Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada. (1/45)Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied. (+info)
Medium-chain fatty acids affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. (2/45)During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the (13)C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, or [1, 2-(13)C]acetate by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones. (+info)
Mycotoxin-producing potential of mold flora of dried beans. (3/45)To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% NaOCl. Surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. The flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species A ochracues, Penicillium cyclopium, and P. viridicatum, and species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. The toxicogenic species Aspergillus flavis, A. versicolor, Penicillium Citrinum, P. expansum, P. islandicum, and P. urticae were encountered less frequently. Of 209 species of Aspergillus and Penicillium screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate, 114 produced one or more of the following mycotoxins: A. flavus, aflatoxins; A. ochraceus, ochratoxins; A. nidulans, A. unguis, and A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; P. cyclopium, penicillic acid; P. citrinum and P. viridicatum, citrinin; P. urticae, patulin and griseofulvin. Sterigmatocystin production by A. unguis is reported for the first time. (+info)
The effects of aeration on glucose catabolism in Penicillium expansum. (4/45)Polyacrylamide-disc gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme assays showed that the pathways of glucose catabolism and secondary metabolism in Penicillium expansum were dependent on the degree of aeration of the cultures. The isoenzyme patterns and specific activities of aldolase and succinate dehydrogenase indicated that glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle operated under conditions of both limited and efficient aeration (i.e. in cultures grown statically or on an orbital shaker). At high levels of aeration the growth rate was faster and synthesis of extracellular pectolytic enzymes was enhanced, whilst the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase showed that the pentose-phosphate shunt was important in glucose catabolism during the trophophase of growth. In contrast, under conditions of low aeration this latter pathway was virtually undetectable, growth was slower, pectolytic enzyme production low and large concentrations of secondary metabolites (6-methylsalicylic acid, patulin and citrinin) accumulated. (+info)
A major decomposition product, citrinin H2, from citrinin on heating with moisture. (5/45)Citrinin is one of the mycotoxins produced by Penicillium citrinum. We examined the decomposition products after heating citrinin in water at 140 degrees C and isolated a major product, citrinin H2 (3-(3,5-dihydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-2-formyloxy-butane). Citrinin H2 did not show significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 200 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 39%) in 63 h of incubation, but citrinin showed severe toxicity at a concentration of 25 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 73%). HPLC analysis of citrinin after heating under various conditions indicates that citrinin H2 is mainly yielded from citrinin. (+info)
Simple and sensitive determination of citrinin in Monascus by GC-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. (6/45)A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of citrinin in Monascus by gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed. GC separation of citrinin in Monascus extract was achieved without the need for chemical derivatization, and could be detected as a single peak when the SIM mode selected 5 prominent fragmentations (m/z of 220, 205, 177, 105 and 91). The quantitative detection limit for citrinin was approximately 1 ppb. Finally, the GC-separated analyte from Monascus extract, at a retention time of 10.89 min, was examined by the method of pattern recognition by comparison with a citrinin standard. The results show that the 2 compounds had a 94% similarity when the SIM mode was used. (+info)
Mycotoxins. (7/45)Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. (+info)
Effect of citrinin and in association with aflatoxin B(1) on the infectivity and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. (8/45)Macrophages exposed to 10 mug/mL citrinin (CTR) or 0.01 mug CTR mixed with 0.04 mug aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for a period of 2 h at 37 masculine C, were infected with 10(6) Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites/muL. The parasites were treated with mycotoxins (2 h at 37 masculine C) before being added to the macrophage culture. The number of tachyzoites was quantified 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after infection. During the first 2 hours, 59% infectivity was observed in the control. After exposure to CTR or the mixture of toxins (CTR-AFB1), macrophages were infected with 77.5% and 75% of the inoculated tachyzoites, respectively. Similarly, 72.3% of the cells were infected when cultured together with previously treated parasites. The treatment with CTR-AFB1 gave rise to 2.9 times more tachyzoites than the control at 72 h. An increased number of parasites was recovered from macrophages exposed to CTR after 96 h, and to CTR-AFB1 after 72 h of culture; The number of tachyzoites recovered from the supernatant was 1.94 and 2.06 times higher, respectively, than in the control (5 x 10(5) +/- 0.054 /mL). (+info)
Nephrosis is a condition that affects the function of the kidneys, leading to damage and loss of their filtering ability. It can be caused by a variety of factors and can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. In this article, we will explore the definition and causes of nephrosis, as well as treatment options and outcomes for patients with this condition.
Definition of Nephrosis
Nephrosis is a medical term used to describe damage to the kidneys that leads to a loss of their function. The kidneys play a critical role in filtering waste products and excess fluids from the blood, and when they are not functioning properly, these waste products can build up in the body. Nephrosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain medications.
Causes of Nephrosis
There are several factors that can cause nephrosis. Some of the most common causes include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time, leading to nephrosis.
2. High Blood Pressure: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys, leading to nephrosis.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and certain antibiotics, can be harmful to the kidneys and cause nephrosis.
4. Infections: Severe infections, such as pyelonephritis, can damage the kidneys and lead to nephrosis.
5. Glomerulonephritis: This is a type of inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products from the blood.
6. Interstitial Nephritis: This is a type of inflammation of the tissue between the nephrons, the tiny tubules in the kidneys that filter waste products from the blood.
7. Kidney Disease: Any type of kidney disease, such as polycystic kidney disease or membranous nephropathy, can cause nephrosis.
8. Obesity: Excess weight can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes, both of which are leading causes of nephrosis.
9. Family History: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing nephrosis.
10. Age: The risk of developing nephrosis increases with age, especially after the age of 50.
Symptoms of Nephrosis
The symptoms of nephrosis can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:
1. Proteinuria: The presence of protein in the urine, which can be detected by a simple urine test.
2. Hematuria: The presence of blood in the urine, which can be seen with the naked eye or detected by a urine test.
3. Edema: Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet caused by fluid retention.
4. High Blood Pressure: Hypertension is common in people with nephrosis and can further damage the kidneys.
5. Fatigue: Weakness and fatigue are common symptoms of nephrosis due to anemia and nutrient deficiencies.
6. Nausea and Vomiting: Some people with nephrosis may experience nausea and vomiting due to electrolyte imbalances.
7. Weight Loss: Weight loss can occur in advanced cases of nephrosis as the body is unable to retain enough fluid.
8. Decreased Urine Output: A decrease in urine output can be a sign of nephrosis, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as proteinuria and hematuria.
9. Flank Pain: Some people with nephrosis may experience flank pain, which is pain in the side or back of the abdomen.
10. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium, the membrane surrounding the heart, can occur in some cases of nephrosis.
It's important to note that not everyone with nephrosis will experience all of these symptoms, and the severity of the disease can vary from person to person. If you suspect you or someone you know may have nephrosis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
Red yeast rice
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Detection of citrinin2
- CitriTest LC is a quantitative approach to the detection of citrinin in Kogi Red Rice and corn that uses monoclonal antibody-based affinity chromatography. (vicam.com)
- Immunoaffinity columns for use in conjunction with an HPLC or LC-MS/MS for detection of citrinin in a wide range of commodities. (r-biopharm.com)
- Although Monascus-fermented red mold rice performs cholesterol-lowering effects, blood pressure-lowing effects, and antioxidant effects, another metabolite, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic citrinin, causes the concerns for safety. (nih.gov)
- Some red yeast rice products contain a contaminant called citrinin, which is toxic and can damage the kidneys. (nih.gov)
- In a 2021 analysis of 37 red yeast rice products, only one had citrinin levels below the maximum level currently set by the European Union. (nih.gov)
- Benefits - Jarrow Formulas uses red yeast rice that is carefully fermented to avoid the presence of citrinin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin. (theprodukkt.com)
- NOW Red Yeast Rice is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, an unwanted by-product of the fermentation process. (vitadigest.com)
- Furthermore, some red yeast rice supplements contain a toxin called citrinin, which can damage your kidneys and cause cancer in animals (JAMA Internal Medicine, Oct 25, 2010). (roadbikerider.com)
- An extract from RYR has been fermented with the yeast Monascus purpureus, which creates compounds that have been clinically shown to inhibit the production of cholesterol in the liver.Unlike many other red yeast rice supplements on the market, AORs Red Yeast Rice with Ankascin 568-R is subjected to a patented extraction process that removes citrinin, a toxic by-product of the fermentation process. (ahealthyyou.ca)
- These side effects can include myopathy, muscle pain and weakness, and rhabdomyolysis, a condition in which muscle fibres break down, releasing harmful substances into the bloodstream which can affect the liver and kidneys.AOR AdvantageAORs Red Yeast Rice is the worlds first RYR product that does not contain any monacolin K or citrinin. (ahealthyyou.ca)
- Citrinin is a naturally occurring fungal metabolite produced by several species of the genera Penicillium and Penicillium which causes kidney and liver damage. (vicam.com)
- Citrinin (CIT) is a polyketide -derived mycotoxin , which is produced by many fungal strains belonging to the gerena Monascus , Aspergillus , and Penicillium . (bvsalud.org)
- 1. Redoxcitrinin, a biogenetic precursor of citrinin from marine isolate of fungus Penicillium sp. (nih.gov)
- 2. Citrinin dimers from the halotolerant fungus Penicillium citrinum B-57. (nih.gov)
- 15. Four new citrinin derivatives from a marine-derived Penicillium sp. (nih.gov)
- 16. A novel citrinin derivative from the marine-source fungus Penicillium citrinum. (nih.gov)
- 17. Citrifelins A and B, Citrinin Adducts with a Tetracyclic Framework from Cocultures of Marine-Derived Isolates of Penicillium citrinum and Beauveria felina. (nih.gov)
- 18. Citrinin derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. (nih.gov)
- Caracterización de los mecanismos de virulencia y defensa en la interacción hongo fruto como herramienta para el control de Penicillium patógenos de cítricos y manzanas. (csic.es)
- According to the results of serum biochemistry assays of liver and kidney in each group, citrinin did not reveal any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. (nih.gov)
- As a result, we presume that citrinin concentrations in Monascus-fermented products within 200 ppm will not affect the functions of liver and kidney or cause any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. (nih.gov)
- Also, four products that were contaminated with citrinin were labeled as "citrinin-free. (nih.gov)
- Citrinin has been found to be mutagenic in hepatocytes and has been implicated as a potential cause of human Endemic Balkan Nephropathy as well as porcine nephropathy. (vicam.com)
- Because of concerns over citrinin contamination, Japan has issued an advisory limit of 200 ppb and the European Union has a recommended limit of 100 ppb. (vicam.com)
- We demonstrate that CitA, a putative hydrolase in the citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster, removes ACP-bound acyl intermediates. (nih.gov)
- According to safety factor, it is proposed that 2 ppm citrinin in Monascus-fermented products may be a safe concentration. (nih.gov)