Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Patulin: 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Citrinin: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.ResorcinolsFood Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.EstersPolyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Azadirachta: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain azadirachtin A (a limonoid commonly referred to as azadirachtin) and other TRITERPENES. They have been used in PESTICIDES. The old name of Melia azadirachta is very similar to a related plant, MELIA AZEDARACH.Monascus: A genus in the family Monascaceae, order EUROTIALES. One species, Monascus purpureus, has multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.Atriplex: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.

Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada. (1/45)

Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied.  (+info)

Medium-chain fatty acids affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. (2/45)

During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the (13)C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, or [1, 2-(13)C]acetate by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones.  (+info)

Mycotoxin-producing potential of mold flora of dried beans. (3/45)

To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% NaOCl. Surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. The flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species A ochracues, Penicillium cyclopium, and P. viridicatum, and species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. The toxicogenic species Aspergillus flavis, A. versicolor, Penicillium Citrinum, P. expansum, P. islandicum, and P. urticae were encountered less frequently. Of 209 species of Aspergillus and Penicillium screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate, 114 produced one or more of the following mycotoxins: A. flavus, aflatoxins; A. ochraceus, ochratoxins; A. nidulans, A. unguis, and A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; P. cyclopium, penicillic acid; P. citrinum and P. viridicatum, citrinin; P. urticae, patulin and griseofulvin. Sterigmatocystin production by A. unguis is reported for the first time.  (+info)

The effects of aeration on glucose catabolism in Penicillium expansum. (4/45)

Polyacrylamide-disc gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme assays showed that the pathways of glucose catabolism and secondary metabolism in Penicillium expansum were dependent on the degree of aeration of the cultures. The isoenzyme patterns and specific activities of aldolase and succinate dehydrogenase indicated that glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle operated under conditions of both limited and efficient aeration (i.e. in cultures grown statically or on an orbital shaker). At high levels of aeration the growth rate was faster and synthesis of extracellular pectolytic enzymes was enhanced, whilst the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase showed that the pentose-phosphate shunt was important in glucose catabolism during the trophophase of growth. In contrast, under conditions of low aeration this latter pathway was virtually undetectable, growth was slower, pectolytic enzyme production low and large concentrations of secondary metabolites (6-methylsalicylic acid, patulin and citrinin) accumulated.  (+info)

A major decomposition product, citrinin H2, from citrinin on heating with moisture. (5/45)

Citrinin is one of the mycotoxins produced by Penicillium citrinum. We examined the decomposition products after heating citrinin in water at 140 degrees C and isolated a major product, citrinin H2 (3-(3,5-dihydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-2-formyloxy-butane). Citrinin H2 did not show significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cells up to a concentration of 200 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 39%) in 63 h of incubation, but citrinin showed severe toxicity at a concentration of 25 microg/ml (% cytotoxicity: 73%). HPLC analysis of citrinin after heating under various conditions indicates that citrinin H2 is mainly yielded from citrinin.  (+info)

Simple and sensitive determination of citrinin in Monascus by GC-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. (6/45)

A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of citrinin in Monascus by gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed. GC separation of citrinin in Monascus extract was achieved without the need for chemical derivatization, and could be detected as a single peak when the SIM mode selected 5 prominent fragmentations (m/z of 220, 205, 177, 105 and 91). The quantitative detection limit for citrinin was approximately 1 ppb. Finally, the GC-separated analyte from Monascus extract, at a retention time of 10.89 min, was examined by the method of pattern recognition by comparison with a citrinin standard. The results show that the 2 compounds had a 94% similarity when the SIM mode was used.  (+info)

Mycotoxins. (7/45)

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.  (+info)

Effect of citrinin and in association with aflatoxin B(1) on the infectivity and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. (8/45)

Macrophages exposed to 10 mug/mL citrinin (CTR) or 0.01 mug CTR mixed with 0.04 mug aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for a period of 2 h at 37 masculine C, were infected with 10(6) Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites/muL. The parasites were treated with mycotoxins (2 h at 37 masculine C) before being added to the macrophage culture. The number of tachyzoites was quantified 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after infection. During the first 2 hours, 59% infectivity was observed in the control. After exposure to CTR or the mixture of toxins (CTR-AFB1), macrophages were infected with 77.5% and 75% of the inoculated tachyzoites, respectively. Similarly, 72.3% of the cells were infected when cultured together with previously treated parasites. The treatment with CTR-AFB1 gave rise to 2.9 times more tachyzoites than the control at 72 h. An increased number of parasites was recovered from macrophages exposed to CTR after 96 h, and to CTR-AFB1 after 72 h of culture; The number of tachyzoites recovered from the supernatant was 1.94 and 2.06 times higher, respectively, than in the control (5 x 10(5) +/- 0.054 /mL).  (+info)

The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis, but its precise regulatory mechanisms of action are currently unclear. Resveratrol, a member of the phytoalexin family found in grapes and other dietary plants, possesses antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on apoptotic biochemical events in Hep G2 cells induced by CTN. Resveratrol inhibited CTN-induced ROS generation, activation of JNK, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PAK2. Moreover, resveratrol and the ROS scavengers, NAC and α-tocopherol, abolished CTN-stimulated intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Active JNK was required for CTN-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptotic biochemical changes, including loss of MMP, and activation of caspases and PAK2. Activation of PAK2
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include
Mycotoxins can be found worldwide in foods and feed and cause a variety of mold-related health risks which makes it necessary to further examine their toxic effects and metabolic fate in human and other mammals. Beside standard in vitro and in vivo assays with liver cell preparations or rodents an increasing interest in new simulation methods are playing a growing role. Electrochemistry (EC) is one of these novel techniques and has been used successfully and efficiently in pharmacological and drug research for several years now. The primary objective of this study was to determine the capability of EC as a supportive and versatile instrument to elucidate metabolic pathways of mycotoxins. On the example of the food relevant mycotoxin Citrinin a coulometric flow through cell equipped with a carbon working electrode was used to oxidize Citrinin by applying potential between 0.7 and 2.5 V vs. Pd/H2. The electrochemically generated oxidation products were then analyzed by mass-spectrometric detection
Aspergillus alabamensis is a soil fungus in the division Ascomycota first described in 2009 as a segregated taxon of A. terreus. Originally thought to be a variant of A. terreus, A. alabamensis is situated in a distinctive clade identified by genetic analysis. While A. alabamensis has been found to be morphologically similar to Aspergillus terreus by morphological studies, the two differ significantly in active metabolic pathways with A. alabamensis producing the mycotoxin citrinin and citreoviridin but lacking mevinolin. Aspergillus alabamensis was discovered by Balajee and colleagues in 2009 while investigating the cryptic lineages in A. terreus in a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of three protein-encoding genes: enolase (enoA) β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (calM). They chose the species epithet "alabamensis" to reflect their geographic origin of strains comprising the new clade with 11 of the 14 isolates originating from clinical specimens obtained from the University of Alabama ...
Plasmids for mammalian expression of the αl subunit of transducin (Gtα), the β1 subunit of G protein (Gβ), the γ2 subunit of G protein (Gγ, transcript variant 1) under the cytomegalovirus promoter were obtained from OriGene Technologies (Rockville, MD). A plasmid for mammalian expression of the mouse EP2 receptor under the cytomegalovirus promoter was obtained by inserting the open reading frame of EP2 into the EcoRI site of pCMS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (Clontech, Mountain View, CA) (Matsuoka et al., 2003).. A plasmid for mammalian expression of mouse dopamine D1 receptor fused at its N terminus to the signal sequence (SS) derived from influenza hemagglutinin (Guan et al., 1992) and the FLAG peptide was generated as follows. First, to remove the open reading frame of EGFP in pEGFP-C1 (Clontech), pEGFP-C1 was digested with AgeI and BsrGI. The remaining portion of pEGFP-C1 was fused with the oligo DNA containing the AgeI site, the Kozak sequence, SS, the FLAG peptide, and ...
Monascus purpureus is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color. It is also known by the names maize silage mold, and rice kernel discoloration.
Citation: Lakrod, K., Chaisrisook, C., Skinner, D.Z. 2003. Expression of pigmentation genes following electroporation of albino monascus purpureus. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. 30:369-374. Interpretive Summary: Monascus purpureus is a fungus used in the production of many food products. The color of the fungus is a significant factor in the acceptability of the food products to the consumer. This study was undertaken to investigate methods of genetically manipulating the fungus, and to develop stock cultures with altered ability to produce the colored pigments, to use in further elucidation of the genetic control of pigment production. Eight cultures were developed that expressed altered levels of pigment production, and two cultures were developed that produced effective levels of antibiotic resistance. These results provide materials and methods for further development of new products with this food fungus. Technical Abstract: Albino strain KB20M1 of Monascus purpureus was genetically ...
Author for correspondence: Email: [email protected] Shubashini K. Sripathi, Poongothai G./ Bioassay- Guided Fractionation… Table 1 Anti-fungal screening result (Zone of inhibition in mm)Sample Concentrated pet-etherresidueConcentrated Table 2 Anti-fungal screening result for column fractions and for isolated compounds against Monascus purpureus Table 2 shows anti-fungal screening result for column Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International journal fractions against Monascus purpureus and column of Applied Research in natural products. 2009; fractions 4, 5,6,7,8 and 11 showed a higher zone of inhibition than the standard Clotrimazole. The Minimum Radha R, Arokiyaraj S, Agastian P, Balaraju K, Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of these column Mohan Kumar R, Bula P. Phytochemical analysis fractions were also shown in Table 2. This study also and anti-inflammatory activity of Pisonia grandis revealed the potentially active fractions from which the R.Br. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmacology ...
Monascus pigments have been used as natural food colorants in Asia for centuries. They are not authorized for use in the European Union and the United States mainly due to the risk of coproduction of the mycotoxin citrinin by Monascus spp. In the pre
Citrinin: Citrinin was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum prior to World War II;[4] subsequently, it was identified in over a dozen species of Penicillium and several species of Aspergillus (e.g., Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niveus), including certain strains of Penicillium camemberti (used to produce cheese) and Aspergillus oryzae (used to produce sake, miso, and soy sauce).[5] More recently, citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments.[6]. Aflatoxins: The aflatoxins were isolated and characterized after the death of more than 100,000 turkey poults (turkey X disease) was traced to the consumption of a mold-contaminated peanut meal.[7][8] The four major aflatoxins are called B1, B2, G1, and G2 based on their fluorescence under UV light (blue or green) and relative chromatographic mobility during thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known [9] and is usually the ...
The mould genus, Penicillium, is known to be a significant source of environmental aero-allergens. One important allergen from Penicillium citrinum, Pen c 2, has been identified by means of two-dimensional immunoblotting using IgE-containing patients sera. This novel allergen was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The cloned cDNA encodes a large 457-amino acid protein precursor containing a 16-amino acid signal peptide, a 120-amino acid propeptide and the 321-amino acid mature protein. Comparison of the Pen c 2 sequence with known protein sequences revealed shared high sequence similarities with two vacuolar serine proteases from Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Asp-46, His-78 and Ser-244 were found to constitute the catalytic triad of the 39-kDa Pen c 2. The DNA coding for Pen c 2 was cloned into vector PQE-30 and expressed in E. coli as a His-tag fusion protein that bound serum IgE from Penicillium-allergic patients on immunoblots. Recombinant Pen c 2 could ...
Problem statement: This work reports the Penicillium citrinum ESS strain as a new source of inulinase (2,1-β-D fructanhydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.7). Approach: The enzyme was produced in both, Solid-State (SSC) and Submerged Culture (SmC) using a basal medium added either with inulin or sucrose (5 gL-1). Results: The culture grew faster in SmC than in SSC with both carbon sources; however, yields of inulinase activity per gram of biomass were higher in SSC (1,658,237.28 for inulin and 66598.96 for sucrose) than in SmC (441.05 for inulin and 183.91 for sucrose). Conclusion: The highest inulinase production was obtained by SSC, either with inulin or sucrose, reaching values of 6650 and 2970 U/L respectively. In contrast, in SmC were obtained higher levels of inulinase activity (2241 U/L) with sucrose as carbon source (24 h), while with inulin, the enzyme production was negatively affected and retarded.
Endophytic fungi form mutualistic interactions with their host, the relationship therefore being beneficial for both partners [8]. Mutualism frequently leads to enhanced growth of the host. In current study, the presence of plant growth promoting metabolites in culture filtrates of our fungal strains were determined through a primary screening experiment on waito-c rice seedlings. Use of rice seedlings is beneficial as they easily grow under controlled and sterilized conditions, hydroponically, using autoclaved water-agar media. Since this media is devoid of any nutrient, the sole effect of culture filtrate can easily be estimated. Waito-c rice is a known dwarf rice cultivar with reduced GA biosynthesis. Treatment of its seeds with uniconazol, a GA biosynthesis retardant, further suppresses the endogenous GAs production by blocking its biosynthesis pathway in the plant. Shoot elongation of these seedlings can be easily attributed to the activity of plant growth promoting secondary metabolites ...
To address the public health problem of physical inactivity, the Department of Health and Human Services is accepting comments on walking as an effective way to be sufficiently active for health. The information collected will help frame an anticipated Surgeon Generals call to action on this issue.. APTA will submit comments by the April 30 deadline. APTA members are encouraged to send their recommendations to APTA to be included in the associations submission to HHS. The notice requests information on ways to increase walking and community walkability on the following 2 topics:. (1) Barriers to walking for youth, adults, seniors, people with developmental injury and chronic disease-related disabilities, racial and ethnic minorities, and low-income individuals.. (2) Evidence-based strategies for overcoming those barriers and their reach and impact to increase physical activity at the population level and among the above-mentioned subpopulations. Send your comments by COB April 26 to Lisa ...
P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were ...
Complete information for CTNNA1 gene (Protein Coding), Catenin Alpha 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
1KRF: Structure of Penicillium citrinum alpha 1,2-mannosidase reveals the basis for differences in specificity of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi class I enzymes.
p = baseline values/24 months; p*= baseline values/36 months.. Discussion. The pathogenesis of diabetes and CVD has several overlapping cardiometabolic signs. Within the framework of a double-blond, placebo controlled study clinical trial (ISRCTN55339917) we aimed to do a very long clinical sub-trial. During such a long-term study extremely important is careful fulfilment all rules (no do change typical diet habits, etc). To be convinced that such complicated options were actually followed during such long period the number of participants was limited, so it was possible to check very frequently real following of all needed options by participants. The special accent was focused on HbA1c. One of the reasons was the information that despite positive treatment effects of so called "aggressive statins" there are several side-effects concerns, including problems with blood sugar-related aspects. The RAC contains monacolin K (so called "mild statin"), which mechanism of action is similar to statins, ...
53011-68-0 - JVDWOALSRIJPOP-KLLZUTDZSA-N - Ochratoxin TC - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Zynga has brought the story of the ugly duckling to FarmVille this month, to celebrate Valentine's Day. This comes through a series of nine new ugly duckling goals in the game. FarmVille Freak
China 100% Natural Red Yeast Rice Extract: 0.4%-3% Lovastatin; 0.4%, 1.5% Monacolin K., Find details about China Red Yeast Rice Extract, Monascus Purpureus from 100% Natural Red Yeast Rice Extract: 0.4%-3% Lovastatin; 0.4%, 1.5% Monacolin K. - Kingherbs Limited
Red Yeast Rice is a unique natural product native to China thats been used in Asian traditional medical systems since approximately 800 A.D. Produced by fermenting red yeast (Monascus purpureus) with white rice, Red Yeast Rice is commonly used in cooking applications to enhance the color and flavor of foods. Peking Duck is an example of the coloration and flavor imparted by Red Yeast Rice. NOW Red Yeast Rice Extract is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, a sometimes toxic by-product of the fermentation process.Supplement InformationServing Size 1 capsuleAmount per Serving, % Daily ValueCalcium (from calcium carbonate) 275mg, 30% Red Yeast Rice 1.2g (1,200mg) ~(Monascus purpureus)(Concentrated (10:1) powder) ~~ Daily value not establishedOther Ingredients: Calcium Carbonate, Maltodextrin, Silica, Magnesium stearate( vegetable source), Vegetable coating.
nbsp 0183 32 Red Yeast Monascus purpureus Red yeast rice or red rice yeast is the dried version of a red yeast Monascus purpureus that is grown on rice Originally from China known as Zhi Tai in Mandarin it has been used in Chinese Medicine as a "blood vitalizer" since the Tang dynasty 800 C E Many of the class of medicinals known as blood ...
Red Yeast Rice helps reduce cholesterol. Taking Red Yeast Rice supplements can increase HDL (good) cholesterol and decrease in LDL (bad) cholesterol By lowering cholesterol levels Red Yeast Rice can also help prevent heart disease.
China Water Soluble Pure Red Yeast Rice Extract 5% Monacolin K, Find details about China Monacolin K, Red Yeast Rice Extract from Water Soluble Pure Red Yeast Rice Extract 5% Monacolin K - Suzhou Jiameiyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
China 5.0% Monacolin K From Red Yeast Rice Extract, Find details about China Monacolin K, Red Yeast Rice Extract from 5.0% Monacolin K From Red Yeast Rice Extract - Suzhou Jiameiyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both ...
On One Hand: Possibly an Effective Way to Fight Cholesterol.Red yeast rice is made by growing the yeast strain Monascus purpureus on rice. The end product is a reddish grain similar to white rice but with its own subtle flavor. Red yeast rice extract can be used for coloring and flavoring a variety of foods and is used in making certain rice wines and vinegars. At least one study conducted by the University of California Los Angeles Center for Human Nutrition showed positive health effects (including reducing cholesterol and high triglyceride levels) from the consumption of red yeast rice extract in a test group. Even so, the substance has...
Manufacturers make red yeast extract by fermenting rice using a red yeast called Monascus purpureus. The extract is useful in lowering cholesterol, and the prescription medication lovastatin is the...
In submerged cultures performed in chemically defined fermentation medium containing glucose and glutamate, the growth and production of water‐soluble red pigments and citrinin by the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber were studied under various carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. The specific production of the red pigments was optimal at a glucose/glutamate ratio of about 10 and then steadily decreased at higher C/N ratio. In contrast, the production of the mycotoxin increased with increased C/N with an optimum in the range of 30-45. In a fed‐batch mode, it was also found that the production of pigments was not favoured in fed‐batch mode by feeding the medium with glucose while keeping the C/N ratio lower than 10. This low production likely resulted from concurrent high accumulation of L‐malic acid that was reported to inhibit this production. In contrast, this mode of cultivation was rather favourable for the production of the mycotoxin ...
Pregnant women and children are particularly at risk for developmental injuries caused by environmental contaminants. Environmental toxins influence brain and body development before, during, and after birth. Cunningham Bounds experienced legal team understands the interplay between the environment and the developmental delays it may cause in children.
Monacolin K (MK) acts as a natural inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Red fermented rice by Monascus spp. which is rich in MK can be used as dietary supplement to reduce the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol. A Monascus pilosus MS-1 with high-producing MK but free of citrinin had been screened in our previous investigation. Here, its solid-state fermentation param ...
Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice provides 10mg of Monacolin K per daily serving. Monacolin K may help maintain normal blood cholesterol levels. Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice capsules have been manufactured using the finest Non-GM European approved rice.
Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice provides 10mg of Monacolin K per daily serving. Monacolin K may help maintain normal blood cholesterol levels. Natures Aid Red Yeast Rice capsules have been manufactured using the finest Non-GM European approved rice.
Ultrastructural alterations by transmission electronic microscopy.Notes: After UTMD, the small vessel walls roughened and thinned. Peg-shaped tubers (black arro
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Copper Paste Market 2018 Forecast to 2023. COPPER PASTE is a high temperature anti-seize lubricant. A soft, copper-coloured paste, based on micronized copper powder and synergistic anti-oxidant, anti-corrosion and anti-wear additives suspended in premium grade stable oil. It is an effective anti-seize formulation, preventing metal-to-metal contact, seizing, galling, and fretting corrosion. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on .... February 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
The Beacon Ochratoxin Plate Kit is a competitive ELISA for the quantitative analysis of ochratoxin in corn, corn meal, and other grains. ...
Duckling care. If this is your first time raising ducklings. You probably have so many question. Here is what you need to know to raise happy healthy ducklings.
Monascus pigments synthesized by natural strains mainly contain intracellular pigments that accumulate in mycelia [10]. In this study, increasing intercellular mass or granular inclusions in mycelia were observed (Fig. 2a) with the continuous accumulation of hydrophobic intracellular pigments, which was coupled with cell growth in batch fermentation (Fig. 1). Moreover, the fluorescence intensity imaged by LCSM was also constantly increased with the increment of intracellular pigments in Monascus mycelia (r , 0.90, p , 0.05). Some intracellular pigments are found to have strong fluorescence [2], and intercellular mass or granular inclusions have been hypothesized as storage for an accumulation of synthesized intracellular pigments [22]. Interestingly, the size of vacuoles in Monascus mycelia increased in conjunction with fluorescence intensity (r , 0.85, p , 0.05), and occupied a high proportion of cytoplasm during batch fermentation (Fig. 2b). The fungal vacuole is an important cellular ...
Red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for many years to effectively lower cholesterol.1,2 As a natural alternative to treat dyslipidemia, red yeast rice has the same chemical identity as lovastatin.1 Lovastatin along with the other HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with statin-associated myopathy (SAM). This clinical syndrome can occur in 5% to 10% of statin users.2,3 Myopathy may be further categorized as myalgias (muscle pain), myositis (enzyme leak with increased creatine kinase levels), or rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase elevations >10,000 u/L associated with acute renal failure). There is no consensus on how to treat dyslipidemias in patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy due to SAM. While, red yeast rice has been associated with the development of symptomatic myopathies only in case reports, it is perceived by some to be a "real" alternative to statin therapy.4 A recent clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness ...
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M & A Pharmachem recalled batches of Paracetamol 500 mg tablets because some batches of the prescription-strength drug have been found to contain tablets discolored by the fungal contaminant Penicillium citrinum. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) said that is unlikely that any affected tablets will have reached patients as the discoloration is noticeable on opening the affected packs. The agency advised healthcare professionals to immediately stop supplying the batches and to quarantine and remove all remaining stock.
http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForIndustry/IndustryNoticesandGuidanceDocuments/UCM310867.pdf. MEAT AND BONE MEAL, 1 Star - Meat and Bonemeal is (species) non-descriptive. This can indicate 4-D Animals.. Dead, Dying, Disease, Dying and Disabled. It can legally include tumorous or diseased tissues plus bone meal can NOT be digested and assimilated for calcium! It is banned for use in animal feedstuffs in most European countries due to its link to Spongiform Encephalopathies (think BSE or "Mad Cow Disease"). It IS banned in the US as a ruminant feed (your cows etc). Meat and bone meal is now utilized in Europe as a fossil-fuel replacement, and is commonly used as a fuel in cement kilns, landfilling and in incinerators. It was previously used as a fertiliser until the BSE outbreak when it was banned. In the US it is principally used as a low-cost protein source in dog food and cat food.There is NO testing on Meat and Bonemeal.. it is not required. The euthanising drug Pentobarbitol has been found in ...
Foerster, C., Muñoz, K., Delgado-Rivera, L. et al. 2019. Mycotoxin Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-019-00369-5. Degen G.H., Partosch F., Muñoz K., Gundert-Remy U. 2017. Daily uptake of mycotoxins - TDI might not be protective for nursed infants. Toxicology Letters 277:69-75.. Ali, N., Muñoz, K., Degen, G.H., 2017. Ochratoxin A and its metabolites in urines of German adults-An assessment of variables in biomarker analysis. Toxicology letters 275, 19-26.. Muñoz, K., Cramer, B., Dopstadt, J., Humpf, H.-U., Degen, G.H., 2017. Evidence of ochratoxin A conjugates in urine samples from infants and adults. Mycotoxin Research 33, 39-47.. Cramer, B., Osteresch, B., Muñoz, K., Hillmann, H., Sibrowski, W., Humpf, H.U., 2015. Biomonitoring using dried blood spots: Detection of ochratoxin A and its degradation product 2R‐ochratoxin A in blood from coffee drinkers. Molecular nutrition & food research 59, 1837-1843.. Muñoz, K., Blaszkewicz, M., Campos, V., Vega, M., Degen, G.H., 2014. Exposure of ...
Ochratoxin alpha | C11H9ClO5 | CID 107911 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Immunotoxic substances such as mycotoxins are unsuspected players in the failure of vaccines to provoke a proper immune response.
Immunotoxic substances such as mycotoxins are unsuspected players in the failure of vaccines to provoke a proper immune response.
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Erythronium citrinum S. Watson Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Beagle Harrier. The Beagle Harrier is larger than the Beagle and smaller than the Harrier. This medium-sized, muscular dog has usually a tr
Jarrow Formulas Red yeast rice + CoQ10 120 Caps Complementary Red Yeast Rice + Co-Q10 Formula 10:1 Red Yeast Rice (RYR) Extract 100 mg Co-Q10 Per Serving No Fermentation Byproduct Citrinin What Does Red yeast Rice Do?Found in some RYR productsRed Yeast Rice Rice that has been fermented by the yeast Monascus purpureus has been used in Asia for centuries as a food preservative, food colorant and flavoring as well as in traditional herbal formulas. It is part of the diet in China, Japan, and Asian communities in the United States. Jarrow FORMULAS uses Red Yeast Rice that is carefully fermented to avoid the presence of the natural byproduct citrinin. Coenzyme Q10 complements Red Yeast Rice in supporting healthy cardiovascular function. Suggested Usage As a dietary supplement, take 2 capsules per day with a meal or a glass of water or as directed by your qualified health care consultant. Supplement FactsServing Size 2 Capsules Servings Per Container 60Amount Per Serving %DVRed
Literature Cited. 1. Bertrand, P. T., and Saulie-Carter, J. L. 1978. The occurrence of benomyl-tolerant strains of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea in the mid-Columbia region of Oregon and Washington. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62:302-305.. 2. Blanpied, G. D., and Purnasiri, A. 1968. Thiabendazole control of Penicillium rot of Mcintosh apples. Plant Dis. Reptr. 52:867-871.. 3. Blanpied, G. D., and Silsby, K. J. 1992. Predicting harvest date windows for apples. Coop. Ext. Info. Bull. 221. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.. 4. Bramlage, W. J., Drake, M., and Lord, W. J. 1980. Influence of mineral nutrition on the quality and storage performance of pome fruits grown in North America. Pages 29-39 in: Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Trees. D. Atkinson, J. E. Jackson, R. O. Sharples, and W. M. Waller, eds. Butterworth, London, UK.. 5. Conway, W. S. 1982. Effect of postharvest calcium treatment on decay of Delicious apples. Plant Dis. 66:402-403.. 6. Conway, W. S., Sams, C. E., McGuire, G., and Kelman, A. 1992. ...
Plant Disease 85:755-759...Plant Disease 85:755-759...Disease Incidence-Inoculum Dose Relationships for Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum and Decay of Pear Fruit Using Dry, Airborne Conidia...
Citation. van den Berg, M. A., Albang, R., Albermann, K., Badger, J. H., Daran, J. M., M. Driessen AJ, Garcia-Estrada, C., Fedorova, N. D., Harris, D. M., Heijne, W. H., Joardar, V., W. Kiel JA, Kovalchuk, A., Martin, J. F., Nierman, W. C., Nijland, J. G., Pronk, J. T., Roubos, J. A., van der Klei, I. J., van Peij, N. N., Veenhuis, M., von Dohren, H., Wagner, C., Wortman, J., Bovenberg, R. A.. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Filamentous Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Sep 28; 26(10): 1161-8.. PubMed Citation. Abstract. Industrial penicillin production with the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on an unprecedented effort in microbial strain improvement. To gain more insight into penicillin synthesis, we sequenced the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 and identified numerous genes responsible for key steps in penicillin production. DNA microarrays were used to compare the transcriptomes of the sequenced strain and a penicillinG ...
EL-KARIB, Abbas O et al. Pre-Diabetes Induces Ultrastructural Alterations in the Large Blood Vessel Aorta in Rats. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2019, vol.37, n.2, pp.647-653. ISSN 0717-9502. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022019000200647.. Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, ...
Mycotoxins are some of the most prevalent toxins in the environment. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungi like mold, which can infest buildings, vehicles, and foodstuffs. A majority of mycotoxin exposures are through food ingestion or airborne exposure. This test MycoTOX screens for eleven different mycotoxins, from four species of mold, in one urine sample. It is the most comprehensive and competitively priced mycotoxin test available. Great Plains Lab uses the power of advanced mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is necessary to detect lower levels of these fungal toxins.. Purchase or learn more here.. ...
Boron (B) and selenium (Se) sometimes occur together in high concentrations in the environment and can accumulate in plants and invertebrates consumed by waterfowl. One hundred twenty-six pairs of breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with B (as boric acid) at 0, 450, or 900 ppm, in combination with Se (as seleno-DL-methionine) at 0, 3.5, or 7 ppm, in a replicated factorial experiment. Ducklings produced received the same treatment combination as their parents. Boron and Se accumulated in adult liver, egg, and duckling liver. In adults, B and Se caused weight loss, and B decreased hemoglobin concentration, egg weight, and egg fertility. Both B and Se reduced hatching success and duckling weight, and B reduced duckling growth and duckling production, and caused several alterations in duckling liver biochemistry. Duckling survival was not reduced by B or Se, and neither B nor Se had...
This antibody was developed using ochratoxin A (OA)-KLH conjugates, linked via its free carboxyl group. The antibody was affinity purified with an OA-agarose affinity column. The purified antibody was chemically conjugated to HRP. It could be utilized for direct competitive detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin, ochratoxin A ...
by Vetscite. Scientists from the University of Oxford have shown that newly hatched ducklings can readily acquire the concepts of same and different - an ability previously known only in highly intelligent animals such as apes, crows and parrots.. Ducklings and other young animals normally learn to identify and follow their mother through a type of learning called imprinting, which can occur in as little as 15 minutes after hatching. Imprinting is a powerful form of learning that can allow ducklings to follow any moving object, provided they see it within the species typical sensitive period for imprinting.. In this new study, published in the journal Science, ducklings were initially presented with a pair of objects either the same as or different from each other - in shape or in colour - which moved in a circular path.. The ducklings therefore imprinted on these pairs of moving objects before being tested for their preferences between different sets of objects. In these subsequent ...
C. x purpuseus (C. cretics x C. ladanifer) is a showy, orchid-pink 3 inch flowers with a darker red spot appear during summer on this heat-loving, evergreen
Asparagus pea is an ancient and very undemanding crop. Its wrinkled pods can be prepared like peas and their taste is sweet as a regular garden pea, yet reminiscent of asparagus. It is recommended to harvest winged peas very early, as the pods will
This infographic provides a regional view of mycotoxin occurrence and main trends in Asia using data from the most recent annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey.
From Rubber & Plastics News Charlotte, North Carolina-Continental Tire North America Inc. will raise prices on all Continental, General and private brand passenger and light truck tyres by 3 to 6 percent, effective 1 Feb. The company said the exact increase will vary by line and/or size. The increase, the second in eight months, is necessary to offset rising raw material and other costs, the firm said. CTNA last raised US replacement market prices 1 July, boosting them by up to 5 percent on Continental and…. ...
Disclaimer: Reed Business Information will not be liable for damages of any kind related to the (use of the) Mycotoxin Tool. ...
Disclaimer: Reed Business Information will not be liable for damages of any kind related to the (use of the) Mycotoxin Tool. ...
Things are hotting up as exciting new studies show that curcumin-the yellow pigment in turmeric-may be able to ease arthritis, soothe digestive problems and even cure cancer
The aim of the project is to evidence the feasability of an integrated screening, confirmation and quantification strategy for the detection of residues of growth-inhibiting substances in foodstuffs of animal origin. Techniques as immunoassays, GC-MS and LC-MS will be used ...
so sad, I rescued a weak duckling and put it under warm light and it perked up great was feeding him cook rice, quinoa, chopped up greens, tomatoes,...
Hello, Yesterday we went to the local TSC and purchased 9 ducklings.[IMG] I have done quite a bit of research on how to take care of them (getting...
The objective of this study was to extract yellow pigment from powder turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes and to evaluate the preservative/antioxidant activity of oil-soluble yellow pigment at concentrations 0.5, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w) in soybean oil after accelerated oxidation at for 7 days. Soy bean oil free from antioxidant (control) and with 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (synthetic antioxidant) were used to control. In addition, the effects of combined treatment of water-soluble yellow pigment at ratio 3% (w/w) and gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken breast fillet samples during cold storage (4 ± ) to extend the shelf-life of chicken breast fillets were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of 0.2% oil-soluble yellow pigment caused detectable increments in the oxidative stability of soy bean oil compared with control and other treatments under investigation. The results showed that the ratio of 3
Looking for online definition of patulin in the Medical Dictionary? patulin explanation free. What is patulin? Meaning of patulin medical term. What does patulin mean?
Other nucleotides outside the MmeI recognition sequence were also methylated for other studies/ but since MmeI does not have any sequence specifity for these nucleotides this does affect MmeI activity and these other methylations are omitted here for clarity.) Duplex DNA was formed by mixing 100µl top strand oligo (14µM stock) with 100µl bottom strand oligo (14µM stock), heating to 85°C and cooling slowly to 30°C over a time of 20 minutes. MmeI was then used to cleave the oligo pairs in a 30 µl reaction of 1X NEBuffer4, 2.5 µM oligo, 100 µM SAM and 2.5 units MmeI. As a control, restriction endonuclease Hpyl88I was also used to cleave the oligo DNA. The Hpyl88I recognition sequence overlaps the first 5 nucleotides of the MmeI recognition sequence in this DNA, 5-TCNGA-3 and is blocked by methylation at the adenine in either strand of the DNA. MmeI was found to cleave unmethylated DNA as expected. In contrast to previous teaching (Tucholski, Gene 223:293-302 (1998)) MmeI did not cleave ...
Incihaku.fi on ilmainen yli 19000 hakusanan kosmetiikan sanasto. Incihaku-palvelussa voit hakea tietoa kosmetiikan ainesosista ja niiden INCI-nimistä sekä kosmetiikassa käytettävistä kasveista.
EASIMIPTM PATULIN [P250 / P250B] - Intended use: Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) columns for use in conjunction with an HPLC system for detection of patulin in apple juice and apple purée.General information: Patulin in the sample is extracted, centrifuged, filtered and passed slowly through the EASIMIPTM PATULIN column where binding takes place between the MIP and
The toxicity of patulin (149291), a polyketide lactone mycotoxin, was studied in alveolar macrophages (AM) harvested from male Long- Evans-hooded-rats. Exposure to patulin for a 2 hour period caused a significant increase in mean cell volume (MCV) whereas there was no increase in MCV after a 1 hour exposure interval. The presence or absence of glucose had no effect on MCV. Both time and concentrat
MgSO4.7H2O 0.730 g/l) obtained by a Plackett-Burman Therefore, the objective of this research was to produce design and RSM were added, and the pH of the medium the finest-quality rice-based nutraceutical-containing maxi- was adjusted as per the experimental design with 0.1 M mum amount of a hypocholestromic agent (lovastatin). Two HCl or NaOH and autoclaved for 20 min at 121 °C. After filamentous fungi, M. purpureus MTCC 369 and M. ruber being cooled, the rice-based medium was inoculated with MTCC 1880, were used together as inocula for the mixed seed cultures of M. purpureus and M. ruber. Box- production of the nutraceutical under solid-state fermenta- Behnken response surface design (Sayyad et al. was tion. As the fermentation process is highly regulated by followed to design fermentation process conditions such as different fermentation process conditions, interactions of temperature, fermentation time, inoculum volume, and pH parameters and their optimum levels were determined by of the ...
Mycotoxins are a diverse group of compounds comprised of hundreds of secondary metabolic products from various fungal species. Sigma-Aldrich offers a wide range of products for mycotoxin detection programs across the food supply chain.
Chitosan-degrading fungal strain, Penicillium sp. IB-37-2A, produced mainly extracellular chitosanolytic enzymes under submerged agitating cultivation in p
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by strains of Aspergillus. It is a known contaminant of various foodstuffs like olives, beans, beer, wine, cocoa, etc
The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world renders them an important position in international nutrition, but concurrently allocates exposure to possible contained contaminants. Mycotoxins are natural food contaminants, difficult
As in previous years, BIOMIN is conducting a worldwide mycotoxin monitoring program (BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey). The sample collection and data collection is currently in full swing but an outlook on the harvest data for parts of Central and Southern Europe (Austria, Germany and Italy) is already available and can be shared. Due to the early warmth in spring and beginning of summer, harvest started and finishes generally very early this year. Therefore, the full results of this years harvest will be published shortly.
Fungos produtores de patulina A patulina é uma micotoxina produzida por algumas espécies de fungos dos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus e Byssochlamys. As espécies de Penicillium que já foram identificadas como produtoras de patulina são: P. carneum, P. clavigerum, P. concentricum, P. coprobium, P. dipodomyicola, P. expansum, P. glandicola, P. gladioli, P. griseofulvum, P. marinum, P. paneum, P. sclerotigenum e P. vulpinum (FRISVAD et al., 2004). O P. expansum é um fungo psicotrófico e já foi encontrado em maçãs (VERO et al., 2002), cerejas (LARSEN et al., 1998), pêssego (KARABULUT & BAYKAL, 2002), nectarinas (KARABULUT et al., 2002) e pêras (MORTIMER et al., 1985). Esse fungo é o principal produtor de patulina (GÖKMEN & ACAR, 1998), sendo reportado como responsável por 70 a 80% da deterioração de frutas armazenadas e em especial de maçãs (LEGGOTT & SHEPHARD, 2001). Como conseqüência, maçãs e produtos derivados de maçã são a principal fonte de patulina na dieta humana. ...
OchratoxinOchratoxin A (OTA or OA) is produced by Aspergilus and Penicillium fungi. It affects the kidneys and causes both acute and chronic lesions. It is also genotoxic and affects the immune system.Ochratoxin A is a known contaminant of cereals. Recently Ochratoxin A was found to contaminate a wide range of other stored products and processed foods including coffee, beer,
Product Brochure Evidence has shown that specific organic substances may be of benefit to the GIT when aflatoxins and other mycotoxins are in the diet. production of organic acids and stabilizing the
STOCKTON - Thirteen ducklings were rescued from a Stockton storm drain Monday. Stockton police and Animal Services officers were called to Amarillo Way and Waterbury Drive around noon after a mother duck was seen pacing back and forth in the area, according to Joe Silva with the Stockton Police Department. All thirteen ducklings were found […]
These adorable little ducklings were provided with a lovely warm shelter in the shape of their mother - but one tiny bird was left out in the cold.
Tätä artikkelia/julkaisua ei ole tallennettu Jukuriin. Julkaisun tiedoissa voi kuitenkin olla linkki toisaalle tallennettuun artikkeliin/julkaisuun. ...
Krogh P, Axelsen NH, Elling F, Gyrd-Hansen N, Hald B, Hyldgaard-Jensen J, Larsen AE, Madsen A, Mortensen HP, Moller T, Petersen OK, Ravnskov U, Rostgaard M, Aalund O. Experimental porcine nephropathy. Changes of renal function and structure induced by ochratoxin A- contaminated feed. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Suppl. 1974;0(Suppl 246):1- ...
This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids ...
The rationale of this workshop: The worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins poses a significant problem to staple foods and meat production. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The accumulation of mycotoxins in foods and feeds represents a major threat to human and animal health as they are responsible for many different toxicities including the induction of cancer, mutagenicity and estrogenic gastrointestinal, urogenital, vascular, kidney and nervous disorders. Some mycotoxins are also immuno-compromising, and can thus reduce resistance to infectious disease. Significant economic losses are associated with their impact on human health, animal productivity, and both domestic and international trade.. This workshop aims to provide knowledge and expertise in the mycotoxin field from both Thailand and abroad. Invited are quality managers, food manufacturing auditors, ...
dehydration. Phenylalanine injection is effective to treat OTA acute poisoning.. How to prevent Ochratoxin A from animals? Prevention is more important than treatment. There are some tips on prevention and control of Ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A act steadily to heat, so it is not ideal to remove toxicity through heating. According to the report, adds some cholestyramine into the feeds and irradiates it with γ-rays and ultraviolet, which can promote remove toxicity. In addition, OTA and OTB can hydrolyze to phenylalanine and OA with less toxicity under the catalysis of carboxypeptidase A and chymotrypsin. Hydrolysis rate of OTB is six to seven times that of OTA and rumen microbes have a strong reactivity. According to the experiment, adds Carboxypeptidase into fluids with OTA, after few days, the OTA decrease a lot. So It can be an effective way to remove OTA.. ...
A method of producing a pH enhanced foodstuff includes increasing the pH of an initial foodstuff, preferably by placing an initial foodstuff in contact with ammonia gas or aqueous ammonia (54) and applying mechanical action to the material (56). After the pH adjustment, the method includes reducing at least the surface temperature of the pH enhanced foodstuff to below the freezing temperature of the pH enhanced foodstuff (58). The method then includes placing the frozen or partially frozen pH enhanced foodstuff in contact with carbon dioxide gas while maintaining the surface temperature of the pH enhanced foodstuff below the freezing temperature of the material (60). The carbon dioxide treatment may be performed in a mixing vessel (24) fitted with agitators (25) and suitable connections for producing a carbon dioxide gas atmosphere in the vessel.
Egg: This egg was only once encountered in a gelatinous cluster, and is far less common than ABHIIIA1. The egg is only slightly oval, and as the larva develops, the perivitelline space increases (A). The yolk is rough-surfaced, and the chorion has a green or red tinge. Incubation is about 30 hours. Larva: Newly hatched larvae have four white/yellow pigment spots, and blotchy black pigment, in the outer finfold (B), and a rough finfold surface (C). At 1 day, the two dorsal yellow pigment clusters move into the dorsal finfold (C). At 6 days the larva has black pigment above the gut and a patch on the notochord midway between anus and notochord tip, whilet the yellow pigment persists, but has paled to white (F). B: newly hatched, C: 1 day, D: 2 days, E: 3 days, F: 6 days.. This egg was not reared. Three hatched larvae sequences, indicate a single species, but no matching adult sequence is currently available (BOLD), and they are curiously remotely positioned in my barcode tree, away from other ...
As wood destroying fungi grow, some (but not all) of them produce potentially toxic by-products called mycotoxins under some conditions. Some of these are commonly found in moisture-damaged building. More than 200 mycotoxins from common fungi have been identified, and more remain to be identified. The amount and types of mycotoxins produced by a particular fungi depends on many environmental and genetic factors. No one can tell whether a it is producing mycotoxins just by looking at it. Some mycotoxins are known to affect people, but for many mycotoxins little health information is available. Research on mycotoxins is ongoing. Exposure to mycotoxins can occur from inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. It is prudent to avoid unnecessary inhalation exposure. ...
As wood destroying fungi grow, some (but not all) of them produce potentially toxic by-products called mycotoxins under some conditions. Some of these are commonly found in moisture-damaged building. More than 200 mycotoxins from common fungi have been identified, and more remain to be identified. The amount and types of mycotoxins produced by a particular fungi depends on many environmental and genetic factors. No one can tell whether a it is producing mycotoxins just by looking at it. Some mycotoxins are known to affect people, but for many mycotoxins little health information is available. Research on mycotoxins is ongoing. Exposure to mycotoxins can occur from inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. It is prudent to avoid unnecessary inhalation exposure ...
Compostos de quaternário de amônio possuem propriedades tensoativas, bactericida e fungicida, que podem atuar sinergicamente no processo de sanitização. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito antibacteriano e antifúngico de cinco compostos quaternário de amôniosobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro e em superfícies vegetais, e defungos filamentosos Penicillium expansum, Penicillium digitatum e Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Especificamente, os compostos quaternários de amônio foram avaliados na sua capacidade de a) alterar as propriedades termodinâmicas da superfície de frutos de tomate e maçã e de folhas de rúcula, e da adesão de S. Enteritidis e S. aureus, b) atuar como sanitizante de bacterianas aderidas nas superfícies de frutos de tomate e folhas de rúcula, e, c) influenciar nas propriedades físico- químicas e qualidade microbiológica de frutos de tomate sanitizados, durante a vida de prateleira. O efeito bactericida e fungicida in vitrode ...
The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has announced that a batch of Girolomoni Organic Penne Rigata Whole Emmer Wheat Pasta is being recalled because of the detection of of an elevated level of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A.. The recalled pasta was sold in 500g packs labelled with a "best before" date of 25/06/16. The product was manufactured in Italy and imported into Ireland. Recall notices are being displayed in shops supplied with the product and consumers are being advised not to eat the recalled pasta.. More information about the recall can be found on the FSAI website here and more information about ochratoxin A can be found on Food Safety Watch in our ochratoxin factsheet.. ...
Shop Patulin cluster transcription factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Patulin cluster transcription factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Colorey : commercialisation de colorants et pigments naturels et de synthese. Deconditionnement a facon, melange de poudre, contretypes de couleurs, solubilisations, conditionnement de seaux, sachets, de liquides
A process for producing pumpable foodstuffs, wherein raw foodstuffs such as raw cheese is pre-comminuted, mixed with further ingredients, thermally treated by steam injection, subsequently cooled and creamed or emulsified and then fed or passed to a further working or processing operation. The present invention further relates to an apparatus for producing pumpable foodstuffs, such as processed cheese, having a treatment apparatus for raw foodstuffs, a mixer, a device or unit for heating and subsequently cooling the cheese mass and having feed pumps for the cheese mass.
M00777 Avermectin biosynthesis, 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA/isobutyryl-CoA => 6,8a-Seco-6,8a-deoxy-5-oxoavermectin 1a/1b aglycone => avermectin A1a/B1a/A1b/ ...
... is a species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citrinin, tanzawaic acid E, tanzawaic acid F. Cox, ... Jabbar, A.; Rahim, A. (1962). "Citrinin from Penicillium steckii zaleski". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 51 (6): 595-596 ...
... produces citrinin and sterol. Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J. C.; Samson, R. A. (2011). "Taxonomy of ...
... produces Citrinin Khokhar, I.; Bajwa, R.; Nasim, G. (2013). "New report of Penicillium implicatum ...
... produces citrinin and quinolactacin. Q. Ashton Acton, PhD (2012). Issues in Life Sciences: Botany ...
doi:10.1016/0031-9422(93)85144-G. Rodig, O. R.; Ellis, L. C.; Glover, I. T. (1966). "The Biosynthesis of Citrinin in ... Roberts, W. T.; Mora, E. C. (1978). "Toxicity of Penicillium citrinum AUA-532 Contaminated Corn and Citrinin in Broiler Chicks ... Barber, J.; Carter, R. H.; Garson, M. J.; Staunton, J. (1981). "The biosynthesis of citrinin by Penicillium citrinum". Journal ... Some metabolites of Penicillium citrinum related to citrinin". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic: 85. doi:10.1039/ ...
The fungus can also produce the mycotoxin citrinin. Penicillium expansum has a wide host range, causing similar symptoms on ...
Citrinin: Citrinin was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum prior to World War II;[4] subsequently, it was identified in ... On the production and chemical constitution of a new yellow colouring matter, citrinin, produced from glucose by Penicillium ... Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotechnol. Lett. 17:291-294. ... citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments.[6] ...
"Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic effects in Wistar rats". J Appl Toxicol. 27 (2): 143-51. doi:10.1002/jat.1185. PMID ...
... is a citrinin derivative isolated from marine-derived Penicillium. Four new citrinin derivatives from a marine ...
... is a citrinin derivative isolated from marine-derived Penicillium. Four new citrinin derivatives from a marine- ...
Ostry, V; Malir, F; Ruprich, J (Sep 17, 2013). "Producers and important dietary sources of ochratoxin A and citrinin". Toxins. ... and citrinin. It also produces the dihydroisocoumarin mellein. It is a filamentous fungus in nature and has characteristic ... and citrinin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits". Toxicol Ind Health. 30 (1): 90-8. doi:10.1177/0748233712452598. PMID 22773436 ...
... is a bio-active citrinin dimer isolated from marine-derived Penicillium. Four new citrinin derivatives from a ...
... is a bio-active citrinin dimer isolated from marine-derived Penicillium. Four new citrinin derivatives from a ...
The toxicity level is comparable with mycotoxins like penicillic acid and citrinin. However, the toxic metabolite only applies ...
Patterson, Margaret F.; Damoglou, Anthony P. (1987). "Conversion of the mycotoxin citrinin into dihydrocitrinone and ochratoxin ... penicillic acid and citrinin. Penicillium viridicatum can spoil grapes and melons. John I. Pitt; A.D. Hocking (2012). Fungi and ...
... is an anamorph species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citrinin. Penicillium velutinum can ...
Dos Santos, C. M.; Da Costa, G. L.; Figueroa-Villar, J. D. (2012). "Identification of citrinin as the defence metabolite of ... Penicillium corylophilum produces the alkaloid epoxyagroclavine and citrinin and is a pathogen to mosquitoes. McMullin, D. R.; ...
... is a species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citreoviridin and citrinin. List of Penicillium ...
... produces citrinin, 15-Deoxyoxalicine B, decaturins A and decaturins A Alvarenga, N. L.; Birolli, W. G ...
... is a species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citrinin, costaclavine and epicostaclavine. ...
... citrinin, and patulin. These toxic properties may be used for the benefit of humans when the toxicity is directed against other ...
... is an anamorph species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citrinin, griseofulvin and fumagillin. ...
... secretes cytotoxic metabolites like terphenyl compounds and terprenins, as well as citrinin and ...
A. terreus produces a number of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins, including territrem A, citreoviridin, citrinin, gliotoxin ...
... citrinin and duclauxin,. Robinson, N.; Wood, K.; Hylands, P. J.; Gibson, T. M.; Weedon, C. J.; Covill, N. (1992). "Blue ...
The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on ... Inhibition of Citrinin-Induced Apoptotic Biochemical Signaling in Human Hepatoma G2 Cells by Resveratrol. Chia-Chi Chen. ... "Inhibition of Citrinin-Induced Apoptotic Biochemical Signaling in Human Hepatoma G2 Cells by Resveratrol." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10 ... The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on ...
Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem ... on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. ... Keywords: Penicillium citrinum; citrinin inhibition; Azadirachta indica; neem Penicillium citrinum; citrinin inhibition; ... Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem ...
Citrinin: Citrinin was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum prior to World War II;[4] subsequently, it was identified in ... On the production and chemical constitution of a new yellow colouring matter, citrinin, produced from glucose by Penicillium ... Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotechnol. Lett. 17:291-294. ... citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments.[6] ...
Jarrow FORMULAS uses Red Yeast Rice that is carefully fermented to avoid the presence of the natural byproduct citrinin. ... No Fermentation Byproduct Citrinin What Does Red yeast Rice Do?Found in some RYR productsRed Yeast Rice Rice that has been ... No Fermentation Byproduct Citrinin. What Does Red yeast Rice Do?. Found in some RYR products. Red Yeast Rice Rice that has been ... Jarrow FORMULAS uses Red Yeast Rice that is carefully fermented to avoid the presence of the natural byproduct citrinin. ...
Study on the effects of feeding laying hens on separate myctotoxins (aflatoxins, patulin or citrinin) contaminated diets on the ... citrinin, ergot alkaloids, patulin, fumonisin, trichothecene, and zearalenone.. Mold and mycotoxins: often overlooked factors ... is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis and can produce the toxins patulin and citrinin ...
NOW Red Yeast Rice Extract is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, a sometimes toxic by-product of the ... NOW Red Yeast Rice Extract is carefully produced to avoid the presence of citrinin, a sometimes toxic by-product of the ...
A Monascus pilosus MS-1 with high-producing MK but free of citrinin had been screened in our previous investigation. Here, its ... Production and optimization of monacolin K by citrinin-free Monascus pilosus MS-1 in solid-state fermentation using non- ... Monascus pilosus; acetic acid; blood serum; cholesterol; citrinin; cooling; dietary supplements; inoculum; lovastatin; ...
Citrinin;production. Mating Type. Genetic Marker. Plant Quarantine No.. Animal Quarantine No.. ...
keywords = "GENOTOXICITY, APPLE JUICE, MUTAGENICITY, CITRININ",. author = "I. Alves and Oliveira, {N. G.} and A. Laires and A.S ...
3. No Citrinin.. 4. Competitive prices.. Package&Delivery. Package: 1-20kg by Aluminum foil bag, 25kg/drum, or according to ... Anti-Oxidant, No Citrinin Red Yeast Rice P. E. Monacolin K 0.2%~5% ...
3. No Citrinin.. 4. Competitive prices.. Package&Delivery:. Package: 1-20kg by Aluminum foil bag, 25kg/drum, or according to ...
3. No Citrinin.. 4. Competitive prices.. Package&Delivery. Package: 1-20kg by Aluminum foil bag, 25kg/drum, or according to ...
Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products. Citrinin was one of the many ... Citrinin has a molecular weight of 250.25 g/mol. It forms disordered yellow crystals which melt at 175 °C. Citrinin is a planar ... Citrinin causes a disruption of the renal function in rats, which shows that there is an accumulation of the citrinin in kidney ... Citrinin H2, a formylated derivative of phenol A, is less toxic than citrinin. Phenol A seems to be produced mainly under ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Citrinin was first isolated by Hetherington and Raistrick in 1931 from a culture filtrate of Penicillium Thom. Other species of ... Wang, Y., Ting, H.S., and Mann, W. (1950). Metabolism of citrinin. I. Determination of free citrinin in blood. Clin. J. Physiol ... Wang, Y. and Ting, H.S. (1951). Metabolism of citrinin. II. Adsorption, retention and excretion of citrinin. Chem. Abstr. 45, ... Citrinin was first isolated by Hetherington and Raistrick in 1931 from a culture filtrate of Penicillium Thom. Other species of ...
citrinin, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, red yeast rice, cereals, juices, cereal-based products ...
Citrinin produces necrosis of the distal tubule epithelium in the kidney and is a pH dependent tautomer. As citrinin it is ... What is Citrinin?. Fecha: 2016-04-06 Autor: John L. Richard in: Guide to Mycotoxins - featuring Mycotoxin Risk Management in ... Citrinin has been isolated from its natural occurrence in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rice and corn. Probably ... Toxicity concerns for citrinin appear to be aimed toward poultry with the effects primarily on the kidney of these species. ...
Citrinin reduces testosterone secretion by inducing apoptosis in rat Leydig cells.. [Shuqiang Liu, Dan Wang, Junwen Zhang, ... Citrinin, from Penicillium citrinum, ≥98% (HPLC) C13H14O5 ... A previous study has shown that CTN (Citrinin) inhibits mouse ... Citrinin solution, 100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard C13H14O5 ... The results showed that citrinin at 50 and 100μM significantly suppressed testosterone secretion by human chorionic ...
E. Schwenk, G. J. Alexander, A. M. Gold, and D. F. Stevens, "Biogenesis of citrinin," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol ... Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Punam Jeswal ... P. Jeswal, "Cumulative effect of Ochratoxin A and citrinin on induction of hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice (Mus musculus)," ... G. Wichmann, O. Herbarth, and I. Lehmann, "The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-γ rather than ...
The white light and blue light of 470 and 455 nm are especially able to degrade ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and citrinin after ... The absorption range of citrinin is, in particular, broader and includes the wave length of blue light. In wheat, which was ... Citrinin is completely degraded by blue light. A fluorescent band was no longer visible after detection by TLC suggesting a ... It has previously been shown that the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and B and of citrinin by Penicillium is ...
Learn details and find deals on Citrinin Penicillium citrinum from AG Scientific, the leading supplier of biochemical raw ... Citrinin is a mycotoxin antibiotic capable of inducing mitochondrial permeability transition. Citrinin also inhibits ...
Citrinin (1.0 mM) inhibited some enzymes linked to the respiratory chain, namely NADH oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase ... The results suggest that citrinin promotes a partial dissipation of the transmembrane potential, different from that resulting ... The mycotoxin citrinin, depressed the phosphorylation efficiency of liver mitochondria as deduced from a decrease of ... Citrinin , amycotoxin fromPenicillium citrinum , plays a role in inducingmotilityofPaenibacilluspolymyxa. Soo-Young Park, Rumi ...
RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of citrinin in cereals ... RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of citrinin in cereals ... Immunoaffinity columns for use in conjunction with an HPLC or LC-MS/MS for detection of citrinin in a wide range of commodities ... RIDASCREEN®FAST Citrinin2012-06-132018-02-13https://food.r-biopharm.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/logo_rgb.pngFood & Feed ...
Definition of citrinin - A yellow crystalline toxin present in Penicillium citrinum and various other mould fungi, and having ...
Citrinin in red yeast rice supplements. There has been wide support for lowering the current ML of 2000 µg/kg to 100 µg/kg for ...
  • More recently, citrinin has also been isolated from Monascus ruber and Monascus purpureus, industrial species used to produce red pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In submerged cultures performed in chemically defined fermentation medium containing glucose and glutamate, the growth and production of water‐soluble red pigments and citrinin by the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber were studied under various carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. (usda.gov)
  • Regulation of oxidative stress-induced cytotoxic processes of citrinin in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (nih.gov)
  • While maximum levels for various mycotoxins were set for a number of food and feed products, the occurrence of citrinin is not regulated yet under these or other regulations within the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existing information on occurrence of citrinin in food suggests that relatively high citrinin concentrations can be found in stored grains and grain-based products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrinin has been isolated from its natural occurrence in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rice and corn. (romerlabs.com)
  • Unfortunately, little is known regarding the field occurrence of either ochratoxin or citrinin and therefore they are considered as storage problems in grains, although ochratoxin is known to occur in certain crops at harvest such as grapes but this is usually the result of production by some of the "black" aspergilli such as A. carbonarius . (romerlabs.com)
  • It is likely that most of the citrinin in grains occurs during storage, at least until we gain further insight into the field occurrence. (romerlabs.com)
  • However, in 1946 A.M. Ambrose and F. DeEds demonstrated that citrinin was toxic in mammalians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of citrinin may affect the liver in addition to the kidney. (romerlabs.com)
  • As citrinin it is neutral but when it is excreted in the alkaline urine it becomes a phenol which is rapidly reabsorbed by the kidney where it tautomerizes back to citrinin. (romerlabs.com)