Microbial Sensitivity Tests
The role of Citrobacter in clinical disease of children: review. (1/256)Various species of Citrobacter may cause infections in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is best known as the cause of sepsis and meningitis leading to central nervous system (CNS) abscesses in neonates and young infants. Early onset and late-onset infections occur as for other neonatal bacterial infections. The majority of cases are sporadic, with no clear source of infection. A few have been confirmed to be vertically transmitted, and nosocomial outbreaks have occurred in neonatal care units. The pathophysiology is not well understood, but a surface protein has been identified as a possible virulence factor among strains that cause citrobacter brain abscesses in neonates. Despite improvements in diagnostic imaging techniques, surgery, and antibiotic therapy, approximately one-third of infants with abscesses die, and one-half sustain CNS damage. In this article, the taxonomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of citrobacter disease in children are reviewed. (+info)
Citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby unit. (2/256)An outbreak of meningitis due to Citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. The organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low. (+info)
Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice elicits a mucosal Th1 cytokine response and lesions similar to those in murine inflammatory bowel disease. (3/256)Citrobacter rodentium is a classically noninvasive pathogen of mice that is similar to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in man. Following oral infection of young mice, the organism colonizes the distal colon, and within 1 week the colonic mucosa doubles in thickness and there is massive epithelial cell hyperplasia. Since T-cell responses in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also cause epithelial hyperplasia, we have investigated the possibility that C. rodentium promotes similar T-cell responses in the mucosa, thereby increasing epithelial shedding, transmission, and replication of the organism. Beginning 6 days after infection, bacteria were observed to be in close association with the epithelial surface and were also visible scattered throughout the lamina propria and in the submucosa. There was a CD3(+)-cell infiltrate into the colonic lamina propria and epithelium as well as mucosal thickening and crypt hyperplasia. The majority of CD3(+) cells were CD4(+) and were not gammadelta+. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of cytokines also revealed a highly polarized Th1 response (interleukin-12, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) in the mucosa and a large increase in the epithelial cell mitogen keratinocyte growth factor. None of the changes were seen in mice inoculated with bacteria lacking intimin (which is necessary for colonization), but they were seen in mice inoculated with C. rodentium complemented with intimin from EPEC. This is the first example of a classically noninvasive bacterial pathogen which elicits a strong mucosal Th1 response and which produces pathology similar to that seen in mouse models of IBD, which is also characterized by a strong Th1 response. These results also suggest that the colonic mucosa responds in a stereotypic way to Th1 responses. (+info)
Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11). (4/256)Recent work describing six named species and two unnamed genomospecies within Citrobacter has enlarged the genus to 11 species. DNA relatedness and phenotypic tests were used to determine how well these species can be identified. One hundred thirty-six strains were identified to species level by DNA relatedness and then identified phenotypically in a blinded fashion. By using conventional tests, 119 of the 136 strains (88%) were correctly identified to species level. Three additional strains (2%) were identified as citrobacteria but were not identified to species level, and 14 strains (10%) were misidentified as other Citrobacter species. Carbon source utilization tests were used to identify 86 of the strains. Eighty-four strains (98%) were correctly identified, and two strains (2%) were misidentified as other Citrobacter species. Additional strains of Citrobacter genomospecies 10 and Citrobacter genomospecies 11 were identified, allowing these species to be formally named as Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov., respectively. (+info)
Role of bacterial intimin in colonic hyperplasia and inflammation. (5/256)Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) cells adhere to gut epithelial cells through intimin alpha: the ligand for a bacterially derived epithelial transmembrane protein called the translocated intimin receptor. Citrobacter rodentium colonizes the mouse colon in a similar fashion and uses a different intimin: intimin beta. Intimin alpha was found to costimulate submitogenic signals through the T cell receptor. Dead intimin beta+ C. rodentium, intimin alpha-transfected C. rodentium or E. coli strain K12, and EPEC induced mucosal hyperplasia identical to that caused by C. rodentium live infection, as well as a massive T helper cell-type 1 immune response in the colonic mucosa. Mutation of cysteine-937 of intimin to alanine reduced costimulatory activity in vitro and prevented immunopathology in vivo. The mucosal changes elicited by C. rodentium were interferon-gamma-dependent. Immunopathology induced by intimin enables the bacteria to promote conditions that are favorable for increased microbial colonization. (+info)
Citrobacter rodentium espB is necessary for signal transduction and for infection of laboratory mice. (6/256)Citrobacter rodentium is the causative agent of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia and contains a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) similar to that found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). EPEC espB is necessary for intimate attachment and signal transduction between EPEC and cultured cell monolayers. Mice challenged with wild-type C. rodentium develop a mucosal immunoglobulin A response to EspB. In this study, C. rodentium espB has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. C. rodentium espB was found to have 90% identity to EPEC espB. A nonpolar insertion mutation in C. rodentium espB was constructed and used to replace the chromosomal wild-type allele. The C. rodentium espB mutant exhibited reduced cell association and had no detectable fluorescent actin staining activity on cultured cell monolayers. The C. rodentium espB mutant also failed to colonize laboratory mice following experimental inoculation. The espB mutation could be complemented with a plasmid-encoded copy of the gene, which restored both cell association and fluorescent actin staining activity, as well as the ability to colonize laboratory mice. These studies indicate that espB is necessary for signal transduction and for colonization of laboratory mice by C. rodentium. (+info)
Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide of Hafnia alvei strain PCM 1207 lipopolysaccharide. (7/256)The structure of the O-specific side-chain of the Hafnia alvei strain PCM 1207 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been investigated. Methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, fast atom bombardment (FAB)-MS/MS and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy were the principal methods used. Glycerol phosphate was identified as a constituent in the polysaccharide and the following structure of a pentasaccharide repeating unit was established: The polysaccharide is partially (approximately 10%) substituted with O-acetyl groups. The lipopolysaccharide was also subjected to high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR analysis, which showed both the signals of the O-specific polysaccharide as well as several signals from unsubstituted core oligosaccharides. This confirmed the presence of the described structure in the native LPS. (+info)
Citrobacter koseri. II. Serological and biochemical examination of Citrobacter koseri strains from clinical specimens. (8/256)165 strains of Citrobacter koseri isolated from clinical specimens were studied and their biochemical reactions determined. They were examined serologically by means of a scheme consisting of 14 O antigens. The sources of the clinical specimens were tabulated and the epidemiological information was summarized. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. (+info)
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Some common types of Serratia infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Serratia bacteria can infect the urinary tract and cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Skin infections: Serratia bacteria can cause skin infections, including cellulitis and abscesses, which can lead to redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
3. Respiratory tract infections: Serratia bacteria can infect the lungs and cause pneumonia, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): Serratia bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause sepsis, a serious condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
5. Endocarditis: Serratia bacteria can infect the heart valves and cause endocarditis, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and difficulty swallowing.
Serratia infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urinalysis. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of Serratia infections include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick, and maintaining proper cleanliness and sterilization practices in healthcare settings. Vaccines are not available for Serratia infections, but research is ongoing to develop new antimicrobial therapies and vaccines to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria like Serratia.
The most common type of colitis is ulcerative colitis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis can include:
* Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
Microscopic colitis is another type of colitis that is characterized by inflammation in the colon, but without visible ulcers or bleeding. The symptoms of microscopic colitis are similar to those of ulcerative colitis, but may be less severe.
Other types of colitis include:
* Infantile colitis: This is a rare condition that affects babies and young children, and is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and vomiting.
* Isomorphic colitis: This is a rare condition that affects the colon and rectum, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Radiation colitis: This is a condition that occurs after radiation therapy to the pelvic area, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can lead to inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.
The diagnosis of colitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Colonoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum.
* Endoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
* Stool tests: These are tests that analyze stool samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Blood tests: These are tests that analyze blood samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Biopsy: This is a test that involves taking a small sample of tissue from the colon and examining it under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.
Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as:
* Aminosalicylates: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the colon and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Examples include sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and mesalamine (Asacol).
* Corticosteroids: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the body. They may be used short-term to control acute flares of colitis, or long-term to maintain remission. Examples include prednisone and hydrocortisone.
* Immunomodulators: These are medications that help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol).
* Biologics: These are medications that target specific proteins involved in the inflammatory response. Examples include infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira).
In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques may also be helpful in managing colitis symptoms. Surgery may be necessary in some cases where the colitis is severe or persistent, and involves removing damaged portions of the colon and rectum.
It's important to note that colitis can increase the risk of developing colon cancer, so regular screening for colon cancer is recommended for people with chronic colitis. Additionally, people with colitis may be more susceptible to other health problems such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, and liver disease, so it's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor for these conditions and take steps to prevent them.
Taxonomy browser (Citrobacter phage CR8)
SCOP 1.67: Family a.208.1.1: Citrobacter dihydroxyacetone kinase extra ATP-binding domain
CITROBACTER FREUNDII ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHEA IN A LABORATORY MICE - PubMed
AID 1278325 - Antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase producing Citrobacter freundii 43864 after 18 hrs by agar dilution...
Evaluation of candidate international standards for Vi polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella enterica...
Efficient expression and characterization of a cold-active endo-1, 4-β-glucanase from Citrobacter farmeri by co-expression of...
Transcriptional frameshifting rescues Citrobacter rodentium Type VI secretion by the production of two length variants from the...
Citrobacter - WikEM
Citrobacter freundii PCR test
Gammaproteobacteria - Citrobacter rodentium | CU Experts | CU Boulder
Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 for constitutive expression of carbon monoxide-dependent hydrogen-production machinery |...
Epithelial phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling is required for ß-catenin activation and host defense against Citrobacter...
Notes from the Field: Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Less Common Enterobacteriaceae...
Category C - Diseases
Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model<...
PmrC (EptA) and CptA Negatively Affect Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Citrobacter rodentium - RIIP - Réseau...
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Decreased production of AmpC-type β-lactamases associated with the development of resistance to quinolones in Citrobacter...
DailyMed - SILVADENE- silver sulfadiazine cream
DailyMed - CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, coated
DailyMed - LEVOFLOXACIN tablet, film coated
DailyMed - CIPROFLOXACIN IN DEXTROSE- ciprofloxacin injection, solution
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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use MEROPENEM FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full...
- B0086 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Citrobacter freundii by real time PCR. (zoologix.com)
- Citrobacter freundii are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteraceae family. (zoologix.com)
- Clinical and microbiological features of intratumor abscess with bloodstream infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides, Citrobacter freundii, Streptococcus mitis/oralis, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida albicans in a patient with cholangiocarcinoma: A case report. (bvsalud.org)
- Here, we report the first case of an intratumoral abscess with mixed bacteremia caused by P. shigelloides, Citrobacter freundii , Streptococcus mitis /oralis, Clostridium perfringens , and Candida albicans in a patient with recurrent postoperative cholangiocarcinoma . (bvsalud.org)
- Det største udbrud er set i Region Nordjylland, hvor en NDM-1-producerende Citrobacter freundii er påvist hos 13 patienter med spredning af plasmidet til flere andre enterobakterier. (ugeskriftet.dk)
- According to the literature, the most common pathogens causing infections in cases of vegetative intraorbital foreign bodies include Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
- We detected a total of 67/175 tourist were colonized by EPE strains and most dominant species was E. coli (n=65), followed by K. pneumoniae (n=1) and Citrobacter freundii (n=1). (dissertations.se)
- På Sjælland sås et udbrud med en variant af OXA-48-enzymet, OXA-436, hvor OXA-436-positive Enterobacter asburiae blev påvist hos tre patienter. (ugeskriftet.dk)
- Aspergillus fumigatus predominated among the fungi, whereas Bacillus and gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella species) prevailed among bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- The anthocyanin malvidin alleviated the murine colitis induced by Citrobacter rodentium. (usda.gov)
- AfuABC is conserved across a wide range of bacterial genera, including the enteric pathogens EHEC O157:H7 and its murine-specific relative Citrobacter rodentium, where it lies adjacent to genes implicated in sugar sensing and acquisition. (rcsb.org)
- While Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 most commonly produces this toxin, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, as well as Citrobacter spp. (who.int)
- Staphylococcus , Citrobacter and Micrococcus species were isolated. (medscape.com)
- Of the 196 sorbitol-negative E. coli strains, 3 (1.5%) carried the stx1 gene as did 2 of the 19 (10.5%) Citrobacter strains. (who.int)