A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.

Immunopathogenesis of classical swine fever: role of monocytic cells. (1/149)

Virulent classical swine fever (CSF) represents an immunomodulatory viral infection that perturbs immune functions. Circulatory and immunopathological disorders include leukopenia, immunosuppression and haemorrhage. Monocytic cells - targets for CSF virus (CSFV) infection - could play critical roles in the immunopathology, owing to their production of immunomodulatory and vasoactive factors. Monocytes and macrophages (Mphi) are susceptible to virus infection, as a consequence of which prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is enhanced. The presence of PGE2 in serum from CSFV-infected pigs correlated with elevated PGE2 productivity by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these same animals. It was noted that these PGE2-containing preparations did not inhibit, but actually enhanced, lymphocyte proliferation. The proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 were not involved, although elevated IL-1 production could relate to lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless, IL-1 was not the sole element: infected Mphi produced lympho-stimulatory activity but little IL-1. This release of immunomodulatory factors, following CSFV infection of monocytic cells, was compared with other characteristics of the disease. Therein, PGE2 and IL-1 production was noted to coincide with the onset of fever and the coagulation disorders typical of CSF. Consequently, these factors are of greater relevance to the haemorrhagic disturbances, such as petechia and infarction, rather than the leukopenia found in CSF.  (+info)

Classical swine fever in Sardinia: epidemiology of recent outbreaks. (2/149)

A variable region of the gene encoding the major glycoprotein (E2) of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) was sequenced from 12 Sardinian isolates which had been obtained from three geographically distinct regions of the Island. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses and others characterized in previous studies [1, 2] indicated that (a) the Sardinian viruses were all members of the common European subgroup 2.3 and were clearly distinct from live vaccines recently used in this area; (b) they could be resolved into four distinct groups in accordance with the region or date of isolation; (c) in at least two regions wild boar/domestic swine contact was implicated in virus spread; (d) the oldest isolate (1983) and some of the recent isolates were possibly introduced from mainland Italy. In addition, this study has wider implications for the interpretation of CSFV variation. We have been able to demonstrate that small variations within this region of the virus genome (possibly less than 2.7% or five nucleotide substitutions) can be used to separate isolates into groups that precisely fit their geographical distribution. This finding is especially important for deducing the epidemiological relationships between multiple outbreaks caused by similar viruses that occur in close proximity.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of granulocytopenia and bone marrow atrophy during classical swine fever involves apoptosis and necrosis of uninfected cells. (3/149)

Granulocytopenia, a hematological hallmark of classical swine fever, is partially responsible for the suppression of innate immune defenses during classical swine fever. The present report demonstrates that this depletion was apparent as early as 3 days postinfection (p.i.). Both mature peripheral and bone marrow neutrophils were affected, whereas immature neutrophils increased absolutely in the periphery and coincidentally immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow. These data suggest that a pathogenic relationship exists between these compartments. The central event was not the arrest of hematopoietic cell proliferation or of the mobilization process, but instead apoptosis and possibly also necrosis were shown to play a role. This increase in apoptotic and dead cells was detected as early as 1-3 days p.i. In contrast, viral RNA in bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHC) was first detected 5 days p.i., and significant amounts of infected BMHC were detected only 7 days p.i., with the major target being the myeloid compartment. The increased caspase-3 activity observed supported a role for apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the elevated caspase-9 activity indicated the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that granulocytopenia and bone marrow atrophy are mediated by hematopoietic cell death and that indirect virus-host-mediated mechanisms are likely to be responsible.  (+info)

Ultrastructural glomerular changes in experimental infection with the classical swine fever virus. (4/149)

Ultrastructural studies of glomerular changes were performed on 16 pigs experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of the classical swine fever virus. Our observations revealed the thickening of glomerular basement membranes, swelling of endothelial cells and cytoplasmic vacuolization within podocytes containing abundant viral particles. An early viral infection of podocytes was suggested as the cause of selective swelling of the foot processes of these cells with the consequent obliteration of the glomerular urinary spaces. To our knowledge this is the first report of ultrastructural evidence of classical swine fever virions infecting glomerular podocytes.  (+info)

Comparative immunohistopathology in pigs infected with highly virulent or less virulent strains of hog cholera virus. (5/149)

Eight pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with a highly virulent hog cholera virus (HCV) strain ALD. The infected pigs developed severe illness and became moribund on postinoculation day (PID) 7 or PID 10. Histologic lesions were characterized by severe generalized vasculitis, necrosis of lymphocytes, and encephalitis. HCV antigen was detected in crypt tonsilar epithelial cells, macrophages, and reticular endothelial cells of lymphoid tissues. Antigen localization corresponded well with histologic lesions. Five pigs were inoculated with less virulent HCV Kanagawa/74 strain and were euthanatized on PID 30. All five infected pigs recovered from the illness but became stunted. They also had a slight follicular depletion of lymphocytes, histiocytic hyperplasia, and hematopoiesis in the spleen. Less virulent HCV antigen was observed in the tonsils, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal glands, and lungs. Although antigen localization was less associated with histologic lesions, immunoreactivity was stronger than that in the pigs infected with the ALD strain of HCV. An almost complete loss of B lymphocytes was recognized in pigs infected with the ALD strain and was correlated with follicular necrosis in lymphoid tissues. Loss of B lymphocytes was not prominent in the pigs infected with Kanagawa/74 strain. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher than that in the noninfected control pigs.  (+info)

Application of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serologic diagnosis of classical swine fever virus infection. (6/149)

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA), based on a truncated E2 recombinant protein of the Alfort/187 strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and a specific monoclonal antibody M1669, was evaluated using 2,000 sera from clinically healthy pigs in Canada (a CSFV-free country) and sera from experimentally infected pigs. The relative specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA were 100% and 86%, respectively, at a cutoff of 25% inhibition using negative and positive pig sera, as defined by the neutralizing peroxidase-linked assay (NPLA). A kappa value of 0.91 was obtained, indicating an excellent level of agreement between the NPLA and the C-ELISA. When sera from 120 infected pigs were used in the test at > or = 21 days postinfection, the sensitivity of the C-ELISA and the kappa value increased to 97% and 0.98, respectively. This C-ELISA will be useful when a large number of samples must be tested, as could occur during a disease outbreak or for surveillance or prevalence studies.  (+info)

Characterization of classical swine fever virus associated with defective interfering particles containing a cytopathogenic subgenomic RNA isolated from wild boar. (7/149)

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain WB82, isolated from a wild boar in 1982, induced a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in primary swine testicle cell culture and in most of the porcine cell lines. This strain of CSFV was found to be composed of two biotypes. cytopathogenic (cp) CSFV, as a minor population, and noncytopathogenic (noncp) CSFV, as a major population. The noncp CSFV (designated strain WB82/E+) was obtained by biological cloning, and it showed the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus phenomenon. In Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR assay, CSFV RNA with a subgenomic (sg) length was detected in addition to full-length viral RNA only in the cells in which a CPE had been revealed. These RNAs represent the genomes of typical defective interfering (DI) particles because of the strict dependence on a complementing helper virus and interference with replication of the helper virus. The sg RNA, which exhibits the genomes of the DI particles, lacked the nucleotides of the viral genomic region from Npro to NS2 (4764 bases). When extracted sg RNA was transfected to the cells infected with the WB82/E+ strain, a distinct CPE was observed. Interestingly, the CPE was observed in cells infected with other heterologous noncp CSFV ALD and GPE- strains by sg RNA transfection. The results suggested that these noncp CSFVs act as helper viruses for the replication of sg RNA (DI particles). It was also shown that the cytopathogenicity of strain WB82 is caused by apoptosis.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate both impair monocyte differentiation, relating cellular function to virus susceptibility. (8/149)

Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) impeded monocyte to macrophage differentiation with respect to typical phenotypic modulation and certain phagocyte-related processes. The down-regulation of the porcine monocyte marker SWC1, and up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker were retarded, but not inhibited, as was the differentiation-associated down-regulation of p53 and myeloperoxidase. Despite this clear impairment of macrophage differentiation, not all cellular functions were equally susceptible. Both agents inhibited phagocytosis, but not low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated endocytosis. Only LPS inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase up-regulation. In contrast, increase of vacuolar acidification rates was more susceptible to PMA. The activity of certain endosomal/lysosomal enzymes - esterase, nucleotidase, peroxidase and cathepsins - was generally enhanced by both LPS and PMA. This contrasted with autophagosomal activity, detected through the induction of an antiviral state. Disruption of autophagosomes and lysosomes (methionine-O-methyl ester), but not lysosomes alone (glycyl-L-phenylalanine) reversed LPS-induced inhibition of virus replication, without influencing the PMA-induced antiviral effect. Thus, PMA is similar to LPS in inhibiting monocyte to macrophage differentiation, when primary blood monocytes are employed, but not all pathways are equally susceptible. The analyses demonstrate that the pathways modulated during monocyte differentiation function somewhat independently. Moreover, certain functions of monocytic cells are more important with respect to the outcome of virus infection, with autophagosomal activities in particular favouring cell survival.  (+info)

Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. It is the causative agent of Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, which is a highly contagious and severe disease in pigs. The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their body fluids, but it can also be spread through contaminated feed, water, and fomites.

CSFV infects pigs of all ages, causing a range of clinical signs that may include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, and respiratory distress. In severe cases, the virus can cause hemorrhages in various organs, leading to high mortality rates. CSF is a significant disease of economic importance in the swine industry, as it can result in substantial production losses and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures for CSF include vaccination, biosecurity practices, and stamping-out policies. Vaccines against CSF are available but may not provide complete protection or prevent the virus from shedding, making it essential to maintain strict biosecurity measures in pig farms. In some countries, stamping-out policies involve the rapid detection and elimination of infected herds to prevent the spread of the disease.

Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as Hog Cholera, is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease in pigs that is caused by a Pestivirus. The virus can be spread through direct contact with infected pigs or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and objects.

Clinical signs of CSF include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, reddening of the skin, vomiting, diarrhea, abortion in pregnant sows, and neurological symptoms such as tremors and weakness. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to high mortality rates, reduced growth rates, and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures include vaccination, biosecurity measures, quarantine, and stamping out infected herds. CSF is not considered a public health threat as it does not infect humans. However, it can have significant impacts on the swine industry and food security in affected regions.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Asfarviridae family. It is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious and deadly disease in domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed, or fomites (inanimate objects).

ASFV infects cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and replicates in the cytoplasm of these cells. The virus causes a range of clinical signs, including fever, loss of appetite, hemorrhages, and death in severe cases. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for ASF, and control measures rely on early detection, quarantine, and culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease.

It's important to note that African swine fever virus is not a threat to human health, but it can have significant economic impacts on the pig industry due to high mortality rates in affected herds and trade restrictions imposed by countries to prevent the spread of the disease.

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that affects both domestic and wild pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which belongs to the Asfarviridae family. The disease is not zoonotic, meaning it does not infect or cause disease in humans.

Clinical signs of ASF can vary depending on the strain of the virus and the age and overall health status of the infected pig. However, common symptoms include high fever, loss of appetite, weakness, skin redness or blueness, diarrhea, vomiting, coughing, difficulty breathing, and abortion in pregnant sows. In severe cases, ASF can cause sudden death within a few days after infection.

ASF is transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or their body fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and fomites (inanimate objects). The virus can also be spread by soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which can transmit the virus to wild suids such as warthogs and bushpigs.

There is no effective treatment or vaccine available for ASF, and control measures rely on early detection, quarantine, and culling of infected animals. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, restriction of pig movements, and proper disposal of carcasses and waste.

ASF is endemic in many African countries and has spread to other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and South America. It poses a significant threat to the global pork industry due to its high mortality rate and lack of effective control measures.

Pestivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae, which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses. There are several species within this genus that can cause disease in animals, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle, border disease virus (BDV) in sheep, and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs. These viruses can cause a range of clinical signs, including respiratory and enteric diseases, reproductive failures, and immunosuppression. They are primarily spread through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, and can also be transmitted through contaminated fomites and semen. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, biosecurity practices, and testing and culling of infected animals.

Border Disease Virus (BDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. It is a viral pathogen that primarily affects sheep and goats, causing a disease known as Border Disease in these animals. The virus is named after the geographical location where it was first identified, the border region between England and Scotland.

BDV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that can cause a range of clinical signs in infected sheep and goats, including abortion, stillbirths, congenital defects, and poor growth rates in newborn lambs or kids. The virus is transmitted horizontally through direct contact with infected animals, their bodily fluids, or contaminated objects. Vertical transmission from ewes to their offspring can also occur, resulting in the birth of persistently infected (PI) lambs that serve as a significant source of infection within flocks.

Infection with BDV can lead to economic losses for farmers due to reduced productivity and increased mortality rates. There is no specific treatment for Border Disease, but vaccination programs can help control the spread of the virus in sheep and goat populations.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Pestivirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses of the genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. There are several different types of Pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus (BDV).

These viruses can cause a range of clinical signs in animals, depending on the species infected, the age and immune status of the animal, and the strain of the virus. In general, Pestivirus infections can cause fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and various symptoms related to the respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems.

For example, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are important pathogens in cattle and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including respiratory disease, diarrhea, reproductive failure, and immunosuppression. CSFV is a highly contagious virus that affects pigs and can cause fever, loss of appetite, hemorrhages, and neurological symptoms. BDV infects sheep and goats and can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital defects in offspring.

Prevention and control measures for Pestivirus infections include vaccination, biosecurity practices, and testing and culling of infected animals.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

'Sus scrofa' is the scientific name for the wild boar, a species of suid that is native to much of Eurasia and North Africa. It is not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Iridoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The name "iridovirus" comes from the Greek word "iris," meaning rainbow, due to the characteristic iridescent coloration of infected insects' cuticles.

Iridoviruses are large, icosahedral virions with a diameter of approximately 120-300 nanometers. They have a complex internal structure, including a lipid membrane and several protein layers. The genome of iridoviruses is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that ranges in size from about 100 to 200 kilobases.

Iridoviruses can cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hemorrhagic septicemia, hepatopancreatic necrosis, and developmental abnormalities. Infection typically occurs through ingestion or injection of viral particles, and the virus replicates in the host's nuclei.

There are several genera within the family Iridoviridae, including Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, Megalocyivirus, and Iridovirus. Each genus has a specific host range and causes distinct clinical symptoms. For example, ranaviruses infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish, while lymphocystiviruses primarily infect teleost fish.

Iridoviruses are of interest to medical researchers because they have potential as biological control agents for pests and vectors of human diseases, such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, their use as biocontrol agents is still being studied, and there are concerns about the potential ecological impacts of releasing iridoviruses into the environment.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a viral disease that primarily affects cattle, but can also infect other ruminants such as sheep and goats. The disease is caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae and genus Pestivirus.

There are two biotypes of BVDV, type 1 and type 2, which can be further divided into various subtypes based on their genetic makeup. The virus can cause a range of clinical signs in infected animals, depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus.

Acute infection with BVDV can cause fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, and diarrhea, which can be severe and life-threatening in young calves. In addition, BVDV can cause reproductive problems such as abortion, stillbirth, and the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals are those that were infected with BVDV in utero and have the virus continuously present in their bloodstream and other tissues throughout their lives. These animals serve as a source of infection for other cattle and can spread the virus to naive herds.

BVDV is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. The virus can also be spread indirectly through contaminated feed, water, and equipment. Prevention and control measures for BVDV include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to identify and remove PI animals from herds.

The palatine tonsils, also known as the "tonsils," are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx, at the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body from inhaled or ingested pathogens. Each tonsil has a surface covered with crypts and follicles that contain lymphocytes, which help to filter out bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth and nose.

The palatine tonsils are visible through the mouth and can be seen during a routine physical examination. They vary in size, but typically are about the size of a large olive or almond. Swelling or inflammation of the tonsils is called tonsillitis, which can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In some cases, enlarged tonsils may need to be removed through a surgical procedure called a tonsillectomy.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is characterized by acute or chronic flu-like symptoms, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The bacteria are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols from infected animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Q fever can also be transmitted through consumption of unpasteurized milk or direct contact with infected animals. It is often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in animals but can cause severe disease in humans.

The acute form of Q fever typically presents with sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and cough. Some patients may also develop pneumonia or hepatitis. The chronic form of the disease is less common but more serious, often affecting people with compromised immune systems. Chronic Q fever can lead to endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Q fever typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, serological testing, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as doxycycline or fluoroquinolones for several weeks to months, depending on the severity and duration of the illness. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals, wearing protective clothing and masks when handling animal products, and pasteurizing milk before consumption.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

... , Iowa State University Species Profile - Classical Swine Fever, National Invasive Species Information ... Classical swine fever virus becomes Pestivirus C... ICTV 7th Report van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., ... Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly ... "Classical swine fever". "Marion Dorset: American Biochemist/Colleen Farrell 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
Some, like classical swine fever and scrapie are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease ... "Classical swine fever" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved 20 May 2017. "Scrapie Fact Sheet". ... "Swine Growing-Finishing Units" (PDF). Pork Industry handbook. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 17 May ... nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in [the king's] writ." For example, the royal manor of Earley in Berkshire, ...
Some, like classical swine fever and scrapie are specific to one population of animals, while others, like foot-and-mouth ... "Classical swine fever" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved 20 May 2017. "Scrapie Fact Sheet". ... For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-78, Title IX) defines livestock only as cattle, swine, and ... "Swine Growing-Finishing Units" (PDF). Pork Industry handbook. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 17 May ...
The clinical symptoms of ASFV infection are very similar to classical swine fever, and the two diseases normally have to be ... "African Swine Fever". "Vietnam successfully produces vaccine against African swine fever". Vietnam Plus. 1 June 2022. Retrieved ... In July, 3 farms discovered African swine fever in Estonia. [...] African swine fever spreads to farmed pigs, 500 animals to be ... Wikispecies has information related to African swine fever virus. Canadian Food Inspection Agency African swine fever ...
They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... yellow fever virus and the tick-borne flaviviruses e.g. louping ill virus. Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non- ...
... causes Bovine viral diarrhea and Mucosal disease Pestivirus C or Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), causes Classical swine ... and Classical swine fever (CSF) virus are the four recognized species in the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. ... "Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein". Virology. 411 (1): 41-49. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ... "Establishment of a Dual SYBR Green I Fluorescence PCR Assay for African Swine Fever Virus and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus ...
"U18666A inhibits classical swine fever virus replication through interference with intracellular cholesterol trafficking". ...
"Ribosomal binding to the internal ribosomal entry site of classical swine fever virus". RNA. 6 (12): 1791-1807. doi:10.1017/ ...
The classical swine fever virus UTR described appears to be longer at the 5' end than other pestivirus UTRs. This family ... "Ribosomal binding to the internal ribosomal entry site of classical swine fever virus". RNA. 6 (12): 1791-1807. doi:10.1017/ ...
"Ribosomal binding to the internal ribosomal entry site of classical swine fever virus". RNA. 6 (12): 1791-1807. doi:10.1017/ ...
"Ribosomal binding to the internal ribosomal entry site of classical swine fever virus". RNA. 6 (12): 1791-1807. doi:10.1017/ ...
... including classical swine fever and African swine fever. PIADC runs about 30,000 diagnostic tests each year. PIADC operates ... The principal diseases studied are foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, and vesicular stomatitis virus.[citation ... and specializes in the study of FMD and African swine fever. At the height of the Cold War, study of biological weapons for use ...
"African Swine Fever Summary sheets" (PDF). "Classical Swine Fever" (PDF). August 2008. "Classical Swine Fever (hog cholera) ... Lesions of classical swine fever are clinico-pathologically indistinguishable from African swine fever; it is essential to send ... Classical swine fever was once widespread, but has been eradicated from many countries from domestic swine, including the US. A ... Classical swine fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious and economically significant viral disease ...
Diseases of primary concern are: classical swine fever, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, and notifiable avian influenza ... Rift Valley fever, capripox, lumpy skin disease, glanders, and classical swine fever. Animal Care - The Animal Care Unit ... In addition to OIE Reference Laboratory status for classical swine fever and avian influenza, this Section is also the National ... NCFAD is organized into several Sections and Units: Classical Swine Fever/Avian Influenza - This Section provides diagnostic ...
... interacting protein involved in classical swine fever virus growth". Journal of Virology. 87 (4): 2072-80. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... experimental study found that a Sus scrofa PRR29-like protein interacts with the N-terminal protease of classical swine fever ...
Founded in Hungary in 1912, the Phylaxia Vaccine Production Co produced the first vaccine against classical swine fever. ... focused on the swine vaccine sector 2016: Hertape Saude Animale Ltda. and Inova Biotecnologia Saude Animale Ltda, Brazil, 2016 ... ruminants and swine. Ceva also supplies; hatchery vaccines, vaccination services and equipment; pheromone-based behavioural ... such as Rift Valley fever and Influenza. The North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine and Ceva are collaborating on ...
... modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia". Veterinary Research. 43 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43 ...
"Negative impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the efficacy of classical swine fever ... At present PRRS, is one of the most significant infectious disease affecting the swine industry. It was also named as "pig AIDS ... Immunization programs of swine herds worldwide with attenuated vaccines made of both PRRSV genotypes provided initially ... PRRS earlier known as "mystery swine disease" and "blue ear disease" during 1987-1988 in the United States and Canada caused ...
... and Classical and African swine fever affect pigs. Overall, the performances of this sub-sector are poor, with the exception of ...
Other members of this genus cause Border disease (sheep) and classical swine fever (pigs) which cause significant financial ...
... and studied classical swine fever and the horse disease dourine. Marek also published a study on the use of an endoscope in ...
... then returned to Minnesota and studied classical swine fever (also known as hog cholera). Bachrach found that the disease could ...
... disease is considered to be the most economically important viral disease of swine in areas where classical swine fever (hog ... The disease in swine became much more severe, outbreaks of respiratory disease in cattle rose dramatically, and the infection ... Swine (both domestic and feral) are usual reservoirs for this virus, though it does affect other species. Aujeszky's disease ... Pregnant swine can reabsorb their litters or deliver mummified, stillborn, or weakened piglets. In cattle, symptoms include ...
... classical swine fever, African swine fever and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Approximately 10% of the facility will be ...
... including classical swine fever virus, and Hepacivirus genus, including Hepatitis C virus. The SVV IRES RNA shares similarities ...
424) Classical Swine Fever Order (Northern Ireland) 2003 (S.R. 2003 No. 425) Employer's Liability (Compulsory Insurance) ... 493) African Swine Fever Order (Northern Ireland) 2003 (S.R. 2003 No. 494) Animal By-Products Regulations (Northern Ireland) ...
... virus QI09AA06 Classical swine fever virus QI09AA07 Porcine circovirus QI09AB01 Treponema QI09AB02 Escherichia QI09AB03 ... virus QI09AD04 Classical swine fever virus QI09AE01 Erysipelothrix QI09AE02 Salmonella QI09AE03 Escherichia QI09AE04 Lawsonia ...
... classical swine fever virus NS3 endopeptidase, CSFV NS3 endopeptidase, p80) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following ...
Texas cattle fever, classical swine fever (hog cholera), heartworm, and other parasitic infections. Animal experimentation ...
... classical swine fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.411 - hepatitis delta virus MeSH B04.909.777.415 - hepatitis e virus MeSH B04.909. ... classical swine fever virus MeSH B04.820.410.050 - allolevivirus MeSH B04.820.410.500 - levivirus MeSH B04.820.455.149 - ... african swine fever virus MeSH B04.909.204.120 - circoviridae MeSH B04.909.204.120.150 - circovirus MeSH B04.909.204.120.400 - ... african swine fever virus MeSH B04.280.065.249 - granulovirus MeSH B04.280.065.500 - nucleopolyhedrovirus MeSH B04.280.090.500 ...
Classical Swine Fever, Iowa State University Species Profile - Classical Swine Fever, National Invasive Species Information ... Classical swine fever virus becomes Pestivirus C... ICTV 7th Report van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., ... Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly ... "Classical swine fever". "Marion Dorset: American Biochemist/Colleen Farrell 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
SERBIA - The Serbian veterinary authorities have reported a new outbreak of classical swine fever. ... More Classical Swine Fever Detected in Serbia SERBIA - The Serbian veterinary authorities have reported a new outbreak of ... WOAH warns of swine fever vaccine risks as Vietnam readies exports Disease Notifiable diseases African swine fever ... WOAH warns of swine fever vaccine risks as Vietnam readies exports Disease Notifiable diseases African swine fever ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Classical Swine Fever. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the ... Clinical Findings and Lesions of Classical Swine Fever Classical swine fever is characterized by fever, hemorrhages, ataxia, ... Etiology and Epidemiology of Classical Swine Fever Classical swine fever is caused by a small, enveloped RNA virus in the genus ... Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Swine Fever). By Guillermo R. Risatti , DVM, PhD, Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary ...
The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopathic physicians, veterinarians, dentists, nurses, and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines.
Wildrisk: Classical swine fever and wild boar in Denmark: A risk analysis. Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, ... Wildrisk: Classical swine fever and wild boar in Denmark: A risk analysis. / Alban, Lis; Andersen, Mette Marie; Asferg, Tommy ... Wildrisk : Classical swine fever and wild boar in Denmark: A risk analysis. Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, ... title = "Wildrisk: Classical swine fever and wild boar in Denmark: A risk analysis", ...
Diagnosis of classical swine fever virus in a limited resource setting: The influence of pig breed on methodology and sample ... Diagnosis of classical swine fever virus in a limited resource setting: The influence of pig breed on methodology and sample ... Causes of fever in primary care in Southeast Asia and the performance of C-reactive protein in discriminating bacterial from ... Fever and health-seeking behaviour among migrants living along the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed-methods study ...
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease of pigs and wild boars that is transmitted through direct/indirect contact ... Shimizu, Y., Hayama, Y., Murato, Y. et al. Epidemiological analysis of classical swine fever in wild boars in Japan. BMC Vet ... Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease that affects pigs and wild boars. It is caused by a single-stranded RNA ... Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease of pigs and wild boars that is transmitted through direct/indirect contact ...
An outbreak of classical swine fever has been reported in wild boar. The two wild boar were found in the forest area Tigrovoe, ... Classical Swine Fever Reported in Russia. * 05 Apr 2016, 10:37. An outbreak of classical swine fever has been reported in wild ...
Swine Fever Virus Antibody Rapid Test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of Classical ... Swine Fever Virus Antibody (CSFV Ab) in pigs serum, or plasma specimen. ... Classical Swine Fever Virus Antibody Rapid Test. The Classical Swine Fever Virus Antibody Rapid Test is a lateral flow ... The Classical Swine Fever Virus Antibody Rapid test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection ...
African swine fever *Classical swine fever *Abalone herpesvirus *Ranavirus *Yellow head disease ...
Classical Swine Fever [9 May 2001] Mr. Yeo --. Classical Swine Fever [9 May 2001] Mr. Nick Brown Pig Swill [9 May 2001] Mr. ...
Classical Swine Fever Virus E2 Protein , AG05-0313-Z , Immunology Consultatnt Laboratory Species Reactivity: CSFV Format: ... Classical Swine Fever Virus E2 Protein , AG05-0313-Z Immunology Consultant Laboratory ...
It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever ... The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF)from ... The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF)from ... Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial ...
Pre-registration efficacy study of a novel marker vaccine against classical swine fever on maternally derived antibody positive ... Pre-registration efficacy study of a novel marker vaccine against classical swine fever on maternally derived antibody positive ... can have a negative effect on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF). For this reason, a ... can have a negative effect on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF). For this reason, a ...
The non-classical major histocompatibility complex II protein SLA-DM is crucial for African swine fever virus replication * ...
Rabbit Anti-classical Swine fever Virus , Gentaur MSRP: Was: Now: €340.00 Quick view Compare Add to Cart ...
Classical Swine Fever [27 Apr 2001] Mrs. Shephard --. Classical Swine Fever [27 Apr 2001] Ms Quin Column: 411W ...
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar. Offensive gegen die Schweinepest von Kerstin Viering (Berliner Zeitung 31.03.2009) ... Jakob Jeuk, African Swine Fever control measures in Saxony Jakob Bürgermeister, Epidemics on volitile networks; Uni Leipzig ... SwiFCoIBM: Swine Fever & Co in an Individual-Based Model. Modelling infectious disease control in wild boar (ASF, CSF, FMD) ...
Classical swine fever - CSFV (PCR). *African swine fever - ASFV (PCR). *Aujeszkys disease - SuHV-1 (PCR) ... In addition to classical quality criteria, our seed testing program also takes into account the assessment of sustainable ...
Whereas in February 1997 outbreaks of classical swine fever in the Netherlands was declared by the Dutch Veterinary Authorities ... No evidence of classical swine fever in the zone has been detected; ... to Council Directive 80/217/EEC of 22 January 1980 introducing Community measures for the control of classical swine fever (1 ... provisions of Article 4 of Council Directive 80/217/EEC introducing Community measures for the control of classical swine fever ...
Categories: Classical Swine Fever Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Kataria, A.K.; Kataria, N. Evaluation of oxidative stress in pigs affected with classical swine fever. Int. J. Bioflux Soc. ... J. Swine Health Prod. 2004, 12, 296-307. [Google Scholar]. *Hahn, T.-W.; Lohakare, J.D.; Lee, S.L.; Moon, W.K.; Chae, B.J. ... The advisory levels of DON for swine are 5000 μg/kg in grain, with grain feedstuffs not to exceed 20% of the final diet [28]. ... Chaytor, A.C.; Hansen, J.A.; van Heugten, E.; See, M.T.; Kim, S.-W. Occurrence and decontamination of mycotoxins in swine feed ...
Classical swine fever virus (cultures only). Foot and mouth disease virus (cultures only). Goatpox virus (cultures only). Lumpy ... Yellow fever virus (cultures only). Yersinia pestis (cultures only). African swine fever virus (cultures only). Avian ... Hantavirus causing hemorragic fever with renal syndrome. Hendra virus. Hepatitis B virus (cultures only). Herpes B virus ( ... Rift Valley fever virus. Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (cultures only). Sabia virus. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 ( ...
Classical swine fever in Slovakia: experts in Brussels review the measures put in place to control the outbreak. Brussels (aho ... Following the confirmation of classical swine fever (CSF) in domestic pigs in Slovakia about ten days ago and the adoption of ...
208000001726 Classical Swine Fever Diseases 0.000 description 1 * 206010059410 Faecaluria Diseases 0.000 description 1 ... control for communicable diseases such as swine fevers has increased difficulty.. Although pig farm with good conditionsi has ...
The development of intervention strategies to control Classical Swine Fever will based on research of live attenuated vaccines ... 1. Develop intervention strategies to control and eradicate Classical Swine Fever (CSF), including determining immune ... To develop strategies to control African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) studies will be conducted to provide information about the ... 2. Develop intervention strategies to control African Swine Fever (ASF) including identify functional genomics of virus-host ...
The effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pig performance and vaccination against classical swine fever. Vet. Parasitol. ... such as those for classic swine fever [33], foot and mouth disease [34], Pasturella multocida [35], and P. haemolytica [36], ... A Senescence-Like Cellular Response Inhibits Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus Proliferation. Previous Article in Special Issue. ...
Technical Abstract: Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The ... there is no information regarding the effect of IFN therapy in infection with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in swine. Here ... Title: Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain Author. FERNANDEZ- ... To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the effect of IFN-alpha during CSFV infection in swine. ...
  • An outbreak of classical swine fever has been reported in wild boar. (meatcommerce.com)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. (usda.gov)
  • A Kansas State University researcher has licensed a new vaccine to an animal health company to fight a highly contagious swine disease overseas. (farmprogress.com)
  • SERBIA - The Serbian veterinary authorities have reported a new outbreak of classical swine fever. (thepigsite.com)
  • African swine fever, classical swine fever, Newcastle disease, foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease are among ailments in Kenya that Customs cited as risks. (wytv.com)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease of pigs and wild boars that is transmitted through direct/indirect contact between animals or CSF virus-contaminated fomites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease that affects pigs and wild boars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF)from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. (ucm.es)
  • Classical swine fever has not been eliminated in China, and each of the 700 million pigs raised annually in the country currently receives two doses of vaccine against the virulent disease. (farmprogress.com)
  • Pigs given the current modified live virus classical swine fever vaccine test positive for the disease. (farmprogress.com)
  • 2021) ' Evaluation of Lesions and Viral Antigen Distribution in Domestic Pigs Inoculated Intranasally with African Swine Fever Virus Ken05/Tk1 (Genotype X) '. Pathogens , 10 (6). (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Zoe, who was working on the first farm to be identified with classical swine fever in the 2000 outbreak, explains the devastating impact of these types of disease have on pigs, farms and the people who work on them. (npa-uk.org.uk)
  • Infected pigs may be asymptomatic or present with general symptoms that are indistinguishable from those of swine influenza, pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease), classical swine fever, parvovirus, encephalomyocarditis, chlamydiosis and mycoplasmosis. (idexx.com)
  • The Classical Swine Csfv Antibody Test is based on sandwich lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. (hwtai.com)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a high consequence pathogen. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The Classical Swine Fever Virus Antibody Rapid Test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus Antibody (CSFV Ab) in pig's serum, or plasma specimen. (hwtai.com)
  • Currently, there is no information regarding the effect of IFN therapy in infection with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in swine. (usda.gov)
  • Here, we report the effect of IFN treatment in swine experimentally infected a highly virulent CSFV strain called Brescia. (usda.gov)
  • This is the first report describing the effect of IFN treatment during CSFV infection in swine. (usda.gov)
  • 2007) and recombinant CSFV lacking N^pro is attenuated in swine (Mayer et al. (usda.gov)
  • 2009). Therefore, the actual role of IFN during CSFV infection in swine is poorly understood. (usda.gov)
  • Here, we report the effect of IFN-alpha treatment (delivered by a replication defective human adenovirus type 5, Ad5) on the course of experimental infection of swine infected with the highly virulent CSFV Brescia strain. (usda.gov)
  • As part of our membership in the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the Virology Laboratory is certified to conduct surveillance for avian and swine influenza, Newcastle disease, classical swine fever, and foot and mouth disease. (msu.edu)
  • Classical swine fever is caused by a small, enveloped RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • By this means, the device can indicate the presence of Classical Swine Fever Virus antibodies in the specimen. (hwtai.com)
  • Mathematical formulation and validation of the Be-FAST model for classical swine fever virus spread between and within farms. (ucm.es)
  • African swine fever virus - variants on the rise. (ufz.de)
  • 2. Develop intervention strategies to control African Swine Fever (ASF) including identify functional genomics of virus-host determinants of virulence and transmission, determining host mechanisms of ASF immune protection, determining host mechanisms of ASF disease tolerance in wild suids. (usda.gov)
  • To develop strategies to control African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) studies will be conducted to provide information about the mechanisms of viral replication, virus host interaction and virulence in the natural host. (usda.gov)
  • Shi's vaccine uses a protein from the virus rather than a live or attenuated virus, which means the vaccine poses no biosecurity risk to produce in the U.S., where classical swine fever was eradicated in 1978. (farmprogress.com)
  • Although much now is known about the virus, details on control of the disease for all types of swine-raising operations are far from complete. (iastate.edu)
  • Serological relationship between a novel ovine pestivirus and classical swine fever virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peu de renseignements sont disponibles sur les mutations des virus saisonniers de la grippe A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2 en Jordanie. (who.int)
  • Afin de remédier à ce problème et d'étudier les variations génétiques et antigéniques des virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2, nous avons procédé à des analyses génétiques et phylogénétiques des gènes de l'hémagglutinine (HA) et de la neuraminidase (NA) de ces virus, sur la période 2011-2013 en Jordanie. (who.int)
  • L'analyse a porté sur les séquences complètes des gènes de l'HA et de la NA de 16 échantillons positifs au virus H1N1 prélevés dans le cadre de cette étude, ainsi que sur 21 séquences publiées de l'HA et 20 séquences publiées de la NA, issues de virus jordaniens disponibles sur les bases de données de gènes en ligne. (who.int)
  • Pre-registration efficacy study of a novel marker vaccine against classical swine fever on maternally derived antibody positive (MDA+) target animals. (sciensano.be)
  • 1. Develop intervention strategies to control and eradicate Classical Swine Fever (CSF), including determining immune mechanisms mediating early protection and its application in blocking infection and preventing transmission, and discovering effective CSF vaccine platforms specifically designed for disease control and eradication. (usda.gov)
  • A vaccine to combat African swine fever could be produced based on research carried out by ANSES's Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory. (anses.fr)
  • Jishu Shi, professor of vaccine immunology and director of U.S.-China Center for Animal Health in KSU's College of Veterinary Medicine, has developed a method of producing a classical swine fever vaccine safely and inexpensively. (farmprogress.com)
  • PRRS is the most economically significant disease to affect US swine production since the eradication of classical swine fever (CSF). (iastate.edu)
  • It was referred to as swine mystery disease (SMD) or swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) before porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) became the generally agreed-upon name. (iastate.edu)
  • Monte Carlo simulation of classical swine fever epidemics and control. (ucm.es)
  • In 2006, U.S. swine producers voluntarily adopted animal traceability standards to strengthen the industry's ability to track animal movements with the goal of controlling the spread of animal diseases, particularly foreign animal diseases such as African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and classical swine fever. (southeastagnet.com)
  • In a new video, NPA chief executive Zoe Davies explains how diseases like African swine fever (ASF) affect farming and wider rural communities. (npa-uk.org.uk)
  • Severe cases of the disease appear very similar to African swine fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease of swine. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This method was used for classical swine fever in the early 2000s and eradicated the disease from areas of France where it was present. (anses.fr)
  • Swine industry consolidation of the past 15 years has led to entire production systems being designed around strategies for controlling or eliminating this disease. (iastate.edu)
  • International markets would close immediately if a foreign animal disease were discovered in the U.S. So, strengthening live-swine traceability will better assure animal health officials that they have access to comprehensive movement data and show trading partners that the United States knows where disease-free animals are and that exported products are safe. (southeastagnet.com)
  • So, NPPC is asking swine producers, veterinarians, cull swine and breeding operators and show pig enthusiasts to comment on the draft standards by Oct. 27, 2023. (southeastagnet.com)
  • This strain only caused a slight fever in infected animals, whereas infection with the Georgia strain is normally fatal in 100% of cases. (anses.fr)
  • October is National Pork Month, and one thing U.S. pork producers asked the National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) to do is to lead an effort to update the existing swine traceability system. (southeastagnet.com)
  • Patients with viral encephalitis generally experience signs and symptoms of leptomeningeal irritation (eg, headache, fever, neck stiffness). (medscape.com)
  • [ 34 ] classically presents with a severe influenzalike illness or dengue hemorrhagic fever. (medscape.com)
  • Less commonly, dengue fever can lead to encephalitis or encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, and mononeuropathy or polyneuropathy similar to that in Guillain-Barré syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Surveillance and control of classical swine fever in Bulgaria, a country with a high proportion of non-professional pig holdings. (ucm.es)
  • Spatial and stochastic simulation to evaluate the impact of events and control measures on the 1997-1998 classical swine fever epidemic in The Netherlands. (ucm.es)
  • The development of intervention strategies to control Classical Swine Fever will based on research of live attenuated vaccines (LAV). (usda.gov)
  • 16 novembre 1972 = OPINION of the Committee on Finance and Budgets on the proposal from the Commission of the European Communities to the Council (126/72) for a decision adopting a Community research program in the field of classical and African swine fever. (pitt.edu)
  • 277/74) for a decision supplementing the Community programme of research into classical swine fever and African swine fever. (pitt.edu)
  • The latest epidemic of Zika fever, which broke out in the Western Hemisphere, warns about the risk of the corresponding urban epidemic potential of SPONV and calls for the design of anti‑SPONV therapies. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Swine fever causes fever, skin lesions, convulsions, splenic infarctions and usually (particularly in young animals) death within 15 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although reported initially in only a few countries in the late 1980s, PRRS now occurs worldwide in most major swine-raising countries. (iastate.edu)
  • In 1863, a Confederate surgeon (Dr. Luke Blackburn, who later became governor of Kentucky) was arrested and charged with attempting to import smallpox and yellow fever-infected clothes into the northern United States during the Civil War, to be sold to Union troops. (medscape.com)