Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Citrobacter freundii: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Citrobacter koseri: A species of gram-negative enterobacteria found in WATER; SEWAGE; SOIL; and FOOD. It can be present in any clinical specimen as an opportunistic pathogen.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HIntestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.ChileTrinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Lavandula: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

Critical role of T cell-dependent serum antibody, but not the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, for surviving acute mucosal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching and effacing pathogen. (1/177)

Citrobacter rodentium uses virulence factors similar to the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to produce attaching and effacing lesions in the distal colon of mice. We used this infection model to determine components of adaptive immunity needed to survive infection. During acute infection, wild-type mice develop breaks across infected epithelial surfaces but resolve infection. Surprisingly, mice markedly deficient in mucosal lymphocyte populations from beta(7) integrin deficiency resolve infection, as do CD8alpha-/- or TCR-delta-/- mice. In contrast, CD4-/- or TCR-beta-/- mice develop polymicrobial sepsis and end-organ damage, and succumb during acute infection, despite epithelial damage similar to wild-type mice. B cell-deficient (MuMT-/-) or B and T cell-deficient (recombinase-activating gene 2-/-) mice develop severe pathology in colon and internal organs, and deteriorate rapidly during acute infection. Surviving mice develop robust Citrobacter-specific serum IgM responses during acute infection, whereas mice that succumb do not. However, CD4-/- mice receiving serum Igs from infected wild-type mice survive and clear the infection. Our data show that survival of apparently self-limited and luminal mucosal infections requires a systemic T cell-dependent Ab response against bacteria that enter through damaged mucosa. These findings have implications for understanding host defense against mucosal infections, including the pathogenesis of these diseases in immunocompromised populations.  (+info)

Dissecting virulence: systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island. (2/177)

Bacterial pathogenicity islands (PAI) often encode both effector molecules responsible for disease and secretion systems that deliver these effectors to host cells. Human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) PAI. We systematically mutagenized all 41 CR LEE genes and functionally characterized these mutants in vitro and in a murine infection model. We identified 33 virulence factors, including two virulence regulators and a hierarchical switch for type III secretion. In addition, 7 potential type III effectors encoded outside the LEE were identified by using a proteomics approach. These non-LEE effectors are encoded by three uncharacterized PAIs in EHEC O157, suggesting that these PAIs act cooperatively with the LEE in pathogenesis. Our findings provide significant insights into bacterial virulence mechanisms and disease.  (+info)

Identification of a novel Citrobacter rodentium type III secreted protein, EspI, and roles of this and other secreted proteins in infection. (3/177)

Citrobacter rodentium is a member of a group of pathogens that colonize the lumen of the host gastrointestinal tract via attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion formation. C. rodentium, which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice, is used as an in vivo model system for the clinically significant A/E pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. These bacteria all contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes a type III secretion system that is designed to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. These effectors are involved in the subversion of host eukaryotic cell functions to the benefit of the bacterium. In this study we used mutant strains to determine the effects of the C. rodentium LEE-encoded effectors EspF, EspG, EspH, and Map on virulence in the mouse model. In addition, we identified a novel secreted protein, EspI encoded outside the LEE, whose secretion is also dependent on a functional type III secretion system. Mutant strains with each of the effectors investigated were found to be outcompeted by wild-type bacteria in mixed-infection experiments in vivo, although the effects of EspF and EspH were only subtle. In single-infection experiments, we found that EspF, EspG, and EspH are not required for efficient colonization of the mouse colon or for the production of hyperplasia. In contrast, strains producing EspI and Map had significant colonization defects and resulted in dramatically reduced levels of hyperplasia, and they exhibited very different growth dynamics in mice than the wild-type strain exhibited.  (+info)

Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium requires B cells but not secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies. (4/177)

Citrobacter rodentium, a murine model pathogen for human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, predominantly colonizes the lumen and mucosal surface of the colon and cecum and causes crypt hyperplasia and mucosal inflammation. Mice infected with C. rodentium develop a secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) response, but the role of B cells or secretory antibodies in host defense is unknown. To address this question, we conducted oral C. rodentium infections in mice lacking B cells, IgA, secreted IgM, polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), or J chain. Normal mice showed peak bacterial numbers in colon and feces at 1 week and bacterial eradication after 3 to 4 weeks. B-cell-deficient mice were equally susceptible initially but could not control infection subsequently. Tissue responses showed marked differences, as infection of normal mice was accompanied by transient crypt hyperplasia and mucosal inflammation in the colon and cecum at 2 but not 6 weeks, whereas B-cell-deficient mice had few mucosal changes at 2 weeks but severe epithelial hyperplasia with ulcerations and mucosal inflammation at 6 weeks. The functions of B cells were not mediated by secretory antibodies, since mice lacking IgA or secreted IgM or proteins required for their transport into the lumen, pIgR or J chain, cleared C. rodentium normally. Nonetheless, systemic administration of immune sera reduced bacterial numbers significantly in normal and pIgR-deficient mice, and depletion of IgG abrogated this effect. These results indicate that host defense against C. rodentium depends on B cells and IgG antibodies but does not require production or transepithelial transport of IgA or secreted IgM.  (+info)

Protective role of arginase in a mouse model of colitis. (5/177)

Arginase is the endogenous inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), because both enzymes use the same substrate, l-arginine (Arg). Importantly, arginase synthesizes ornithine, which is metabolized by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to produce polyamines. We investigated the role of these enzymes in the Citrobacter rodentium model of colitis. Arginase I, iNOS, and ODC were induced in the colon during the infection, while arginase II was not up-regulated. l-Arg supplementation of wild-type mice or iNOS deletion significantly improved colitis, and l-Arg treatment of iNOS(-/-) mice led to an additive improvement. There was a significant induction of IFN-gamma, IL-1, and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in colitis tissues that was markedly attenuated with l-Arg treatment or iNOS deletion. Treatment with the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-l-cysteine worsened colitis in both wild-type and iNOS(-/-) mice. Polyamine levels were increased in colitis tissues, and were further increased by l-Arg. In addition, in vivo inhibition of ODC with alpha-difluoromethylornithine also exacerbated the colitis. Taken together, these data indicate that arginase is protective in C. rodentium colitis by enhancing the generation of polyamines in addition to competitive inhibition of iNOS. Modulation of the balance of iNOS and arginase, and of the arginase-ODC metabolic pathway may represent a new strategy for regulating intestinal inflammation.  (+info)

Macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characterisation of spontaneous colitis in a transgenic mouse, deficient in the multiple drug resistance 1a gene. (6/177)

1 A novel animal model of spontaneous colonic inflammation, the multiple drug-resistant (mdr1) a(-/-) mouse, was identified by Panwala and colleagues in 1998. The aim of our study was to further characterise this model, specifically by measuring cytokines that have been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (IL-8 and IFN-gamma) in the colon/rectum of mdr1a(-/-) mice, and by determining the sensitivity of these, together with the macroscopic, microscopic and disease signs of colitis, to dexamethasone (0.05, 0.3 and 2 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously (s.c.) daily for 7 days). 2 All mdr1a(-/-) mice had microscopic evidence of inflammation in the caecum and colon/rectum, while control mice with the same genetic background did not. Significant increases in colon/rectum and caecal weights and also in cytokine levels (both IFN-gamma and IL-8) in homogenised colon/rectum were observed in mdr1a(-/-) mice compared to mdr1a(+/+) mice. 3 Dexamethasone reduced the increases in tissue weights and also microscopic grading of colitis severity, but had no effect on IFN-gamma or IL-8. 4 This study supports the similarity of the gastrointestinal inflammation present in mdr1a(-/-) mice to that of human IBD, in particular Crohn's disease. This has been demonstrated at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, and was supported further by elevations in colonic levels of IFN-gamma and IL-8 and the disease signs observed. The incidence of colitis was much higher than previously reported, with all mice having microscopic evidence of colitis. The limited variance between animals in the parameters measured suggests that this model is reproducible.  (+info)

Impaired immunity to intestinal bacterial infection in stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3)-deficient mice. (7/177)

Infection of mice with the intestinal bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium results in colonic mucosal hyperplasia and a local Th1 inflammatory response similar to that seen in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to mediate matrix remodeling and cell migration during tissue injury and repair in the intestine. We have previously shown enhanced pathology in infected TNFRp55-/-, IL-12p40-/-, and IFN-gamma-/- mice, and here we show that this is associated with an increase in stromelysin-1 (MMP3) transcripts in colonic tissues. We have therefore investigated the role of MMP3 in colonic mucosal hyperplasia and the local Th1 responses using MMP3-/- mice. In MMP3-/- mice, similar mucosal thickening was observed after infection as in wild-type (WT) mice. Colonic tissues from MMP3-/- mice showed a compensatory increase in the expression of other MMP transcripts, such as MMP7 and MMP12. However, MMP3-/- mice showed delayed clearance of bacteria and delayed appearance of CD4+ T lymphocytes into intestinal lamina propria. CSFE-labeled mesenteric lymph node CD4+ T lymphocytes from infected WT mice migrated in fewer numbers into the mesenteric lymph nodes and colon of MMP3-/- mice than into those of WT mice. These studies show that mucosal remodeling can occur in the absence of MMP3, but that MMP3 plays a role in the migration of CD4+ T lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa.  (+info)

EspJ is a prophage-carried type III effector protein of attaching and effacing pathogens that modulates infection dynamics. (8/177)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Citrobacter rodentium are highly adapted enteropathogens that successfully colonize their host's gastrointestinal tract via the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. These pathogens utilize a type III secretion system (TTSS) apparatus, encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement, to translocate bacterial effector proteins into epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of EspJ (E. coli-secreted protein J), a translocated TTSS effector that is carried on the 5' end of the cryptic prophage CP-933U. Infection of epithelial cells in culture revealed that EspJ is not required for A/E lesion activity in vivo and ex vivo. However, in vivo studies performed with mice demonstrated that EspJ possesses properties that influence the dynamics of clearance of the pathogen from the host's intestinal tract, suggesting a role in host survival and pathogen transmission.  (+info)

*Citrobacter rodentium

... at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Citrobacter rodentium at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Citrobacter rodentium is a Gram-negative species of bacteria. Schauer DB, Zabel BA, Pedraza IF, O'Hara CM, Steigerwalt AG, ... Mundy R, MacDonald TT, Dougan G, Frankel G, Wiles S (2005). "Citrobacter rodentium of mice and man". Cell Microbiol. 7 (12): ... Bhinder G, Sham HP, Chan JM, Morampudi V, Jacobson K, Vallance BA (2013). "The Citrobacter rodentium mouse model: studying ...

*AP-1 transcription factor

... independent inflammatory responses following infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium". Infect ...

*Colonization resistance

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron directly competes with Citrobacter rodentium for carbohydrates in the intestinal lumen) or by ...

*Intimin

Secretions of Citrobacter rodentium infected mice. Stevens, J.; et al. (2006). "Actin-dependent movement of bacterial pathogens ...

*List of MeSH codes (B03)

Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.475 --- Citrobacter koseri MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.737 --- Citrobacter rodentium ... Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.475 --- Citrobacter koseri MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.737 --- Citrobacter rodentium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. AU - Clare, Simon. AU - John, Victoria. AU - Walker, Alan W. AU - Hill, Jennifer L. AU - Abreu-Goodger, Cei. AU - Hale, Christine. AU - Goulding, David. AU - Lawley, Trevor D. AU - Mastroeni, Pietro. AU - Frankel, Gadi. AU - Enright, Anton J. AU - Vigorito, Elena. AU - Dougan, Gordon. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding molecules that control gene expression posttranscriptionally, with microRNA-155 (miR-155) one of the first to be implicated in immune regulation. Here, we show that miR-155-deficient mice are less able to eradicate a mucosal Citrobacter rodentium infection than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. miR-155-deficient mice exhibited prolonged colonization associated with a higher C. rodentium burden in gastrointestinal tissue and spread into systemic tissues. Germinal center formation and humoral immune responses against C. rodentium were severely impaired ...
The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the gut form a robust line of defense against ingested pathogens. We investigated the impact of infection with the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium on mouse IEC metabolism using global proteomic and targeted metabolomics and lipidomics. The major signatures of the infection were upregulation of the sugar transporter Sglt4, aerobic glycolysis, and production of phosphocreatine, which mobilizes cytosolic energy. In contrast, biogenesis of mitochondrial cardiolipins, essential for ATP production, was inhibited, which coincided with increased levels of mucosal O2 and a reduction in colon-associated anaerobic commensals. In addition, IECs responded to infection by activating Srebp2 and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Unexpectedly, infected IECs also upregulated the cholesterol efflux proteins AbcA1, AbcG8, and ApoA1, resulting in higher levels of fecal cholesterol and a bloom of Proteobacteria. These results suggest that C. rodentium ...
The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium encode type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to promote their survival in the infected host. The mechanisms of action and the host targets of T3SS effectors are under active investigation because of their importance to bacterial virulence. The non-locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded protein F, NleF, contributes to E. coli and C. rodentium colonization of piglets and mice, respectively. Here we sought to characterize the host binding partners of NleF. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Tmp21, a type-I integral membrane protein and COPI-vesicle receptor involved in trans-Golgi network function, as an NleF-binding partner. We confirmed this interaction using immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). We expressed a temperature-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (tsVSVG) to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions. AU - Wine, Eytan. AU - Shen-Tu, Grace. AU - Gareau, Melanie. AU - Goldberg, Harvey A.. AU - Licht, Christoph. AU - Ngan, Bo Yee. AU - Sorensen, Esben S.. AU - Greenaway, James. AU - Sodek, Jaro. AU - Zohar, Ron. AU - Sherman, Philip M.. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN+/+ and OPN-/- fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attachingeffacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron ...
In this report we have added to our understanding of the role of ILK in intestinal pathophysiology, specifically in the setting of bacterial infection. Similar to the findings reported for DSS-induced colitis we show that there is a reduced inflammatory response, associated with a reduction in CCL2 expression, an important immune cell chemoattractant. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the pattern but not the magnitude of epithelial C. rodentium binding is altered in the ILK-ko mice, with preserved apical binding but reduced lateral epithelial cell binding/migration, in between adjacent crypts. Although the reduced expression of fibronectin may account for this finding, we cannot exclude alterations in other extracellular matrix components, or alterations in the levels of other cell surface integrins as being involved in this response. An additional role for ILK is indicated by the reduced crypt hyperplasia observed associated with decreased cyclin D1 on immunohistochemistry, in ILK-ko ...
Macrophages play pleiotropic roles in maintaining the balance between immune tolerance and inflammatory responses in the gut. Here, we identified transcription factor RBP-J as a crucial regulator of colonic macrophage-mediated immune responses against the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium . In the immune response phase, RBP-J promoted pathogen clearance by enhancing intestinal macrophage-elicited Th17 cell immune responses, which was achieved by maintenance of C/EBPβ-dependent IL-6 production by overcoming miRNA-17∼92-mediated suppressive effects. RBP-J deficiency-associated phenotypes could be genetically corrected by further deleting miRNA-17∼92 in macrophages. In the late phase, noneradicated pathogens in RBP-J KO mice recruited abundant IL-1β-expressing CD64 + Ly6C + colonic macrophages and thereby promoted persistence of ILC3-derived IL-22 to compensate for the impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to ultimate clearance of pathogens. These results demonstrated ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterohaemorhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Citrobacter rodentium are constituent members of the attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The A/E group of bacteria are considered to be extracellular pathogens which form characteristic lesions by intimately adhering to host enterocytes and directing the effacement intestinal brush border. EPEC and EHEC are diarrhoeal pathogens, which are a global health burden in developing and industrialised countries respectively. Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen which is an excellent animal model for EPEC and EHEC infection. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium conserve a genomic region termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) which encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), a core set of type 3 secreted effector proteins and the outer membrane adhesin intimin, which are essential for A/E lesion formation. A/E pathogens utilise their T3SSs to translocate dozens of effector proteins directly from the bacteria into host cells. ...
The taking a chances that diarrhea clears intestinal pathogens has been weighed for centuries," protested corresponding originator Jerrold Turner, MD, PhD, of the BWH Regions of Pathology and Nostrum. "Its colliding on the gaining headway of intestinal infections residua poorly agreed. We sought to set down the task of diarrhea and to see if anticipating it influence really wait pathogen interruption and prolong evil.". To delve into, researchers fit of pique to a mouse mannequin infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse a tender-hearted of an E. coli infection. Enervating this after, they saw an add to in the permeability of the intestinal ditch within well-founded two periods of infection - away ahead of redness and epithelial impairment. In particular, they uncovered a speculative role for interleukin-22 that in energize influences another molecule reasoned claudin-2, beforehand conscious to be embroiled with in provoking diarrhea. They secure that diarrhea impacting from the signaling ...
The rapid turnover and exfoliation of mucosal epithelial cells provides an innate defence system against bacterial infection. Nevertheless, many pathogenic bacteria, including Shigella, are able to surmount exfoliation and colonize the epithelium efficiently. Here we show that the Shigella flexneri effector OspE (consisting of OspE1 and OspE2 proteins), which is highly conserved among enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella strains, reinforces host cell adherence to the basement membrane by interacting with integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The number of focal adhesions was augmented along with membrane fraction ILK by ILK-OspE binding. The interaction between ILK and OspE increased cell surface levels of beta1 integrin and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, which are required for rapid turnover of focal adhesion in cell motility. Nocodazole-washout-induced focal adhesion disassembly was blocked by expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NIK signaling axis regulates dendritic cell function in intestinal immunity and homeostasis. AU - Jie, Zuliang. AU - Yang, Jin Young. AU - Gu, Meidi. AU - Wang, Hui. AU - Xie, Xiaoping. AU - Li, Yanchuan. AU - Liu, Ting. AU - Zhu, Lele. AU - Shi, Jianhong. AU - Zhang, Lingyun. AU - Zhou, Xiaofei. AU - Joo, Donghyun. AU - Brightbill, Hans D.. AU - Cong, Yingzi. AU - Lin, Daniel. AU - Cheng, Xuhong. AU - Sun, Shao Cong. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Dendritic cells (DCs) play an integral role in regulating mucosal immunity and homeostasis, but the signaling network mediating this function of DCs is poorly defined. We identified the noncanonical NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) as a crucial mediator of mucosal DC function. DC-specific NIK deletion impaired intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and microbiota homeostasis, rendering mice sensitive to an intestinal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. DC-specific NIK was required for expression of the IgA transporter polymeric ...
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called autotransporters have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by ...
To investigate, researchers used a mouse model infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse equivalent of an E. coli infection. Using this model, they saw an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier within just two days of infection -- well before inflammation and epithelial damage. In particular, they uncovered a critical role for interleukin-22 that in turn influences another molecule called claudin-2, previously known to be involved in causing diarrhea. They found that diarrhea resulting from the signaling of these two molecules helped promote pathogen clearance and limited disease severity ...
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is involved in not only a wide array of cellular processes but also pathogenesis in many bacterial pathogens; thus, this system is expected to become a novel therapeutic target to treat infections. To the best of our knowledge, involvement of the Tat system has not been reported in the gut infection caused by Citrobacter rodentium. Here, we studied the... ...
Bruce A. Vallance is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: The Citrobacter rodentium Mouse Model: Studying Pathogen and Host Contributions to Infectious Colitis, DNBS/TNBS Colitis Models: Providing Insights Into Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Effects of Dietary Fat
The TH17 cell, a third subset of effector T helper cells, is the subject of intense research to understand their role in immunity and disease. An excellent review of emerging data suggests that the TH17 cells have an important role in host defense against specific pathogens, some of which include Propionibacterium acnes, the Gram-negative Citrobacter rodentium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides spp. and Borrelia spp., the acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and fungi such as Candida albicans. They are also potent inducers of autoimmunity and tissue inflammation. In addition, differentiation factors responsible for TH17 generation reveal an interesting reciprocal relationship with regulatory T (Treg) cells, which prevent tissue inflammation and mediate self-tolerance. Editors comment: A fantastic review of a subject of interest to all allergists/immunologists. A must read. Bettelli E, et al., Nature 2008; ...
Taconic produces mice and rats at multiple health standards that meet specific research requirements. These health standards range from the most stringent Germ Free (GF) health standards to Murine Pathogen Free (MPF) where a select list of opportunistic bacteria are tolerated.
Teaching Files with CT Medical Imaging and case studies on Anatomical Regions including Adrenal, Colon, Cardiac, Stomach, Pediatric, Spleen, Vascular, Kidney, Small Bowel, Liver, Chest | CTisus
Host fucosylation increases tolerance of a pathogena, Difference in % weight loss between LPS-injected C. rodentium-infected and uninfected mice (mean±s.e.m.;
Looking for online definition of Pneumospirura rodentium in the Medical Dictionary? Pneumospirura rodentium explanation free. What is Pneumospirura rodentium? Meaning of Pneumospirura rodentium medical term. What does Pneumospirura rodentium mean?
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency type I (LAD-I) is a primary immune deficiency caused by mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins. Affected individuals suffer from recurrent mucocutaneous infections and pathologic inflammation in certain mucosal barriers, including the periodontium, skin and the colon. Our laboratory has recently dissected the mechanistic basis of LAD-I-associated periodontitis but the mechanisms underlying LAD-I- associated colitis are yet to be defined. To answer this question, we utilized as model the CD18−/− mice after demonstrated that CD18 deficiency renders mice highly susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis, a widely used model of human colitis caused by enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Strikingly, we found that CD18−/− mice displayed significantly reduced IL-22 production and IL-22 producing Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Therapeutic delivery of recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22) protected CD18−/− mice from C. ...
ID D2THD2_CITRI Unreviewed; 317 AA. AC D2THD2; DT 02-MAR-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-MAR-2010, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 48. DE RecName: Full=2-keto-3-deoxygluconate permease {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; DE Short=KDG permease {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; GN Name=kdgT {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; GN OrderedLocusNames=ROD_01271 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1}; OS Citrobacter rodentium (strain ICC168) (Citrobacter freundii biotype OS 4280). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Citrobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=637910 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ICC168 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889}; RX PubMed=19897651; DOI=10.1128/JB.01144-09; RA Petty N.K., Bulgin R., Crepin V.F., Cerdeno-Tarraga A.M., RA ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a major public health concern in developing countries where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. EPEC, along with a few other related pathogens namely enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Citrobacter rodentium, rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (REPEC), and Escherichia albertii constitute a group collectively referred to as attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. They are so called because upon infection these pathogens attach intimately to intestinal cells and destroy cellular microvilli. Destruction of the microvilli reduces the ability of the cells to absorb water and nutrients, which ultimately leads to diarrhea. Upon destruction, the infected bacterium recruits the structural proteins from the microvilli and remodels them to form filament-like protrusions that extend out of the infected cell and are crowned on top by the infecting bacterium (Fig. 1). This histopathological structure is commonly referred to as attaching and effacing (A/E) ...
First, a number of transcripts had distinct transcriptional activity between the two lines of mice at all time points. For example, FVB mice had consistently four- to eight-fold higher expression of the adenosine A2B receptor gene (Adora2b).. Second, a group of genes, although consistently overexpressed in FVB mice compared to SW mice, also exhibited different expression as a function of time during infection. The Sorting nexin gene (Snx6; overexpressed in FVB mice by 16- to 31-fold compared with SW mice) had increased expression at 4 dpi by approximately 2-fold in both lines of mice. However, at 9 dpi, expression of Snx6 remained elevated in FVB mice, but returned to normal in SW mice. Another example was proton-dependent high affinity oligopeptide transporter Pept2 (Slc15a2), which was overexpressed in FVB mice by 15- to 51-fold. Slc15a2 was upregulated in infected SW mice by 2-fold at 4 dpi and downregulated by 4-fold at 9 dpi, whereas in infected FVB mice its expression decreased by 11-fold ...
Citrobacter farmeri is a Gram-negative species of bacteria. Brenner, D. J.; Grimont, P. A. D.; Steigerwalt, A. G.; Fanning, G. R.; Ageron, E.; Riddle, C. F. (1993). "Classification of Citrobacteria by DNA Hybridization: Designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and Three Unnamed Citrobacter Genomospecies". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (4): 645-658. doi:10.1099/00207713-43-4-645. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 8240948. Tan, C. K.; Lai, C. C.; Lin, S. H.; Liao, C. H.; Huang, Y. T.; Hsueh, P. R. (2010). "Fatal Citrobacter farmeri Meningitis in a Patient with Nasopharyngeal Cancer". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48 (4): 1499-1500. doi:10.1128/JCM.00282-10. ISSN 0095-1137. PMC 2849549 . PMID 20181904. Bruckner DA, Colonna P, Glenn D, Abbott SL, Janda JM (1997). "Citrobacter farmeri bacteremia in a child with short-bowel syndrome". J Clin Microbiol. 35 (12): ...
The microbes that piqued Pitouts interest were common intestinal-dwelling bacteria that harbored special. to be the worlds third-biggest air travel market by 2035. Since Pitout noted the infection link, the South Asian nation has come.. Acute diarrhea is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus, which accounts for 40% of cases in children under five. In travelers, however, bacterial.. The stool culture is a test that allows the detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in the stool. In the laboratory, a small amount of a fresh faecal.. Surf Camp In Nicaragua Nicaragua Real Estate For Sale, Affortable and Luxury Real Estate, For Sale By Owner, Realtors, Agents and Brokers. "We have become a virtual refugee camp, right here in the heart of San Diego," said. "We lost all hope, because it was truly. Well work on those charts later. (Additional info below color wheel) Made from bile when iron of red blood cells mixes with broken down bone marrow, turned brown by bacteria ...
Citrobacter freundii appear as Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are 0.3-1 micrometer in diameter and 0.6-6 micrometers in length. Citrobacter have hair-like extensions, called flagella, that...
do you know any links/sites i can use as a reference or any info on citrobacter freundii that are scientific resources? im doing a microbiology research profile ...
Fevers associated with inflammation of the colon and rectum, such as infectious colitis, may also contribute to a burning sensation during bowel movements. Characterized by small tears found on the lining of the anus mucosa that cause severe pain when passing stool.. I went to a gastroenterologist, had an endoscopy done and was once again diagnosed with GERD. This time the outcome has not been so good. The GI doctor I saw prescribed two different medications. I was having bad reaction to the medicine and felt the only thing the GI doctor was doing was medicating me.. I have no idea what triggered it off but it is awful all day apart from first thing in the morning. Then as soon as the day goes on it creeps up and gets worse and worse. I have tried avoiding all the usual triggers and have also had 2 very unsuccessful attempts on PPIs. After trying the first for 3 weeks I stopped as there was no change at all and it ended up making me feel worse.. No statement herein is to be construed as a ...
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is an important subset of Shiga toxin-producing (Stx-producing) E. coli (STEC), pathogens that have been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness and can cause intestinal and systemic disease, including severe renal damage. Upon attachment to intestinal epithelium, EHEC generates attaching and effacing (AE) lesions characterized by intimate attachment and actin rearrangement upon host cell binding. Stx produced in the gut transverses the intestinal epithelium, causing vascular damage that leads to systemic disease. Models of EHEC infection in conventional mice do not manifest key features of disease, such as AE lesions, intestinal damage, and systemic illness. In order to develop an infection model that better reflects the pathogenesis of this subset of STEC, we constructed an Stx-producing strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a murine AE pathogen that otherwise lacks Stx. Mice infected with Stx-producing C. rodentium developed AE lesions on the intestinal epithelium
Results No behavioural abnormalities were observed, either at the height of infection (10 days) or following bacterial clearance (30 days), in C rodentium-infected C57BL/6 mice. When infected mice were exposed to acute stress, however, memory dysfunction was apparent after infection (10 days and 30 days). Memory dysfunction was prevented by daily treatment of infected mice with probiotics. Memory was impaired in germ-free mice, with or without exposure to stress, in contrast to conventionally reared, control Swiss-Webster mice with an intact intestinal microbiota. ...
The digestive tract or the gastrointestinal tract is filled with muscle that passes foods through the small intestines to the colon. If you are healthy and there is no health disruption present, these muscular activities along the digestive tracts will sweep the foods from the stomach into the colon properly, in that all the bacteria present are also sweep through to its final site, the colon. Some conditions, though, may be responsible for improper or insufficient muscular activities that result in the inability of these muscles to sweep the foods and bacteria to the colon. Instead, there is some bacteria leftover in the small intestines. The presence of these bacteria increases your risk of having intestinal bacterial infection.. There are some conditions which contribute to abnormal muscular activity in your digestive tracts, such as:. ...
This study aimed to investigated the prevalence and resistance pattern of different Citrobacter species phenotypically and genotypically to β-lactam and some most common antibiotics then evaluate the antibacterial activity of omega-3 extracted from flaxseed against isolates that harboring resistance genes. 19 Citrobacter isolates were isolated from100 stool and urine samples taken from patients attended to AL-Sadar Hospital during June-December 2016. Clinical samples were cultured on specific media, thereafter isolates were identified depending on morphological, biochemical characteristics and VITK-2. The results showed that the Citrobacter comprise 24% of isolated bacteria which divided into 11 (14.1%) were C. freundii, 5 (6.41%) C. kosaeri and C. farmeri were 3 (3.8%). The antagonistic activity was evaluated by observing a clear zone of inhibition growth, the results showed that all Citrobacter (100%) isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, cefoxitin and sensitive to Imipinim, also the ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 3bfd: Crystal Structure of the Class A Beta-Lactamase Sed-G238C Mutant From Citrobacter Sedlakii
Fullscreen (supported by IE11, latest versions of Firefox, Chrome, Safari (not including iOS Safari), Edge, Chrome for Android, Samsung Internet) ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative coliform bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family. The species C. amalonaticus, C. koseri, and C. freundii can use citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrobacter species are differentiated by their ability to convert tryptophan to indole (C. koseri is the only citrobacter to be commonly indole-positive), ferment lactose (C. koseri is a non-lactose fermentor), and use malonate. Citrobacter shows the ability to accumulate uranium by building phosphate complexes. These bacteria can be found almost everywhere in soil, water, wastewater, etc. They can also be found in the human intestine. They are rarely the source of illnesses, except for infections of the urinary tract and infant meningitis and sepsis. C. freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. In addition, isolates of Citrobacter may be resistant to many other antibiotics as a result of plasmid-encoded resistance genes. LPSN ...
Oct. 11, 2017 - Studies from Dr. Feng Shaos laboratory reveals a novel ubiquitination and degradation mechanism used by an enteric bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri to counteract cell-autonomous innate immune defense. The work entitled
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to result from either an abnormal immunological response to enteric flora or a normal immunological response to a specific pathogen. No study to date has combined both factors. The present studies were carried out with an immunologically manipulated mouse model of IBD. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation develop IBD with adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells expressing high levels of CD45RB (CD45RB(high) CD4+ T cells). These mice do not develop IBD in germfree conditions, implicating undefined intestinal flora in the pathogenesis of lesions. In controlled duplicate studies, the influence of a single murine pathogen, Helicobacter hepaticus, in combination with the abnormal immunological response on the development of IBD was assessed. The combination of H. hepaticus infection and CD45RB(high) CD4+ T-cell reconstitution resulted in severe disease expression similar to that observed in human IBD. This study demonstrates ...
Citrobacter freundii ATCC ® 8090™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Produces restriction endonuclease CfrAI Quality control strain Reference material Quality control strain for Sensititre products
Citrobacter freundii ATCC ® 8090™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Produces restriction endonuclease CfrAI Quality control strain Reference material Quality control strain for Sensititre products
Professor PAN Lei of the Institute of Biophysics (IBP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Professor TANG Hong (Institute Pasteur of Shanghai) and colleagues found that flies deficient of intestinal Bap180 (Baf180 in mammals), a subunit of chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, succumb to excessive inflammation rather than bacterial overload after bacterial infection. Bap180 is induced by Drosophila intestinal innate immune pathway, IMD-Relish signalling (TNFR/IL-1R in mammals), response to bacterial challenge. Thus,upregulated Bap180 functions as a negative feedback regulator to limit overreactive IMD signaling through interfering with Relish binding activity as well as to avoid overexpression of pro-inflammatory gene eiger (TNF in mammals), a critical step to prevent of excessive tissue damage and elongate life span of flies, at transcriptional level. Furthermore, intestinal targeting of Baf180 renders mice susceptible to a more aggressive infectious colitis caused by ...
The genus Citrobacter was originally distinguished from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae by its ability to use citrate as a carbon source. Citrobacter infection is commonly reported in neonates and immunocompromised patients. Citrobacter koseri, formerly known as Citrobacter diversus, is best known as the cause of sepsis and meningitis leading to central nervous system (CNS) abscesses in neonates and young infants. The majority of cases are sporadic, with no clear source of infection. A significant number of the infants with abscesses die, and many sustain CNS damage. It adults, however, Citrobacter infection with central nervous system involvement is rare, and is usually associated with an underlying disorder. Citrobacter koseri (strain ATCC BAA-895 / CDC 4225-83 / SGSC4696) was isolated in 1983 in Maryland where it caused neonatal meningitis. ...
Citrobacterek, Enterobacter, Klebsiella eta Escherichiarekin batera bakterio koliformeen multzoa osatzen du. Koliformeak hestean bizi diren bakterioak dira, ezaugarri biokimiko amankomunak dituztenak eta garrantzi handikoak ingurugiro-mikrobiologian, kutsadura fekalaren adierazleak baitira.. Citrobacter giza zein animalien hesteetan bizi da, baina egoera librean ere aurki daiteke (uretan, lur-zoruan...) Espezie batzuk oportunistak dira, gaixotasunak sortuz immunitate-sistema ahula dutenengan. Gaitzak eragiten dituenean gernu-infekzioak eta meningitis dira ohikoenak.. ...
Mononuclear phagocytes are spatially and functionally poised to integrate microbial signals from the luminal microbiota (Niess et al., 2005; Varol et al., 2010). Although MNPs were previously thought to remain in the tissue, we recently showed that CX3CR1+ MNPs can migrate to draining lymph nodes and initiate immune responses under conditions of dysbiosis (Diehl et al., 2013). In the context of inflammation, however, these CX3CR1+ MNPs expand within the lamina propria during chemical (Zigmond et al., 2012) or infectious colitis and in IBD patients (Kamada et al., 2008), and their function has remained obscure. Conventional DCs (cDCs), rather than the MNPs, have been postulated to regulate intestinal Th17 cell differentiation in response to microbiota (Denning et al., 2011; Lewis et al., 2011; Persson et al., 2013; Schlitzer et al., 2013; Goto et al., 2014), but there has been conflicting evidence as to which myeloid cell populations regulate IL-22 production by ILC3 cells (Kinnebrew et al., ...
As scientific techniques for the recognition of cytomegalovirus (CMV) improve, were able to detect smaller amounts of CMV in the mucosal wall structure. individual immunodeficiency pathogen (HIV)], travel, contact with medical center or antibiotics, and unprotected sexual activity. When an infectious colitis is certainly diagnosed Also, this will not exclude the chance of a following medical diagnosis of an inflammatory colon disease, which might initially as an infective colitis present. In an initial episode of serious colitis which does not react to steroids or various other immunosuppressive therapy, suggestions suggest that we ought to search for cytomegalovirus (CMV) at sigmoidoscopy [1]; nonetheless it is certainly acknowledged that the next recognition of CMV could be challenging to interpret. The medical diagnosis of CMV colitis in the immunocompetent web host is certainly rare, but must be looked at, alongside the chance of undiagnosed immunocompromise, in the individual that does not ...
For a long time NK cells were thought to be the only immune innate lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different Innate Lymphoid Cells found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive Thelper subsets in their ability to secrete soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response appropriate to the incoming insult. Here we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [G Amicosante, A Oratore, N Franceschini, M Maccarrone, R Strom, M Galleni, J M Frère].
hello i was diagnosed recently to have a citrobacter koseri , and it was causing me a painfull UTI ... desapear but i still have the flude and in the last exam i still have citrobacter . what can i do? ...
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
BioAssay record AID 476833 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in FVB mouse assessed as effect on hematocrit at 50 mg/kg, po administered 5 times per week for 2 weeks measured during test.
A drug that blocks the intestinal pathogen without killing resident, beneficial microbes may prove superior to antibiotics, currently the front-line treatment for the infection.
Manual curation resolved these bifurcations and reduced the number of Citrobacter contigs from ∼1,400 to 10 (the largest curated contig is 2.55 Mb) (Fig. 3B). The final contigs are generally syntenous with the Citrobacter 30_2 strain draft genome (Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA) and the complete Citrobacter koseri ATCC BAA-895 genome (Washington University, St. Louis, MO). Consequently, the fragments were oriented and ordered by reference to the C. koseri genome to generate a final genome representation for the dominant strain, UC1CIT-i (Table S6 in Dataset S2). Of the ten genome gaps, eight are the rRNA-encoding regions that could not be resolved, one is within a prophage, and one is in the intergenic region between genes on contig ends that are adjacent in both isolate genomes.. Citrobacter species are facultative anaerobes from the family Enterobacteriaceae and are commonly found as commensals within the mammalian intestinal tract. Like Serratia, they have been frequently documented as ...
Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscess
We identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in mouse lungs. Upon exposure to the protease allergen papain, lung ILC2s produced large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 and induced eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction. Intranasal injections of recombinant IL-33 also stimulated lung ILC2s. ILC2s that were previously stimulated by an allergen persisted long after the initial inflammation was resolved and responded to allergen challenge more vigorously than naïve ILC2s. Microarray analyses of the gene expression profiles of ILC2s isolated from naïve and allergen-treated mice showed that allergen-experienced ILC2s have a similar gene profile to that of memory T cells. To further study the process of "memory ILC2" generation, we analyzed the expression of cell surface molecules on ILC2s from untreated mice and those after intranasal IL-33 injections at various time points, which showed differential expression of CD27, CD103, CD41 and the IL-25 receptor (IL-25R). Memory ILC2s expressed higher level ...
We found that RoRgt expressing innate lymphoid cells (ILC) develop in the fetal liver but not in the bone marrow (BM). However, BM progenitors give rise to RoRgt+ILC in the peripheral lymphoid organs and that this differentiation depends on the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. Therefore, fetal and adult environments influence the differentiation of RORgt+ cells differently (Possot et al 2011, Nat Immunol). We are currently analyzing the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the development and functional maturation of the different subsets of ILC, in fetal and adult life by the characterization of IL-7Ra-Cre mouse line crossed to different mutant strains that allow conditional deletion or over-expression of different proteins involved in this signaling pathway.
Background A subgroup of patients with severe asthma have persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation despite treatment with high intensity corticosteroid treatment. One possible explanation for this pattern of disease is involvement of a type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) dependant and relatively corticosteroid resistant pathway generating type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and Il-13. The presence of high numbers of ILC2s in the nasal polyps commonly associated with severe eosinophilic asthma supports this view. We have carried out a cross-sectional study testing the hypothesis that ILC2 counts are increased in peripheral blood of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
DR….. PLEASE REPLY….. Ive been on your diet for the last 3 months. I dont smoke and I dont drink, Ive followed your diet strictly from your book that I bought along with canxida medicine Im taking 8 pills a day. I still have the same symptoms as before itching, burning and redness. I didnt have symptoms on my body like most people, its all on my penis. everytime I have sex I get bumps on my penis. I was told it was yeast / candida. I read about monunka honey in your book. I spent 80 dollars usd for 20 umf. Ive been using 5 days and everything is the same. I have spent so much money. but I havent gotten any results can you please tell me what to do to get rid of this? Ive tried everything oregano oil, tea tree oil, monuka honey, b. clay which is disgusting. Ive been eating fresh raw veggies. please tell me what to do ? thanks. ...
Jochem Bernink wins this years NVVI Thesis Award for The biology of human Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC). These ILCs are relatively rare in blood and tissue. They have similarities with other lymphocyte types. That is why they have remained under the radar until recently. Bernink identified the ILC1 subset and contributed to unravelling the complex interaction mechanism in which the ILCs play their part. He especially emphasizes the reversible plasticity of ILCs and describes what this means for immunopathology-mediated diseases.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (~3 micrometers long) adhere to human epithelial (HeLa) cell surfaces by inducing the formation of a "pedestal." Bacterial pathogens communicate with each other and with the cells they are attempting to colonize by secreting signals that make conditions more permissible for infection. The rich diversity of microbes, how best to use the latest techniques, and applications to industry and medicine are discussed in the special section beginning on 699. [Image: B. B. Finlay, A. Abe, and I. Rosenshine] ...
In our latest podcast, we speak with special guest, Dr. Vijay Kuchroo, covering cancer research, innate lymphoid cells, and the integration of immune cells into multiple systems.. Topics. The Kuchroo Laboratory ...
The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper (Th) cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. Herein, we review what we have learned in terms of the molecular mechanisms underlying these shared functions, focusing on insights provided by Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We review data on the role of lineage-defining- and signal dependent-transcription factors. ILC regulomes emerge developmentally whereas the much of the open chromatin regions of T cells are generated acutely, in an activation-dependent manner. And yet, these regions of open chromatin
Over the last ten years, immunologists have recognized the central importance of an emerging group of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in health and disease. Characterization of these cells has provided a molecular definition of ILCs and their tissue-specific functions. Although the lineage-defining transcription factors, cytokine production, and nomenclature parallel those of T helper cells, ILCs do not require adaptive immune programming. Both environmental and host-derived signals shape the function of these evolutionarily ancient cells, which provide pathogen protection and promote tissue restoration. As such, ILCs function as a double-edged sword, balancing the inflammatory and reparative responses that arise during injury and disease. This Review highlights our recent understanding of tissue-resident ILCs and the signals that regulate their contribution to inflammation and tissue repair in health and disease.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Serge A van de Pavert, Manuela Ferreira, Rita G Domingues, Hélder Ribeiro, Rosalie Molenaar, Lara Moreira-Santos, Francisca F Almeida, Sales Ibiza, Inês Barbosa, Gera Goverse, Carlos Labão-Almeida, Cristina Godinho-Silva, Tanja Konijn, Dennis Schooneman, Tom OToole, Mark R Mizee, Yasmin Habani, Esther Haak, Fabio R Santori, Dan R Littman, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Elaine Dzierzak, J Pedro Simas, Reina E Mebius, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes].
Clark G. Tristshauser, MD, Medina, N.Y.. Stool culture is the best way to diagnose infection with Campylobacter, which is the most common bacterial cause of infectious colitis. In most patients, symptoms resolve without need for antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics should be given for those who are severely ill, elderly, pregnant, or immunosuppressed. Erythromycin is the drug of choice (500 mg twice daily for five days); macrolides can be used for resistant strains. For strains resistant to erythromycin or fluoroquinolone, try azithromycin or clarithromycin. In the event of severe systemic infections, an aminoglycoside or carbapenem can be used ...
Subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), defined based on their cytokine secretion profiles and transcription factor expression, are important for host protection from pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis. ILCs develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) in the bone marrow. Using the methods described here, we have previously shown that loss of the transcriptional regulator TOX (Thymocyte-selection associated HMG-box protein) leads to specific changes in ILC development and differentiation. Here, we describe how to obtain ILCs from in vivo isolated CLP grown in vitro.
Looking for online definition of ILCS or what ILCS stands for? ILCS is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
The field of type 2 immunity has broadened significantly over the past decade with the addition of new players such as the type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and developments in understanding host-microbiota interactions. The conference featured an exceptional group of cross-disciplinary speakers each of whom are experts in different aspects within a defined set of diseases involving type 2 imm.... Keyword: type 2 immunity Airway dendritic cells ...
The immune system p.2 The other cells are: dendritic cells, granulocytes, innate lymphoid cells, and megakaryocytes. But what are the other cells? Oh,

Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice<...Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice<...

Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. Simon Clare, Victoria John, Alan W ... Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. Infection and Immunity. 2013 Mar;81( ... Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. In: Infection and Immunity. 2013 ; ... Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. / Clare, Simon; John, Victoria; ...
more infohttps://abdn.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/enhanced-susceptibility-to-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-in-mic

Citrobacter rodentium - WikipediaCitrobacter rodentium - Wikipedia

Citrobacter rodentium at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Citrobacter rodentium at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Citrobacter rodentium is a Gram-negative species of bacteria. Schauer DB, Zabel BA, Pedraza IF, OHara CM, Steigerwalt AG, ... Mundy R, MacDonald TT, Dougan G, Frankel G, Wiles S (2005). "Citrobacter rodentium of mice and man". Cell Microbiol. 7 (12): ... Bhinder G, Sham HP, Chan JM, Morampudi V, Jacobson K, Vallance BA (2013). "The Citrobacter rodentium mouse model: studying ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrobacter_rodentium

KEGG PATHWAY: Methane metabolism - Citrobacter rodentiumKEGG PATHWAY: Methane metabolism - Citrobacter rodentium

Methane metabolism - Citrobacter rodentium [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?cro00680+ROD_07471

Citrobacter rodentium | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystCitrobacter rodentium | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Citrobacter rodentium" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Citrobacter rodentium" was a major or minor ... "Citrobacter rodentium" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration. Science. 2016 09 16; 353(6305):1249-53. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Citrobacter rodentium" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Citrobacter%20rodentium

Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection...Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection...

Citrobacter rodentium, a mucosal pathogen found in mice, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E ... After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL ... R. Mundy, T. T. MacDonald, G. Dougan, G. Frankel, and S. Wiles, "Citrobacter rodentium of mice and man," Cellular Microbiology ... S. A. Luperchio, J. V. Newman, C. A. Dangler et al., "Citrobacter rodentium, the causative agent of transmissible murine ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9236196/

DSpace@MIT: 
                Citrobacter rodentium induced liver changes in C57BL/6 mice : animal model of acute inflammatory...[email protected]: Citrobacter rodentium induced liver changes in C57BL/6 mice : animal model of acute inflammatory...

Citrobacter rodentium induced liver changes in C57BL/6 mice : animal model of acute inflammatory stress and injury. Download ... Citrobacter rodentium induced liver changes in C57BL/6 mice : animal model of acute inflammatory stress and injury. Research ... Using Citrobacter rodentium, a well characterized rodent-specific enteric pathogen as a source of extrahepatic inflammatory ... C. rodentium-induced inflammatory stress was finally investigated for its potential in altering drug pharmacokinetics (PK) of ...
more infohttp://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/67208

Frontiers | Egg Protein Transferrin-Derived Peptides IRW and IQW Regulate Citrobacter rodentium-Induced, Inflammation-Related...Frontiers | Egg Protein Transferrin-Derived Peptides IRW and IQW Regulate Citrobacter rodentium-Induced, Inflammation-Related...

Forty-eight mice were randomly assigned to six groups: basal diet (CTRL), intragastric administration Citrobacter rodentium (CR ... Forty-eight mice were randomly assigned to six groups: basal diet (CTRL), intragastric administration Citrobacter rodentium (CR ... to treat enteritis in a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis by evaluating serum metabolomics and gut microbes ... to treat enteritis in a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis by evaluating serum metabolomics and gut microbes ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00643/full

Role of Class 1 Serine Protease Autotransporter in the Pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium ColitisRole of Class 1 Serine Protease Autotransporter in the Pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium Colitis

744993-role-of-class-1-serine-protease-autotransporter-in-the-pathogenesis-of-citrobacter-rodentium-colitis. ... Role of Class 1 Serine Protease Autotransporter in the Pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium Colitis. ...
more infohttps://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/scholarlywork/744993-role-of-class-1-serine-protease-autotransporter-in-the-pathogenesis-of-citrobacter-rodentium-colitis

Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection.  - LSHTM Research Online | London School of Hygiene and Tropical...Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection. - LSHTM Research Online | London School of Hygiene and Tropical...

Crepin, VF; Collins, JW; Habibzay, M; Frankel, G; (2016) Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection. Nature ... Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health ... C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was rediscovered ...
more infohttp://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/4646460/

Intimin-specific immune responses prevent bacterial colonization by the attaching-effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium  -...Intimin-specific immune responses prevent bacterial colonization by the attaching-effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium -...

Intimin-specific immune responses prevent bacterial colonization by the attaching-effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium ... Intimin-specific immune responses prevent bacterial colonization by the attaching-effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/824739/

Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection in neonatal mice<...Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection in neonatal mice<...

Gareau, M., Wine, E., Reardon, C., & Sherman, P. M. (2010). Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection ... Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection in neonatal mice. Melanie Gareau, Eytan Wine, Colin Reardon ... Gareau, M, Wine, E, Reardon, C & Sherman, PM 2010, Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection in ... Probiotics prevent death caused by Citrobacter rodentium Infection in neonatal mice. / Gareau, Melanie; Wine, Eytan; Reardon, ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/probiotics-prevent-death-caused-by-citrobacter-rodentium-infectio

Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.  - LSHTM Research Online | London School...Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia. - LSHTM Research Online | London School...

... using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did ... Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210 (7 ...
more infohttp://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/4646451/

Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions<...Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions<...

Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions. / Wine, ... Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions. American ... title = "Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions ... T1 - Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/osteopontin-mediates-citrobacter-rodentium-induced-colonic-epithe

S100A4 contributes to colitis development by increasing the adherence of Citrobacter rodentium in intestinal epithelial cells |...S100A4 contributes to colitis development by increasing the adherence of Citrobacter rodentium in intestinal epithelial cells |...

rodentium infection led to a rapid increase of these cells. There were more S100A4+ cells in the C. rodentium affected colon on ... rodentium-infected mouse colons. It is still not clear whether S100A4 is expressed in the mouse colon during C. rodentium ... Here, upon infection with Citrobacter rodentium, a model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in humans, induced the ... rodentium in 200 μl PBS. Various tissues were collected both prior to and during C. rodentium infection. The mRNA expression of ...
more infohttps://www.medicalrecords.com/2017/09/21/blog/s100a4-contributes-to-colitis-development-by-increasing-the-adherence-of-citrobacter-rodentium-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells

Citrobacter rodentium subverts ATP flux and cholesterol homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo  -ORCACitrobacter rodentium subverts ATP flux and cholesterol homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo -ORCA

Citrobacter rodentium subverts ATP flux and cholesterol homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Cell Metabolism 26 ... Citrobacter rodentium subverts ATP flux and cholesterol homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo ... We investigated the impact of infection with the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium on mouse IEC metabolism using global ... These results suggest that C. rodentium manipulates host metabolism to evade innate immune responses and establish a favorable ...
more infohttp://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/114701/

Requirement of epithelial integrin-linked kinase for facilitation of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis | BMC...Requirement of epithelial integrin-linked kinase for facilitation of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis | BMC...

C. rodentium-induced colitis is attenuated in ILK-ko mice, and ILK is induced in response to infection. The C. rodentium ... MacDonald TT, Frankel G, Dougan G, Goncalves NS, Simmons C: Host defences to citrobacter rodentium. Int J Med Microbiol. 2003, ... Here we report on the role of epithelial derived ILK in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. ... Wang Y, Xiang GS, Kourouma F, Umar S: Citrobacter rodentium-induced NF-kappaB activation in hyperproliferating colonic ...
more infohttps://bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-230X-13-137

Citrobacter rodentium lifA/efa1 is essential for colonic colonization and crypt cell hyperplasia in vivo (vol 73, pg 1441, 2005)Citrobacter rodentium lifA/efa1 is essential for colonic colonization and crypt cell hyperplasia in vivo (vol 73, pg 1441, 2005)

Citrobacter rodentium lifA/efa1 is essential for colonic colonization and crypt cell hyperplasia in vivo (vol 73, pg 1441, 2005 ... Citrobacter rodentium lifA/efa1 is essential for colonic colonization and crypt cell hyperplasia in vivo (vol 73, pg 1441, 2005 ...
more infohttp://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/28266

nature.com searchnature.com search

mTOR is critical for intestinal T-cell homeostasis and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium *Xingguang Lin ... Rights & permissionsfor article mTOR is critical for intestinal T-cell homeostasis and resistance to ,i,Citrobacter rodentium,/ ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Rong%20Yu%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=50179e72-d60e-4da2-bb27-09aa7a7842fb

ethical review Protocols and Video...'ethical review' Protocols and Video...

4D Multimodality Imaging of Citrobacter rodentium Infections in Mice, Radionuclide-fluorescence Reporter Gene Imaging to ... 4D Multimodality Imaging of Citrobacter rodentium Infections in Mice. James William Collins1, Jeffrey A Meganck2, Chaincy Kuo2 ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/ethical+review

Dissecting virulence: Systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island | PNASDissecting virulence: Systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island | PNAS

Human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) ... Diarrheagenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium (CR) are ... Citrobacter rodentium; A/E, attaching/effacing; LEE, locus of enterocyte effacement; TTSS, type III secretion system; TTS, type ... Table 1. Functional characterization of the 41 gene deletion mutants of the locus of enterocyte effacement in C. rodentium ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/101/10/3597?ijkey=796effe9aff95ccfa15e3f80e2c035fca3b1487f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Lactobacillus reuteri | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicineLactobacillus reuteri | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine

Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri attenuates the stressor-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium infection.Aug 31, 2013. ... Diseases : Anxiety Disorders, Citrobacter Infection, Colitis, Enterobacteriaceae Infections. Pharmacological Actions : ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/lactobacillus-reuteri

Enterobacteriaceae Infections | GreenMedInfo | Disease | NaturalEnterobacteriaceae Infections | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural

Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis through actions on bacterial virulence factors.Jan 01 ... Dietary oils modify the host immune response and colonic tissue damage following Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice.May 14 ... Probiotics are effective for the prevention and treatment of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in mice.Jun 30, 2012. ... White button mushrooms increase microbial diversity and accelerate the resolution of Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice. ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/enterobacteriaceae-infections
  • Here, we show that miR-155-deficient mice are less able to eradicate a mucosal Citrobacter rodentium infection than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. (elsevier.com)
  • miR-155-deficient mice exhibited prolonged colonization associated with a higher C. rodentium burden in gastrointestinal tissue and spread into systemic tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Germinal center formation and humoral immune responses against C. rodentium were severely impaired in infected miR-155-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, the effects of S100A4 on the adherence of C . rodentium to epithelial cells could be abolished by a receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-specific inhibitor (FPS-ZM1). (medicalrecords.com)
  • C. rodentium-induced inflammatory stress was finally investigated for its potential in altering drug pharmacokinetics (PK) of substrates varying in their metabolic biotransformation and clearance mechanisms. (mit.edu)
  • Due to similarities with human idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, such as a predominant Th 1 response, attended by the elaboration of cytokines such as interferon gamma, the C. rodentium model has also been used to investigate mechanisms involved in that group of disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Citrobacter rodentium is a Gram-negative species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. (lshtm.ac.uk)