JapanCholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Fibrinogens, Abnormal: Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.TokyoPsychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Glycosuria, Renal: An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.Tsunamis: Series of ocean waves produced by geologic events or underwater LANDSLIDES. These waves can travel at speeds averaging 450 (and up to 600) miles per hour in the open ocean.Chamaecyparis: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.Endocrine Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.BrazilTransportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.MexicoCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.VietnamAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.ArgentinaSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.United StatesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.RestaurantsIndiaWeather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).ExplosionsBaltimoreGeographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.LondonParticulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.New JerseyNew YorkSchools: Educational institutions.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.TexasChicagoHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Respiratory Tract DiseasesUrban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vatican CityProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.IranPeruEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.EuropeAedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.TurkeyHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.RussiaKansasNeedle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
  • The journey with his good friend as well as coach is far from complete, with Tokyo 2020 very much on the horizon. (bbc.co.uk)
  • USA TODAY Sports on Monday reported that veteran IOC member Dick Pound said the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games would be postponed, likely to 2021. (ktvu.com)
  • The flame touches down Friday aboard a white aircraft painted with the inscription "Tokyo 2020 Olympic Torch Relay" along its side, and "Hope Lights Our Way" stenciled near the tail section. (wtnh.com)
  • Tokyo 2020 chief executive Toshiro Muto has struggled to explain exactly how reserved crowds are expected to be. (wtnh.com)
  • Save Tokyo International Art Fair - Day Ticket Saturday 6 June 2020 to your collection. (eventbrite.com)
  • The International Olympic Committee released its guidelines regarding the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. (onenewspage.com)
  • With just 200 days to go until the start of the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, we take a look at the Games in numbers. (onenewspage.com)
  • Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Sunday hailed the completion of the National Stadium built for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics. (onenewspage.com)
  • A speculative proposal for Tokyo before, during, and after the 2020 Olympics. (gensler.com)
  • Wholesalers check the quality of frozen tuna displayed during the first tuna auctions on the opening day of the new Toyosu fish market in Tokyo, Japan, October 11, 2018. (reuters.com)
  • Dell Japan Inc., The group of optical illusion block workshop, General Incorporated Association Koto City Tourism Association, Graduate School of Regional Policy Design. (mot-art-museum.jp)
  • on view from now until december 18, 2017, the exhibit celebrates the 10th anniversary of the national art center, tokyo . (designboom.com)
  • TOKYO (Reuters) - Areas of Tokyo usually packed with office workers crammed into sushi restaurants and noodle shops were eerily quiet. (reuters.com)
  • In an exclusive interview with Reuters late August, Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike and Reuters correspondent Mayu Yoshida discussed about the city's latest coronavirus response, postponed Olympics and on female empowerment. (reuters.com)
  • Great location for sightseeing around Tokyo and direct access from Tameike-Sanno Station on the Ginza Line! (japan-guide.com)
  • Jazz first came to Japan in the 1920s when 78 records were being imported and you had Swing halls in the downtown Ginza area of Tokyo, where people would go swing dancing. (allaboutjazz.com)
  • The Ginza District is centrally located and bejeweled with the neon signage that has become the default image of urban Tokyo. (destination360.com)
  • In 2016, a man stabbed and killed 19 people at a disability center south of Tokyo. (theepochtimes.com)
  • In 2016, toxic substances were found in soil and groundwater at Toyosu, the former home of a gas plant, prompting Tokyo to spend an extra 3.8 billion yen. (reuters.com)
  • Tokyo wants the Olympics in 2016, and this is where some of the events may be hosted. (treehugger.com)
  • the architect has held the position of professor emeritus of the university of tokyo since 2003. (designboom.com)
  • Look, it's like Sunday - no cars in town," said Kazushi Arisawa, a 62-year-old taxi driver as he waited for more than an hour outside an office tower where he usually finds customers within minutes. (reuters.com)
  • Many kura are clustered around an even older wooden clock tower and a jumble of buildings from the Taisho and early Showa eras that create the feel of a small town with a charm missing in many Japanese cities. (nytimes.com)
  • A stay at this downtown Tokyo hotel begins on the 45th level of the city's tallest building, where floor-to-ceiling windows perfectly frame the skyline, from Tokyo Tower to Mt. Fuji. (ritzcarlton.com)
  • Hideaki Kobayashi, 51, strikes his signature "cat" pose outside Akihabara station in Tokyo on Sunday July 13. (cnn.com)
  • CNN photojournalist Hidetaka Sato records Kobayashi walking from Akihabara station to Waseda Juku -- a Tokyo cram school -- where he lectures students on the importance of being an individual. (cnn.com)
  • Akihabara (秋葉原) is Tokyo 's "Electric Town", located on the eastern side of the central Chiyoda ward. (wikitravel.org)
  • Just take the conveniently labeled "Akihabara Electric Town" exit to be dropped into the middle of the action. (wikitravel.org)
  • Although arcades are still everywhere in Japan, and more so in Tokyo, the concentration (and skill of play) is especially high in Akihabara. (wikitravel.org)
  • An exhibition about the work of structural engineer Cecil Balmond of Arup is on show at the Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery in Japan. (dezeen.com)
  • a vast exhibition at the national art center in tokyo documents the life and work of tadao ando . (designboom.com)
  • In accordance with the focus on facilitating exchange with local communities, MOT Satellite also organizes an exhibition at Tokyo University of the Arts that aims to explore the significance of engaging in dialogue with the public through artistic practice. (mot-art-museum.jp)
  • MOT Satellite" is an endeavor to take the activities of Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo (MOT) outside-into surrounding neighborhoods-while its building is closed for renovation. (mot-art-museum.jp)
  • The Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo (MOT) has operated in this creative and fascinating area since its founding in 1995. (mot-art-museum.jp)
  • Many sewers along the streets in Ho Chi Minh City have their entrances blocked by garbage on a regular basis, negatively impacting urban esthetics and the environment while helping cause serious flooding. (tuoitrenews.vn)
  • Tokyo Urban Baby is listed in the Japan Lonely Planet guide! (greatmobileux.com)
  • For city dwellers and tourists alike, an urban park becomes a shared backyard. (travelandleisure.com)
  • Urban design expert Mikael Colville-Andersen explores his own city. (linktv.org)
  • Modern Tokyo is a fascinating urban mystery. (linktv.org)
  • The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by " greenbelts ", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expect increased police presence and enhanced security measures throughout Tokyo during the Olympics, particularly in and around sports venues. (state.gov)
  • Amid much speculation, there was word on Monday that the International Olympic Committee will postpone the Tokyo Summer Olympics, which were scheduled to start on July 24. (ktvu.com)
  • Aso was born in 1940, the year Tokyo was to hold its first Olympics, which were called off ahead of World War II. (wtnh.com)
  • Iran's only female Olympic medallist Kimia Alizadeh says she plans to start for Germany in this year's Summer Olympics in Tokyo. (onenewspage.com)
  • Riot police were on hand to restrain the notoriously rowdy fans as they thronged the city centre. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It's no longer about a time for us," said Peaty, the 'us' referring to his 10-year partnership with National Lead Centre coach Mel Marshall, who has been his guru since they first teamed up as teenage swimmer and head coach at the City of Derby Swimming Club. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The Hot House jazz bar, in the Takadanobaba district of Tokyo, for example, can accommodate only eight people on a bench set against the back wall, with the drums in the centre of the floor. (allaboutjazz.com)
  • His idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards , 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard's large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town, and they shared Howard's notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hilton Anatole in Dallas offers the business traveler or visitor to the city comfortable rooms with all the amenities. (mapquest.com)
  • Kanda is also home to the Kanda Myojin Shrine and its Kanda Festival , one of Tokyo 's three most important festivals . (japan-guide.com)
  • Being located in the very heart of Tokyo city, conveniently close from one of the capital most famous avenues (Shinjuku Dori), you will easily reach all the business, We are only hotels in tokyo near shinjuku2cho-me where are famous for foreigner, shopping area and entertainment facilities within walking distance. (hostels.com)
  • Politicians and athletes should keep politics out of this year's Tokyo Olympic Games to protect the event's neutrality and its status as a peaceful meeting place, International Olympic Committee. (onenewspage.com)
  • Russian athletes could be barred from the Tokyo Olympic Games when the World Anti-Doping Agency executive committee meets on Monday. (onenewspage.com)
  • An oak-edged window provides a framed view of the living room within this Tokyo apartment , intended by Yumiko Miki Architects to recreate the effect of a still-life painting (+ slideshow). (dezeen.com)
  • Because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, and hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The architects designed to create a main platform at +34m a.s.l. connecting the new stadium with the gymnasium designed by Fumiko Maki in a unique big Plaza as a City of Sport. (e-architect.co.uk)
  • A number of major events have been canceled, including the World Figure Skating Championships, Japan Fashion Week and the Tokyo International Anime Fair whose organizers cited "extreme circumstances. (reuters.com)
  • Tokyo organizers have stripped most of the festivities from the relay, and have asked roadside crowds to be "restrained" and keep their distance from others. (wtnh.com)
  • The distribution of the main arena of the New Tokyo National Stadium follows the best way to avoid big security fire stairs and to give an easy access by the people inside the new stadium. (e-architect.co.uk)