A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
A species of gram-negative enterobacteria found in WATER; SEWAGE; SOIL; and FOOD. It can be present in any clinical specimen as an opportunistic pathogen.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.

Characterization and nucleotide sequence of a Klebsiella oxytoca cryptic plasmid encoding a CMY-type beta-lactamase: confirmation that the plasmid-mediated cephamycinase originated from the Citrobacter freundii AmpC beta-lactamase. (1/164)

Plasmid pTKH11, originally obtained by electroporation of a Klebsiella oxytoca plasmid preparation into Escherichia coli XAC, expressed a high level of an AmpC-like beta-lactamase. The enzyme, designated CMY-5, conferred resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in E. coli; nevertheless, the phenotype was cryptic in the K. oxytoca donor. Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of pTKH11 revealed that the 8,193-bp plasmid encoded seven open reading frames, including that for the CMY-5 beta-lactamase (blaCMY-5). The blaCMY-5 product was similar to the plasmidic CMY-2 beta-lactamase of K. pneumoniae and the chromosomal AmpC of Citrobacter freundii, with 99.7 and 97.0% identities, respectively; there was a substitution of phenylalanine in CMY-5 for isoleucine 105 in CMY-2. blaCMY-5 was followed by the Blc and SugE genes of C. freundii, and this cluster exhibited a genetic organization identical to that of the ampC region on the chromosome of C. freundii; these results confirmed that C. freundii AmpC was the evolutionary origin of the plasmidic cephamycinases. In the K. oxytoca host, the copy number of pTKH11 was very low and the plasmid coexisted with plasmid pNBL63. Analysis of the replication regions of the two plasmids revealed 97% sequence similarity in the RNA I transcripts; this result implied that the two plasmids might be incompatible. Incompatibility of the two plasmids might explain the cryptic phenotype of blaCMY-5 in K. oxytoca through an exclusion effect on pTKH11 by resident plasmid pNBL63.  (+info)

Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. (2/164)

Over the past decade, a number of new beta-lactamases have appeared in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that, unlike their predecessors, do not confer beta-lactam resistance that is readily detected in routine antibiotic susceptibility tests. Because optimal methodologies are needed to detect these important new beta-lactamases, a study was designed to evaluate the ability of a panel of various beta-lactam antibiotics tested alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors to discriminate between the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, high levels of K1 beta-lactamase, and other beta-lactamases in 141 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases. The microdilution panels studied contained aztreonam, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, with and without 1, 2, and 4 microg of clavulanate per ml or 8 microg of sulbactam per ml and cefoxitin and cefotetan with and without 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. The results indicated that a minimum panel of five tests would provide maximum separation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase high AmpC, high K1, and other beta-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae. These included cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and ceftriaxone plus 8 microg of sulbactam per ml. Ceftriaxone plus 2 microg of clavulanate per ml could be substituted for cefpodoxime plus 4 microg of clavulanate per ml without altering the accuracy of the tests. This study indicated that tests with key beta-lactam drugs, alone and in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, could provide a convenient approach to the detection of a variety of beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (3/164)

Neonatal bacterial meningitis remains a disease with unacceptable rates of morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective antimicrobial therapy. Citrobacter spp. cause neonatal meningitis but are unique in their frequent association with brain abscess formation. The pathogenesis of Citrobacter spp. causing meningitis and brain abscess is not well characterized; however, as with other meningitis-causing bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli K1 and group B streptococci), penetration of the blood-brain barrier must occur. In an effort to understand the pathogenesis of Citrobacter spp. causing meningitis, we have used the in vitro blood-brain barrier model of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to study the interaction between C. freundii and HBMEC. In this study, we show that C. freundii is capable of invading and trancytosing HBMEC in vitro. Invasion of HBMEC by C. freundii was determined to be dependent on microfilaments, microtubules, endosome acidification, and de novo protein synthesis. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that microtubules aggregated after HBMEC came in contact with C. freundii; furthermore, the microtubule aggregation was time dependent and seen with C. freundii but not with noninvasive E. coli HB101 and meningitic E. coli K1. Also in contrast to other meningitis-causing bacteria, C. freundii is able to replicate within HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of a meningitis-causing bacterium capable of intracellular replication within BMEC. The important determinants of the pathogenesis of C. freundii causing meningitis and brain abscess may relate to invasion of and intracellular replication in HBMEC.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of Syn2190, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor. (4/164)

Syn2190, a monobactam derivative containing 1,5-dihydroxy-4-pyridone as the C-3 side chain, is a potent inhibitor of group 1 beta-lactamase. The concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the initial rate of hydrolysis of substrate by 50% for Syn2190 against these enzymes were in the range of 0.002 to 0.01 microM. These values were 220- to 850-fold lower than those of tazobactam. Syn2190 showed in vitro synergy with ceftazidime and cefpirome. This synergy was dependent on the concentration of the inhibitor against group 1 beta-lactamase-producing strains, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. However, against beta-lactamase-derepressed mutants of P. aeruginosa, the MICs of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were not affected by the amount of beta-lactamase, and the values were the same for the parent strains. The MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)s) of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were 2- to 16-fold lower than those of ceftazidime alone for ceftazidime-resistant, clinically isolated gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the MIC(50)s of cefpirome plus Syn2190 were two- to eightfold lower for cefpirome-resistant clinical isolates. The synergies of Syn2190 plus ceftazidime or cefpirome observed in vitro were also reflected in vivo. Syn2190 improved the efficacies of both cephalosporins in both a murine systemic infection model with cephalosporin-resistant rods and urinary tract infection models with cephalosporin-resistant P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Role of permeability in the activities of beta-lactams against gram-negative bacteria which produce a group 3 beta-lactamase. (5/164)

The production of a group 3 beta-lactamase permitted Escherichia coli to raise the MICs of ceftazidime, cefpirome, and meropenem greatly but those of imipenem and piperacillin only slightly. The ratios of maximum rate of hydrolysis to K(m) of ceftazidime, cefpirome, and piperacillin were lower than those of meropenem and imipenem for the group 3 beta-lactamase. The permeability coefficients for piperacillin and meropenem were higher than those for ceftazidime and cefpirome. Imipenem had the highest permeability coefficient.  (+info)

Analysis of the mechanisms of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii. (6/164)

The presence of gyrA, gyrB and/or parC mutations, quinolone uptake, outer membrane protein profiles and epidemiological relationship were studied in 12 clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii. No alterations were observed in the gyrB gene of any of the strains, or gyrA or parC of the four quinolone-susceptible strains (nalidixic acid MIC of 2-4 mg/L, and a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.006-0.06 mg/L). The quinolone-resistant strains were classified into two groups: one group (group A) composed of strains resistant to nalidixic acid but not to ciprofloxacin and another (group B) including those resistant to both antibiotics with a mutation at codon 83 of the gyrA gene (Thr-->Ile), but no alteration in either parC or gyrB genes. In group B, three of the four resistant isolates, with a nalidixic acid MIC > 1024 mg/L and ciprofloxacin MIC of 8-32 mg/L, showed concomitant mutations at codons 83 and 87 of the gyrA gene (Thr-->Ile and Asp-->Tyr, respectively) as well as a single mutation in codon 80 of the parC gene (Ser-->Ile). The fourth isolate did not possess the mutation at codon 87 of gyrA. Two strains belong to the same clone and, although they had the same type of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes, showed different MICs of ciprofloxacin. This difference was related to an efflux pump mechanism. Mutations in the gyrA and parC genes play the main role in quinolone resistance development in Citrobacter freundii, although other factors such as overexpression of efflux pumps can play a complementary role and thus modulate the final quinolone MIC.  (+info)

The complexed structure and antimicrobial activity of a non-beta-lactam inhibitor of AmpC beta-lactamase. (7/164)

Beta-lactamases are the major resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics and pose a growing threat to public health. Recently, bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactamase inhibitors, making this problem pressing. In an effort to overcome this resistance, non-beta-lactam inhibitors of beta-lactamases were investigated for complementarity to the structure of AmpC beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. This led to the discovery of an inhibitor, benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B), which inhibited AmpC with a Ki of 27 nM. This inhibitor is chemically dissimilar to beta-lactams, raising the question of what specific interactions are responsible for its activity. To answer this question, the X-ray crystallographic structure of BZBTH2B in complex with AmpC was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several unexpected interactions. The inhibitor appears to complement the conserved, R1-amide binding region of AmpC, despite lacking an amide group. Interactions between one of the boronic acid oxygen atoms, Tyr150, and an ordered water molecule suggest a mechanism for acid/base catalysis and a direction for hydrolytic attack in the enzyme catalyzed reaction. To investigate how a non-beta-lactam inhibitor would perform against resistant bacteria, BZBTH2B was tested in antimicrobial assays. BZBTH2B significantly potentiated the activity of a third-generation cephalosporin against AmpC-producing resistant bacteria. This inhibitor was unaffected by two common resistance mechanisms that often arise against beta-lactams in conjunction with beta-lactamases. Porin channel mutations did not decrease the efficacy of BZBTH2B against cells expressing AmpC. Also, this inhibitor did not induce expression of AmpC, a problem with many beta-lactams. The structure of the BZBTH2B/AmpC complex provides a starting point for the structure-based elaboration of this class of non-beta-lactam inhibitors.  (+info)

Pyridoxal 5'-phoshate schiff base in Citrobacter freundii tyrosinephenol-lyase. Ionic and tautomeric equilibria. (8/164)

Spectral properties of the internal Schiff base in tyrosine phenol-lyase have been investigated in the presence of an activating cation K+ and a cation-inhibitor Na+. The holoenzyme absorption spectra in the pH range 6.5-8.7 were recorded in the presence of K+. No apparent pKa value of the coenzyme chromophore was found in this pH range, indicating that the internal Schiff base does not change its ionic form on going from pH 6.5 to 8.7. To determine the ionic state and tautomeric composition of the Schiff base in tyrosine phenol-lyase, the absorption and circular dichroism spectra were analyzed using lognormal distribution curves. The predominant form of the internal Schiff base is that with protonated pyridinium and aldimine nitrogen atoms and deprotonated 3'-hydroxy group, i.e. the ketoenamine. This form is in prototropic equilibrium with its enolimine tautomer. The internal aldimine ionic form is changed upon replacement of K+ with Na+. This replacement leads to a significant decrease in the pKa value of pyridinium nitrogen of the pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Previous article'Etiology' Next article 'Esophageal Cancer'

"Citrobacter freundii". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 546. Type strain of Citrobacter freundii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen. Cultures of C. freundii were isolated and identified in the ... Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae which ... Most C. freundii cells have several flagella used for locomotion, although some non-motile taxa do not. C. freundii is a soil- ...
C: Citrobacter freundii H: Hafnia spp. A: Aeromonas spp.[citation needed] P: Proteus spp. (excluding P. mirabilis) P: ...
Bozic D, Grazulis S, Siksnys V, Huber R (January 1996). "Crystal structure of Citrobacter freundii restriction endonuclease ... Janulaitis AA; Stakenas PS; Lebedenko EN; Berlin YuA (October 1982). "A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii ...
V. Drelichman; J. D. Band (1985). "Bacteremias due to Citrobacter diversus and Citrobacter freundii. Incidence, risk factors, ... The species C. amalonaticus, C. koseri, and C. freundii can use citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrobacter species are ... Citrobacter freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. ... Badger, J.D.; M.F. Stins; K.S. Kim (1999). "Citrobacter freundii Invades and Replicates in Human Brain Microvascular ...
Prevalence and diversity of qnr alleles in AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii ... Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii in Korea. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 26, ... Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens: a multicenter study from Korea. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ... prevalence of IMP-8 in Enterobacter cloacae and first identification of VIM-2 in Citrobacter freundii. Journal of Antimicrobial ...
Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngme7 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngse8 ... Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Ngme7 (N. gracillima; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf tissue) Citrobacter freundii strain ... Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Nalme3 (N. albomarginata; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf ... Citrobacter freundii strain AIMST Nalme3 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. ...
Aeromonas caviae and Citrobacter freundii. Two bacterial species: Citrobacter amalonaticus and Citrobacter freundii are known ... Cellulose degraders are Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas caviae and ...
Citrobacter, and Sulfurihydrogenibium species. Some specific species include Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, and ...
Keuth, S; Bisping, B (May 1994). "Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh ... which makes little B12 and could be missing Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which have been shown to produce ...
"Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana)". Journal of Veterinary ...
Infection of the vital organs by Citrobacter freundii bacteria caused the death of an otherwise healthy bush elephant after ... "Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana)". Journal of Veterinary ...
"Structure of an abequose-containing O-polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii O22 strain PCM 1555". Carbohydrate Research. 344 ... specific chains in lipopolysaccharides that occur in certain serotypes of Salmonella and Citrobacter bacteria. It is the ...
... was originally isolated from human stool and wounds as strains of Citrobacter freundii. However, in 1993 ... nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov ... Citrobacter sedlakii is a rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium. It can be distinguished from other Citrobacter species by its ... "Citrobacter sedlakii" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Citrobacter sedlakii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
Shiuan D, Campbell A (July 1988). "Transcriptional regulation and gene arrangement of Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii ...
Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Edwardsiella tarda have all been identified as the most significant causative ...
Currently, some Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Escherichia coli strains are resistant ...
"Crystal structure of the Citrobacter freundii dihydroxyacetone kinase reveals an eight-stranded alpha-helical barrel ATP- ...
Keuth S, Bisping B (May 1994). "Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii or Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh ...
Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter aerogenes: role of enhanced efflux pump activity and inactivation". Journal of ...
Citrobacter intermedius, Brevibacterium linens, Citrobacter freundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola), parasitic ...
... is indicated for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by; Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter ...
Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Activity is maintained against most strains of E. coli and K ...
... and Citrobacter freundii. Although the inhibitor-resistant TEM variants are resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid and ... It appeared initially in a limited number of bacterial species (E. cloacae, C. freundii, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa) that ... Citrobacter, and Enterobacter. Carbapenems are famously stable to AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases. ... are typically encoded on the chromosome of many Gram-negative bacteria including Citrobacter, Serratia and Enterobacter species ...
Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, ...
Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, various other Pseudomonas species, and Morganella morganii. The primary skin ...
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii were used to test a ~10g every 24 hour dosing interval for continuous infusion. ...
... coli antigens but from Citrobacter freundii, and H50 was found to be the same as H10). In humans and in domestic animals, ...
... and Citrobacter freundii. The class B metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are found largely in Gram-negative bacteria and environmental ...
Citrobacter MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.275 - Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.440.450.425.200.475 - Citrobacter koseri MeSH B03.440. ... Citrobacter MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.210 - Citrobacter freundii MeSH B03.660.250.150.100.475 - Citrobacter koseri MeSH B03.660. ... 450.425.200.737 - Citrobacter rodentium MeSH B03.440.450.425.260 - Edwardsiella MeSH B03.440.450.425.260.340 - Edwardsiella ... 250.150.100.737 - Citrobacter rodentium MeSH B03.660.250.150.160 - Edwardsiella MeSH B03.660.250.150.160.340 - Edwardsiella ...
EC 1.1.1.61 Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.202 (gene dhaT) Bacillus ...
Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. (https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/microbiology-immunology/harry-l-t-mobley-phd) ...
Antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase producing Citrobacter freundii 43864 after 18 hrs by agar dilution assay. ...
2017)‎. Evaluation of candidate international standards for Vi polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella enterica ... Evaluation of candidate international standards for Vi polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella enterica ...
Citrobacter freundii. Test code: B0086 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Citrobacter freundii by real time PCR.. ... Citrobacter freundii are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteraceae family. These bacteria are ... Infection with Citrobacter freundii may result in diarrhea, septicemia, meningitis, and urinary tract and respiratory system ... Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Citrobacter freundii. ...
... and KPC-producing Citrobacter freundii (six; 30%) (Table).. Epidemiologic data were available for the 20 Minnesota patients ... One KPC-producing Citrobacter, one NDM-producing Morganella, one IMP-producing Providencia, three KPC-producing Raoultella, and ... KPC-producing Citrobacter spp. (27; 42.9%) was the most common organism-mechanism combination identified (Table). ...
Citrobacter koseri Citrobacter freundii Enterobacter cloacae Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus parainfluenzae ... Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, ... Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin--susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible ...
K.p., Klebsiella pneumoniae; C.f., Citrobacter freundii; E. coli, Escherichia coli; APB, 3-aminophenylboronic acid; IEF, ... Citrobacter freundii clinical isolates, Salmonella transconjugants, and recipient and control strains*. Type of testing. ... M9190 transconjugant derived from C. freundii M9169.. §Control strain producing KPC-2.. ¶Control strain producing CMY-2.. #EDTA ...
Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a well-recognized but uncommon cutaneous infection classically associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. EG usually occurs in patients who are critically ill and immunocompromised; it is almost always a sign of pseudomonal sepsis.
Here, we report the first case of an intratumoral abscess with mixed bacteremia caused by P. shigelloides, Citrobacter freundii ... Citrobacter freundii; Clostridium perfringens; Humanos; Levofloxacino; Masculino; Piperacilina; Plesiomonas/química; RNA ... Citrobacter freundii, Streptococcus mitis/oralis, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida albicans in a patient with ... P. shigelloides, C. freundii, S. mitis/oralis, C. perfringens, and C. albicans were isolated in blood culture. P. shigelloides ...
Antibacterial activity against Alcaligenes faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ... Antibacterial activity was demonstrated against Alcaligenes faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ...
Citrobacter freundii. Human. Gen.Diagn.Dept., PHL, Göteborg, Sweden. 1968-04-01. ... Citrobacter koseri. Human urine. PHL, Göteborg, Sweden. 1968-08-29. 164. Providencia stuartii. Urine, catheter. Urinary Tract ...
Categories: Citrobacter freundii Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Alors que 77,0 % et 69,9 % des laboratoires ont identifié correctement Staphylococcus saprophyticus et Citrobacter freundii ... While 77.0% and 69.9% correctly identified Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Citrobacter freundii respectively, only 29.8% ... freundii (Tables 1 and 2). The mean scores for susceptibility testing were 3.64 (SD 0.65) for S. saprophyticus and 4.35 (SD ... freundii. Of the other species, 34 of 114 (29.8%) laboratories correctly identified A. baumanii, 37 of 146 (25.3%) correctly ...
Isolation of a Citrobacter freundii strain which carries the Escherichia coli O 157 antigen. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:760-761. ...
Use of WGS data for investigation of a long-term NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of ... hvor en NDM-1-producerende Citrobacter freundii er påvist hos 13 patienter med spredning af plasmidet til flere andre ... Derudover har der været spredning af plasmidet til C. freundii og K. pneumoniae hos yderligere to patienter (Samuelsen et al, ... freundii, E. coli, Hafnia alvei, K. oxytoca og K. pneumoniae [3]. ...
The shell genes of Citrobacter freundii pdu bacterial microcompartment (BMC) were first constructed into BioBrick parts, ...
... and Citrobacter freundii. Exposure to these enteric organisms may result in disease (e.g., gastroenteritis) or in a carrier ...
Citrobacter freundii. 142. AJ233408. 2023-03-29. Clostridioides difficile. 26. 4 290 252. AB075770. 11. 2023-03-08. ...
Enterobacter agglomerans, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii. "The chance ...
Citrobacter freundii Entry term(s). Bacterium freundii Citrobacter ballerupensis Escherichia freundii Salmonella ballerup ... Citrobacter freundii. Entry term(s). Bacterium freundii Citrobacter ballerupensis Escherichia freundii Salmonella ballerup ... Citrobacter freundii Entry term(s):. Bacterium freundii. Citrobacter ballerupensis. Escherichia freundii. Salmonella ballerup. ... Citrobacter freundii - Preferred Concept UI. M0025802. Scope note. A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod- ...
... and Citrobacter freundii (n=1). CTX-M type (CTX-M-1 n=49, CTX-M-9 n=12) was the most prevalent EPE type detected in 61 isolates ...
Citrobacter freundii, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium xerosis, Cronobacter sakazakii (Pre-cleaned surfaces), ...
Citrobacter freundii. Methyl Red (MR) Test. *MR Test was first described by Clark and Lubs in 1915. They found it useful in ...
Citrobacter freundii. GB. WP_043018560. SQ. MKTFPLQSLTLAQAQQKQFALVDTLCRHFPGADFLAGGDIGLAPGLNQPRVTQRVEKVLA ...
Citrobacter freundii [29], and Citrobacter braakii [30]. Not only does the mcr-1 gene appear in diversified E. coli isolates ... Emergence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Citrobacter freundii. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017;49:786-7. ... Citrobacter braakii carrying plasmid-borne mcr-1 colistin resistance gene from ready-to-eat food from a market in the Chaco ...
Giammanco GM, Aleo A, Guida I, Mammina C. Molecular epidemiological survey of citrobacter freundii misidentified as cronobacter ...
Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Eikenella corrodens, Francisella tularensis, Haemophilus ducreyi ...
Citrobacter freundii (NCTC 9750) Selectrol®-Disks - TCS Biosciences. Disks zum Gebrauch in mikrobiologischen Laboratorien für ...
  • Paracoli bethesda (Citrobacter) and Escherichia freundii in disease in Dakar]. (nih.gov)
  • The Citrobacter rodentium genome sequence reveals convergent evolution with human pathogenic Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • According to the literature, the most common pathogens causing infections in cases of vegetative intraorbital foreign bodies include Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • The following enteric bacteria (bacteria present in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals) were identified: Klebsiella oxytoca, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii. (cdc.gov)
  • To do this, bacterial isolations were carried out from dead and diseased adult bees collected from 9 districts in Ordu Province in Turkey.Twenty species of pathogenic bacteria, 18 of which were nonsporeforming Staphylococcus lentus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Leucanostoc mesenteroides ssp. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Culture identification of C. freundii is difficult because the growth and biochemical characteristics of these bacteria closely resemble those of Salmonella bacteria. (zoologix.com)
  • Bacillus piliformis, Salmonella enteritidis, and Citrobacter freundii (biotype 4280) are important, but far less common, pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • While 77.0% and 69.9% correctly identified Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Citrobacter freundii respectively, only 29.8% correctly identified Acinetobacter baumanii, 25.3% identified Enterococcus faecalis and 35.6% identified Enterobacter agglomerans. (who.int)
  • Alors que 77,0 % et 69,9 % des laboratoires ont identifié correctement Staphylococcus saprophyticus et Citrobacter freundii respectivement, seuls 29,8 % ont identifié correctement Acinetobacter baumanii, 25,3 % ont identifié Enterococcus faecalis et 35,6 % ont identifié Enterobacter agglomerans. (who.int)
  • På Sjælland sås et udbrud med en variant af OXA-48-enzymet, OXA-436, hvor OXA-436-positive Enterobacter asburiae blev påvist hos tre patienter. (ugeskriftet.dk)
  • Host defences to Citrobacter rodentium. (nih.gov)
  • Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium and transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia. (nih.gov)
  • Here we review the history, clinical significance, pathology and molecular pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium, the causative agent of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia. (nih.gov)
  • We detected a total of 67/175 tourist were colonized by EPE strains and most dominant species was E. coli (n=65), followed by K. pneumoniae (n=1) and Citrobacter freundii (n=1). (dissertations.se)
  • 7. Engineering methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii for anticancer activity. (nih.gov)
  • C. freundii is an opportunistic pathogen, with human infections usually limited to people with immune dysfunction. (zoologix.com)
  • Importantly, the IncR plasmid may form a transferable hybrid plasmid , mediated by IS6100 via transposition, with another IncFII plasmid included in the same C. freundii strain . (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. Crystal structure of mutant form Cys115His of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase complexed with l-norleucine. (nih.gov)
  • Toutefois, 78,7 % et 79,5 % des laboratoires ont fourni des résultats corrects pour les tests de sensibilité sur S. saprophyticus et C. freundii respectivement. (who.int)