Citrobacter freundii: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Citrobacter koseri: A species of gram-negative enterobacteria found in WATER; SEWAGE; SOIL; and FOOD. It can be present in any clinical specimen as an opportunistic pathogen.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Cephalosporinasebeta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Pyronine: Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Cefmenoxime: A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.

Characterization and nucleotide sequence of a Klebsiella oxytoca cryptic plasmid encoding a CMY-type beta-lactamase: confirmation that the plasmid-mediated cephamycinase originated from the Citrobacter freundii AmpC beta-lactamase. (1/164)

Plasmid pTKH11, originally obtained by electroporation of a Klebsiella oxytoca plasmid preparation into Escherichia coli XAC, expressed a high level of an AmpC-like beta-lactamase. The enzyme, designated CMY-5, conferred resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in E. coli; nevertheless, the phenotype was cryptic in the K. oxytoca donor. Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of pTKH11 revealed that the 8,193-bp plasmid encoded seven open reading frames, including that for the CMY-5 beta-lactamase (blaCMY-5). The blaCMY-5 product was similar to the plasmidic CMY-2 beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae and the chromosomal AmpC of Citrobacter freundii, with 99.7 and 97.0% identities, respectively; there was a substitution of phenylalanine in CMY-5 for isoleucine 105 in CMY-2. blaCMY-5 was followed by the Blc and SugE genes of C. freundii, and this cluster exhibited a genetic organization identical to that of the ampC region on the chromosome of C. freundii; these results confirmed that C. freundii AmpC was the evolutionary origin of the plasmidic cephamycinases. In the K. oxytoca host, the copy number of pTKH11 was very low and the plasmid coexisted with plasmid pNBL63. Analysis of the replication regions of the two plasmids revealed 97% sequence similarity in the RNA I transcripts; this result implied that the two plasmids might be incompatible. Incompatibility of the two plasmids might explain the cryptic phenotype of blaCMY-5 in K. oxytoca through an exclusion effect on pTKH11 by resident plasmid pNBL63.  (+info)

Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. (2/164)

Over the past decade, a number of new beta-lactamases have appeared in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that, unlike their predecessors, do not confer beta-lactam resistance that is readily detected in routine antibiotic susceptibility tests. Because optimal methodologies are needed to detect these important new beta-lactamases, a study was designed to evaluate the ability of a panel of various beta-lactam antibiotics tested alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors to discriminate between the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, high levels of K1 beta-lactamase, and other beta-lactamases in 141 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases. The microdilution panels studied contained aztreonam, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, with and without 1, 2, and 4 microg of clavulanate per ml or 8 microg of sulbactam per ml and cefoxitin and cefotetan with and without 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. The results indicated that a minimum panel of five tests would provide maximum separation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase high AmpC, high K1, and other beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. These included cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and ceftriaxone plus 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. Ceftriaxone plus 2 microg of clavulanate per ml could be substituted for cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml without altering the accuracy of the tests. This study indicated that tests with key beta-lactam drugs, alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, could provide a convenient approach to the detection of a variety of beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (3/164)

Neonatal bacterial meningitis remains a disease with unacceptable rates of morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective antimicrobial therapy. Citrobacter spp. cause neonatal meningitis but are unique in their frequent association with brain abscess formation. The pathogenesis of Citrobacter spp. causing meningitis and brain abscess is not well characterized; however, as with other meningitis-causing bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli K1 and group B streptococci), penetration of the blood-brain barrier must occur. In an effort to understand the pathogenesis of Citrobacter spp. causing meningitis, we have used the in vitro blood-brain barrier model of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to study the interaction between C. freundii and HBMEC. In this study, we show that C. freundii is capable of invading and trancytosing HBMEC in vitro. Invasion of HBMEC by C. freundii was determined to be dependent on microfilaments, microtubules, endosome acidification, and de novo protein synthesis. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that microtubules aggregated after HBMEC came in contact with C. freundii; furthermore, the microtubule aggregation was time dependent and seen with C. freundii but not with noninvasive E. coli HB101 and meningitic E. coli K1. Also in contrast to other meningitis-causing bacteria, C. freundii is able to replicate within HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of a meningitis-causing bacterium capable of intracellular replication within BMEC. The important determinants of the pathogenesis of C. freundii causing meningitis and brain abscess may relate to invasion of and intracellular replication in HBMEC.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of Syn2190, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor. (4/164)

Syn2190, a monobactam derivative containing 1,5-dihydroxy-4-pyridone as the C-3 side chain, is a potent inhibitor of group 1 beta-lactamase. The concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the initial rate of hydrolysis of substrate by 50% for Syn2190 against these enzymes were in the range of 0.002 to 0.01 microM. These values were 220- to 850-fold lower than those of tazobactam. Syn2190 showed in vitro synergy with ceftazidime and cefpirome. This synergy was dependent on the concentration of the inhibitor against group 1 beta-lactamase-producing strains, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. However, against beta-lactamase-derepressed mutants of P. aeruginosa, the MICs of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were not affected by the amount of beta-lactamase, and the values were the same for the parent strains. The MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)s) of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were 2- to 16-fold lower than those of ceftazidime alone for ceftazidime-resistant, clinically isolated gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the MIC(50)s of cefpirome plus Syn2190 were two- to eightfold lower for cefpirome-resistant clinical isolates. The synergies of Syn2190 plus ceftazidime or cefpirome observed in vitro were also reflected in vivo. Syn2190 improved the efficacies of both cephalosporins in both a murine systemic infection model with cephalosporin-resistant rods and urinary tract infection models with cephalosporin-resistant P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Role of permeability in the activities of beta-lactams against gram-negative bacteria which produce a group 3 beta-lactamase. (5/164)

The production of a group 3 beta-lactamase permitted Escherichia coli to raise the MICs of ceftazidime, cefpirome, and meropenem greatly but those of imipenem and piperacillin only slightly. The ratios of maximum rate of hydrolysis to K(m) of ceftazidime, cefpirome, and piperacillin were lower than those of meropenem and imipenem for the group 3 beta-lactamase. The permeability coefficients for piperacillin and meropenem were higher than those for ceftazidime and cefpirome. Imipenem had the highest permeability coefficient.  (+info)

Analysis of the mechanisms of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii. (6/164)

The presence of gyrA, gyrB and/or parC mutations, quinolone uptake, outer membrane protein profiles and epidemiological relationship were studied in 12 clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii. No alterations were observed in the gyrB gene of any of the strains, or gyrA or parC of the four quinolone-susceptible strains (nalidixic acid MIC of 2-4 mg/L, and a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.006-0.06 mg/L). The quinolone-resistant strains were classified into two groups: one group (group A) composed of strains resistant to nalidixic acid but not to ciprofloxacin and another (group B) including those resistant to both antibiotics with a mutation at codon 83 of the gyrA gene (Thr-->Ile), but no alteration in either parC or gyrB genes. In group B, three of the four resistant isolates, with a nalidixic acid MIC > 1024 mg/L and ciprofloxacin MIC of 8-32 mg/L, showed concomitant mutations at codons 83 and 87 of the gyrA gene (Thr-->Ile and Asp-->Tyr, respectively) as well as a single mutation in codon 80 of the parC gene (Ser-->Ile). The fourth isolate did not possess the mutation at codon 87 of gyrA. Two strains belong to the same clone and, although they had the same type of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes, showed different MICs of ciprofloxacin. This difference was related to an efflux pump mechanism. Mutations in the gyrA and parC genes play the main role in quinolone resistance development in Citrobacter freundii, although other factors such as overexpression of efflux pumps can play a complementary role and thus modulate the final quinolone MIC.  (+info)

The complexed structure and antimicrobial activity of a non-beta-lactam inhibitor of AmpC beta-lactamase. (7/164)

Beta-lactamases are the major resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics and pose a growing threat to public health. Recently, bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactamase inhibitors, making this problem pressing. In an effort to overcome this resistance, non-beta-lactam inhibitors of beta-lactamases were investigated for complementarity to the structure of AmpC beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. This led to the discovery of an inhibitor, benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B), which inhibited AmpC with a Ki of 27 nM. This inhibitor is chemically dissimilar to beta-lactams, raising the question of what specific interactions are responsible for its activity. To answer this question, the X-ray crystallographic structure of BZBTH2B in complex with AmpC was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several unexpected interactions. The inhibitor appears to complement the conserved, R1-amide binding region of AmpC, despite lacking an amide group. Interactions between one of the boronic acid oxygen atoms, Tyr150, and an ordered water molecule suggest a mechanism for acid/base catalysis and a direction for hydrolytic attack in the enzyme catalyzed reaction. To investigate how a non-beta-lactam inhibitor would perform against resistant bacteria, BZBTH2B was tested in antimicrobial assays. BZBTH2B significantly potentiated the activity of a third-generation cephalosporin against AmpC-producing resistant bacteria. This inhibitor was unaffected by two common resistance mechanisms that often arise against beta-lactams in conjunction with beta-lactamases. Porin channel mutations did not decrease the efficacy of BZBTH2B against cells expressing AmpC. Also, this inhibitor did not induce expression of AmpC, a problem with many beta-lactams. The structure of the BZBTH2B/AmpC complex provides a starting point for the structure-based elaboration of this class of non-beta-lactam inhibitors.  (+info)

Pyridoxal 5'-phoshate schiff base in Citrobacter freundii tyrosinephenol-lyase. Ionic and tautomeric equilibria. (8/164)

Spectral properties of the internal Schiff base in tyrosine phenol-lyase have been investigated in the presence of an activating cation K+ and a cation-inhibitor Na+. The holoenzyme absorption spectra in the pH range 6.5-8.7 were recorded in the presence of K+. No apparent pKa value of the coenzyme chromophore was found in this pH range, indicating that the internal Schiff base does not change its ionic form on going from pH 6.5 to 8.7. To determine the ionic state and tautomeric composition of the Schiff base in tyrosine phenol-lyase, the absorption and circular dichroism spectra were analyzed using lognormal distribution curves. The predominant form of the internal Schiff base is that with protonated pyridinium and aldimine nitrogen atoms and deprotonated 3'-hydroxy group, i.e. the ketoenamine. This form is in prototropic equilibrium with its enolimine tautomer. The internal aldimine ionic form is changed upon replacement of K+ with Na+. This replacement leads to a significant decrease in the pKa value of pyridinium nitrogen of the pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Citrobacter freundii appear as Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are 0.3-1 micrometer in diameter and 0.6-6 micrometers in length. Citrobacter have hair-like extensions, called flagella, that...
Citrobacter freundii ATCC ® 8090™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Produces restriction endonuclease CfrAI Quality control strain Reference material Quality control strain for Sensititre products
Citrobacter freundii ATCC ® 8090™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Produces restriction endonuclease CfrAI Quality control strain Reference material Quality control strain for Sensititre products
do you know any links/sites i can use as a reference or any info on citrobacter freundii that are scientific resources? im doing a microbiology research profile ...
van den Thillart, Guido, Dufour, Sylvie and Rankin, J. Cliff, eds. (2008) Spawning Migration of the European Eel. Fish & Fisheries Series, 30 . Springer Netherlands, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4020-9095-0 (Online) Ababou, Abdessamad, Gautel, Mathias and Pfuhl, Mark (2007) Disecting the N-terminal myosin binding site of human cardiac myosin binding protein C : Structure and myosin binding of domain C2. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282 (12). pp. 9204-9215. ISSN 00219258 Ahmed, Naveed, Tsang, Wing Y. and Page, Michael I. (2004) Acyl vs Sulfonyl Transfer in N-Acyl β-Sultams and 3-Oxo-β sultams. Organic Letters, 6 (2). pp. 201-203. ISSN 15237060 Akbar, Sirwan, Rout, Simon and Humphreys, Paul (2015) Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PS3 and Citrobacter freundii Strain SA79 Obtained from a Wound DressingAssociated Biofilm. Genome Announcements, 3 (3). ISSN 2169-8287 Al-Nuaimi, Yusur, Hardman, Jonathan A., Bíró, Tamás, Haslam, Iain S., Philpott, Michael P., Tóth, Balázs I., ...
ID D2THD2_CITRI Unreviewed; 317 AA. AC D2THD2; DT 02-MAR-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 02-MAR-2010, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 48. DE RecName: Full=2-keto-3-deoxygluconate permease {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; DE Short=KDG permease {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; GN Name=kdgT {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00070}; GN OrderedLocusNames=ROD_01271 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1}; OS Citrobacter rodentium (strain ICC168) (Citrobacter freundii biotype OS 4280). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Citrobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=637910 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ICC168 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBG86907.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001889}; RX PubMed=19897651; DOI=10.1128/JB.01144-09; RA Petty N.K., Bulgin R., Crepin V.F., Cerdeno-Tarraga A.M., RA ...
ID MTC1_CITFR Reviewed; 376 AA. AC Q04845; DT 01-FEB-1994, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-FEB-1994, sequence version 1. DT 10-MAY-2017, entry version 72. DE RecName: Full=Modification methylase CfrBI; DE Short=M.CfrBI; DE EC=2.1.1.113; DE AltName: Full=N(4)- cytosine-specific methyltransferase CfrBI; GN Name=cfrBIM; OS Citrobacter freundii. OG Plasmid pZE8. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Citrobacter; Citrobacter freundii complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=546; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=4111; RX PubMed=8335262; DOI=10.1016/0378-1119(93)90698-3; RA Zakharova M.V., Kravetz A.N., Beletzkaja I.V., Repyk A.V., RA Solonin A.S.; RT "Cloning and sequences of the genes encoding the CfrBI restriction- RT modification system from Citrobacter freundii."; RL Gene 129:77-81(1993). CC -!- FUNCTION: This methylase recognizes the double-stranded sequence CC CCWWGG, causes specific methylation on C-? on both strands, and CC ...
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DR….. PLEASE REPLY….. Ive been on your diet for the last 3 months. I dont smoke and I dont drink, Ive followed your diet strictly from your book that I bought along with canxida medicine Im taking 8 pills a day. I still have the same symptoms as before itching, burning and redness. I didnt have symptoms on my body like most people, its all on my penis. everytime I have sex I get bumps on my penis. I was told it was yeast / candida. I read about monunka honey in your book. I spent 80 dollars usd for 20 umf. Ive been using 5 days and everything is the same. I have spent so much money. but I havent gotten any results can you please tell me what to do to get rid of this? Ive tried everything oregano oil, tea tree oil, monuka honey, b. clay which is disgusting. Ive been eating fresh raw veggies. please tell me what to do ? thanks. ...
The intestinal microflora are capable of performing a wide variety of metabolic transformations. The intestinal bacteria can enhance the function of the entire gastrointestinal tract, protect against pathogenic, maintain the vital chemical balance of the gastrointestinal system, and produce needed vitamins and hormones (http;//www.upwardquest.com/crit2.html). Some of the products of this metabolism have been associated with carcinogenic processes, such as cancer, tumor formation, gastrointestinal disease, and infections. The ability of human intestinal microbes to interact with metabolites directly or after recirculation may contribute toward different toxicological disorders and disease. The purpose of this study is to characterize and isolate the azoreductase gene in Citrobacter freundii.
Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative coliform bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family. The species C. amalonaticus, C. koseri, and C. freundii can use citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrobacter species are differentiated by their ability to convert tryptophan to indole (C. koseri is the only citrobacter to be commonly indole-positive), ferment lactose (C. koseri is a non-lactose fermentor), and use malonate. Citrobacter shows the ability to accumulate uranium by building phosphate complexes. These bacteria can be found almost everywhere in soil, water, wastewater, etc. They can also be found in the human intestine. They are rarely the source of illnesses, except for infections of the urinary tract and infant meningitis and sepsis. C. freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. In addition, isolates of Citrobacter may be resistant to many other antibiotics as a result of plasmid-encoded resistance genes. LPSN ...
Citrobacter farmeri is a Gram-negative species of bacteria. Brenner, D. J.; Grimont, P. A. D.; Steigerwalt, A. G.; Fanning, G. R.; Ageron, E.; Riddle, C. F. (1993). "Classification of Citrobacteria by DNA Hybridization: Designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and Three Unnamed Citrobacter Genomospecies". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (4): 645-658. doi:10.1099/00207713-43-4-645. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 8240948. Tan, C. K.; Lai, C. C.; Lin, S. H.; Liao, C. H.; Huang, Y. T.; Hsueh, P. R. (2010). "Fatal Citrobacter farmeri Meningitis in a Patient with Nasopharyngeal Cancer". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48 (4): 1499-1500. doi:10.1128/JCM.00282-10. ISSN 0095-1137. PMC 2849549 . PMID 20181904. Bruckner DA, Colonna P, Glenn D, Abbott SL, Janda JM (1997). "Citrobacter farmeri bacteremia in a child with short-bowel syndrome". J Clin Microbiol. 35 (12): ...
The aim of this study was to compare the antimicro-bial efficiency of three tested dressings. Radiation was used as an established method for dressing sterilization. The dressings were denoted as number 1, 2 and 3. The study evaluated the antimicrobial effect on bacteria and fungi most commonly causing wound infection. The study used reference strains of bacteria (ATCC collec-tion, Argenta, Poland) and fungi (a collection of our own laboratory). Strains cultured from patients were applied anonymously.. As a representative of the Staphylococci family, S. aureus was selected and for the Enterococci family, E. faecalis was designated. As a representative of Gram-negative non-fermenting pathogen, P. aeruginosa was chosen. As representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae family, E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii and Proteus mirabilis were selected. As a representative of fungi, five strains of Candida spp. were selected based on patients pathogens culture.. The study was performed ...
This study aimed to investigated the prevalence and resistance pattern of different Citrobacter species phenotypically and genotypically to β-lactam and some most common antibiotics then evaluate the antibacterial activity of omega-3 extracted from flaxseed against isolates that harboring resistance genes. 19 Citrobacter isolates were isolated from100 stool and urine samples taken from patients attended to AL-Sadar Hospital during June-December 2016. Clinical samples were cultured on specific media, thereafter isolates were identified depending on morphological, biochemical characteristics and VITK-2. The results showed that the Citrobacter comprise 24% of isolated bacteria which divided into 11 (14.1%) were C. freundii, 5 (6.41%) C. kosaeri and C. farmeri were 3 (3.8%). The antagonistic activity was evaluated by observing a clear zone of inhibition growth, the results showed that all Citrobacter (100%) isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, cefoxitin and sensitive to Imipinim, also the ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 3bfd: Crystal Structure of the Class A Beta-Lactamase Sed-G238C Mutant From Citrobacter Sedlakii
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In this study we analysed the spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates of intubated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014. The spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in lower respiratory tract material revealed Enterobacter spp., E.coli and Klebsiella spp. as the most common isolates (86%). Comparable data of matching study settings are scarce in the current literature. Wilson et al. [5] collected daily tracheal aspirates from intubated children. Consistent with our findings, the most common Gram-negative organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. and E.coli, followed by Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae. Lee et al. [34] described the microbiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from a PICU and found a rate of 20% ESBL-positive Klebsiella in 2005. Our study displayed a lower rate with only 6.5% of Klebsiella spp. isolates being ESBL-positive. However, more than half of E.coli isolates (55%), about a quarter of all Klebsiella spp. (28%) isolates and 4 out of 6 ...
Skin and skin structure infections caused by bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Klebsiells pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus Valgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Citrobacter freundii among other bacterial species.. Bone and joint infections brought about by Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Serratia marcescens.. Infectious diarrhea caused by Escheria coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella dysentriae or Shigella sonnei.. However, users ought to note that treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and tuberculosis are not among the Ciprofloxacin uses. Users should also note that the drug has its own share of severe side effects. For this reason, FDA added a pair of black box warnings to the drug due to the spontaneous tendon ruptures and the probability of the drug to worsen myathenia gravitis symptoms, including breathing problems and weakness of muscles. However, these shortcomings do not take away the fact that Ciprofloxacin uses are many and highly beneficial. The only ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Magnesium atom in PDB 1un9: Crystal Structure of the Dihydroxyacetone Kinase From C. Freundii in Complex With Amp-Pnp and MG2+
Citrobacterek, Enterobacter, Klebsiella eta Escherichiarekin batera bakterio koliformeen multzoa osatzen du. Koliformeak hestean bizi diren bakterioak dira, ezaugarri biokimiko amankomunak dituztenak eta garrantzi handikoak ingurugiro-mikrobiologian, kutsadura fekalaren adierazleak baitira.. Citrobacter giza zein animalien hesteetan bizi da, baina egoera librean ere aurki daiteke (uretan, lur-zoruan...) Espezie batzuk oportunistak dira, gaixotasunak sortuz immunitate-sistema ahula dutenengan. Gaitzak eragiten dituenean gernu-infekzioak eta meningitis dira ohikoenak.. ...
Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscess
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. AU - Clare, Simon. AU - John, Victoria. AU - Walker, Alan W. AU - Hill, Jennifer L. AU - Abreu-Goodger, Cei. AU - Hale, Christine. AU - Goulding, David. AU - Lawley, Trevor D. AU - Mastroeni, Pietro. AU - Frankel, Gadi. AU - Enright, Anton J. AU - Vigorito, Elena. AU - Dougan, Gordon. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding molecules that control gene expression posttranscriptionally, with microRNA-155 (miR-155) one of the first to be implicated in immune regulation. Here, we show that miR-155-deficient mice are less able to eradicate a mucosal Citrobacter rodentium infection than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. miR-155-deficient mice exhibited prolonged colonization associated with a higher C. rodentium burden in gastrointestinal tissue and spread into systemic tissues. Germinal center formation and humoral immune responses against C. rodentium were severely impaired ...
The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the gut form a robust line of defense against ingested pathogens. We investigated the impact of infection with the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium on mouse IEC metabolism using global proteomic and targeted metabolomics and lipidomics. The major signatures of the infection were upregulation of the sugar transporter Sglt4, aerobic glycolysis, and production of phosphocreatine, which mobilizes cytosolic energy. In contrast, biogenesis of mitochondrial cardiolipins, essential for ATP production, was inhibited, which coincided with increased levels of mucosal O2 and a reduction in colon-associated anaerobic commensals. In addition, IECs responded to infection by activating Srebp2 and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Unexpectedly, infected IECs also upregulated the cholesterol efflux proteins AbcA1, AbcG8, and ApoA1, resulting in higher levels of fecal cholesterol and a bloom of Proteobacteria. These results suggest that C. rodentium ...
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To investigate the role of cross-infection in nonepidemic nosocomial bacteriuria in a large, university-affiliated hospital, we identified in adult patients admitted over an 11-week period all cases caused by organisms of the same genus, species, and antimicrobial susceptibility and clustered by date of onset and hospital ward. Further laboratory studies were conducted to verify clustering. Among the 3452 patients studied, 194 cases of nosocomial bacteriuria were identified; 49 appeared clustered by epidemiologic evidence. Additional laboratory tests verified clustering in 30 cases (15.5%). We found that 90% of clustered and 76% of nonclustered cases had had previous urinary catheterization; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii often caused clustered infection while Escherichia coli predominated in nonclustered cases; and resistance to gentamicin, sulfathiazole, and carbenicillin was significantly greater for pathogens from clustered cases than for nonclustered ...
Macrophages play pleiotropic roles in maintaining the balance between immune tolerance and inflammatory responses in the gut. Here, we identified transcription factor RBP-J as a crucial regulator of colonic macrophage-mediated immune responses against the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium . In the immune response phase, RBP-J promoted pathogen clearance by enhancing intestinal macrophage-elicited Th17 cell immune responses, which was achieved by maintenance of C/EBPβ-dependent IL-6 production by overcoming miRNA-17∼92-mediated suppressive effects. RBP-J deficiency-associated phenotypes could be genetically corrected by further deleting miRNA-17∼92 in macrophages. In the late phase, noneradicated pathogens in RBP-J KO mice recruited abundant IL-1β-expressing CD64 + Ly6C + colonic macrophages and thereby promoted persistence of ILC3-derived IL-22 to compensate for the impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to ultimate clearance of pathogens. These results demonstrated ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterohaemorhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Citrobacter rodentium are constituent members of the attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The A/E group of bacteria are considered to be extracellular pathogens which form characteristic lesions by intimately adhering to host enterocytes and directing the effacement intestinal brush border. EPEC and EHEC are diarrhoeal pathogens, which are a global health burden in developing and industrialised countries respectively. Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen which is an excellent animal model for EPEC and EHEC infection. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium conserve a genomic region termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) which encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), a core set of type 3 secreted effector proteins and the outer membrane adhesin intimin, which are essential for A/E lesion formation. A/E pathogens utilise their T3SSs to translocate dozens of effector proteins directly from the bacteria into host cells. ...
Manual curation resolved these bifurcations and reduced the number of Citrobacter contigs from ∼1,400 to 10 (the largest curated contig is 2.55 Mb) (Fig. 3B). The final contigs are generally syntenous with the Citrobacter 30_2 strain draft genome (Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA) and the complete Citrobacter koseri ATCC BAA-895 genome (Washington University, St. Louis, MO). Consequently, the fragments were oriented and ordered by reference to the C. koseri genome to generate a final genome representation for the dominant strain, UC1CIT-i (Table S6 in Dataset S2). Of the ten genome gaps, eight are the rRNA-encoding regions that could not be resolved, one is within a prophage, and one is in the intergenic region between genes on contig ends that are adjacent in both isolate genomes.. Citrobacter species are facultative anaerobes from the family Enterobacteriaceae and are commonly found as commensals within the mammalian intestinal tract. Like Serratia, they have been frequently documented as ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [G Amicosante, A Oratore, N Franceschini, M Maccarrone, R Strom, M Galleni, J M Frère].
The genus Citrobacter was originally distinguished from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae by its ability to use citrate as a carbon source. Citrobacter infection is commonly reported in neonates and immunocompromised patients. Citrobacter koseri, formerly known as Citrobacter diversus, is best known as the cause of sepsis and meningitis leading to central nervous system (CNS) abscesses in neonates and young infants. The majority of cases are sporadic, with no clear source of infection. A significant number of the infants with abscesses die, and many sustain CNS damage. It adults, however, Citrobacter infection with central nervous system involvement is rare, and is usually associated with an underlying disorder. Citrobacter koseri (strain ATCC BAA-895 / CDC 4225-83 / SGSC4696) was isolated in 1983 in Maryland where it caused neonatal meningitis. ...
hello i was diagnosed recently to have a citrobacter koseri , and it was causing me a painfull UTI ... desapear but i still have the flude and in the last exam i still have citrobacter . what can i do? ...
Looking for online definition of Pneumospirura rodentium in the Medical Dictionary? Pneumospirura rodentium explanation free. What is Pneumospirura rodentium? Meaning of Pneumospirura rodentium medical term. What does Pneumospirura rodentium mean?
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is involved in not only a wide array of cellular processes but also pathogenesis in many bacterial pathogens; thus, this system is expected to become a novel therapeutic target to treat infections. To the best of our knowledge, involvement of the Tat system has not been reported in the gut infection caused by Citrobacter rodentium. Here, we studied the... ...
To investigate, researchers used a mouse model infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse equivalent of an E. coli infection. Using this model, they saw an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier within just two days of infection -- well before inflammation and epithelial damage. In particular, they uncovered a critical role for interleukin-22 that in turn influences another molecule called claudin-2, previously known to be involved in causing diarrhea. They found that diarrhea resulting from the signaling of these two molecules helped promote pathogen clearance and limited disease severity ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2ffy: Ampc Beta-Lactamase N289A Mutant in Complex With A Boronic Acid Deacylation Transition State Analog Compound SM3
The chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase gene of Klebsiella oxytoca E23004, a strain resistant to cefoperazone and aztreonam, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli HB101. The molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were 28 kilodaltons and 7.4, respectively. Although the beta-lactamase of K. oxytoca hydrolyzed many cephalosporins, including broad-spectrum drugs, the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence lacked homology with chromosomal class C beta-lactamase genes (ampC) of E. coli or Citrobacter freundii. Rather, about 45% nucleotide sequence homology and 40% deduced amino acid sequence homology were observed between the K. oxytoca beta-lactamase and TEM-1, a class A beta-lactamase which does not efficiently hydrolyze cephalosporins. Values of Km, relative Vmax, and relative Vmax/Km for the K. oxytoca beta-lactamase indicated that the enzyme is a penicillinase but that it can hydrolyze cefoperazone effectively and other broad-spectrum cephems weakly. Hence, the chromosomal ...
Over a 6-month period, eight strains of Citrobacter diversus (Citrobacter koseri) resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams were isolated from seven colonized and/or infected patients from the same intensive care unit. All strains harbored a single large conjugative plasmid which mediated an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of the SHV-4 type (ceftazidimase phenotype; enzyme pI, 7.8; plasmid DNA hybridization with a blaSHV-specific probe). All strains were characterized by antibiotic resistance pattern analysis, beta-lactamase content analysis, plasmid profiling, ribotyping with EcoRI, and arbitrarily primed (AP)-PCR with primers O8 and O12. Among the eight C. diversus strains, strains Cd5 to Cd12, six isolates (isolates Cd6 to Cd11) were identical by all markers; one strain (strain Cd5) differed by two markers (antibiotype and AP-PCR pattern with primer O8), and the remaining strain (strain Cd12) differed by two other markers (ribotype and AP-PCR pattern with primer O12). Our ...
The food & cipro judicature as well advises consumers to throwing away all medications, prescription as good as OTC, at the loss date. "This programme is a big monetary value recoverer to the taxpayer," aforementioned Ellen M. Cipro and skin construction Infections caused by escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae race pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible staphylococci epidermidis, or streptococcus pyogenes. But well-nigh 2year expired.95% both intact, I rich person been examining myself forever day 1 in expired a rash from caneston use which went after a few days. Conversion of I.V. to oral Dosing in Adults: ciprofloxacin Tablets and ciprofloxacin expired suspension for oral judicature are available. Cipro HC auricular Interactions Your health care professionals (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) may ...
Hardy Diagnostics ColiScreen™ is to be used as a rapid screening test to assist in the identification of E. coli. The performance of a spot indole test alone is not an adequate screen for E. coli, since there are at least 52 species of gram-negative bacilli that grow on MacConkey, are indole-positive, and ferment lactose. The more common ones include Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, C. sedlakii, C. braakii, C. koserii, C. amalonaticus, C. youngae, Aeromonas hydrophila and Serratia odorifera. The test is designed to be used on isolates demonstrating typical appearance on EMB and/or MacConkey Agar. Although most E. coli exhibit lactose-fermentation on these media, it should be noted that approximately 5% of E. coli are non-lactose-fermenters.(2) Using this test system, glucuronidase-positive, indole-positive, gram-negative organisms are presumptively identified as E. coli. Hydrolysis of the additive nitrophenyl-beta-glucopyranosiduronic acid denotes the production of glucuronidase and ...
The aim of this work is to show the basic elements of the verification of the methods applied in the microbiological laboratory when introducing the original method prior to release into routine work. The results show that the method is selective because it shows great ability to identify and count the microorganisms studied. Medium Chromocult Coliform Agar (CCA) is suitable for the isolation of coliform bacteria (C. freundii) and E. coli. The set of repeatability and reproducibility criterion is satisfied, which confirms that such a mode of application in the same conditions will yield repeatable and valid results. The precision of the method is large enough (RSD for repeatability is 2.6 % and for renewability 3.9 % for E. coli and RSD for repeatability is 1.7 % and for renewability 1.8 % for coliform bacteria (C. frundii)), suggesting that the change of analysts does not significantly affect the results of the study. The acceptability criterion is greater than 70 % survival for coliform ...
The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium encode type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to promote their survival in the infected host. The mechanisms of action and the host targets of T3SS effectors are under active investigation because of their importance to bacterial virulence. The non-locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded protein F, NleF, contributes to E. coli and C. rodentium colonization of piglets and mice, respectively. Here we sought to characterize the host binding partners of NleF. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Tmp21, a type-I integral membrane protein and COPI-vesicle receptor involved in trans-Golgi network function, as an NleF-binding partner. We confirmed this interaction using immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). We expressed a temperature-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (tsVSVG) to ...
The sale of small turtles is banned from the US market due to concerns about their excretion of Salmonella spp. To produce a safe pet for the export market, the Louisiana pet turtle industry uses 1000 μg/ml gentamicin sulfate baths to eradicate Salmonella spp. from turtle eggs. In 1999, we analyzed bacterial samples recovered from turtle farms and found that strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae and other bacteria such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were resistant to high concentrations of gentamicin (|2000 μg/ml) and to other aminoglycosides. The goal of this study was to identify the gene(s) contributing to the high-level gentamicin resistance phenotype observed in bacteria from environmental samples with turtle farming activity, particularly the salmonellae, and to estimate their incidence in these bacteria, as well as to explore the molecular elements that contribute to the
The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains), Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains), Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains), Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1), contact time (0, 15 and 30 min) and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant
The incidence of septicaemia among neonates categorized as being at high risk was 55 per cent in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Gram-positive organisms, specifically Staphylococcus aureus, were predominant (33.8 per cent) among bacteria cultured from proven cases of septicaemia. Other coagulase-negative staphylococci also contributed 21 per cent, with Staphylococcus epidermidis occurring in 5 per cent of the isolates. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from 8.4 per cent of septic neonates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from 3 per cent, Klebsiella pneumoniae from 14 per cent, and Escherichia coli from 7 per cent. Other Gram-negative bacilli cultured were Enterobacter aerogenes (5 per cent), Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella sp., and Proteus sp. (2 per cent each). The bacterial isolates were relatively resistant to antibiotics traditionally employed to treat cases of septicaemia. The study shows a high prevalence of neonatal bacterial sepsis at the centre and the emerging role of Listeria monocytogenes ...
The taking a chances that diarrhea clears intestinal pathogens has been weighed for centuries," protested corresponding originator Jerrold Turner, MD, PhD, of the BWH Regions of Pathology and Nostrum. "Its colliding on the gaining headway of intestinal infections residua poorly agreed. We sought to set down the task of diarrhea and to see if anticipating it influence really wait pathogen interruption and prolong evil.". To delve into, researchers fit of pique to a mouse mannequin infected with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse a tender-hearted of an E. coli infection. Enervating this after, they saw an add to in the permeability of the intestinal ditch within well-founded two periods of infection - away ahead of redness and epithelial impairment. In particular, they uncovered a speculative role for interleukin-22 that in energize influences another molecule reasoned claudin-2, beforehand conscious to be embroiled with in provoking diarrhea. They secure that diarrhea impacting from the signaling ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shaharuddin Nor Hayati, Chee Loon Leong, Chidambaram Suresh Kumar, Christopher Lee].
Bruce A. Vallance is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: The Citrobacter rodentium Mouse Model: Studying Pathogen and Host Contributions to Infectious Colitis, DNBS/TNBS Colitis Models: Providing Insights Into Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Effects of Dietary Fat
gentamicin, rastvor za injekciju/infuziju, ATC J01GB03, SmPC (Sažetak karakteristika o leku) Terapijske indikacije: Gentamicin je aminoglikozidni antibiotik sa širokim baktericidnim spektrom dejstva. Obično je aktivan protiv većine sojeva sledećih bakterija: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp (indol pozitivni i indol negativni), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci, Enterobacter pp., Citrobacter spp. i Providencia spp. Gentamicin je indikovan u infekcijama urinarnog trakta, respi...
Understanding the structure and function of proteins involved in the inducible expression of AmpC beta-lactamase. Grishma Vadlamani Grad Student Department of Microbiology All are welcome to attend. 315 Buller Building
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions. AU - Wine, Eytan. AU - Shen-Tu, Grace. AU - Gareau, Melanie. AU - Goldberg, Harvey A.. AU - Licht, Christoph. AU - Ngan, Bo Yee. AU - Sorensen, Esben S.. AU - Greenaway, James. AU - Sodek, Jaro. AU - Zohar, Ron. AU - Sherman, Philip M.. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN+/+ and OPN-/- fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attachingeffacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron ...
Proven microbial species in burn wounds: Initially Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Enteroccus faecalis, MSSA, Enterobacter cloacae and Candida tropicalis. Later on positive cultures with Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter freundii (tracheal secretion MSSA and Serratia liquefaciens). Late positive cultures with Trichosporon mucoides or mucormycosis (sensitive to voriconazole and amphotericine B). Proven sepsis with positive blood cultures (MSSA, Candida tropicalis ...
Berries of highbush blueberry Vaccinium ×covilleanum are very important for human diet by their secondary metabolites that in low amounts are beneficial to human health. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins amounts in berry and berry skin extracts, to investigate their anthibacterial activity and to identify individual anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins in berry extracts ranged from 180 to 270 mg/100 g and from 742 to 1850 mg/100 g in berry skin extracts. The most prevalent anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-arabinoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-glucoside. The most sensitive to ethanol extracts of berry and berry skin were Citrobacter freundii, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli test cultures were distinguished by the largest resistance. Significant differences between antibacterial activity of berry skin and berry extracts were not determined ...
Looking for medication to treat complicated+urinary+tract+infection+from+citrobacter? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of complicated+urinary+tract+infection+from+citrobacter
Enterobacter-ek, Citrobacter, Klebsiella eta Escherichiarekin batera bakterio koliformeen multzoa osatzen du. Koliformeak hestean bizi diren bakterioak dira, ezaugarri biokimiko amankomunak dituztenak eta garrantzi handikoak ingurugiro-mikrobiologian, kutsadura fekalaren adierazleak baitira.. Enterobacter giza zein animalien hesteetan bizi da, baina egoera librean ere aurki daiteke (uretan, lur-zoruan...) Espezie batzuk oportunistak dira, gaixotasunak sortuz immunitate-sistema ahula dutenengan; hori dela eta, infekzio nosokomial askoren jatorrian dago bakterio hau.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Procedure:. The sample is pipetted directly into ready-to-use vials. Between 0.1-1.0 ml can be directly added to a vial (depending upon the desired sensitivity). Coliform test completed in 12 hours. Yeast and Molds in 48 hours.. Results:. Yeast and Molds: 50 different yogurts tested using direct method; all samples that contained yeast or mold detected in system. None of clean samples detected. All inoculated samples detected. Plate count results agreed 100% with the BioLumix vial results.. Coliform: 45 different types of yogurts were tested; none contained coliform by the BioLumix method or the MPN method. Twenty-four Coliform strains (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, and Klebsiella) tested, and all detected in the vial. Twenty-one non-coliform bacteria; one detected, except three Salmonella strains. ...
Complete information for AMPD1 gene (Protein Coding), Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for AMPD3 gene (Protein Coding), Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called autotransporters have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by ...
1IEM: Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design.
Citrobacter freundii, one member of the family Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria ... Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be ...
Citrobacter freundii Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria. Phylum: Proteobacteria. Class: Gammaproteobacteria. Order: ...
C: Citrobacter freundii H: Hafnia spp. A: Aeromonas spp.[citation needed] P: Proteus spp. (P. vulgaris) P: Providencia spp. M: ...
Bozic D, Grazulis S, Siksnys V, Huber R (January 1996). "Crystal structure of Citrobacter freundii restriction endonuclease ... Janulaitis AA; Stakenas PS; Lebedenko EN; Berlin YuA (October 1982). "A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii ...
This condition is often associated with the bacteria, Citrobacter freundii. Pyramiding[edit]. ...
Prevalence and diversity of qnr alleles in AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii ... Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii in Korea. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.26,557-561 (2007). 59.Smith Moland ... Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens: a multicenter study from Korea. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.63,314-318 (2009 ... prevalence of IMP-8 in Enterobacter cloacae and first identification of VIM-2 in Citrobacter freundii. J. Antimicrob. Chemother ...
Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngme7 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngse8 ... Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngme7 (N. gracillima; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf tissue) Citrobacter freundii strain ... Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Nalme3 (N. albomarginata; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf ... Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Nalme3 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. ...
This condition is often associated with the bacteria, Citrobacter freundii. Pyramiding is a shell deformity commonly found in ...
Citrobacter, and Sulfurihydrogenibium species. Some specific species include Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, and ...
Bozic D, Grazulis S, Siksnys V, Huber R (January 1996). "Crystal structure of Citrobacter freundii restriction endonuclease ...
... which makes very little B12 and could be missing Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which have been shown to ... "Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh fermentation" (PDF). Applied and ...
Shiuan D, Campbell A (1988). "Transcriptional regulation and gene arrangement of Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and ...
Currently, some Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Escherichia coli strains are resistant ...
"Crystal structure of the Citrobacter freundii dihydroxyacetone kinase reveals an eight-stranded alpha-helical barrel ATP- ...
Citrobacter intermedius, Brevibacterium linens, Citrobacter freundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola), parasitic ...
... is indicated for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by; Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter ...
Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Activity is maintained against most strains of E. coli and K ...
... and Citrobacter freundii. Although the inhibitor-resistant TEM variants are resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid and ... It appeared initially in a limited number of bacterial species (C. cloacae, C. freundii, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa) that ... are typically encoded on the chromosome of many Gram-negative bacteria including Citrobacter, Serratia and Enterobacter species ...
Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumonia, various other Pseudomonas species, and Morganella morganii. The organism enters ...
... coli antigens but from Citrobacter freundii, and H50 was found to be the same as H10). In humans and in domestic animals, ...
... and Citrobacter freundii. The class B metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are found largely in Gram-negative bacteria and environmental ...
Citrobacter MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.275 --- Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.475 --- Citrobacter koseri MeSH ... Citrobacter MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.210 --- Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.475 --- Citrobacter koseri MeSH ... B03.440.450.425.200.737 --- Citrobacter rodentium MeSH B03.440.450.425.260 --- Edwardsiella MeSH B03.440.450.425.260.340 --- ... B03.660.250.150.100.737 --- Citrobacter rodentium MeSH B03.660.250.150.160 --- Edwardsiella MeSH B03.660.250.150.160.340 --- ...
EC 1.1.1.61 Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.202 (gene dhaT) Bacillus ...
V. Drelichman; J. D. Band (1985). "Bacteremias due to Citrobacter diversus and Citrobacter freundii. Incidence, risk factors, ... The species C. amalonaticus, C. koseri, and C. freundii can use citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrobacter species are ... Badger, J.D.; M.F. Stins; K.S. Kim (1999). "Citrobacter freundii Invades and Replicates in Human Brain Microvascular ... Citrobacter shows the ability to accumulate uranium by building phosphate complexes. These bacteria can be found almost ...
C. sedlakii was originally isolated from human stool and wounds as strains of Citrobacter freundii. However, in 1993 six ... nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov ... Citrobacter sedlakii at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Citrobacter sedlakii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Citrobacter sedlakii is a species of Gram-negative bacteria. It has been described as causing human disease, but is generally ...
"Citrobacter freundii". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 546. Type strain of Citrobacter freundii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... The Citrobacter genus was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen. Cultures of C. freundii were isolated and identified in the ... Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The ... Wang, J. T.; Chang, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Luh, K. T. (2000). "Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Citrobacter freundii ...
Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii. Lac−. H2S+. *Salmonella enterica *Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis ...
Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii. Lac−. H2S+. *Salmonella enterica *Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis ...
"Citrobacter freundii". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 546. Type strain of Citrobacter freundii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... The Citrobacter genus was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen. Cultures of C. freundii were isolated and identified in the ... Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The ... Wang, J. T.; Chang, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Luh, K. T. (2000). "Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Citrobacter freundii ...
Citrobacter freundii is an infectious anaerobic bacterium that forms rod-like structures known as coccobacilli. This bacterium ... Citrobacter freundii is an infectious anaerobic bacterium that forms rod-like structures known as coccobacilli. This bacterium ... Citrobacter freundii is susceptible to disinfectants, such as phenolic disinfectants, 70 percent ethanol and 1 percent sodium ... Citrobacter is responsible for infections in normally sterile sites in the human body, including the blood, urinary tract and ...
Citrobacter freundii strain E69366 was detected in a colony immunoassay with a rabbit antiserum prepared to a strain of ... Structure and antigenic properties of Citrobacter freundii lipopolysaccharides.. Chart H1, Willshaw GA, Cheasty T, Rowe B. ... freundii were analysed for their LPS profiles by SDS-PAGE. Sixteen could be allocated into five groups (A(3), B(7), C(2), D(2) ... freundii expressing LPS profiles designated E reacted with an antiserum prepared in rabbits to E. coli O45. ...
Citrobacter freundii strain 181 Scaffold89, whole genome shotgun sequence Citrobacter freundii strain 181 Scaffold89, whole ...
Citrobacter have hair-like extensions, called flagella, that... ... Citrobacter freundii appear as Gram-negative, rod-shaped ... Citrobacter freundii cause hospital-acquired infections. Though they are not common sources of these infections, Citrobacter ... Another way that Citrobacter freundii can be spread is through eating contaminated foods, such as parsley. Outside of a host, ... Citrobacter freundii appear as Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are 0.3-1 micrometer in diameter and 0.6-6 micrometers ...
Citrobacter freundii ATCC ® 8090™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: Produces restriction endonuclease CfrAI Quality ... Citrobacter freundii (Braak) Werkman and Gillen (ATCC® 8090™) Strain Designations: [ATCC 13316, NCTC 9750] / Type Strain: yes ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : U14466 Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (gnd) gene, partial cds. ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF052253 Citrobacter freundii DNA gyrase A (gyrA) gene, partial cds. ...
Separately, urinary tract isolates of Citrobacter freundii triggered a high-efficiency invasion of bladder cells. Use of ... Unusual microtubule-dependent endocytosis mechanisms triggered by Campylobacter jejuni and Citrobacter freundii. T A ... Unusual microtubule-dependent endocytosis mechanisms triggered by Campylobacter jejuni and Citrobacter freundii ... Unusual microtubule-dependent endocytosis mechanisms triggered by Campylobacter jejuni and Citrobacter freundii ...
Citrobacter species use citrate as a carbon source. Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter diversus are often the cause of ... Citrobacter freundii has also been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in tannerys. Magnification: x2,200 when ... of Citrobacter freundii, Gram-negative, anaerobic prokaryote (bacterium). It is a Gamma Proteobacteria in the ... Citrobacter sp. cause neonatal meningitis but are unique in their frequent association with brain abscess formation. They also ...
... of Citrobacter freundii, Gram-negative, anaerobic prokaryote (bacterium). It is a Gamma Proteobacteria in the ... Citrobacter species use citrate as a carbon source. Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter diversus are often the cause of ... Citrobacter freundii has also been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in tannerys. Magnification: x2,200 when ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Citrobacter freundii, Gram-negative, anaerobic prokaryote (bacterium). It is a ...
Antimicrobial activity against Citrobacter freundii at 10 ug/disk by disk diffusion method. ...
Crystal structures of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase complexes with the substrates of γ- (L-1-amino-3- ... Three-dimensional structures of noncovalent complexes of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase with substrates.. [S V ...
In Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae, synthesis of AmpC beta-lactamase is inducible by the addition of beta-lactams ... Inactivation of the ampD gene causes semiconstitutive overproduction of the inducible Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamase.. F ... Inactivation of the ampD gene causes semiconstitutive overproduction of the inducible Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamase. ... Inactivation of the ampD gene causes semiconstitutive overproduction of the inducible Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamase. ...
Binding of the Citrobacter freundii AmpR regulator to a single DNA site provides both autoregulation and activation of the ... Binding of the Citrobacter freundii AmpR regulator to a single DNA site provides both autoregulation and activation of the ... Binding of the Citrobacter freundii AmpR regulator to a single DNA site provides both autoregulation and activation of the ... Binding of the Citrobacter freundii AmpR regulator to a single DNA site provides both autoregulation and activation of the ...
... coli and Citrobacter freundii strains [25].. Citrobacter freundii is usually considered a commensal species of the human gut, ... Parida SN, Verma IC, Deb M, Bhujwala RA: An outbreak of diarrhea due to citrobacter freundii in a neonatal special care nursery ... Citrobacter freundii is classically considered as an indigenous intestinal species that is sporadically associated with ... Schmidt H, Montag M, Bockemuhl J, Heesemann J, Karch H: Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxins in Citrobacter freundii strains ...
Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxins in Citrobacter freundii strains from humans and beef samples.. H Schmidt, M Montag, J ... Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxins in Citrobacter freundii strains from humans and beef samples. ... Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxins in Citrobacter freundii strains from humans and beef samples. ... Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxins in Citrobacter freundii strains from humans and beef samples. ...
KHM-1, a Novel Plasmid-Mediated Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Citrobacter freundii Clinical Isolate Jun-ichiro Sekiguchi, Koji ... A novel gene, blaKHM-1, encoding a metallo-β-lactamase, KHM-1, was cloned from a clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii ... We report here on the detection of a novel acquired MBL in a clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii identified in Japan. ... Multiple-sequence alignments of the amino acid sequence of KHM-1 from Citrobacter freundii isolate KHM243 with those of other ...
... genes dhaF and dhaG encoding glycerol dehydratase reactivase were amplified by using the genomic DNA of Citrobacter freundii. ... which had been inactivated.The study patially elucidated the mechanism of reactivase from C.freundii and improve the ... the factor reactivated glycerol dehydratase from C.freundii, ... Dehydratase Reactivating Factor of Citrobacter freundii. QI ... Ltd Nanning 530005, China);Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Expression of dhaT Gene from Citrobacter freundii and Purification ...
Extremely Drug-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Isolate Producing NDM-1 and Other Carbapenemases Identified in a Patient ... Urine cultures grew a Citrobacter freundii isolate (named STE) that was highly resistant to all β-lactams, including to ... Extremely Drug-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Isolate Producing NDM-1 and Other Carbapenemases Identified in a Patient ... Extremely Drug-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Isolate Producing NDM-1 and Other Carbapenemases Identified in a Patient ...
Citrobacter freundii is classically considered as an indigenous intestinal species that is sporadically associated with ... Putative F pili expressed by EAEC strains boosted mixed biofilm formation when in the presence of aggregative C. freundii. ... During an epidemiologic study focusing on infantile diarrhea, aggregative C. freundii (EACF) and EAEC strains were ... coli and Citrobacter freundii strains [25].. Citrobacter freundii is usually considered a commensal species of the human gut, ...
do you know any links/sites i can use as a reference or any info on citrobacter freundii that are scientific resources? im ... Im part of tribe 4, the Citrobacter tribe.. My cousin C. diversus and I like to hang around hospitals.. We cause nosocomial ( ... Hey there, Im C. freundii.. Im a Gram negative bacteria in the enterobacteriaceae family. ...
called Citrobacter Freundii. Quite an unusual name. Very strange name indeed. So, I dont want you to get too bogged down. when ... called Citrobacter Freundii. Just understand that it occurs in many people,. and youve got to get it back in balance again, ... What Is Citrobacter Freundii?. Posted on October 17, 2019. by Van Boston ... Many people will have Citrobacter. Citrobacter was discovered in 1932, so not. really that long ago. It can cause a lot of ...
Isolation of ceftriaxone-resistant Citrobacter freundii CRCF has been associated with the citrobacter koseri nelle urine broad ... A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Citrobacter freundii. The cavities are initially square in shape and not tense, but when ... The significant feature of C. Citrobacter freundii has also been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in ... The patient did not respond to treatment until the catheter was removed showing Citrobacter freundii are opportunistic ...
... They are gram -ve, non-capsulated, non-sporing, catalase +ve, ... Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii. Last updated: June 12, 2018. by Sagar Aryal ...
Citrobacter freundii result calculator insert the value from you Citrobacter freundii test result. ... Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter spp., Clarithromycin, Clostridium spp., Collinsella aerofaciens, Coprococcus eutactus, ...
... and KPC-producing Citrobacter freundii (six; 30%) (Table).. Epidemiologic data were available for the 20 Minnesota patients ... One KPC-producing Citrobacter, one NDM-producing Morganella, one IMP-producing Providencia, three KPC-producing Raoultella, and ... KPC-producing Citrobacter spp. (27; 42.9%) was the most common organism-mechanism combination identified (Table). ...
  • However 78.7% and 79.5% of the laboratories reported correct results for susceptibility testing for S. saprophyticus and C. freundii respectively. (who.int)
  • In our previous study, Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6 was isolated from an industrial spoilage sample and demonstrated an excellent ability to form biofilms, which could be affected by various environmental factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The efficiency of three oxygen-vectors liquid paraffin, silicone oil and n-dodecane in the production of tyrosine phenol lyase (TPL) by Citrobacter freundii MTCC 2424 was evaluated at 4% (v/v) concentration. (mtak.hu)
  • Citrobacter freundii is an infectious anaerobic bacterium that forms rod-like structures known as coccobacilli. (reference.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Citrobacter freundii, Gram-negative, anaerobic prokaryote (bacterium). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Three-dimensional structures of noncovalent complexes of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase with substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Crystal structures of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase complexes with the substrates of γ- (L-1-amino-3-methylthiopropylphosphinic acid) and β- (S-ethyl-L-cysteine) elimination reactions and the competitive inhibitor L-norleucine have been determined at 1.45, 1.8, and 1.63 Å resolution, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Studies found that the methionine γ-lyase (MGL, EC 4.4.1.11) can specifically split the methionine of extracellular and intracellular, so it can strongly inhibit the growth of tumor cells and induce apoptosis of tumor cells C a n c er Tr e at m en t R e v . 38, 726-736." class="coltj"> 1 , 2 . (tjsr.org)
  • C. freundii strain KHM243 was isolated in 1997 from a patient with catheter-associated urinary tract infection at Kyorin University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan). (asm.org)
  • Citrobacter freundii is one of the most causative agents of urinary tract infection in human due to their high antimicrobials resistance. (pharmascope.org)
  • C. freundii has also been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in tanneries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrobacter is responsible for infections in normally sterile sites in the human body, including the blood, urinary tract and respiratory tract. (reference.com)
  • Though they are not common sources of these infections, Citrobacter freundii can cause infections of the urinary tract, blood, and intra-abdominal area, as well as brain abscesses and pneumonia. (reference.com)
  • Inhibitors of endosome acidification had no significant impact on intracellular survival of Campylobacter jejuni or Citrobacter freundii, but monensin markedly reduced Citrobacter uptake. (pnas.org)
  • Jyothi , and Basavaraj V. The purification and characterization of bacterial selenocysteine beta-lyase, an enzyme which specifically catalyzes the cleavage of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine, has been purified from Citrobacter freundii. (leonardimagery.com)
  • The mortality rate of infections caused by C. freundii are 33-48 percent and 30 percent for newborn children, according to the PHAC. (reference.com)
  • C. freundii has the ability to grow on glycerol, and use it as its sole source of carbon and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • do you know any links/sites i can use as a reference or any info on citrobacter freundii that are scientific resources? (blogspot.com)