The 5' leader of plant PgiC has an intron: the leader shows both the loss and maintenance of constraints compared with introns and exons in the coding region. (1/9)PgiC, a complex gene with 23 coding exons and 22 intervening introns, encodes the cytosolic isozyme of phosphoglucose isomerase (EC 220.127.116.11) in higher plants. Here, we report RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments that showed that PgiC in Clarkia (Onagraceae) and Arabidopsis thaliana has an intron in the 5' leader. Comparison of the EMBL accessions of the cDNA and genomic sequences showed that this is also the case in rice (Oryza sativa), suggesting that a leader intron is generally present in higher plant PgiC. The intron is bounded by consensus 5'-GT and AG-3' splice sites but showed alternative splicing in Clarkia, resulting in mature transcripts that differ by 8-19 nt in length. The intron is located 18 or 10 nt upstream of the start codon in Clarkia, 2 nt upstream in Arabidopsis, and 9 nt in rice. PgiC in Clarkia was duplicated before the divergence of the extant species, many of which have two expressed genes PgiC1 and PgiC2. Full-length transcripts of both genes identified the transcription start and made it possible to identify the leader intron and leader exon (between the transcription start and leader intron) from previously obtained genomic sequences of both genes in other Clarkia species. These data permit the comparison of evolution in the leader exon and intron with the exons and introns of the coding region, a topic that has not been studied previously. Both the leader exon and the leader intron resemble introns of the coding region in base substitution rate and accumulation of gaps. But the leader intron splice junctions are not strictly conserved in position as are those of the coding region introns. Also, in base composition, the leader intron resembles the other introns, whereas the leader exon more nearly resembles the coding exons. A difference in base composition between coding exons and flanking introns is known to be important for the recognition of splice sites. Thus, the marked difference in base composition between the leader exon and leader intron is probably maintained by selection despite a high rate of sequence divergence. (+info)
Structure and evolution of linalool synthase. (2/9)Plant terpene synthases constitute a group of evolutionarily related enzymes. Within this group, however, enzymes that employ two different catalytic mechanisms, and their associated unique domains, are known. We investigated the structure of the gene encoding linalool synthase (LIS), an enzyme that uses geranyl pyrophosphate as a substrate and catalyzes the formation of linalool, an acyclic monoterpene found in the floral scents of many plants. Although LIS employs one catalytic mechanism (exemplified by limonene synthase [LMS]), it has sequence motifs indicative of both LMS-type synthases and the terpene synthases employing a different mechanism (exemplified by copalyl diphosphate synthase [CPS]). Here, we report that LIS genes analyzed from several species encode proteins that have overall 40%-96% identity to each other and have 11 introns in identical positions. Only the region encoding roughly the last half of the LIS gene (exons 9-12) has a gene structure similar to that of the LMS-type genes. On the other hand, in the first part of the LIS gene (exons 1-8), LIS gene structure is essentially identical to that found in the first half of the gene encoding CPS. In addition, the level of similarity in the coding information of this region between the LIS and CPS genes is also significant, whereas the second half of the LIS protein is most similar to LMS-type synthases. Thus, LIS appears to be a composite gene which might have evolved from a recombination event between two different types of terpene synthases. The combined evolutionary mechanisms of duplication followed by divergence and/or "domain swapping" may explain the extraordinarily large diversity of proteins found in the plant terpene synthase family. (+info)
Evidence for positive selection on the floral scent gene isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase. (3/9)Isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase (IEMT) is an enzyme involved in the production of the floral volatile compounds methyl eugenol and methyl isoeugenol in Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae). IEMT likely evolved by gene duplication from caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase followed by amino acid divergence, leading to the acquisition of its novel function. To investigate the selective context under which IEMT evolved, maximum likelihood methods that estimate variable d(N)/d(S) ratios among lineages, among sites, and among a combination of both lineages and sites were utilized. Statistically significant support was obtained for a hypothesis of positive selection driving the evolution of IEMT since its origin. Subsequent Bayesian analyses identified several sites in IEMT that have experienced positive selection. Most of these positions are in the active site of IEMT and have been shown by site-directed mutagenesis to have large effects on substrate specificity. Although the selective agent is unknown, the adaptive evolution of this gene may have resulted in increased effectiveness of pollinator attraction or herbivore repellence. (+info)
Structural basis for substrate recognition in the salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase family. (4/9)Recently, a novel family of methyltransferases was identified in plants. Some members of this newly discovered and recently characterized methyltransferase family catalyze the formation of small-molecule methyl esters using S-adenosyl-L-Met (SAM) as a methyl donor and carboxylic acid-bearing substrates as methyl acceptors. These enzymes include SAMT (SAM:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), BAMT (SAM:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase), and JMT (SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase). Moreover, other members of this family of plant methyltransferases have been found to catalyze the N-methylation of caffeine precursors. The 3.0-A crystal structure of Clarkia breweri SAMT in complex with the substrate salicylic acid and the demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine reveals a protein structure that possesses a helical active site capping domain and a unique dimerization interface. In addition, the chemical determinants responsible for the selection of salicylic acid demonstrate the structural basis for facile variations of substrate selectivity among functionally characterized plant carboxyl-directed and nitrogen-directed methyltransferases and a growing set of related proteins that have yet to be examined biochemically. Using the three-dimensional structure of SAMT as a guide, we examined the substrate specificity of SAMT by site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays against 12 carboxyl-containing small molecules. Moreover, the utility of structural information for the functional characterization of this large family of plant methyltransferases was demonstrated by the discovery of an Arabidopsis methyltransferase that is specific for the carboxyl-bearing phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. (+info)
Formation of monoterpenes in Antirrhinum majus and Clarkia breweri flowers involves heterodimeric geranyl diphosphate synthases. (5/9)The precursor of all monoterpenes is the C10 acyclic intermediate geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is formed from the C5 compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate by GPP synthase (GPPS). We have discovered that Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) and Clarkia breweri, two species whose floral scent is rich in monoterpenes, both possess a heterodimeric GPPS like that previously reported from Mentha piperita (peppermint). The A. majus and C. breweri cDNAs encode proteins with 53% and 45% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, to the M. piperita GPPS small subunit (GPPS.SSU). Expression of these cDNAs in Escherichia coli yielded no detectable prenyltransferase activity. However, when each of these cDNAs was coexpressed with the M. piperita GPPS large subunit (GPPS.LSU), which shares functional motifs and a high level of amino acid sequence identity with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), active GPPS was obtained. Using a homology-based cloning strategy, a GPPS.LSU cDNA also was isolated from A. majus. Its coexpression in E. coli with A. majus GPPS.SSU yielded a functional heterodimer that catalyzed the synthesis of GPP as a main product. The expression in E. coli of A. majus GPPS.LSU by itself yielded active GGPPS, indicating that in contrast with M. piperita GPPS.LSU, A. majus GPPS.LSU is a functional GGPPS on its own. Analyses of tissue-specific, developmental, and rhythmic changes in the mRNA and protein levels of GPPS.SSU in A. majus flowers revealed that these levels correlate closely with monoterpene emission, whereas GPPS.LSU mRNA levels did not, indicating that the levels of GPPS.SSU, but not GPPS.LSU, might play a key role in regulating the formation of GPPS and, thus, monoterpene biosynthesis. (+info)
The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages. (6/9)(+info)
Engineering monolignol 4-O-methyltransferases to modulate lignin biosynthesis. (7/9)(+info)
Enhanced production of a plant monoterpene by overexpression of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase catalytic domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/9)(+info)
'Clarkia' is a term that refers to a genus of annual or perennial plants belonging to the family Onagraceae. These plants are native to western North America and are commonly known as "godetias" or "farewell-to-springs." The name 'Clarkia' honors Captain William Clark, who explored the western United States with Meriwether Lewis in the early 19th century.
There is no specific medical definition associated with 'Clarkia.' While some species of 'Clarkia' have been used traditionally by indigenous peoples for medicinal purposes, there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness or safety. Therefore, it is not commonly recognized as a term with a medical definition in the same way that other plant names, such as 'Digitalis' (foxglove) or 'Salix alba' (white willow), might be.
Onagraceae is a scientific name for a family of flowering plants, also known as the evening primrose family. It consists of around 650 species, distributed across 21 genera. The plants in this family are characterized by their four-petaled flowers and simple or compound leaves. They can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, and can be found in a variety of habitats worldwide, with the majority of the species native to North and South America.
Some common examples of plants in this family include the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), the sun drop (Oenothera fruticosa), and the fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium). The seeds, leaves, and roots of some Onagraceae species are used in traditional medicine, and some have been found to contain compounds with potential medicinal properties. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also contain potentially toxic compounds.
Eugenol is defined in medical terms as a phenolic compound that is the main active component of oil of cloves, which is derived from the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum). It has been used in dentistry for its analgesic and antibacterial properties. In addition, eugenol is used in perfumes, flavorings, and as a local antiseptic and anesthetic in medical applications. It's also used in some mouthwashes and toothpastes. However, it can cause allergic reactions in some people, so its use should be monitored carefully.
Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is an enzyme involved in the glycolytic and gluconeogenesis pathways. It catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), which are key metabolic intermediates in these pathways. This reaction is a reversible step that helps maintain the balance between the breakdown and synthesis of glucose in the cell.
In glycolysis, GPI converts G6P to F6P, which subsequently gets converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) by the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). In gluconeogenesis, the reaction is reversed, and F6P is converted back to G6P.
Deficiency or dysfunction of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage diseases and hereditary motor neuropathies.
Anisoles are organic compounds that consist of a phenyl ring (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group replaced by a hydrogen atom) attached to a methoxy group (-O-CH3). The molecular formula for anisole is C6H5OCH3. Anisoles are aromatic ethers and can be found in various natural sources, including anise plants and some essential oils. They have a wide range of applications, including as solvents, flavoring agents, and intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals.
I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.
In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.
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- Clarkia is a genus within the flowering plant family Onagraceae. (wikipedia.org)
- Springville clarkia, Clarkia springvillensis, is an erect annual herb in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). (encyclopedia.com)
- Spontaneous origin of monosomics and nullisomics in Clarkia unguiculata (Onagraceae) hybrids. (scu.edu)
- Several members of the genus are sometimes referred to by the common name "godetia", including Clarkia amoena, Clarkia affinis, and Clarkia lassenensis (the Lassen godetia). (wikipedia.org)
- This is because they were formerly classified in a genus called Godetia, which is no longer recognised since its members have been absorbed into the genus Clarkia. (wikipedia.org)
- I know of Godetia, also known as Clarkia. (garden.org)
- Some species are popular garden plants, for example the mountain garland, Clarkia unguiculata, the redspot clarkia, Clarkia speciosa, Farewell to Spring, Clarkia amoena and Clarkia bottae. (wikipedia.org)
- Springville clarkia can be separated from the co-occurring C. unguiculata by the absence of long hairs on the calyx and ovary, the purple sepals, and the dark purplish spot at the base of the petals. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the second chapter, I run an experiment to investigate whether long-term winter-spring climatic conditions may have influenced the evolution of flowering onset, duration, and synchrony in an annual wildflower, Clarkia unguiculata, which is found in these semi-arid habitats. (escholarship.org)
- Gardeners in warm areas can easily plant the clarkia seeds in fall. (flowerpeek.com)
- Sow the clarkia seeds densely and then thin the plants to four to six inches apart. (flowerpeek.com)
- If you want to try starting the clarkia seeds indoors you can easily use peat pots to make transplanting easier. (flowerpeek.com)
- Sow the clarkia seeds 4 to 6 weeks before the average last frost date. (flowerpeek.com)
- Clarkia pulchella is an annual which self-seeds in dry sites and disturbed areas. (organicseeds.top)
- Clarkia seeds can be sown directly in the garden in early spring. (seedarea.com)
- Clarkia elegans (Wildflower Seeds), Planting clarkia flowers in your garden, starting from seed species, enjoy the fun of gardening. (seedarea.com)
- Clarkia - Seeds - Buy Flower Seeds from SeedArea's Seeds and Plants. (seedarea.com)
- The largest population of Springville clarkia occurs on a 4.5-acre (1.8-hectare) preserve owned by the California Department of Fish and Game. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pismo Clarkia is an annual herb native to California and is considered a rare plant. (althouseandmeade.com)
- The California Department of Fish and Wildlife is issuing a permit to East Bay Regional Park District [Permit No. 2081(a)-21-009-RP] pursuant to Fish and Game Code section 2081(a) for a project to promote recovery of Presidio clarkia and other serpentine prairie vegetation at the Project Location. (ca.gov)
- The permit issued by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife for the Project includes measures to ensure that existing populations of Presidio clarkia are not impacted. (ca.gov)
- Consider growing the Clarkia flowers in cutting or cottage gardens, mass plantings, borders, wildflower meadows, containers, or on the edges of woodlands. (flowerpeek.com)
- Its scientific name, Clarkia, is named for Captain Clark who was an important pioneer for the United States in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (organicseeds.top)
- The Clarkia flowers actually need a location with full sun or partial shade and also a very well-drained soil. (flowerpeek.com)
- You can also stick a few twiggy branches into the soil around the Clarkia plants while they are young for support later on. (flowerpeek.com)
- Environment: Clarkias need sandy soil and either full sun (6 hours of sunshine a day) or partial shade (4 to 6 hours of shade a day). (seedarea.com)
- almost all are native to western North America, though one species (Clarkia tenella) is native to South America. (wikipedia.org)
- Clarkia species play important roles in their local ecosystems, as they provide habitat for native pollinators. (wikipedia.org)
- The Project is a continuation of a 10-year restoration project (CDFW Permit No. 2081(a)-09-01-RP) that has increased the area occupied by Presidio clarkia, decreased invasive plant cover, and improved understanding of the effects of management treatments on the native and non-native plant species. (ca.gov)
- Important Info : Mrs. Francis King, one of the founders of the Garden Club of America regarded Clarkias and Godetias as a graceful and remarkably pretty annual. (backyardgardener.com)
- Springville clarkia grows mostly on the uphill slope of roadbanks, on small decomposing granitic domes, and in openings within the blue oak woodland community in the foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of Tulare County, where 15 populations occur. (encyclopedia.com)
- Springville clarkia is found on granitic soils in sunny sites from 1,220 to 3,000 ft (372 to 914 m) in elevation. (encyclopedia.com)
- With the variability typical of an annual plant, six populations of Springville clarkia have ranged from 20 to 200 plants. (encyclopedia.com)
- Due to the small numbers of populations and individuals, Springville clarkia is vulnerable to extirpation from random events. (encyclopedia.com)
- Two populations of Springville clarkia on the Sequoia National Forest and three populations on non-Federal lands are threatened by road maintenance activities such as grading and roadside mowing. (encyclopedia.com)
- These five populations comprise more than 40% of the known acreage of Springville clarkia habitat. (encyclopedia.com)
- Three small populations of Springville clarkia occur on lands owned by Tulare County. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Clarkia wildflowers actually get their name from William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition. (flowerpeek.com)
- Clarkia is a plant that is named after William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, because it was discovered growing in the western U.S. by members of the expedition. (seedarea.com)
- Va arribar a escriure " Sioux " de 27 formes diferents en els seus diaris de l'Expedició de Lewis i Clark i els seus diaris van haver de ser corregits abans de poder publicar-se. (wikipedia.org)
- Clarkias are typically annual herbs, growing either prostrate or erect to a height of less than 2 metres. (wikipedia.org)
- The type locality for Springville clarkia, which covers a 67-acre (27-hectare) area, was extirpated by mobile home development. (encyclopedia.com)
- At this same site, Springville clarkia appears to be threatened by the Public Works Department dumping of sand. (encyclopedia.com)
- Ever since then, clarkia has been a staple of cottage and cutting gardens. (flowerpeek.com)
- The Project consists of basic data collection, research, experimental management, and resource evaluation activities to assure the maintenance, restoration, and enhancement of the endangered Presidio clarkia. (ca.gov)