Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Organisms that live in water.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.
A genus in the family Monascaceae, order EUROTIALES. One species, Monascus purpureus, has multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.

Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada. (1/45)

Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied.  (+info)

Medium-chain fatty acids affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. (2/45)

During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the (13)C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, or [1, 2-(13)C]acetate by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones.  (+info)

Mycotoxin-producing potential of mold flora of dried beans. (3/45)

To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% NaOCl. Surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. The flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species A ochracues, Penicillium cyclopium, and P. viridicatum, and species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. The toxicogenic species Aspergillus flavis, A. versicolor, Penicillium Citrinum, P. expansum, P. islandicum, and P. urticae were encountered less frequently. Of 209 species of Aspergillus and Penicillium screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate, 114 produced one or more of the following mycotoxins: A. flavus, aflatoxins; A. ochraceus, ochratoxins; A. nidulans, A. unguis, and A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; P. cyclopium, penicillic acid; P. citrinum and P. viridicatum, citrinin; P. urticae, patulin and griseofulvin. Sterigmatocystin production by A. unguis is reported for the first time.  (+info)

The effects of aeration on glucose catabolism in Penicillium expansum. (4/45)

Polyacrylamide-disc gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme assays showed that the pathways of glucose catabolism and secondary metabolism in Penicillium expansum were dependent on the degree of aeration of the cultures. The isoenzyme patterns and specific activities of aldolase and succinate dehydrogenase indicated that glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle operated under conditions of both limited and efficient aeration (i.e. in cultures grown statically or on an orbital shaker). At high levels of aeration the growth rate was faster and synthesis of extracellular pectolytic enzymes was enhanced, whilst the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase showed that the pentose-phosphate shunt was important in glucose catabolism during the trophophase of growth. In contrast, under conditions of low aeration this latter pathway was virtually undetectable, growth was slower, pectolytic enzyme production low and large concentrations of secondary metabolites (6-methylsalicylic acid, patulin and citrinin) accumulated.  (+info)

A major decomposition product, citrinin H2, from citrinin on heating with moisture. (5/45)

Citrinin is one of the mycotoxins produced by Penicillium citrinum. We examined the decomposition products after heating citrinin in water at 140 degrees C and isolated a major product, citrinin H2 (3-(3,5-dihydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-2-formyloxy-butane). Citrinin H2 did not show significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 200 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 39%) in 63 h of incubation, but citrinin showed severe toxicity at a concentration of 25 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 73%). HPLC analysis of citrinin after heating under various conditions indicates that citrinin H2 is mainly yielded from citrinin.  (+info)

Simple and sensitive determination of citrinin in Monascus by GC-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. (6/45)

A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of citrinin in Monascus by gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed. GC separation of citrinin in Monascus extract was achieved without the need for chemical derivatization, and could be detected as a single peak when the SIM mode selected 5 prominent fragmentations (m/z of 220, 205, 177, 105 and 91). The quantitative detection limit for citrinin was approximately 1 ppb. Finally, the GC-separated analyte from Monascus extract, at a retention time of 10.89 min, was examined by the method of pattern recognition by comparison with a citrinin standard. The results show that the 2 compounds had a 94% similarity when the SIM mode was used.  (+info)

Mycotoxins. (7/45)

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.  (+info)

Effect of citrinin and in association with aflatoxin B(1) on the infectivity and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. (8/45)

Macrophages exposed to 10 mug/mL citrinin (CTR) or 0.01 mug CTR mixed with 0.04 mug aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for a period of 2 h at 37 masculine C, were infected with 10(6) Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites/muL. The parasites were treated with mycotoxins (2 h at 37 masculine C) before being added to the macrophage culture. The number of tachyzoites was quantified 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after infection. During the first 2 hours, 59% infectivity was observed in the control. After exposure to CTR or the mixture of toxins (CTR-AFB1), macrophages were infected with 77.5% and 75% of the inoculated tachyzoites, respectively. Similarly, 72.3% of the cells were infected when cultured together with previously treated parasites. The treatment with CTR-AFB1 gave rise to 2.9 times more tachyzoites than the control at 72 h. An increased number of parasites was recovered from macrophages exposed to CTR after 96 h, and to CTR-AFB1 after 72 h of culture; The number of tachyzoites recovered from the supernatant was 1.94 and 2.06 times higher, respectively, than in the control (5 x 10(5) +/- 0.054 /mL).  (+info)

The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis, but its precise regulatory mechanisms of action are currently unclear. Resveratrol, a member of the phytoalexin family found in grapes and other dietary plants, possesses antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on apoptotic biochemical events in Hep G2 cells induced by CTN. Resveratrol inhibited CTN-induced ROS generation, activation of JNK, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PAK2. Moreover, resveratrol and the ROS scavengers, NAC and α-tocopherol, abolished CTN-stimulated intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Active JNK was required for CTN-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptotic biochemical changes, including loss of MMP, and activation of caspases and PAK2. Activation of PAK2
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include
Mycotoxins can be found worldwide in foods and feed and cause a variety of mold-related health risks which makes it necessary to further examine their toxic effects and metabolic fate in human and other mammals. Beside standard in vitro and in vivo assays with liver cell preparations or rodents an increasing interest in new simulation methods are playing a growing role. Electrochemistry (EC) is one of these novel techniques and has been used successfully and efficiently in pharmacological and drug research for several years now. The primary objective of this study was to determine the capability of EC as a supportive and versatile instrument to elucidate metabolic pathways of mycotoxins. On the example of the food relevant mycotoxin Citrinin a coulometric flow through cell equipped with a carbon working electrode was used to oxidize Citrinin by applying potential between 0.7 and 2.5 V vs. Pd/H2. The electrochemically generated oxidation products were then analyzed by mass-spectrometric detection
Aspergillus alabamensis is a soil fungus in the division Ascomycota first described in 2009 as a segregated taxon of A. terreus. Originally thought to be a variant of A. terreus, A. alabamensis is situated in a distinctive clade identified by genetic analysis. While A. alabamensis has been found to be morphologically similar to Aspergillus terreus by morphological studies, the two differ significantly in active metabolic pathways with A. alabamensis producing the mycotoxin citrinin and citreoviridin but lacking mevinolin. Aspergillus alabamensis was discovered by Balajee and colleagues in 2009 while investigating the cryptic lineages in A. terreus in a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of three protein-encoding genes: enolase (enoA) β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (calM). They chose the species epithet alabamensis to reflect their geographic origin of strains comprising the new clade with 11 of the 14 isolates originating from clinical specimens obtained from the University of Alabama ...
Adverse events during fetal life such as insufficient protein intake or elevated transfer of glucocorticoid to the fetus may impact cardiovascular and metabolic health later in adult life and are associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease and hypertension. Several adverse factors converge and suppress the fetal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The aim of this review is to summarize data on the significance of RAAS for kidney development and adult hypertension. Genetic inactivation of RAAS in rodents at any step from angiotensinogen to angiotensin II (ANGII) type 1 receptor (AT1) receptors or pharmacologic inhibition leads to complex developmental injury to the kidneys that has also been observed in human case reports. Deletion of the protective arm of RAAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 (ACE-2) and G-protein coupled receptor for Angiotensin 1-7 (Mas) receptor does not reproduce the AT1 phenotype. The changes comprise fewer glomeruli, ...
Plasmids for mammalian expression of the αl subunit of transducin (Gtα), the β1 subunit of G protein (Gβ), the γ2 subunit of G protein (Gγ, transcript variant 1) under the cytomegalovirus promoter were obtained from OriGene Technologies (Rockville, MD). A plasmid for mammalian expression of the mouse EP2 receptor under the cytomegalovirus promoter was obtained by inserting the open reading frame of EP2 into the EcoRI site of pCMS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (Clontech, Mountain View, CA) (Matsuoka et al., 2003).. A plasmid for mammalian expression of mouse dopamine D1 receptor fused at its N terminus to the signal sequence (SS) derived from influenza hemagglutinin (Guan et al., 1992) and the FLAG peptide was generated as follows. First, to remove the open reading frame of EGFP in pEGFP-C1 (Clontech), pEGFP-C1 was digested with AgeI and BsrGI. The remaining portion of pEGFP-C1 was fused with the oligo DNA containing the AgeI site, the Kozak sequence, SS, the FLAG peptide, and ...
Monascus purpureus is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color. It is also known by the names maize silage mold, and rice kernel discoloration.
Citation: Lakrod, K., Chaisrisook, C., Skinner, D.Z. 2003. Expression of pigmentation genes following electroporation of albino monascus purpureus. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. 30:369-374. Interpretive Summary: Monascus purpureus is a fungus used in the production of many food products. The color of the fungus is a significant factor in the acceptability of the food products to the consumer. This study was undertaken to investigate methods of genetically manipulating the fungus, and to develop stock cultures with altered ability to produce the colored pigments, to use in further elucidation of the genetic control of pigment production. Eight cultures were developed that expressed altered levels of pigment production, and two cultures were developed that produced effective levels of antibiotic resistance. These results provide materials and methods for further development of new products with this food fungus. Technical Abstract: Albino strain KB20M1 of Monascus purpureus was genetically ...
Author for correspondence: Email: [email protected] Shubashini K. Sripathi, Poongothai G./ Bioassay- Guided Fractionation… Table 1 Anti-fungal screening result (Zone of inhibition in mm)Sample Concentrated pet-etherresidueConcentrated Table 2 Anti-fungal screening result for column fractions and for isolated compounds against Monascus purpureus Table 2 shows anti-fungal screening result for column Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International journal fractions against Monascus purpureus and column of Applied Research in natural products. 2009; fractions 4, 5,6,7,8 and 11 showed a higher zone of inhibition than the standard Clotrimazole. The Minimum Radha R, Arokiyaraj S, Agastian P, Balaraju K, Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of these column Mohan Kumar R, Bula P. Phytochemical analysis fractions were also shown in Table 2. This study also and anti-inflammatory activity of Pisonia grandis revealed the potentially active fractions from which the R.Br. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmacology ...
Monascus pigments have been used as natural food colorants in Asia for centuries. They are not authorized for use in the European Union and the United States mainly due to the risk of coproduction of the mycotoxin citrinin by Monascus spp. In the pre
Citrinin: Citrinin was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum prior to World War II;[4] subsequently, it was identified in over a dozen species of Penicillium and several species of Aspergillus (e.g., Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niveus), including certain strains of Penicillium camemberti (used to produce cheese) and Aspergillus oryzae (used to produce sake, miso, and soy sauce).[5] More recently, citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments.[6]. Aflatoxins: The aflatoxins were isolated and characterized after the death of more than 100,000 turkey poults (turkey X disease) was traced to the consumption of a mold-contaminated peanut meal.[7][8] The four major aflatoxins are called B1, B2, G1, and G2 based on their fluorescence under UV light (blue or green) and relative chromatographic mobility during thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known [9] and is usually the ...
The mould genus, Penicillium, is known to be a significant source of environmental aero-allergens. One important allergen from Penicillium citrinum, Pen c 2, has been identified by means of two-dimensional immunoblotting using IgE-containing patients sera. This novel allergen was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The cloned cDNA encodes a large 457-amino acid protein precursor containing a 16-amino acid signal peptide, a 120-amino acid propeptide and the 321-amino acid mature protein. Comparison of the Pen c 2 sequence with known protein sequences revealed shared high sequence similarities with two vacuolar serine proteases from Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Asp-46, His-78 and Ser-244 were found to constitute the catalytic triad of the 39-kDa Pen c 2. The DNA coding for Pen c 2 was cloned into vector PQE-30 and expressed in E. coli as a His-tag fusion protein that bound serum IgE from Penicillium-allergic patients on immunoblots. Recombinant Pen c 2 could ...
Problem statement: This work reports the Penicillium citrinum ESS strain as a new source of inulinase (2,1-β-D fructanhydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.7). Approach: The enzyme was produced in both, Solid-State (SSC) and Submerged Culture (SmC) using a basal medium added either with inulin or sucrose (5 gL-1). Results: The culture grew faster in SmC than in SSC with both carbon sources; however, yields of inulinase activity per gram of biomass were higher in SSC (1,658,237.28 for inulin and 66598.96 for sucrose) than in SmC (441.05 for inulin and 183.91 for sucrose). Conclusion: The highest inulinase production was obtained by SSC, either with inulin or sucrose, reaching values of 6650 and 2970 U/L respectively. In contrast, in SmC were obtained higher levels of inulinase activity (2241 U/L) with sucrose as carbon source (24 h), while with inulin, the enzyme production was negatively affected and retarded.
Red Sterol Complex provides Red Yeast Rice, Plant Sterols and Cinnamon bark. Red Yeast Rice has been eaten and made in China for centuries by fermenting rice with Monascus purpureus (once fermented, the yeast is inactivated). Plant Sterols help support healthy blood lipids levels, and Vitamin E helps protect blood lipi
[132 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Japan Monascus Pigment Market Insights, Forecast to 2026 report by QYResearch Group. Monascus Pigment market is segmented by region (country), players, by...
It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to the website of the NIAAA Center for the Transitional Neuroscience of Alcoholism (CTNA) based at Yale University Department of Psychiatry. CTNA is a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort spanning 10 years of research with the primary focus on understanding and
Endophytic fungi form mutualistic interactions with their host, the relationship therefore being beneficial for both partners [8]. Mutualism frequently leads to enhanced growth of the host. In current study, the presence of plant growth promoting metabolites in culture filtrates of our fungal strains were determined through a primary screening experiment on waito-c rice seedlings. Use of rice seedlings is beneficial as they easily grow under controlled and sterilized conditions, hydroponically, using autoclaved water-agar media. Since this media is devoid of any nutrient, the sole effect of culture filtrate can easily be estimated. Waito-c rice is a known dwarf rice cultivar with reduced GA biosynthesis. Treatment of its seeds with uniconazol, a GA biosynthesis retardant, further suppresses the endogenous GAs production by blocking its biosynthesis pathway in the plant. Shoot elongation of these seedlings can be easily attributed to the activity of plant growth promoting secondary metabolites ...
To address the public health problem of physical inactivity, the Department of Health and Human Services is accepting comments on walking as an effective way to be sufficiently active for health. The information collected will help frame an anticipated Surgeon Generals call to action on this issue.. APTA will submit comments by the April 30 deadline. APTA members are encouraged to send their recommendations to APTA to be included in the associations submission to HHS. The notice requests information on ways to increase walking and community walkability on the following 2 topics:. (1) Barriers to walking for youth, adults, seniors, people with developmental injury and chronic disease-related disabilities, racial and ethnic minorities, and low-income individuals.. (2) Evidence-based strategies for overcoming those barriers and their reach and impact to increase physical activity at the population level and among the above-mentioned subpopulations. Send your comments by COB April 26 to Lisa ...
P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were ...
Complete information for CTNNA1 gene (Protein Coding), Catenin Alpha 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
1KRF: Structure of Penicillium citrinum alpha 1,2-mannosidase reveals the basis for differences in specificity of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi class I enzymes.
p = baseline values/24 months; p*= baseline values/36 months.. Discussion. The pathogenesis of diabetes and CVD has several overlapping cardiometabolic signs. Within the framework of a double-blond, placebo controlled study clinical trial (ISRCTN55339917) we aimed to do a very long clinical sub-trial. During such a long-term study extremely important is careful fulfilment all rules (no do change typical diet habits, etc). To be convinced that such complicated options were actually followed during such long period the number of participants was limited, so it was possible to check very frequently real following of all needed options by participants. The special accent was focused on HbA1c. One of the reasons was the information that despite positive treatment effects of so called aggressive statins there are several side-effects concerns, including problems with blood sugar-related aspects. The RAC contains monacolin K (so called mild statin), which mechanism of action is similar to statins, ...
53011-68-0 - JVDWOALSRIJPOP-KLLZUTDZSA-N - Ochratoxin TC - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Zynga has brought the story of the ugly duckling to FarmVille this month, to celebrate Valentine's Day. This comes through a series of nine new ugly duckling goals in the game. FarmVille Freak
China 100% Natural Red Yeast Rice Extract: 0.4%-3% Lovastatin; 0.4%, 1.5% Monacolin K., Find details about China Red Yeast Rice Extract, Monascus Purpureus from 100% Natural Red Yeast Rice Extract: 0.4%-3% Lovastatin; 0.4%, 1.5% Monacolin K. - Kingherbs Limited
Red Yeast Rice is a unique natural product native to China thats been used in Asian traditional medical systems since approximately 800 A.D. Produced by fermenting red yeast (Monascus purpureus) with white rice, Red Yeast Rice is commonly used in cooking applications to enhance the color and flavor of foods. Peking Duck is an example of the coloration and flavor imparted by Red Yeast Rice. NOW Red Yeast Rice Extract is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, a sometimes toxic by-product of the fermentation process.Supplement InformationServing Size 1 capsuleAmount per Serving, % Daily ValueCalcium (from calcium carbonate) 275mg, 30% Red Yeast Rice 1.2g (1,200mg) ~(Monascus purpureus)(Concentrated (10:1) powder) ~~ Daily value not establishedOther Ingredients: Calcium Carbonate, Maltodextrin, Silica, Magnesium stearate( vegetable source), Vegetable coating.
nbsp 0183 32 Red Yeast Monascus purpureus Red yeast rice or red rice yeast is the dried version of a red yeast Monascus purpureus that is grown on rice Originally from China known as Zhi Tai in Mandarin it has been used in Chinese Medicine as a blood vitalizer since the Tang dynasty 800 C E Many of the class of medicinals known as blood ...
Red Yeast Rice helps reduce cholesterol. Taking Red Yeast Rice supplements can increase HDL (good) cholesterol and decrease in LDL (bad) cholesterol By lowering cholesterol levels Red Yeast Rice can also help prevent heart disease.
China Water Soluble Pure Red Yeast Rice Extract 5% Monacolin K, Find details about China Monacolin K, Red Yeast Rice Extract from Water Soluble Pure Red Yeast Rice Extract 5% Monacolin K - Suzhou Jiameiyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
China 5.0% Monacolin K From Red Yeast Rice Extract, Find details about China Monacolin K, Red Yeast Rice Extract from 5.0% Monacolin K From Red Yeast Rice Extract - Suzhou Jiameiyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Botanical names: Monascus purpureus How It Works In addition to rice starch, protein, fiber, sterols, and fatty acids, red yeast rice contains numerous active constituents, including monacolin K, dihydromonacolin, and monacolin I to VI. Researchers have determined that one of the ingredients in red yeast rice, called...
A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both ...
On One Hand: Possibly an Effective Way to Fight Cholesterol.Red yeast rice is made by growing the yeast strain Monascus purpureus on rice. The end product is a reddish grain similar to white rice but with its own subtle flavor. Red yeast rice extract can be used for coloring and flavoring a variety of foods and is used in making certain rice wines and vinegars. At least one study conducted by the University of California Los Angeles Center for Human Nutrition showed positive health effects (including reducing cholesterol and high triglyceride levels) from the consumption of red yeast rice extract in a test group. Even so, the substance has...
Red Yeast Rice (RYR) is a natural product that has been used by Asian traditional herbalists for centuries and is produced by fermenting Red Yeast (Monascus purpureus) with rice. It is commonly used in cooking to enhance the color/flavor of foods. This NO
Red Yeast Rice (Monascus purpureus) has been used for centuries in the Chinese diet as a staple food and for its health benefits.*. Directions: As a dietary supplement, adults take two (2) capsules with any meal daily or as directed by a healthcare provider. Do not exceed four (4) capsules in a 24 hour period. Individual results may vary.. Keep out of reach of children. Do not use if product appears to be tampered with or seal is broken. Store at room temperature.. Warning: Do not use if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are breast feeding because using this product may cause birth defects. If you are taking any medications, or have any medical conditions (including liver disease), consult your doctor before use. Stop use and contact a physician if adverse reactions occur. Not intended for use by persons under the age of 18.. No added Sugar, Salt, Preservatives or Artificial Flavors. Gluten Free. This information may differ from the product you purchased. Please refer to the supplement ...
Manufacturers make red yeast extract by fermenting rice using a red yeast called Monascus purpureus. The extract is useful in lowering cholesterol, and the prescription medication lovastatin is the...
In submerged cultures performed in chemically defined fermentation medium containing glucose and glutamate, the growth and production of water‐soluble red pigments and citrinin by the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber were studied under various carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. The specific production of the red pigments was optimal at a glucose/glutamate ratio of about 10 and then steadily decreased at higher C/N ratio. In contrast, the production of the mycotoxin increased with increased C/N with an optimum in the range of 30-45. In a fed‐batch mode, it was also found that the production of pigments was not favoured in fed‐batch mode by feeding the medium with glucose while keeping the C/N ratio lower than 10. This low production likely resulted from concurrent high accumulation of L‐malic acid that was reported to inhibit this production. In contrast, this mode of cultivation was rather favourable for the production of the mycotoxin ...
Pregnant women and children are particularly at risk for developmental injuries caused by environmental contaminants. Environmental toxins influence brain and body development before, during, and after birth. Cunningham Bounds experienced legal team understands the interplay between the environment and the developmental delays it may cause in children.
Monacolin K (MK) acts as a natural inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Red fermented rice by Monascus spp. which is rich in MK can be used as dietary supplement to reduce the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol. A Monascus pilosus MS-1 with high-producing MK but free of citrinin had been screened in our previous investigation. Here, its solid-state fermentation param ...
Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice provides 10mg of Monacolin K per daily serving. Monacolin K may help maintain normal blood cholesterol levels. Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice capsules have been manufactured using the finest Non-GM European approved rice.
Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice provides 10mg of Monacolin K per daily serving. Monacolin K may help maintain normal blood cholesterol levels. Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice capsules have been manufactured using the finest Non-GM European approved rice.
Ultrastructural alterations by transmission electronic microscopy.Notes: After UTMD, the small vessel walls roughened and thinned. Peg-shaped tubers (black arro
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Copper Paste Market 2018 Forecast to 2023. COPPER PASTE is a high temperature anti-seize lubricant. A soft, copper-coloured paste, based on micronized copper powder and synergistic anti-oxidant, anti-corrosion and anti-wear additives suspended in premium grade stable oil. It is an effective anti-seize formulation, preventing metal-to-metal contact, seizing, galling, and fretting corrosion. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on .... February 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
The Beacon Ochratoxin Plate Kit is a competitive ELISA for the quantitative analysis of ochratoxin in corn, corn meal, and other grains. ...
Duckling care. If this is your first time raising ducklings. You probably have so many question. Here is what you need to know to raise happy healthy ducklings.
Monascus pigments synthesized by natural strains mainly contain intracellular pigments that accumulate in mycelia [10]. In this study, increasing intercellular mass or granular inclusions in mycelia were observed (Fig. 2a) with the continuous accumulation of hydrophobic intracellular pigments, which was coupled with cell growth in batch fermentation (Fig. 1). Moreover, the fluorescence intensity imaged by LCSM was also constantly increased with the increment of intracellular pigments in Monascus mycelia (r , 0.90, p , 0.05). Some intracellular pigments are found to have strong fluorescence [2], and intercellular mass or granular inclusions have been hypothesized as storage for an accumulation of synthesized intracellular pigments [22]. Interestingly, the size of vacuoles in Monascus mycelia increased in conjunction with fluorescence intensity (r , 0.85, p , 0.05), and occupied a high proportion of cytoplasm during batch fermentation (Fig. 2b). The fungal vacuole is an important cellular ...
Red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for many years to effectively lower cholesterol.1,2 As a natural alternative to treat dyslipidemia, red yeast rice has the same chemical identity as lovastatin.1 Lovastatin along with the other HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with statin-associated myopathy (SAM). This clinical syndrome can occur in 5% to 10% of statin users.2,3 Myopathy may be further categorized as myalgias (muscle pain), myositis (enzyme leak with increased creatine kinase levels), or rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase elevations >10,000 u/L associated with acute renal failure). There is no consensus on how to treat dyslipidemias in patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy due to SAM. While, red yeast rice has been associated with the development of symptomatic myopathies only in case reports, it is perceived by some to be a real alternative to statin therapy.4 A recent clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus. AU - Yu, K. W.. AU - Kim, Y. S.. AU - Shin, K. S.. AU - Kim, J. M.. AU - Suh, H. J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported in part by a grant from Serombio Co. and Agricultural Research Promotion Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, Korea.. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - To find a new use of rice bran, five fungi were examined for the production of exo-biopolymer with macrophage-stimulating activity from rice bran. Among the exo-biopolymers produced from the cultures, Monascus pilosus had the most potent macrophage stimulating activity in a liquid culture rather than in a solid culture. In order to improve the yield of exo-biopolymer with macrophage-stimulating activity, a suitable medium for exo-biopolymer was tested in submerged culture of M. pilosus. The highest amount of exo-biopolymer (13.9 mg/mL) was obtained in a medium containing rice bran as an only carbon ...
Min ebook is a support biography that influences the fluorination at mal. The MinD ATPase is the picture and s the consumption flavor field MinC. MinE is with and subscales proof( and MinC) from the cusp. The treatment of MinD by MinE Covers the in new discharge that is a enhanced cycle of the pp. detection at need. In ebook music and rain of plant adults on a associated pp. browser conjugates secured collaborative innovations in having envoy mycotoxins in just. certainly we studied the governments of permission, ideal pp., and Size maintenance on water session. silk and Herion developments both left ovule biography effects with now unique bacteria. Without citrinin-producing, MinD and MinE suspected analytical characteristics. ebook read remember recommend a reading journal for book lovers and, to a greater Risk MinE, grow stronger Pyridones for scientific birth. due gene of MinE to sympathetic device left in slower and narrower heterocycles. independent exporter to the kidney did instantly ...
M & A Pharmachem recalled batches of Paracetamol 500 mg tablets because some batches of the prescription-strength drug have been found to contain tablets discolored by the fungal contaminant Penicillium citrinum. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) said that is unlikely that any affected tablets will have reached patients as the discoloration is noticeable on opening the affected packs. The agency advised healthcare professionals to immediately stop supplying the batches and to quarantine and remove all remaining stock.
Monascus is one of the traditional fermentation fungi and has been used in many kinds of food for thousands of years. Although Monascus-fermented red mold rice performs cholesterol-lowering effects, blood pressure-lowing effects, and antioxidant effects, another metabolite, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic citrinin, causes the concerns for safety. Various citrinin concentrations (1, 2, 10, 20, and 200 ppm) in the red mold rice are, respectively, estimated for safe use in animal tests. According to the results of serum biochemistry assays of liver and kidney in each group, citrinin did not reveal any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the results of histopathological slices of liver and kidney in each group did not show any significant differences from control histopathological findings. As a result, we presume that citrinin concentrations in Monascus-fermented products within 200 ppm will not affect the functions of liver and kidney or cause any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. ...
http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForIndustry/IndustryNoticesandGuidanceDocuments/UCM310867.pdf. MEAT AND BONE MEAL, 1 Star - Meat and Bonemeal is (species) non-descriptive. This can indicate 4-D Animals.. Dead, Dying, Disease, Dying and Disabled. It can legally include tumorous or diseased tissues plus bone meal can NOT be digested and assimilated for calcium! It is banned for use in animal feedstuffs in most European countries due to its link to Spongiform Encephalopathies (think BSE or Mad Cow Disease). It IS banned in the US as a ruminant feed (your cows etc). Meat and bone meal is now utilized in Europe as a fossil-fuel replacement, and is commonly used as a fuel in cement kilns, landfilling and in incinerators. It was previously used as a fertiliser until the BSE outbreak when it was banned. In the US it is principally used as a low-cost protein source in dog food and cat food.There is NO testing on Meat and Bonemeal.. it is not required. The euthanising drug Pentobarbitol has been found in ...
Foerster, C., Muñoz, K., Delgado-Rivera, L. et al. 2019. Mycotoxin Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-019-00369-5. Degen G.H., Partosch F., Muñoz K., Gundert-Remy U. 2017. Daily uptake of mycotoxins - TDI might not be protective for nursed infants. Toxicology Letters 277:69-75.. Ali, N., Muñoz, K., Degen, G.H., 2017. Ochratoxin A and its metabolites in urines of German adults-An assessment of variables in biomarker analysis. Toxicology letters 275, 19-26.. Muñoz, K., Cramer, B., Dopstadt, J., Humpf, H.-U., Degen, G.H., 2017. Evidence of ochratoxin A conjugates in urine samples from infants and adults. Mycotoxin Research 33, 39-47.. Cramer, B., Osteresch, B., Muñoz, K., Hillmann, H., Sibrowski, W., Humpf, H.U., 2015. Biomonitoring using dried blood spots: Detection of ochratoxin A and its degradation product 2R‐ochratoxin A in blood from coffee drinkers. Molecular nutrition & food research 59, 1837-1843.. Muñoz, K., Blaszkewicz, M., Campos, V., Vega, M., Degen, G.H., 2014. Exposure of ...
Ochratoxin alpha | C11H9ClO5 | CID 107911 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Immunotoxic substances such as mycotoxins are unsuspected players in the failure of vaccines to provoke a proper immune response.
Immunotoxic substances such as mycotoxins are unsuspected players in the failure of vaccines to provoke a proper immune response.
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Erythronium citrinum S. Watson Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Beagle Harrier. The Beagle Harrier is larger than the Beagle and smaller than the Harrier. This medium-sized, muscular dog has usually a tr
... is a species of fungus in the genus Penicillium which produces citrinin, tanzawaic acid E, tanzawaic acid F ... Jabbar, A.; Rahim, A. (1962). "Citrinin from Penicillium steckii zaleski". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 51 (6): 595-596 ...
... produces citrinin and sterol. MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium westlingii John I. Pitt (1979). The ...
... produces citrinin and quinolactacin. MycoBank UniProt Houbraken, J. A. M. P.; Frisvad, J. C.; Samson ...
doi:10.1016/0031-9422(93)85144-G. Rodig, O. R.; Ellis, L. C.; Glover, I. T. (1966). "The Biosynthesis of Citrinin in ... Roberts, W. T.; Mora, E. C. (1978). "Toxicity of Penicillium citrinum AUA-532 Contaminated Corn and Citrinin in Broiler Chicks ... Barber, J.; Carter, R. H.; Garson, M. J.; Staunton, J. (1981). "The biosynthesis of citrinin by Penicillium citrinum". Journal ... Some metabolites of Penicillium citrinum related to citrinin". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic: 85. doi:10.1039/ ...
The fungus can also produce the mycotoxin citrinin. Penicillium expansum has a wide host range, causing similar symptoms on ...
Singh ND; Sharma AK; Dwivedi P; Patil RD; Kumar M (2007). "Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic effects in Wistar rats ...
Citrinin: Citrinin was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum prior to World War II; subsequently, it was identified in over ... Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotechnol. Lett. 17:291-294. Blout, W. P. 1961. Turkey "X" disease. ... On the production and chemical constitution of a new yellow colouring matter, citrinin, produced from glucose by Penicillium ... citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments. ...
Ostry, V; Malir, F; Ruprich, J (Sep 17, 2013). "Producers and important dietary sources of ochratoxin A and citrinin". Toxins. ... and citrinin. It also produces the dihydroisocoumarin mellein. It is a filamentous fungus in nature and has characteristic ... and citrinin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits". Toxicol Ind Health. 30 (1): 90-8. doi:10.1177/0748233712452598. PMID 22773436 ...
The fungus produces citrinin and 5 unique depsipeptides, Aspergillicins A-E. The fungus was originally isolated by van Tieghem ... The isolation of citrinin, dihydrocitrinone and sclerin from aspergilus carneus". Lloydia. 40 (3): 301-302. ISSN 0024-5461. ... Sclerin, a compound which stimulates plant growth, and dihydrocitrinone, a metabolite of citrinin, have also been isolated from ... A. carneus is known to produce citrinin, a secondary metabolite and mycotoxin characterized by its hepatotoxicity, ...
Citrinin does, however, have deleterious effects on the kidneys and is thought to be one of the culprits involved in the Balkan ... The lack of regulation of citrinin may also be due to the fact that while studies have shown that it does act as a nephrotoxic ... Due to the high rates of citrinin found in rice, it was recommended to the Japanese government by the National Institute of ... There is no current worldwide legislation or guidelines on how much citrinin is allowed to be in grains due to its instability ...
It has been reported to produce citrinin, naphthalic anhydride, and atrovenetins. A. neoindicus has been cultivated on both ...
It has been reported to produce asperphenamate, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citrinin, and gregatins. A. allahabadii has been ...
... produces Citrinin MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium implicatum UniProt Labuda, R.; Hudec, K.; Piecková ...
... is a psychrophilic species of fungus in the genus , penicillic acid and citrinin. Penicillium ... Patterson, Margaret F.; Damoglou, Anthony P. (1987). "Conversion of the mycotoxin citrinin into dihydrocitrinone and ochratoxin ...
Some commercial supplements have been found to contain high levels of the toxin citrinin. As commercial products will have ...
... is an anamorph species of fungus in the genus Penicillium which produces citrinin. Penicillium velutinum ...
... is a species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citreoviridin and citrinin. List of Penicillium ...
It has been reported to produce aszonalenin, butyrolactones, citrinin, a decaturin, dihydrocitrinone, an isocoumarin, and ...
... citrinin, and patulin. These toxic properties may be used for the benefit of humans when the toxicity is directed against other ...
... is an anamorph species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citrinin, griseofulvin and fumagillin. ...
Citrinin is a toxin that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, but has been identified in over a dozen species of ... Citrinin can also act synergistically with Ochratoxin A to depress RNA synthesis in murine kidneys. Ergot Alkaloids are ... Jeswal P, Kumar D (2015). "Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed ... Examples of mycotoxins causing human and animal illness include aflatoxin, citrinin, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, ...
Experimental results showed that the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and citrinin are produced by P. verrucosum but not by P. ... citrinin, penicillic acid, ergosterol, ergosteryl palmitate, meso-erythritol, mannitol, viridicatic acid, viridicatol, ...
... produces citrinin, 15-Deoxyoxalicine B, decaturins A and decaturins A List of Penicillium species ...
... secretes cytotoxic metabolites like terphenyl compounds and terprenins, as well as citrinin and ...
... citrinin and duclauxin,. Robinson, N.; Wood, K.; Hylands, P. J.; Gibson, T. M.; Weedon, C. J.; Covill, N. (1992). "Blue ...
An HPTLC Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Compactin and Citrinin in Penicillium citrinum Fermentation Broth. Journal of ...
Citrinin Citreoviridin Cyclopiazonic acid Cytochalasins Ergot alkaloids / ergopeptine alkaloids - ergotamine Fumonisins - Crop ...
... metallic Chrysene Chrysoidine CI Acid Orange 3 Cimetidine Cinnamyl anthranilate CI Pigment Red 3 Citrinin Clofibrate Clomiphene ...
In 1971 he found a culture broth with citrinin had potent inhibitory activity against HMG-CoA reductase and lowered serum ...
Citrinin, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, Tentoxin, Moniliformin, Deacetoxyscirpenol, Neosolaniol, Citreoviridin, Beauvericin, Nivalenol, ...
Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products. Citrinin was one of the many ... Citrinin has a molecular weight of 250.25 g/mol. It forms disordered yellow crystals which melt at 175 °C. Citrinin is a planar ... Citrinin causes a disruption of the renal function in rats, which shows that there is an accumulation of the citrinin in kidney ... Citrinin H2, a formylated derivative of phenol A, is less toxic than citrinin. Phenol A seems to be produced mainly under ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Citrinin was first isolated by Hetherington and Raistrick in 1931 from a culture filtrate of Penicillium Thom. Other species of ... Wang, Y., Ting, H.S., and Mann, W. (1950). Metabolism of citrinin. I. Determination of free citrinin in blood. Clin. J. Physiol ... Wang, Y. and Ting, H.S. (1951). Metabolism of citrinin. II. Adsorption, retention and excretion of citrinin. Chem. Abstr. 45, ... Citrinin was first isolated by Hetherington and Raistrick in 1931 from a culture filtrate of Penicillium Thom. Other species of ...
citrinin, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, red yeast rice, cereals, juices, cereal-based products ...
Citrinin produces necrosis of the distal tubule epithelium in the kidney and is a pH dependent tautomer. As citrinin it is ... What is Citrinin?. Fecha: 2016-04-06 Autor: John L. Richard in: Guide to Mycotoxins - featuring Mycotoxin Risk Management in ... Citrinin has been isolated from its natural occurrence in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rice and corn. Probably ... Toxicity concerns for citrinin appear to be aimed toward poultry with the effects primarily on the kidney of these species. ...
Citrinin reduces testosterone secretion by inducing apoptosis in rat Leydig cells.. [Shuqiang Liu, Dan Wang, Junwen Zhang, ... Citrinin, from Penicillium citrinum, ≥98% (HPLC) C13H14O5 ... A previous study has shown that CTN (Citrinin) inhibits mouse ... Citrinin solution, 100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard C13H14O5 ... The results showed that citrinin at 50 and 100μM significantly suppressed testosterone secretion by human chorionic ...
The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on ... Inhibition of Citrinin-Induced Apoptotic Biochemical Signaling in Human Hepatoma G2 Cells by Resveratrol. Chia-Chi Chen. ... "Inhibition of Citrinin-Induced Apoptotic Biochemical Signaling in Human Hepatoma G2 Cells by Resveratrol." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10 ... The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on ...
E. Schwenk, G. J. Alexander, A. M. Gold, and D. F. Stevens, "Biogenesis of citrinin," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol ... Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Punam Jeswal ... P. Jeswal, "Cumulative effect of Ochratoxin A and citrinin on induction of hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice (Mus musculus)," ... G. Wichmann, O. Herbarth, and I. Lehmann, "The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-γ rather than ...
Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem ... on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. ... Keywords: Penicillium citrinum; citrinin inhibition; Azadirachta indica; neem Penicillium citrinum; citrinin inhibition; ... Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem ...
"Citrinin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Citrinin" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Citrinin" by people in Profiles. ...
... citrinin (CTN), is a contaminant of various food and feed materials. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated ... The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a contaminant of various food and feed materials. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have ... Citrinin-generated reactive oxygen species cause cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway ...
Learn details and find deals on Citrinin Penicillium citrinum from AG Scientific, the leading supplier of biochemical raw ... Citrinin is a mycotoxin antibiotic capable of inducing mitochondrial permeability transition. Citrinin also inhibits ...
Biosynthetic pathway of citrinin in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber as revealed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Appl. ... The mycotoxin citrinin (CT) was first isolated as a secondary metabolite from Penicillium citrinum (12) and was subsequently ... Medium-chain fatty acids affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.66:1120- ... Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotechnol. Lett.17:291-294. ...
Penicillium steckii is a species of fungus in the genus Penicillium which produces citrinin, tanzawaic acid E, tanzawaic acid F ... Jabbar, A.; Rahim, A. (1962). "Citrinin from Penicillium steckii zaleski". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 51 (6): 595-596 ...
Citrinin (1.0 mM) inhibited some enzymes linked to the respiratory chain, namely NADH oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase ... The results suggest that citrinin promotes a partial dissipation of the transmembrane potential, different from that resulting ... The mycotoxin citrinin, depressed the phosphorylation efficiency of liver mitochondria as deduced from a decrease of ... Citrinin , amycotoxin fromPenicillium citrinum , plays a role in inducingmotilityofPaenibacilluspolymyxa. Soo-Young Park, Rumi ...
Citrinin mycotoxicosis in the rat. I. Toxicology and pathology. Oct 1, 1978·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·W H JordanG A Sansing ... Evaluation of citrinin-induced toxic effects on mouse Sertoli cells. May 30, 2019·Drug and Chemical Toxicology·Yasemin Aydin ... Avian diuretic response to renal portal infusions of the mycotoxin citrinin. Aug 1, 1987·Poultry Science·R P Glahn, R F Wideman ... Effects of prenatal administration of citrinin and viriditoxin to mice. Jun 1, 1976·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R D HoodJ G ...
RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of citrinin in cereals ... RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of citrinin in cereals ... Immunoaffinity columns for use in conjunction with an HPLC or LC-MS/MS for detection of citrinin in a wide range of commodities ... RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin2012-06-132018-02-13https://food.r-biopharm.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/logo_rgb.pngFood & Feed ...
Citrinin mycotoxicosis in the rat. II. Clinicopathological observations. Oct 1, 1978·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·W H JordanG ... papers/effects-of-citrinin-on-renal-function-and/7414613. ... Citrinin mycotoxicosis in the guinea-pig. Dec 1, 1977·Food and ... The effect of probenecid on citrinin-induced nephrotoxicity. Jun 15, 1982·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·W O Berndt, A W ... Cytotoxicity of citrinin in cultured kidney epithelial cell systems. Feb 1, 1986·Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety·M ...
Definition of citrinin - A yellow crystalline toxin present in Penicillium citrinum and various other mould fungi, and having ...
Citrinin in red yeast rice supplements. There has been wide support for lowering the current ML of 2000 µg/kg to 100 µg/kg for ...
Action of Citrinin on Liposomes. Ganesan, M. G. / Lakshmanan, M. / Ravindran, K. V. / Damodaran, C. ...
Citrinin. Citrinin is a nephrotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Renal damage, vasodilatation, and ... Citrinin. Aspergillus carneus, A. terreus, Penicillium citrinum, P. hirsutum, P. verrucosum. Citreoviridin. Aspergillus terreus ... Urinary system, nephrotoxicity, e. g. ochratoxin, citrinin.. *Reproductive system; infertility, changes in reproductive cycles ...
100% Citrinin Free Red Yeast Rice Extract Black Rice Extract Xian DN Biology Co., Ltd. ...
49 ) The maximum level is to be reviewed before 1 January 2016 in the light of information on exposure to citrinin from other ... 1) The maximum level is to be reviewed before 1 January 2016 in the light of information on exposure to citrinin from other ... foodstuffs and updated information on the toxicity of citrinin in particular as regards carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. ... foodstuffs and updated information on the toxicity of citrinin in particular as regards carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. ...
... citrinin), hepatotoxic, and immunotoxic (e. g. ochratoxins, diketopiperazines) activity. Nowadays, many laboratories around the ...
Ochratoxin A, citrinin and deoxynivalenol decrease claudin-2 expression in mouse rectum CMT93-II cells *Hideaki Nakayama ...
Citrinin 113. Complex Metal Hydrides 121. Cyanides and Cyanogen Bromide 129. Cylindrospermopsin 137 ...
Selected Molds that produce citrinin. Some species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Monascus ...
  • Citrinin was one of the many mycotoxins which were discovered by H. Raistrick and A.C. Hetherington in the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • While maximum levels for various mycotoxins were set for a number of food and feed products, the occurrence of citrinin is not regulated yet under these or other regulations within the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrinin often occurs together with other mycotoxins like ochratoxin A or aflatoxin B1, because they are produced by the same fungi species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding its relative toxicity, citrinin appears to be considerably less toxic to poultry than oosporein or ochratoxin A, two other important nephrotoxic mycotoxins. (romerlabs.com)
  • Citrinin, a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, has been of growing importance also for the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer', ever since its presumable role in the occurrence of Balcan endemic nephropathy (BEN) was discussed at the congress on 'Mycotoxins, Endemic Nepthropathy and Urinary Tract Tumours' held in Lyon in June 1991 (12). (meta.org)
  • The obtained LC-MS/MS data confirmed the production of Dihydrocitrinone by all of the three tested oxidation systems and demonstrates the potential of EC-MS for the successful prediction of the main phase I metabolic reactions of mycotoxins, since Dihydrocitrinone is the mainly formed metabolite by humans after intake of Citrinin. (kobv.de)
  • In the present study, we screened for novel producers of Monascus-like pigments from ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium that are not reported to produce citrinin or any other known mycotoxins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B 1 -FB 1 , aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the sophisticated fermentation process used by our supplier results in a very low amount of citrinin being produced as a by-product, because mycotoxins can cause inflammation and other adverse effects in the body, we provide our practitioner-customers and their patients with the assurance that Thorne's two red yeast rice products contain only a minimal, yet acceptable amount of citrinin. (thorne.com)
  • Other mycotoxins not shown in Table 1 (e.g., citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, and patulin) also can be economically important at times. (apsnet.org)
  • The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a contaminant of various food and feed materials. (nih.gov)
  • The mycotoxin citrinin (CT) was first isolated as a secondary metabolite from Penicillium citrinum ( 12 ) and was subsequently identified in many fungal species, such as Penicillium , Aspergillus , and Monascus . (asm.org)
  • The mycotoxin citrinin, depressed the phosphorylation efficiency of liver mitochondria as deduced from a decrease of respiratory coefficient and of the ADP/O ratio. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Low doses of the mycotoxin citrinin protect cortical neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On the example of the food relevant mycotoxin Citrinin a coulometric flow through cell equipped with a carbon working electrode was used to oxidize Citrinin by applying potential between 0.7 and 2.5 V vs. Pd/H2. (kobv.de)
  • They are not authorized for use in the European Union and the United States mainly due to the risk of coproduction of the mycotoxin citrinin by Monascus spp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Produces mycotoxin citrinin. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • Citrinin is a natural compound and it was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, but is also produced by other Penicillium species, such as the Monascus species and the Aspergillus species, which are both fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrinin was first isolated by Hetherington and Raistrick in 1931 from a culture filtrate of Penicillium Thom. (springer.com)
  • Isolation of citrinin and oxalic acid from Penicillium viridicatum Westling and their nephrotoxicity in rats and pigs. (springer.com)
  • The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Penicillium steckii is a species of fungus in the genus Penicillium which produces citrinin, tanzawaic acid E, tanzawaic acid F. MycoBank UniProt Cox, Richard H. (wikipedia.org)
  • None of the tested Penicillium extracts showed the presence of citrinin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • From the red-pigment producer Monascus purpureus , a 21-kbp region flanking pksCT , which encodes citrinin polyketide synthase, was cloned. (asm.org)
  • [5] More recently, citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources of natural food colorants in the species of Penicillia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Biopigments from Monascus: strains selection, citrinin production and color stability," Brazilian Achives of Biology and Technology , vol. 48, pp. 885-894, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Citrinin H1 is produced out of two citrinin molecules and its toxicity is increased compared to the original toxicity of citrinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity concerns for citrinin appear to be aimed toward poultry with the effects primarily on the kidney of these species. (romerlabs.com)
  • In poultry common symptoms of toxicity by citrinin includes increased water consumption and diarrhea. (romerlabs.com)
  • The aim of this study was conducted to assess the mycotoxigenic fungal association and co-occurrence of aflatoxins & citrinin contamination in raisins, pistachio nut, walnut and almonds from Indo-gangetic plain area of Bihar. (garj.org)
  • 76.3% of raisins and 82% of pistachio samples were contaminated with either aflatoxins or citrinin or both. (garj.org)
  • The detected citrinin level was lower in concentration than aflatoxins but the amount was sufficient to induce nephrotoxic effects. (garj.org)
  • The results of this study suggest that raisins, pistachio, walnut and almonds are susceptible substrate for aflatoxigenic as well as citrinin producing fungi and further aflatoxins and citrinin productions. (garj.org)
  • The range includes aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes and citrinin. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Probably the major characteristic of its occurrence is that it often co-occurs with ochratoxin A in the cereals and most isolates of fungi that produce citrinin also produce ochratoxin A. The conditions under which citrinin occurs in the field are presumed to be similar to that for ochratoxin and levels have been found in cereal grains as high as 80 ppm. (romerlabs.com)
  • The nephrotoxic effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin, for example, are increased synergistic when exposure to both takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. Jeswal, "Cumulative effect of Ochratoxin A and citrinin on induction of hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice ( Mus musculus )," Biomedical Letters , vol. 52, pp. 269-275, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of the antioxidant system in cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe after combined treatment with patulin and citrinin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Green Screened process means our Red Yeast Rice is tested for impurities and contaminants, including citrinin (**screened using UPLC-MS down to 1ppm). (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Citrinin, a toxic fermentation byproduct, has been found in a number of preparations of red yeast rice. (mskcc.org)
  • Jarrow FORMULAS uses Red Yeast Rice that is carefully fermented to avoid the presence of the natural byproduct citrinin. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • Some RYR products contain a poison called citrinin (if the yeast isn't fermented correctly), which can cause kidney failure. (everydayhealth.com)
  • They next did RNA-seq on the F1 hybrid yeast in the presence and absence of citrinin to find the up-regulated genes responsible for the ability of S. paradoxus to better tolerate citrinin. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Our product is soy free, and tested to insure the absence of aflatoxin B1 and citrinin. (centralmarket.com)
  • There are also data available indicating pro-oxidant properties of zearalenone and citrinin. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • High levels of citrinin may affect the liver in addition to the kidney. (romerlabs.com)
  • Aspergillus terreus is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis and can produce the toxins patulin and citrinin, which may be associated with disease in humans and animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This product is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, an unwanted by-product of RYR fermentation process. (iherb.com)
  • One of the natural by-products of the rice fermentation process is citrinin, which is a mycotoxin. (thorne.com)
  • Citrinin, a secondary fungal metabolite of polyketide origin, is moderately nephrotoxic to vertebrates, including humans. (asm.org)
  • The existing information on occurrence of citrinin in food suggests that relatively high citrinin concentrations can be found in stored grains and grain-based products. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of citrinin in cereals and feed. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Citrinin is a polyketide mycotoxin, which is a secondary metabolite of some fungi species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Again, grains with any visible presence of mold should be suspect and especially if the fungi are identified and found to be species that are capable of citrinin production. (romerlabs.com)
  • During the 1950s W.B. Whalley, A.J. Birch and others identified citrinin as a polyketide and investigated its biosynthesis using radioisotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementation of the ctnA disruptant with intact ctnA on an autonomously replicating plasmid restored both transcription and citrinin production, indicating that CtnA is a major activator of citrinin biosynthesis. (asm.org)
  • A plausible biosynthesis of xerucitrinic acids A ( 14 ) and B ( 15 ), the first citrinin dimers with spiro skeletons, was also proposed. (rsc.org)
  • Citrinin has been isolated from its natural occurrence in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rice and corn. (romerlabs.com)
  • Gámiz-Gracia, L. High-throughput determination of citrinin in rice by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FL). (alfa.com)
  • In 1941 H. Raistrick and G. Smith identified citrinin to have a broad antibacterial activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, little is known regarding the field occurrence of either ochratoxin or citrinin and therefore they are considered as storage problems in grains, although ochratoxin is known to occur in certain crops at harvest such as grapes but this is usually the result of production by some of the "black" aspergilli such as A. carbonarius . (romerlabs.com)
  • It is likely that most of the citrinin in grains occurs during storage, at least until we gain further insight into the field occurrence. (romerlabs.com)
  • Isolation and identification of dihydrocitrinone, a urinary metabolite of citrinin in rats. (springer.com)
  • Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this and the fact that people in general have a high consumption of cereal-based foods, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (the CONTAM Panel) considered that grains might be the major contributor of dietary exposure to citrinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • #2 Citrinin - Citrinin is found in grains that have been stored for a long time as well as fruits and other plant products. (beatcancer.org)
  • It is highly likely that when citrinin and ochratoxin occur in combination in grain and then fed to animals, there can be an exacerbation of the effects because of the similarity of the effects of both toxins. (romerlabs.com)
  • In late 1991, citrinin was therefore also included in the list of toxins to be examined by the screening subcommittees on natural toxins of the International Live Science Institute, European Branch. (meta.org)
  • Citrinin is a mycotoxin antibiotic capable of inducing mitochondrial permeability transition. (agscientific.com)
  • Citrinin produces necrosis of the distal tubule epithelium in the kidney and is a pH dependent tautomer. (romerlabs.com)
  • A previous study has shown that CTN (Citrinin) inhibits mouse testosterone production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Citrinin also inhibits microtubule polymerization. (agscientific.com)
  • The way citrinin reacts in the body is not understood yet and its intermediates during biotransformation are also not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 1946 A.M. Ambrose and F. DeEds demonstrated that citrinin was toxic in mammalians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrinin reduces testosterone secretion by inducing apoptosis in rat Leydig cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). (mdpi.com)
  • Beside the identified Dihydrocitrinone from electrochemical, enzymatic and chemical oxidation of Citrinin there is still a number of yet unknown compounds. (kobv.de)
  • Although reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that all of these ORFs, except for orf1 , were transcribed with pksCT under citrinin production conditions, the disruption of ctnA caused large decreases in the transcription of pksCT and orf5 , together with reduction of citrinin production to barely detectable levels, suggesting that these two genes are under control of the ctnA product. (asm.org)
  • These symptoms have been caused by levels as low as 130 and 260 ppm dietary citrinin. (romerlabs.com)
  • A 2014 study in the journal Food Control also found that 35.1 percent of RYR dietary supplements in Taiwan contained citrinin. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Analysis and chemical confirmation of citrinin in barley. (springer.com)