plain text - on source code to perform classification. Instead of relying on code metrics, we analyze and vectorize plain-text source code and try to identify bugs based on similarity to learned paragraph vectors. Testing two different implementations of the Doc2Vec model, we find that no usable results ...
Attributes { s { cruise { String description Six-digit cruise code (YYYYMM); String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Cruise Code; } ship { String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Ship Name; } ship_code { String description Two-digit CalCOFI ship code; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Ship Code; } order_occupied { String description Ordinal number in which the station was sampled for the cruise and ship; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Order Occupied; } tow_type { String description Type of gear used to sample manta, mocness_1m, mocness_10m, oblique (C1 and CB nets), or vertical (CV and PV nets).; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Tow Type; } net_type { String description Gear type. See CalCOFI Tow Types table; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Net Type; } tow_number { Int32 actual_range 1, 3; String description Replicate tow number for the station, net type, and location; ...
Attributes { s { cruise { String description Six-digit cruise code (YYYYMM); String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Cruise Code; } ship { String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Ship Name; } ship_code { String description Two-digit CalCOFI ship code; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Ship Code; } order_occupied { String description Ordinal number in which the station was sampled for the cruise and ship; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Order Occupied; } tow_type { String description Type of gear used to sample manta, mocness_1m, mocness_10m, oblique (C1 and CB nets), or vertical (CV and PV nets).; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Tow Type; } net_type { String description Gear type. See CalCOFI Tow Types table; String ioos_category Identifier; String long_name Net Type; } tow_number { Int32 actual_range 1, 3; String description Replicate tow number for the station, net type, and location; ...
Here is some advice on searching. You may like to try the examples cited below to get experience with searching.. You can search on Scientific Name (for example, "Rallus longirostris"); or on English Name (for example, "Clapper Rail"); or on French Name "Râle gris"; or German Name (for example, "Klapperralle"); or Spanish Name (for example "Rascón Piquilargo"). You can search on only one of these at a time. If the search finds a unique match, it will display full details of the species. Note that some of the fields, which may contain large amounts of information, require you to click on a "Click to see full text" to view the information in a separate window.. If the search finds more than one match, it will display all species that match the search term. For example, if you type just "Rallus" against Scientific Name, the detail of all birds in the genus Rallus will be displayed. You are warned against typing a search term that will produce hundreds of records, such as "Flycatcher" under ...
Annual Checklist Interface v1.9 r2126ab0 developed by Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Please note, this site uses cookies. If you continue to use the site we will assume that you agree with this ...
Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and surface tows [Manta nets]). Surface tows are normally standardized to count per 1,000 m3 strained. Oblique tows are normally standardized to count per 10 m2 of surface sampled. This table includes all tows by species, even if zero larvae were captured for the species, i.e., negative tows. The "Larvae Counts Positive Tows" table includes only tows where one or more larvae were captured for the species selected by the user.. ...
Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and surface tows [Manta nets]). Surface tows are normally standardized to count per 1,000 m3 strained. Oblique tows are normally standardized to count per 10 m2 of surface sampled. This table includes all tows by species, even if zero larvae were captured for the species, i.e., negative tows. The "Larvae Counts Positive Tows" table includes only tows where one or more larvae were captured for the species selected by the user.. ...
Lots of much larger proteins exist and their "scientific names" can be written in the same way. If nobody has actually bothered to write down such a scientific name, it is a fine metaphysical point whether the names should be said to exist, and if not, whether this particular string of letters representing a rather average, modest-sized protein is better qualified to be called a "word". ...
Hosted by the USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis. Page designed through the cooperative efforts of interagency ITIS Teams. Point of Contact: [email protected]
Switch to the dark mode thats kinder on your eyes at night time.. Switch to the light mode thats kinder on your eyes at day time.. ...
Compiling taxonomic information about plants is a huge task that relies on specialist knowledge. Global participation is essential in developing and sustaining both the data and the expert taxonomic communities that generate and enhance it. Therefore, in addition to project staff dedicated to compiling content, eMonocot is linking together monocot taxonomists by providing support and tools to enable communities to manage their taxonomic data online and in doing so contribute to eMonocot ...
Compiling taxonomic information about plants is a huge task that relies on specialist knowledge. Global participation is essential in developing and sustaining both the data and the expert taxonomic communities that generate and enhance it. Therefore, in addition to project staff dedicated to compiling content, eMonocot is linking together monocot taxonomists by providing support and tools to enable communities to manage their taxonomic data online and in doing so contribute to eMonocot ...
Taxonomy, besides its importance in the biological sciences, is still a scientific area of a minority among the scientific community. In general, taxonomic studies are only occurring only as side activities of other major projects for which little financial support exists. Taxonomists deserve the construction of a taxonomy that is fast, database based, stable, and, especially, inexpensive. The primary success will be the achievement of a complete database of all almost closed genomes of all type strains of the classified species (21), for which one would need only to calculate the ANI and TETRA values with the accessible data. However, this will be achieved in the midterm if we consider that all type species still have not had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced (34). For this purpose, we evaluated the approach of calculating ANI and TETRA values based only on a random 454 reads that only partially covered the genomes to be analyzed. Achieving stable ANI and TETRA values by a rough set of ≈250 ...
This page is a note that is attached to a branch of the Tree of Life.. ToL notes provide brief accounts of characteristics, short summaries, commentaries, media files, taxonomic information, or identification tools for a given group of organisms.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
This page is a note that is attached to a leaf of the Tree of Life.. ToL notes provide brief accounts of characteristics, short summaries, commentaries, media files, taxonomic information, or identification tools for a given group of organisms.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
Otolith morphology in the tooth-carp/killifish genus Aphanius is an important source of taxonomic information. However, little is known about the range of
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome ...
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome ...
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome ...
The Public Data Portal supports queries based on taxonomy(scientific names only), geography, attribution fields (i.e. collectors and taxonomists), specimen depositories, project or dataset codes, specimen and sequence identifiers (sampleids, museumids, processed, etc). Free text searches are allowed, the system will try to extract meaningful terms from the search. Search terms should be separated by a space, search terms containing more than one word ("United States" or "Mus musculus") should be wrapped in quotes ...
The Public Data Portal supports queries based on taxonomy(scientific names only), geography, attribution fields (i.e. collectors and taxonomists), specimen depositories, project or dataset codes, specimen and sequence identifiers (sampleids, museumids, processed, etc). Free text searches are allowed, the system will try to extract meaningful terms from the search. Search terms should be separated by a space, search terms containing more than one word ("United States" or "Mus musculus") should be wrapped in quotes ...
Enter entity terms (e.g. basihyal bone), phenotypic qualities (e.g. shape, size), taxonomic names (e.g. Ictaluridae), gene names or symbols (e.g. cadherin 6, cdh6), or publications.. ...
Enter entity terms (e.g. basihyal bone), phenotypic qualities (e.g. shape, size), taxonomic names (e.g. Ictaluridae), gene names or symbols (e.g. cadherin 6, cdh6), or publications.. ...
Introduction Taxonomy is the science of classifying and identifying plants. Scientific names are necessary because the same common name is used for different plants in different areas of the world. Latin is the language used for scientific classification. KRT-2010
A unit of scientific classification that includes one or several closely related species.The scientific name for each organism includes designation for genus and species.. ...
Latitude 62° 13 00.0" S Longitude 58° 40 00.0" W ). Use the link on the Scientific Name to see full details of that taxa. The Observations link allows the user to search for observations near this place.. Any species that are protected are indicated by a *. ...
Latitude 64° 32 00.0" S Longitude 61° 59 00.0" W ). Use the link on the Scientific Name to see full details of that taxa. The Observations link allows the user to search for observations near this place.. Any species that are protected are indicated by a *. ...
For most people, it is hard work to identify tropical forest plants with a scientific name, especially out in the field, whether on the farm by the road-side or in the forest. There are so many species and, compared to European plants, relatively little is published that can be used to identify them in the tropics. We hope with this web site to help at various levels with the identification of living plants, especially but not only in equatorial regions. We include guidance, literature and a growing number of images to aid field guide production. By promoting field guide production and thus a greater understanding of plant diversity in the tropics, we hope we are contributing to the long-term sustainability of rural livelihoods and bringing more immediate socio-economic benefits. The Virtual Field Herbarium plant image gallery (VFH for short) is composed of images and linked data from (eco-)friendly researchers and artists. In effect, the VFH is a collaborative tool, with various methods for ...
Plant Name Scientific Name: Encelia farinosa Common Names: Brittlebush, Goldenhills, Incienso Plant Characteristics Duration: Perennial, Deciduous. The leaves drop off during periods of drought and after...
The content on the final exam will be drawn from the following sources in the text, which were also covered in lecture and discussion. Also, the CDC reportable diseases will be on the exam. Such material overlaps with the various infections starting in chapter 19. Review the common names, scientific names, and key conditions for each of the reportable diseases. The questions on the diseases will be similar to those that weve reviewed in class ...
WIS - To view common names and/or pictures, check the boxes to the right and hit Rebuild List. Uncheck the boxes to rebuild as a checklist of scientific names ...
WIS - To view common names and/or pictures, check the boxes to the right and hit Rebuild List. Uncheck the boxes to rebuild as a checklist of scientific names ...
What do germs look like? The scientific name for a germ that makes us sick is called a pathogen and different pathogens actually look very different! In this activity, you can make models of pathogens and share them with your friends.
Can you connect the bones mentioned in the lyrics of the spiritual Dem Bones in the proper order when given their scientific names? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by mikenew
Interesting facts about the behavior and characteristics of the Pig. Includes Habitat, Scientific Name, Lifespan, Diet, Predators and Threats.
Interesting facts about the behavior and characteristics of the Fulgorid. Includes Habitat, Scientific Name, Lifespan, Diet, Predators and Threats.
Pull any packaged food item off the shelf and chances are it has a long list of mysterious ingredients with highly scientific names like "
Ambali, A., H. Kabwazi, L. Malekano, G. Mwale, D. Chimwaza, J. Ingainga, N. Makimoto, S. Nakayama, M. Yuma i Y. Kada, 2001. Relationship between local and scientific names of fishes in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. African Study Monographs (22)3: 123-154. ...
There has been quite some development in the new classification system called MOGE(S) for cardiomyopathies, the diseases of the heart muscle which can lead to heart enlargement and heart failure.
Taxonomy is essential in organizing information and delivering knowledge. But applying it at scale would be a challenge without automation. Cognitive technology fills this gap by providing the connective tissue that aligns content, metadata, and taxonomy. But the impact of cognitive goes well beyond automation. It transforms a traditionally manual process that is fraught with collaboration difficulties into an efficient, organic workflow that lets taxonomists coordinate their work with subject matter experts and curators to save time and avoid errors. It also supports them throughout the taxonomy lifecycle by constantly learning from content and human feedback to adapt to change and simplify taxonomy creation and maintenance. This session showcases the latest developments in these areas and provides a comprehensive view of the workflow benefits deriving from cognitive ...
Sarnat, H.B.; Flores-Sarnat, L., 2001: A new classification of malformations of the nervous system: an integration of morphological and molecular genetic criteria as patterns of genetic expression
Leaving logical concepts and material ontology aside, the resulting 32 categories in 13 families range from the obvious (identity/difference, existence/nonexistence) through the fairly obvious (part/whole, one/many, sequential order) and the surprisingly familiar (illocutionary modes, mass/count, indexical/descriptive) to the controversial (moment/fundament, transparent/opaque) and the arcane (modes of class delimitation, taxonomic rank, aspects of designators ...
Whether bacterial species exist as a natural unit remains an unresolved issue, one with important practical challenges, including that of correctly identifying microorganisms and diagnosing the causative agents of microbial diseases. The current bacterial species definition is based on genetic and phenotypic distinctiveness of organisms grouped under the same name.
Since 1998, the staff of the International Monetary Fund has published a classification of countries de facto exchange rate arrangements. Experience in operating this classification system has highlighted a need for changes. The present paper provides information on revisions to the system in early 2009. The changes are expected to allow for greater consistency and objectivity of classifications across countries, expedite the classification process, conserve resources, and improve transparency.
new_classification_conveys_important_information_about_the_biochemistry_and_metabolism_of_diseasecausing_organisms_the_new_classification_recognizes_6_major_clusters_of_organisms_rather_than_the_4_traditional_kingdoms_
Get Biological Classification essential facts. View Videos or join the Biological Classification discussion. Add Biological Classification to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Biological Classification at popflock.com
Its often convention to list the author and date of description after the species name, especially if it was described recently (i.e., in the last 50 years or so). This is usually done only in formal taxonomic papers. But in journals which use taxonomy outside of "formal" use (e.g., in ecology, physiology, etc.), its not unusual for the author and date to not be cited and the reference (and thus the credit) for scientific papers is denied to taxonomists. Thus lowering their status in the scientific community. This paper documents this issue. ...
... : A Coggle Diagram about Concrete examples of characteristics used in hierarchical classification. , Criteria used for classification and 5 kingdoms of whittaekar
View Notes - Week 5_Assignment_Compatible from PUBLIC ADM 204 at Kaplan University. HS140 Week 5 Assignment: Drug Classifications Name: PART 1: DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS The drug class of many generic
This Paper Discusses How to Derive Design Competition Categories Based On The Existing But Separate Classification Systems Provided by Other Institutions
This volume contains revised versions of selected papers presented at the biennial meeting of the Classification and Data Analysis Group (CLADAG) of the Italian Statistical Society, which was held in
വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ലഭ്യമാണ്; മേൽ നിബന്ധനകൾ ഉണ്ടായേക്കാം. കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾക്ക് ഉപയോഗനിബന്ധനകൾ കാണുക ...
Right out of the box the first question has you choosing two answers but these types of questions usually has one choosing one answer from a list of a few didn ...
A mnemonic device for remembering the five classes of vertibrates in the animal kingdom. Info provided by EUdesign.com. One of several in an indexed series.
If someone could help me to understand the difference between some drug classisfications that seem similair to me. Im going to try to find out from my teacher but in the mean time I thought someone
NCCIH classification. A US agency, National Center on Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), has created a ... and this classification does not include therapies with proven function such as cognitive behavioral therapy. ... classification system for branches of complementary and alternative medicine that divides them into five major groups. These ...
Classification and relation with Portuguese[edit]. Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Galician (Galician and ...
Classification[edit]. The severity of acne vulgaris (Gr. ἀκµή, "point" + L. vulgaris, "common")[24] can be classified as mild, ... White GM (August 1998). "Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris". Journal ...
Martin, Joel W.; Davis, George E. (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.79.1863.. [page ... Classification[edit]. Some authorities regard the Cirripedia as a full class or subclass, and the orders listed above are ...
These two classifications have become the most persistent, with Rauhut (2003)[31] and Bittencourt and Kellner (2004)[32] ... This carnosaurian classification was amended upon by Rozhdestvensky and Tatarinov in 1964, who classified Herrerasaurus within ... For many years, the classification of Herrerasaurus was unclear because it was known from very fragmentary remains. It was ... Charig noted that Herrerasaurus was of uncertain classification, showing similarities to both "prosauropods" and "carnosaurians ...
Classification[edit]. Chronic illnesses, malnutrition, endocrine, metabolic disorders or chromosomal anomalies are ...
Classification[edit]. Activated carbons are complex products which are difficult to classify on the basis of their behaviour, ... However, some broad classification is made for general purpose based on their size, preparation methods, and industrial ...
Developments in classification[edit]. The species was first described scientifically by Miles Berkeley in 1843 as Sphaeria ... Overharvesting and overexploitation have led to the classification of O. sinensis as an endangered species in China.[9] ... when molecular analysis was used to emend the classification of the Cordycipitaceae and the Clavicipitaceae, resulting in the ... "Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi". Studies in Mycology. 57: 5-59. doi:10.3114/sim. ...
I don't think CNN quite understands what is meant by calling Vesta a "protoplanet." That is not a classification. There are ... Ironically the result of which is that there isn't an official classification for Asteroids either, though it's a commonly ... Classification[edit]. Its now classified as a protoplanet. Someone should update this. mentioned in this article: http:// ...
Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants, with three primary classifications being,[62] Assam type ... 5 Processing and classification *5.1 Additional processing and additives *5.1.1 Blending ...
Historical classifications[edit]. The taxonomy of Carl Linnaeus grouped birds (class Aves) into orders, genera, and species, ... Griffiths, C. S.; Barrowclough, G. F.; Groth, J. G.; Mertz, L. A. (2007). "Phylogeny, diversity, and classification of the ... Version 2007-04-05.] A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 2007-04-10 ...
MIM classification system[edit]. See also: List of OMIM disorder codes. MIM numbers[edit]. Each OMIM entry is given a unique ... Medical classification. *Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, a database that integrates chemicals and genes with human ... Because OMIM has responsibility for the classification and naming of genetic disorders, these numbers are stable identifiers of ...
Classification[edit]. Frey et al. in 2003 classified Ludodactylus in the family Ornithocheiridae. In 2007 Frey, had ...
Classification[edit]. Aside from vintage year, pu'er tea can be classified in a variety of ways: by shape, processing method, ...
J. W. Martin & G. E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea (PDF). Natural History Museum of Los ... Classification[edit]. Following the 2001 review by Martin and Davis, the Rhizocephala are ranked as a superorder and divided ...
Classification[edit]. The type specimen of Sudamerica ameghinoi was discovered in Punta Peligro, Argentina in deposits dating ... 1997) "Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level". Columbia University Press. (ISBN 0-231-11012-X) ...
"The Guide to The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Occupational Safety & Health ... Classification of flammability[edit]. The US Government uses the Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) standard for ... "NCDOI OSFM Evaluation Services: Subject of White Paper: Classification of Building Materials According to Combustibility" (PDF) ... A more recent industrial standard is the European EN 13501-1 - Fire classification of construction products and building ...
Classification[edit]. Bonds can fall between one of two extremes - being completely nonpolar or completely polar. A completely ... Pauling based this classification scheme on the partial ionic character of a bond, which is an approximate function of the ...
Reverse-transcribing viruses fall into 2 groups of the Baltimore classification.[clarification needed][citation needed] ... Coffin, John M. (1992). "Structure and Classification of Retroviruses". In Levy, Jay A. (ed.). The Retroviridae. 1 (1st ed.). ... Endogenous retroviruses are not formally included in this classification system, and are broadly classified into three classes ...
Classification. A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder ...
Classification[edit]. ALS is a motor neuron disease, also spelled "motor neurone disease", which is a group of neurological ... "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: moving towards a new classification system" (Submitted manuscript). The Lancet. Neurology. 15 ...
Classification[edit]. Quantitative trait values after two mutations either alone (Ab and aB) or in combination (AB). Bars ... The classifications below attempt to cover the various terms and how they relate to one another. ...
Orbit and classification[edit]. Anchises is a primitive Jovian asteroid orbiting in the trailering Trojan camp at Jupiter's L5 ... In the Tholen classification, Anchises is a primitive P-type asteroid, a common spectral type among the Jupiter trojans.[3][4] ...
Classification[edit]. Corneal dystrophies were commonly subdivided depending on its specific location within the cornea into ... In 2015 the ICD3 classification was published.[5] and has classified disease into four groups as follows:. Epithelial and ... "The IC3D classification of the corneal dystrophies". Cornea. 27 (Suppl 2): S1-83. doi:10.1097/ICO.0b013e31817780fb. PMC ... "IC3D Classification of Corneal Dystrophies-Edition 2". Cornea. 34 (2): 42. doi:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000307. PMID 25564336 ...
Classification. Main article: Dravidian languages. Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of ... Modern grammarians argue that this classification is artificial,[112] and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or ...
Advanced search lets you search selected properties of the classification. You could search all properties or a selected subset ... is mainly for the contributors of the classification development and it has the following differences * It shows the current ...
Statistical binary classification[edit]. Statistical classification is a problem studied in machine learning. It is a type of ... Binary classification is dichotomization applied to practical purposes, and in many practical binary classification problems, ... Binary or binomial classification is the task of classifying the elements of a given set into two groups (predicting which ... Given a classification of a specific data set, there are four basic combinations of actual data category and assigned category ...
in 1987 and made public at the 1992 Palm Desert Conference on Epilepsy Surgery.[5][6] The Engel classification system has since ... The Engel classification system has been thought of as a cross-sectional grading system by medical professionals because it ... As is the case for all current methods of reviewing epilepsy surgery outcomes, the Engel classification system has subjective ... As surgery as a treatment grew more prevalent, a classification system became a necessity. The appropriate evaluation of ...
Evaluating probabilistic classification[edit]. Commonly used loss functions for probabilistic classification include log loss ... In econometrics, probabilistic classification in general is called discrete choice. Some classification models, such as naive ... Types of classification[edit]. Formally, an "ordinary" classifier is some rule, or function, that assigns to a sample x a class ... Probabilistic classifiers provide classification that can be useful in its own right[1] or when combining classifiers into ...
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Note: FDA has exempted almost all class I devices (with the exception of reserved devices) from the premarket notification requirement, including those devices that were exempted by final regulation published in the Federal Registers of December 7, 1994, and January 16, 1996. It is important to confirm the exempt status and any limitations that apply with 21 CFR Parts 862-892. Limitations of device exemptions are covered under 21 CFR XXX.9, where XXX refers to Parts 862-892 ...
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To heat the bladder wall concomitant with intravesical instillation of a chemotherapy drug. For the prophylactic treatment of bladder cancer recurrence following standard resection of tumors ...
Note: Class II devices the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also published a list of class II (special controls) devices subject to certain limitations, that are exempt from premarket notification requirements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) and the 21st Century Cures Act of 2016 (Cures Act). FDA believes that these exemptions will relieve manufacturers from the need to submit premarket notification submissions for these devices and will enable FDA to redirect the resources that would be spent on reviewing such submissions to more significant public health issues. FDA is taking this action in order to meet requirements of FDAMA and the Cures Act ...
a list of all medical devices with their associated classifications, product codes, FDA premarket review organizations, and ...
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To examine or perform procedures in the colon or rectum For reusable, flexible endoscopes in this product code, validated reprocessing instructions and reprocessing validation data must be included in a 510(k) submission (82 FR 26807, available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2017-06-09/pdf/2017-12007.pdf ...
A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended to simultaneously detect and identify multiple viral nucleic acids extracted from human respiratory specimens or viral culture. The detection and identification of a specific viral nucleic acid from individuals exhibiting signs and symptoms of respiratory infection aids in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infection when used in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings. The device is intended for detection and identification of a combination of the following viruses: Influenza A and Influenza B, Influenza A subtype H1 and Influenza A subtype H3, Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype A and Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype B, Parainfluenza 1, Parainfluenza 2, and Parainfluenza 3 virus, Human Metapneumovirus, Rhinovirus, and Adenovirus ...
This product code has been established in accordance with the May 20, 1997, guidance entitled, convenience kits interim regulatory guidance, found at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/GuidanceDocuments/ucm080217.pdf. This type of convenience kit, as listed in the guidance above, is under enforcement discretion, and does not require a premarket notification (510(k)) to market if it meets all criteria in the guidance ...
If the device is reusable, validated reprocessing instructions and reprocessing validation data for this device type must be included in a 510(k) submission (82 FR 26807, available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2017-06-09/pdf/2017-12007.pdf ...
The device is used for the semi-quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to the actin component of smooth muscle in human serum as an aid in the diagnosis of certain autoimmune liver diseases, e.g. autoimmune hepatitis ...
Acts as a disc spacer and holds bone graft; also includes some form of integrated fixation to maintain stability by direct purchase into the bony vertebral endplates ...
This product code has been established in accordance with the May 20, 1997, Guidance entitled, Convenience Kits Interim Regulatory Guidance, found at www.fda.gov/cdrh/ode/convkit.html. This type of convenience kit, as listed in the guidance above, is under enforcement discretion, and does not require a premarket notification (510(k)) to market if it meets all criteria in the guidance ...
A vinyl patient examination glove is a disposable device made of poly(vinyl chloride) that may or may not bear a trace amount of residual powder, and is intended to be worn on the hand for medical purposes to provide a barrier against potentially infectious materials and other contaminants ...
The functional classification of a road is the class or group of roads to which the road belongs. There are three main ... FHWA Functional Classification Guidelines - Federal Highway Administration. ...
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or ... Where as the structural properties are largely intrinsic, functional properties and the derived classifications depend to a ... non-drug See also: biological activity Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System Gene Ontology Globally Harmonized ... Media related to Chemical classification at Wikimedia Commons. ... System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals Chemical ...
This is wheelchair sport classification that corresponds to the neurological level T1 - T7. In the past, this class was known ... F54 is a disability sport classification for disability athletics for people who compete in field events from a seated position ... IWAS (20 March 2011). "IWF RULES FOR COMPETITION, BOOK 4 - CLASSIFICATION RULES" (PDF). Woude, Luc H. V.; Hoekstra, F.; Groot, ... International Paralympic Committee defined this classification on their website in July 2016, "Athletes have full power and ...
The Schenck classification is a system of categorizing knee dislocations based on the pattern of multiligamentous injury. It is ...
... the Australian Paralympic Committee described this classification for para-Alpine as a standing skiing classification with "One ... This classification has been included in a number of medal events at major competitions since the 1980s. It was sometimes later ... Skiers in this classification may use outriggers. Outriggers are forearm crutches with a miniature ski on a rocker at the base ... This classification has been included in a number of medal events at major competitions since the 1980s. It was sometimes later ...
  • Members of the classification panel must not have a relationship with the cyclist and must not be involved in the World Championships in any other role than as classifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, some concepts could belong in more than one facet, so their placement in the classification may appear to be arbitrary to the classifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the methods commonly used for binary classification are: Decision trees Random forests Bayesian networks Support vector machines Neural networks Logistic regression Each classifier is best in only a select domain based upon the number of observations, the dimensionality of the feature vector, the noise in the data and many other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australians seeking classification through Rowing Australia need to provide several documents to a classifier at the time of application, including a doctor's statement that documents their impairment, when it was acquired and if the doctor expects changes in the level of disability in terms of increases or decreases in the severity of the disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australians seeking classification through Rowing Australia need to provide several documents to a classifier at the time of application, including an AUSRAPID accreditation card, or International Sports Federation for Persons with an Intellectual Impairment (INAS-FID) ID card. (wikipedia.org)
  • An algorithm that implements classification, especially in a concrete implementation, is known as a classifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "classifier" sometimes also refers to the mathematical function, implemented by a classification algorithm, that maps input data to a category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later work for the multivariate normal distribution allowed the classifier to be nonlinear: several classification rules can be derived based on slight different adjustments of the Mahalanobis distance, with a new observation being assigned to the group whose centre has the lowest adjusted distance from the observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is distinct from the Jupiter classification which is used for bicolumnar distal humerus fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • A good accident classification taxonomy is also suitable for incident investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IATA accident classification taxonomy also looks into which prevention strategies could have prevented the accident. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil taxonomy based soil map units are additionally sorted into classes based on technical classification systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tank classification is a taxonomy of identifying either the intended role or weight class of tanks. (wikipedia.org)
  • George Gaylord Simpson's classic "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" (Simpson, 1945) taxonomy text laid out a systematics of mammal origins and relationships that was universally taught until the end of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many library classification systems use a combination of a fixed, enumerative taxonomy of concepts with subordinate facets that further refine the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product classification or product taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy which organizes products for a variety of purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross Country Canada defined this classification for para-Nordic skiing as "Impairment in one entire lower limb (leg) involving pelvis and structures distal" in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to point 1.2 the athlete must have an obvious impairment of function evident during classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian Paralympic Education Program defined this classification in 2012 as: "Riders with impairment in one leg but who can pedal normally" Cycling first became a Paralympic sport at the 1988 Summer Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross Country Canada described this classification as "Impairment in one lower limb below the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cross Country Canada summarized this classification as "Impairment in two lower limbs which include whole and or partial limb dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification guide would be put into effect following the closing ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian Paralympic Education Program defined this classification in 2012 as: "For athletes with complete loss of lower limb function but few other functional disabilities, or for athletes with partial loss of lower limb function combined with other disabilities which mean conventional cycling is not viable" Cycling first became a Paralympic sport at the 1988 Summer Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the 2012 Summer Paralympics, this classification competed in a six end individual event, and a team event featuring BC1 and BC2 competing against each other, with three players per team, one of whom must be BC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the 2012 Summer Paralympics, events for this classification include T 1-2 Road Race and Mixed T 1-2 Time Trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eligible events for this classification included 1986 World Disabled Ski Championships, 1988 World Winter Games for the Disabled, 1990 Disabled Alpine World Championships, 1992 Winter Paralympics, 1994 Winter Paralympics, 1996 Disabled Alpine World Championships in Lech, Austria, 1998 Winter Paralympics and 2002 Winter Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Dmytro Aleksyeyev, Kelley Becherer and Charl Bouwer who all won medals in their class at the 2008 Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paralympics portal Water sports portal "Applying for Adaptive Classification" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sports and games portal Disability portal Paralympics portal Para-athletics classification Athletics at the Summer Paralympics Buckley, Jane (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • Paralympics portal SH2 (classification) Para-shooting classification http://www.paralympic.org/Shooting/RulesandRegulations/Classification "Guide to the Paralympic Games - Appendix 1" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Swimming portal Paralympics portal Para-swimming classification Swimming at the Summer Paralympics T20, the classification for intellectual disabilities in athletics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Alexander Chekurov, Enhamed Enhamed and Junichi Kawai who all won medals in their class at the 2008 Paralympics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swimming portal Paralympics portal Para-swimming classification Swimming at the Summer Paralympics Buckley, Jane (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • In para-Alpine, skiers in this classification compete with one skis and two ski poles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitors in this classification are not eligible to compete in international competitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For swimming, the classification was eligible to compete at the 2012 Blind Sporting Association Australian Swimming Championships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-statured athletes seeking to compete in this class first need to have a classification evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A determination is then made as to what classification an athlete should compete in. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "LC4: Riders with disabilities affecting both legs " In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "Locomotor Disabilities (LC): Cyclists with a physical disability compete in four classes - LC1, LC2, LC3, LC4 - based on functional ability, with separate events for men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to IPC rules, an ambulant athlete with spastic diplegia featuring lower limb spasticity Grade 3 is eligible to compete in either the T35 classification (running) or as a wheelchair racer in T34. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skiers in this classification compete with one or two skis and two ski poles, except in para-Nordic skiing where the skier must use two skis and two ski poles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rowers in this classification compete in single sculls for club, state, and national competitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because CP3 sportspeople use wheelchairs in most of the classes they compete in, they need to attend classification events while in their wheelchair to insure they do not get classed in an ambulatory class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skiers in this classification compete with two skis and two ski poles in both para-Alpine and para-Nordic skiing. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1960s and 1970s, classification involved being examined in a supine position on an examination table, where multiple medical classifiers would often stand around the player, poke and prod their muscles with their hands and with pins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a medical classification for people with visual impairments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early on in this classes history, the class had a different name and was based on medical classification and originally intended for athletics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skiers in this classification may use outriggers. (wikipedia.org)
  • As skiers in this classification improve, they require less use of this equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In getting on ski lifts, skiers in this classification with amputations are taught to lift their outriggers off the ground and point them forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skiers in this classification include Australian Scott Adams and New Zealanders Steve Bayley and Patrick Cooper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rock mass classification schemes are designed to account for a number of factors influencing the strength and deformability of a rock mass (e.g. joint orientations, fracture density, intact strength), and may be used to quantify the competence of an outcrop or particular geologic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jane Buckley, writing for the Sporting Wheelies, describes the athletes in this classification as: "CP3, see CP-ISRA classes (appendix) Wheelchair " The classification in the appendix by Buckley goes on to say "The athlete shows fair trunk movement when pushing a wheelchair, but forward trunk movement is limited during forceful pushing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in track athlete and has a sister classification F41 for field athletes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification in the appendix by Buckley goes on to say "The athlete may need assistive devices for walking but not in standing or throwing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-classifications A, B and C define wheelchair backrest height depending on back and pelvic strength per athlete. (wikipedia.org)
  • In econometrics , probabilistic classification in general is called discrete choice . (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly used loss functions for probabilistic classification include log loss and the Brier score between the predicted and the true probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common subclass of classification is probabilistic classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starting in the 1980s and going into the 1990s, this class began to be more defined around functional classification instead of a medical one. (wikipedia.org)
  • While LW4 was not grouped with others classes at an event in the 1980s, it became grouped with other classifications during the 1990s and 2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the classification during the 1980s and 1990s led to most track events for CP3 racers being dropped and replaced exclusively with field events. (wikipedia.org)
  • For sportspeople with physical or intellectual disabilities going through classification or reclassification in Rio, their in competition observation event is their first appearance in competition at the Games. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, BBC Sport defined this classification as "LC4 for riders with disabilities affecting both legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian Paralympic Education Program defined this classification in 2012 as: "Riders with disabilities affecting both legs " Below are some historical world records for this classification in the 200m men's Indoor track / Flying start. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification is one of several classifications for athletes with ambulant related disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • V1 is a Paralympic archery classification for people with visual disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, there was a classification called W2, which was for all standing archers with disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • LW1 is a para-Alpine standing skiing classification for people with severe lower extreme disabilities in both extremities. (wikipedia.org)
  • LW stands for Locomotor Winter, and the classification is for people with severe lower extreme disabilities in both extremities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification is for people with intellectual disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical classification is a problem studied in machine learning . (wikipedia.org)
  • A statistical classification brings together similar clinical concepts and groups them into categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is used by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (known as ICD). (wikipedia.org)
  • International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)ICD-10 (10th revision, in use by WHO since 1994) ICD-10-CM (Clinical Modification, used in the US since October 2015) ICD-10-CA (used for morbidity classification in Canada). (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to statistical classification and pattern recognition in a machine learning sense, two main distinguishing features of MCPs can be identified: In MCPs the categories are defined in an ordinal way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early work on statistical classification was undertaken by Fisher, in the context of two-group problems, leading to Fisher's linear discriminant function as the rule for assigning a group to a new observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification has been included in a number of medal events at major competitions since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, BBC Sport defined this classification as "in class 2 those with poor functional strength in all extremities and trunk but able to propel a wheelchair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitors in this classification include Nigel Murray of Great Britain who won the country's first Paralympic gold medal in the sport in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • An evaluation of the Banff Classification in March 2000 confirmed significant association between the revised Banff '97 classification and graft outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification has been updated from the second edition in 2000 to reflect new research, but remains fundamentally conservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following that, the classification panel then assigns the footballer to a class, which may also include "Not Eligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "BC2: Athletes have poor functional strength in their extremities, but can propel a wheelchair and are not eligible for assistance" In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "BC2: This category is for throwing players only. (wikipedia.org)
  • While skiers with a fused knee and hip are eligible for this classification, skiers with fused ankles are not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progressive scrutiny and work upon dinosaurian interrelationships, with the aid of new discoveries that have shed light on previously uncertain relationships between taxa, have begun to yield a stabilizing classification since the mid-2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an equivalent to this classification in blind archery known as VI Open, which is open to people with visual acuity of less than 20 degrees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification was developed by the IBSA to insure more even competition across the different bands of visual acuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBS defined this classification as "Tricycle 1 (T1) is for athletes with severe locomotor dysfunction and insufficient balance for cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Telegraph defined this classification in 2011 as "T 1-2: Athletes on tricycles, who have severe locomotive dysfunctions and limited ability to pedal" The UCI recommends this be coded as MT2 or WT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern engineering classification systems are designed to allow an easy transition from field observations to basic predictions of soil engineering properties and behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to scientific soil classification systems, there are also vernacular soil classification systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many classification systems have been used over a hundred years of tank history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent classification systems were originally developed for sorting paper documents, but are nowadays used for searching patent databases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2010, the European Patent Office (EPO) and USPTO launched a joint project to create the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) in order to harmonise the patent classifications systems between the two offices. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some of these sports, different classification systems or names for CP8 are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification systems based on molecular studies reveal three major groups or lineages of placental mammals- Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria- which diverged from early common ancestors in the Cretaceous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Search in systems with faceted classification can enable a user to navigate information along multiple paths corresponding to different orderings of the facets. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology distinguishes the following types of landslides: fall (by undercutting) fall (by toppling) slump rockslide earthflow rockslide that develops into rock avalanche Various scientific disciplines have developed taxonomic classification systems to describe natural phenomena or individuals, like for example, plants or animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the following write-up, factors are discussed by dividing them into two groups: the first one is made up of the criteria utilised in the most widespread classification systems that can generally be easily determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A canonical form solves the classification problem, and is more data: it not only classifies every class, but provides a distinguished (canonical) element of each class. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other version of the Langlands classification divides the irreducible representations into L-packets, and classifies the L-packets in terms of certain homomorphisms of the Weil group of R or C into the Langlands dual group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Document classification or document categorization is a problem in library science, information science and computer science. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Notable competitors in this classification include Tunisian discus thrower and shot putter Raoua Tlili and British javelin thrower Kyron Duke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other competitors in this classification include Joshua Rowe who has represented both Scotland and Great Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitors in this classification include David Stone from Great Britain, and Australia's Carol Cooke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Events for this classification include the 1 km Time Trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISBN 0-8218-0851-6 Langlands, Robert P. (1989) , "On the classification of irreducible representations of real algebraic groups", in Sally, Paul J. (wikipedia.org)
  • In differential geometry and theoretical physics, the Petrov classification (also known as Petrov-Pirani-Penrose classification) describes the possible algebraic symmetries of the Weyl tensor at each event in a Lorentzian manifold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relevant multilinear algebra is somewhat involved (see the citations below), but the resulting classification theorem states that there are precisely six possible types of algebraic symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional classification of a road is the class or group of roads to which the road belongs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process for classification into this class has a medical and functional classification process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "Family of International Classifications" (FIC) include three main (or reference) classifications on basic parameters of health prepared by the organization and approved by the World Health Assembly for international use, as well as a number of derived and related classifications providing additional details. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification neurologically can include tetraplegics with spinal lesions level C5/C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contexts requiring a decision as to whether or not an item has some qualitative property, some specified characteristic, or some typical binary classification include: Medical testing to determine if a patient has certain disease or not - the classification property is the presence of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, classification for spinal cord injuries and wheelchair sport is overseen by International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS), having taken over this role following the 2005 merger of ISMWSF and ISOD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its name "colon classification" comes from the use of colons to separate facets in class numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely India (Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:Treatment;X-ray:Research.India) During the time (') of 1950 (Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:Treatment;X-ray:Research.India'1950) And translating into the codes listed for each subject and facet the classification becomes L,45;421:6;253:f.44'N5 Bliss bibliographic classification Subject (documents) Universal Decimal Classification GOPINATH (M A). Colon classification: Its theory and practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colon Classification (6th Edition) by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan, published by Ess Ess Publications, Delhi, India Chan, Lois Mai. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Colon Classification developed by S. R. Ranganathan is an example of general faceted classification designed to be applied to all library materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colon classification was named after its use of the colon as the primary symbol in its notation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematics and theoretical physics, Wigner's classification is a classification of the nonnegative (E ≥ 0) energy irreducible unitary representations of the Poincaré group which have sharp[when defined as? (wikipedia.org)