CitratesNames: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Phosphofructokinase-1, Muscle Type: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In humans, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 in muscle exists as the homotetramer of M subunits. Defects in this muscle enzyme cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VII, also known as Tarui's disease.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Burns, ChemicalCitrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Medullary Sponge Kidney: A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.United StatesDrug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Nurses, Community Health: Nurses whose work combines elements of both primary care nursing and public health practice and takes place primarily outside the therapeutic institution. Primary nursing care is directed to individuals, families, or groups in their natural settings within communities.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (1/1204)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (2/1204)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

Down regulation by iron of prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts. (3/1204)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of iron on the prostaglandin (PG) E2 production by human synovial fibroblasts in vitro. METHODS: Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and cultured in medium. Synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by human recombinant interleukin (IL) 1 beta (0.1-10 ng/ml) with or without ferric citrate (Fe-citrate, 0.01-1 mM). The amount of PGE2 in the culture medium was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts was increased by stimulation with IL1 beta at all concentrations tested. Fe-citrate but not sodium citrate (Na-citrate) down regulated the production of PGE2 by the synovial fibroblasts, both with and without stimulation by IL1 beta. Fe-citrate inhibited the spontaneous PGE2 production by the cells in a dose dependent manner, and a maximum inhibition by Fe-citrate was observed at the concentration of 0.1 mM with IL1 beta stimulation. The down regulation by iron was reversed by the co-addition of desferrioxamine (100 micrograms/ml), an iron chelator. CONCLUSION: Iron down regulates the PGE2 production by synovial fibroblasts in vitro.  (+info)

Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs. (4/1204)

Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + phosphoramidon + citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU) + citric acid; and DMTU + phosphoramidon + citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes and DMTU are scavengers of oxygen radicals while phosphoramidon is an inhibitor of the major degradation enzyme for tachykinins. Animals were anaesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Each animal was given 50 breaths of 4 ml saline or citric acid aerosol. We measured dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs), forced expiratory volume in 0.1 (FEV0.1), and maximal expiratory flow at 30% total lung capacity (Vmax30) to evaluate the degree of airway constriction. Citric acid, but not saline, aerosol inhalation caused marked decreases in Crs, FEV0.1 and Vmax30, indicating marked airway constriction. This constriction was significantly attenuated by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or by DMTU. In addition, phosphoramidon significantly reversed the attenuating action of hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes, but not that of DMTU. Citric acid aerosol inhalation caused increases in both lucigenin- and t-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence counts, indicating citric acid-induced increase in oxygen radicals and decrease in antioxidants in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These alterations were significantly suppressed by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or DMTU. An elastase inhibitor eglin-c also significantly attenuated citric acid-induced airway constriction, indicating the contributing role of elastase in this type of constriction. We conclude that both oxygen radicals and elastase play an important role in tachykinin-mediated, citric acid-induced airway constriction.  (+info)

Citrate ions enhance taste responses to amino acids in the largemouth bass. (5/1204)

The glossopharyngeal (IX) taste system of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is highly selective to amino acids and is poorly responsive to trisodium citrate; however, IX taste responses to specific concentrations of L- and D-arginine and L-lysine but not L-proline were enhanced by citrate but not sodium ions. Binary mixtures of L-arginine (3 x 10(-4)M and 10(-3)M) or D-arginine (10(-3)M) + trisodium citrate (10(-3)M; pH 7-9) resulted in enhanced taste activity, whereas binary mixtures of higher concentrations (10(-2)M and 10(-1)M) of L- or D-arginine + 10(-3)M trisodium citrate were not significantly different from the response to the amino acid alone. Under continuous adaptation to 10(-3)M citrate, taste responses to L-arginine were also enhanced at the identical concentrations previously indicated, but responses to 10(-2)M and 10(-1)M L-arginine were significantly suppressed. Under continuous adaptation to 10(-2)M L-arginine, taste responses to 10(-2)M, 10(-1)M, and 10(0) M citrate were significantly enhanced. Cellular concentrations of both citrate and amino acids in prey of the carnivorous largemouth bass are sufficient for this taste-enhancing effect to occur naturally during consummatory feeding behavior. Citrate acting as a calcium chelator is presented as a possible mechanism of action for the enhancement effect.  (+info)

Trophoblast cell line resistance to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-independent mechanism. (6/1204)

The lack of classical HLA molecules on trophoblast prevents allorecognition by maternal T lymphocytes, but poses the problem of susceptibility to NK lysis. Expression of the nonclassical class I molecule, HLA-G, on cytotrophoblast may provide the protective effect. However, the class I-negative syncytiotrophoblast escapes NK lysis by maternal PBL. In addition, while HLA-G-expressing transfectants of LCL.721.221 cells are protected from lymphokine-activated killer lysis, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and HLA-G-expressing choriocarcinoma cells (CC) are not. The aim of this work was therefore to clarify the role of HLA class I expression on trophoblast cell resistance to NK lysis and on their susceptibility to lymphokine-activated killer lysis. Our results showed that both JAR (HLA class I-negative) and JEG-3 (HLA-G- and HLA-Cw4-positive) cells were resistant to NK lysis by PBL and were equally lysed by IL-2-stimulated PBL isolated from a given donor. In agreement, down-regulating HLA class I expression on JEG-3 cells by acid treatment, masking these molecules or the putative HLA-G (or HLA-E) receptor CD94/NKG2 and the CD158a/p58.1 NKR with mAbs, and inducing self class I molecule expression on JAR cells did not affect NK or LAK lysis of CC. These results demonstrate that the resistance of CC to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-independent mechanism(s). In addition, we show that the expression of a classical class I target molecule (HLA-B7) on JAR cells is insufficient to induce lysis by allospecific polyclonal CTL.  (+info)

Regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with a high risk of bleeding. (7/1204)

BACKGROUND: Systemic heparinization is associated with a high rate of bleeding when used to maintain patency of the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients. Regional anticoagulation can be achieved with citrate, but previously described techniques are cumbersome and associated with metabolic complications. METHODS: We designed a simplified system for delivering regional citrate anticoagulation during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). We evaluated filter life and hemorrhagic complications in the first 17 consecutive patients who received this therapy at our institution. Blood flow rate was set at 180 ml/min. Ultrafiltration rate was maintained at 2.0 liters/hr and citrate-based replacement fluid (trisodium citrate 13.3 mM, sodium chloride 100 mM, magnesium chloride 0.75 mM, dextrose 0.2%) was infused proximal to the filter to maintain the desired fluid balance. Calcium gluconate was infused through a separate line to maintain a serum-ionized calcium level of 1.0 to 1.1 mM. RESULTS: All patients were critically ill and required mechanical ventilation and vasopressor therapy. Systemic heparin anticoagulation was judged to be contraindicated in all of the patients. A total of 85 filters were used, of which 64 were lost because of clotting, with a mean life span of 29.5 +/- 17.9 hours. The remaining 21 filters were discontinued for other reasons. Control of fluid and electrolyte balance and azotemia was excellent (mean serum creatinine after 48 to 72 hr of treatment was 2.4 +/- 1.2 mg/dl). No bleeding episodes occurred. Two patients, one with septic shock and the other with fulminant hepatic failure, developed evidence for citrate toxicity without a significant alteration in clinical status. Nine patients survived (52.9%). CONCLUSION: Our simplified technique of regional anticoagulation with citrate is an effective and safe form of anticoagulation for CVVH in critically ill patients with a high risk of bleeding.  (+info)

Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. (8/1204)

Anthropologically speaking, humans were high consumers of calcium until the onset of the Agricultural Age, 10,000 years ago. Current calcium intake is one-quarter to one-third that of our evolutionary diet and, if we are genetically identical to the Late Paleolithic Homo sapiens, we may be consuming a calcium-deficient diet our bodies cannot adjust to by physiologic mechanisms. Meta-analyses of calcium and bone mass studies demonstrate supplementation of 500 to 1500 mg calcium daily improves bone mass in adolescents, young adults, older men, and postmenopausal women. Calcium citrate malate has high bioavailability and thus has been the subject of calcium studies in these populations. Positive effects have been seen in prepubertal girls, adolescents, and postmenopausal women. The addition of trace minerals and vitamin D in separate trials has improved the effect of calcium citrate malate on bone density and shown a reduction of fracture risk.  (+info)

*Citric acid cycle

... animation of the citric acid cycle at Smith College Citric acid cycle variants at MetaCyc Pathways connected to the citric acid ... These latter amino acids are therefore termed "ketogenic" amino acids, whereas those that enter the citric acid cycle as ... However, because of the role of the citric acid cycle in anabolism, they might not be lost, since many citric acid cycle ... To turn them into amino acids the alpha keto-acids formed from the citric acid cycle intermediates have to acquire their amino ...

*Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate

... is a drug used in the treatment of metabolic acidosis (a disorder in which the blood is ... Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public ...

*Glycolysis

Fatty acid synthesis Cholesterol synthesis The citric acid cycle which in turn leads to: Amino acid synthesis Nucleotide ... beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and during the citric acid cycle). The NADH thus produced is primarily used to ultimately ... In the citric acid cycle all the intermediates (e.g. citrate, iso-citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and ... Furthermore, citric acid intermediates are constantly used to form a variety of substances such as the purines, pyrimidines and ...

*Denture cleaner

citric acid - removes stains. sodium perborate sodium polyphosphate potassium monopersulfate - cleaning and bleaching agent ...

*Adenosine diphosphate

The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle is an 8-step process that takes the ... "Citric Acid Cycle" (PDF). Takusagawa's Note. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013. " ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta

Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ... The PDHB gene encodes a precursor protein that has 359 amino acid residues and a final mature protein that has 329 amino acids ... In forming the entire PDH complex, the 289th beta residue, aspartic acid, interacts with the 276th residue of the E2 complex, a ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2

Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ...

*Frank Spedding

Citric Acid-Ammonium Citrate Solutions". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (6): 2354-2361. doi:10.1021/ja01162a004. ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1

Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ... The PDHA1 subunit has been shown to be regulated by free fatty acids during bouts of exercise. The presence of free fatty acids ... The preliminary peptide encoded by this gene was 29 amino acids at the very start of the sequence that correspond to a typical ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ...

*1981 in science

November 22 - Hans Krebs (b. 1900), German medical doctor and biochemist; discoverer of the citric acid cycle. December 6 - ...

*Isoniazid

In another method, isoniazid was claimed to have been made from citric acid starting material. Hydra, Hyzyd, Isovit, Laniazid, ... Baizer, Manuel M.; Dub, Michael; Gister, Sidney; Steinberg, Nathan G. (1956). "Synthesis of Isoniazid from Citric Acid". ... Isonicotinic acid hydrazide is also used in chromatography to differentiate between various degrees of conjugation in organic ... This process inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are required components of the mycobacterial cell wall. A range of ...

*Kiyomi

Citric acid content is around 1%. It has no seeds. The time of ripening is mid to late March. The flavor is similar to that of ...

*Andrews Liver Salts

The powder contains sugar; two antacids, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid; and a laxative, magnesium sulphate. The product is ...

*Citrate-CoA ligase

This enzyme participates in citric acid cycle. Lill U, Schreil A, Eggerer H (1982). "Isolation of enzymically active fragments ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ...

*John Augustus Just

"Citric Acid Content of Concentrated Milk Products". The Journal of Biological Chemistry: 457. Retrieved 2008-12-05. " ... a sample of milk with calcium chloride to reduce its acidity and then with alkaline hypochlorite to preserve the fatty acids in ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)

OCHOA S (1954). "Enzymic mechanisms in the citric acid cycle". Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 15: 183-270. PMID 13158180. ... pyruvic acid dehydrogenase, and pyruvic dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in 5 metabolic pathways: glycolysis / ...

*Taste

... tartaric acid has a sourness index of 0.7, citric acid an index of 0.46, and carbonic acid an index of 0.06. Sour taste is ... Savoriness The amino acid glutamic acid is responsible for savoriness, but some nucleotides (inosinic acid and guanylic acid) ... linoleic acid and oleic acid), as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids. Monovalent cation channel TRPM5 has ... Many of these candies contain citric acid. The simplest receptor found in the mouth is the sodium chloride (salt) receptor. ...

*Instant tea

When marketed, other ingredients can be added, such as sugar for taste, citric acid for tartness, and other flavors that would ... "EthicalFoods.com , What You Need To Know About Citric Acid". ethicalfoods.com. Retrieved 2016-12-16. Millin, D. J. (1981). " ...

*2-oxoglutarate synthase

This enzyme participates in the Citric acid cycle. Some forms catalyze the reverse reaction within the Reverse Krebs cycle, as ... Mai X, Adams MW (1996). "Characterization of a fourth type of 2-keto acid-oxidizing enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon: 2 ... Schut GJ, Menon AL, Adams MW (2001). "2-keto acid oxidoreductases from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus litoralis". Methods ...

*Triethyl citrate

... is an ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive (E number E1505) to ...

*Siderophore

... derivatives of citric acid). Citric acid can also act as a siderophore. The wide variety of siderophores may be due to ... Fe3+ is a strong Lewis acid, preferring strong Lewis bases such as anionic or neutral oxygen atoms to coordinate with. Microbes ... It has been demonstrated that plants are able to use the hydroxamate-type siderophores ferrichrome, rhodotorulic acid and ... Y. Sugiura & K. Nomoto (1984). "Phytosiderophores structures and properties of mugineic acids and their metal complexes". ...

*Pouteria lucuma

The pulp also contains sugars like glucose, fructose, sucrose and inositol; and acids like citric acid and succinic acid. ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

Oral citrate is often used to treat acidosis.[citation needed] Citric acid cycle Reference, Genetics Home. "pyruvate ... Cells with a normal allele active can metabolize the lactic acid that is released by the PDH deficient cells. They cannot, ...

*Phenothiazine

3.0.CO;2-6. "Citric acid cycle biomimic on a carbon electrode". Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 24: 939-944. doi:10.1016/j.bios. ...

*Aconitase

Citric acid Aconitic acid Isocitric acid Aconitase, displayed in the structures in the right margin of this page, has two ... Fluoroacetate, in the citric acid cycle,can innocently enter as fluorocitrate. However, aconitase cannot bind this substrate ... doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(02)49317-2. ISBN 978-0-12-182252-1. Takusagawa F. "Chapter 16: Citric Acid Cycle" (PDF). Takusagawa's ... and thus the citric acid cycle is halted. The iron sulfur cluster is highly sensitive to oxidation by superoxide. Aconitase ...

*List of food additives

Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity regulators ... Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ... Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener, vegetable gum Phosphoric acid - food acid Phytic acid - preservative Pigment Rubine ... Acetic acid - acidity regulator Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Acetylated distarch ...
Citric acid is found naturally in citrus fruits, but producing citric acid from citrus fruits is very expensive and the demand for citric acid is greater than the available supply of citrus fruits. Therefore, when you see citric acid on a product label, you can be sure that it is a powder that was made from the fermentation of sugars. A culture of Aspergillus niger (a fungus commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry) is fed with sugar and metabolizes it into a liquid solution. The solution is mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide) which causes citrate salt to come out of the solution (precipitate). The citrate salt is then treated with sulfuric acid to make useable citric acid.. The sugars that are used for the citric acid can be derived from cane sugar, corn or wheat. In the United States, citric acid is most often derived from corn since it is a cheap, subsidized crop. In South America cane sugar is often used due to the low sugar prices, while in Europe wheat sweeteners are commonly ...
I prepared a bottle of "50%" citric acid solution using a suggested method of filling a bottle halfway by volume then filling the rest with water. I filled a...
Citric acid is traditionally produced by fermentation of molds since the beginning of the 20th century. However, its overall demand continually increases due to its very widespread applications ranging from traditional food use to more specific pharmaceutical and more recent biopolymer uses.. Therefore the production of citric acid is also continually improved involving the most recent tools and techniques of the field. This book discusses the metabolism of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger; biotechnological productions of citric acid; citrus fruits compounds and aging; occurrence and metabolism of citric acid by lactic acid bacteria from fruits and fermented beverages; and citric acid treatment of cancer. (Imprint: Novinka ). ...
Citric acid -- a naturally occurring compound in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons and grapefruit -- boasts several properties that may make it useful as either a treatment for certain medical conditions or as a dietary supplement. Citric acid is an alkalizing agent: It is able to decrease the level of acidity in body fluids. It acts as an anti-oxidant and is also able to chelate -- binding to excess calcium and allowing it to leave the body. Despite its documented health benefits, you should not take citric acid supplements without first consulting your physician.. Anti-oxidant Benefits. As an anti-oxidant, citric acid may be able to neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals, unstable compounds that can accumulate in the body from exposure to toxic chemicals, smoking and even normal cell metabolism. Free radicals can damage cell tissue and DNA and increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, Alzheimers disease and cancer. The Mayo Clinic website reports that citric acids ...
... activates the enzymes necessary for a number of physiological functions, including neuromuscular contractions, cardiac function, and the regulation of the acid- alkaline balance in the body. Purchase Mag (citrate/malate) 120 mg 180 vcaps online with free shipping!
A method of treating blood withdrawn from patient including: simultaneously withdrawing blood and infusing withdrawn blood from and to the patient by flowing the withdrawn blood through an extracorporeal dialysis circuit including a dialyzer having a semi-permeable dialysis membrane and a dialysate side adjacent the membrane; feeding a dialysate containing 1 to 5 mM total calcium and 2 to 8 mM citrate to the dialysate side of the dialyzer, and introducing an anticoagulation fluid including at least 8 mM citrate into the arterial blood line.
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of animal diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of animals and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
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The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied at 18·1 (sd1·5) months. Acceptance for four solutions differing in citric acid concentrations (0·00 m, 0·013 m, 0·029 m and 0·065 m) was measured by allowing infants ad libitum ingestion of each solution over brief time periods. The base solution to which citric acid was added was blackcurrant squash diluted in water. Infants relative intake of each solution was used as a measure of sour acceptance. At 18 months, twelve infants readily accepted the two highest citric acid concentrations, whereas the remaining infants rejected these. Infants who accepted the most sour solutions had a significantly higher fruit intake (P = 0·025) and a higher fruit variety (P = 0·015) at 18 months than the ...
Citric acid crystals. Polarized light micrograph of a section through crystals of citric acid (tricarboxylic acid). Citric acid can be obtained from natural products such as the juices of citric fruits e.g.. lemons. It is also obtained by fermentation of glucose (citric acid cycle) and by synthesis. Magnification: x200 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C026/2620
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Summary The mass transfer process during the reaction of citric acid with calcite was investigated using a rotating disk apparatus. The effects of disk rotational speed, initial citric acid concentration and temperature on the effective diffusion co
Magnesium (citrate) Highly absorbable magnesium chelate Magnesium activates the enzymes necessary for a number of physiological functions, including neuromuscular contractions, cardiac function, and the regulation of the acid- alkaline balance in the body. It is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and fats; also for energy production, and the utilization of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium. This vital mineral also helps utilize B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Magnesium in aspartate, citrate, citrate/malate, and glycinate forms are highly bioavailable magnesium chelates, supporting the metabolism and utilization of many essential nutrients and the proper functioning of important enzymatic and physiological functions. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: magnesium (citrate) 150 mg. vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 11 mg. Directions: 1-4 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals., with meals.
In this study we investigated the transcriptional role of the sterol regulatory element (SRE) present in the promoter of the mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC). We show that wild-type (but not mutated) CIC SRE cloned in front of the luciferase promoter confers transcriptional activation of the gene reporter. We also demonstrate that insulin activates, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit, the gene reporter activity driven by the CIC promoter containing wild-type (but not mutated) SRE. Finally, both insulin treatment and overexpression of SRE binding protein (SREBP-1) increase the CIC transcript and protein levels, whereas PUFA have an opposite effect. These results show that SRE/SREBP-1 play a role in the transcriptional regulation of CIC by insulin and PUF. ...
AS 3 - dextrose monohydrate, sodium citrate, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, citric acid monohydrate and adenine injection, solution - Prescription (RX) Marketed Drugs Encyclopedia
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Could someone be able to elaborate more for me in regards to what Citric Acid is please? Is it from citric fruits or from animals? I am noticing that Citric Acid is in fruit lollies which are a natural lolly so Im presuming its from a lemon, orange or grapefruit and Citric Acid is also in Vegetable can soups where all vegetables are in it. I find this acid is be somewhat confusing :faint_smilie:
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The positive results obtained with regional citrate anticoagulation were confirmed in 3 recently published large studies involving 251 patients (9,31,38). In the prospective randomized study by Kutsogiannis DJ et al (38) involving 30 patients not at high risk of hemorrhagic complications, the median hemofilter survival time was 124.5 hours in the citrate group, the time being significantly longer than the 38.3 hours in the heparin group (P , 0.001). As regards adverse effects, no definite hemorrhage occurred in the citrate group whereas seven instances did in the heparin group. Occult hemorrhage was once present in both the citrate and heparin group. After adjustment for antithrombin-III levels and illness severity score, the relative risk of hemorrhage with citrate anticoagulation was still significantly lower than that with heparin (0.14 vs 0.96). In the second considered large multi-center study involving seven US centers, 138 patients and 442 CRRT circuits were utilized to assess filter life ...
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Water was introduced into a reverse osmosis unit, passing through a semipermeable membrane to remove impurities and producing deionized water. Anhydrous 99% pure citric acid was mixed with the water to produce 200 gallons of a 20 % (wtA-ol) (796 g citric acid per gallon water) solution. The 200 gallons of 20% citric acid were directed into an ion chamber containing having positive and negative electrodes, each consisting of 200 troy ounces of 999 fine silver. The positive and negative electrodes were spaced at least 2.0 mm apart, allowing the citric acid solution to pass between the two electrodes. An ion generation controller (IGC) power supply including a positive and a negative conductor was attached to the positive and negative electrodes. The IGC applied a current of 5 amps at 17 volts, pulsed every 9 seconds, with a polarity change at 1 minute intervals. Throughout the process, the electrode gap was adjusted in order to maintain the 5 amp-17 volt output. The electric current flow caused an ...
Magnesium, like calcium, is an essential bone matrix mineral that promotes healthy bone metabolism. Supplementation with calcium and magnesium provides synergistic support for bone health. Magnesium also supports cardiovascular health by helping to mainta...
Citric acid is a kind of important organic acid, also known as folic acid, colorless crystals, often contain a molecular crystal water, odourless, has a strong acid, soluble in water. The calcium salt easy dissolve in cold water than hot water, and the properties of commonly used to identify and separate citric acid ...
Citric acid is soluble in water to a great degree. In water of a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 84 percent of the citric acid added to the solution is...
MountainRoseHerbs.com, Brambleberry.com and Amazon.com sell citric acid, offering a variety of size options from 1 pound to 55 pound bags, as of June 2015. People use citric acid for cooking,...
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Citric acid levels of at least 4 g/L (400 micrograms in a 0.1 mL sample) do not interfere with the D-Isocitric Acid Assay Kit , even higher levels of isocitric acid:citric acid ratios of 1:10 can be tolerated.. ...
Citric acid levels of at least 4 g/L (400 micrograms in a 0.1 mL sample) do not interfere with the D-Isocitric Acid Assay Kit , even higher levels of isocitric acid:citric acid ratios of 1:10 can be tolerated.. ...
China Citric Acid Market and ProductionAs the natural acid, citric acid industry has seen a fast growth in China before 2008 due to increasingdemand from both …
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Hi, Ive been searching for a liquid carbon, other than glut based products, and I found other liquid carbon sources based on citrate and citric acid....
Not to be confused with vitamin C, citric acid is a sour-tasting, naturally occurring compound present in a variety of fruits, particularly those in the citrus family, such as lemons, limes and oranges. It is also available as a white crystalline powder extract of these fruit juices.
Anhydrous citric acid is very soluble in water and has a pH of 2.3 for a 1% solution. It is relatively hygroscopic and has a strong acid tart flavour.
Is citric acid bad for you? Not always. In very large quantities it can damage teeth enamel and upset the stomach. In moderation, it provides many health benefits for adults.
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Creative-Proteomics offer cas 77-92-9 CITRIC ACID (13C6, 99%) CHEMICAL PURITY 97%. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Buy Now Citric Acid - 100% Pure 1 lbs to help maintain Vitamin C content, slow spoiling caused by bacteria, and avoid discoloration when trying to sprout, can, dry, or freeze fruits and veggies.
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Citric acid is a chemical compound thats used to create a wide variety of products for applications across a number of industries, and thanks to its
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The global citric acid market size was worth USD 2.50 billion in 2016. High demand for the product to preserve food is expected to be a key driver for the industry growth. In addition, the growing demand for the compound in pharmaceutical industry for the manufacturing of digestive medicines is expected to positively drive the market over the forecast period
There are many advantages to using citric acid based cleaners that are better for your health than other toxic cleaners. Learn the many pros for this cleaner.
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Perfect for using while hand dying fabrics. This package contains one pound of citric acid (double bagged to avoid any leaks). Made in USA.
Im now conflicted about magnesium citrate. On one hand, Ray Peat says the citrate will cause calcium excretion through urine. @Mito has reminded me of...
What happens if you inhibit CIC in a cancer cell which is using CIC to both limit ROS production and to deliver cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA for anabolism? The whole extra-mitochondrial cycle should shut down, meaning acetyl-CoA has nowhere to go other than around the TCA. Less citrate can be exported, so cytosolic citrate levels fall. Falling cytoplasmic citrate allows increased glycolysis and this can feed even more acetyl-CoA in to the TCA. Complex I is still dysfunctional so we are then in to a massively elevated NADH:NAD+ ratio. We will also increase FADH2 driven CoQ reduction via complex II as the TCA turns. A high NADH:NAD+ is the prerequisite to getting an electron on to an oxygen atom to generate superoxide in complex I, back in Protons (22) I speculated this might be at FeS N-1a. A reduced CoQ couple also drives this via reverse electron transport ...
In this study we describe the manifestation pattern of the operon in response to the addition of citrate to the growth medium. of the promoter. These data provide the 1st evidence that citrate fermentation in is definitely regulated in the transcriptional level by a transcriptional activator rather than by a repressor. Citrate rate of metabolism […]. Read More ». ...
Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. For solid residues use container C ...
Although this reaction looks like this is a case of a neutralization reaction, which are usually exothermic, this case is a bit more complicated than that. The reaction is indeed endothermic (you, probably, observed that the temperature in your beaker dropped down significantly when you did the experiment ...
We are located in Kilcoole, Co. Wicklow, Ireland in our own 10,000 square foot warehouse. We also have a shop on site where you are very welcome to come and discuss your needs or to see the goods first hand ...
Freudestrahlend vernahm ich, das die dm-Lieblinge wieder da sind, zwar zu einem 4x höheren Preis aber sie sind wieder da! ,3 Vergeblich suche ich nun schon seit drei Tagen, in welchem Turnus die Boxen erscheinen werden. Zudem werden nur ausgewählte Newsletter-Kunden über das erscheinen, der jeweils neuen Box informiert… Hier würde ich mir wünschen, das weiterlesen…. ...
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What is the composition of the McIlvaine buffer with pH 7.4? I know that you must mix 0.1 molar citric acid and 0.2 molar disodium phosphate but I dont know the exact amounts to get a pH 7.4 solution. thanks ...
Combine phase A ingredients at room temperature. Premix phase B and add to phase A. Dissolve DHA in water and add it to phase A/B. Mix until uniform. Add phase D and if necessary, adjust pH to 4.0-4.5 using citric acid ...
Hi everyone, Recently I bough an MMS kit (1 Natriumchlorit 25% + 1 citric acid 25%) from Netherlands. Im confused about the dosage! Most videos that Ive...
Esta contagem de "Citado por" inclui cita es dos artigos a seguir no Google Acad mico. As cita es marcadas com * podem ser diferentes do artigo no perfil ...
Esta contagem de "Citado por" inclui cita es dos artigos a seguir no Google Acad mico. As cita es marcadas com * podem ser diferentes do artigo no perfil ...
Esta contagem de "Citado por" inclui cita es dos artigos seguintes no Google Acad mico. As cita es marcadas com * podem ser diferentes do artigo no perfil ...
Calcium citrate malate is a water-soluble calcium supplement. It is the calcium salt of citric acid and malic acid with variable composition. Calcium citrate malates bioavailability stems from its water-solubility and its method of dissolution. When dissolved, it releases calcium ions and a calcium citrate complex. Calcium ions are absorbed directly into intestinal cells, and the citrate complex enters the body through paracellular absorption.[citation needed] Calcium citrate malate is similar to calcium malate and other calcium salts. The European Food Safety Authority has concluded that calcium citrate malate is "slightly more bioavailable" than other forms of calcium supplementation. Calcium citrate malate at Jost Chemical "Calcium citrate malate as source for calcium for use in foods for Particular Nutritional Uses and in foods for the general population (including food supplements)" (PDF). The EFSA Journal. 612: 1-24. 2007. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2007.612Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food ...
Pioneer Herbal is manufacturer of Calcium Citrate Malate (Light) which is a white powder. Natural Herbal Extracts of Calcium Citrate Malate (Light) available
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Lead citrate is a key precursor for the green recycling of spent lead acid battery paste in a citric acid/sodium citrate (CA/SC) solution. In this study, the main paste component, PbSO4, was leached and crystallized to yield lead citrate. Results showed that the leaching of PbSO4 in citric acid/sodium citrate solution was remarkably enhanced by an increase in temperature from 35 °C to 95 °C and an increase in sodium citrate (SC) concentration from 50 to 650 g/L. In comparison, increasing the citric acid/sodium citrate molar ratio inhibited this leaching. Controlled crystallization through cooling the solution or adjusting the pH of the solution can effectively produce lead citrate crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of four products obtained in a comparison test were all consistent with Pb3(C6H5O7)2. However, the scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the morphology was distinct from rods to sheets, which were mainly affected by the temperature variation.
Easy to read patient leaflet for Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. In depth analysis of Magnesium Citrate Market is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers and others. The Magnesium Citrate Market research report is a resource, which provides technical and financial details of the Magnesium Citrate industry.. Browse detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Magnesium Citrate Research Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/global-magnesium-citrate-market-research-report-2016-10334480. To begin with, the report elaborates the Magnesium Citrate market overview. Various definitions and classification of the industry, applications of the industry and chain structure are given. Present day status of the Magnesium Citrate market in key regions is stated and industry policies and news are analysed.. Next part of the Magnesium Citrate market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed ...
The superior ability of citrate excretion in a carrot (Daucus carota L.) mutant cell line, namely IPG (insoluble phosphate grower) [Takita et al. (1999a) Plant Cell Physiol. 40: 489] cells has been characterized in terms of citrate transport at the plasma membrane. IPG cells released about a 20-fold increase in citrate in comparison with malate, while the concentration of malate was only 35% lower than that of citrate in the cell sap. Citrate excretion was sensitive to anion channel blockers, such as niflumic acid and anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These results indicate that IPG cells release citrate through the plasma membrane using citrate specific anion channels. The rate of citrate release from IPG cells was not affected by the concentration of aluminum (0 and 50 µM), soluble Pi (0 or 2 mM) and the pH (4.5-5.6) of the medium, suggesting that anion channels would not be regulated by such external conditions. Citrate excretion correlated with the H+ efflux, possibly from the action of ...
The citrate-induced desorption kinetics of pre-adsorbed Se from montmorillonite (Mt) and its complexes with hydroxyaluminum (HyA-Mt) and hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS-Mt) were studied. The mole fraction of pre-adsorbed Se released in 24 h from different clays followed the trends of Mt ,, HAS-Mt , HyA-Mt with a significant increase with elevated citrate concentration in the desorbing solution. In contrast, the amount of Se adsorbed per unit mass of different clays followed a clear-cut opposite trend of HyA-Mt , HAS-Mt ,, Mt. The Se desorption kinetics in different systems indicated multiple rate characteristics; where an initial fast reaction (0.25-2 h) was followed by a slow reaction (2-16 h). Of the six different kinetic models tested (zero-, first-, and second-order; power function, Elovich, and parabolic diffusion), the second-order rate equation showed the overall best fit to the fast and slow desorption kinetic data from the clays. Based on second-order rate constants, the rates of the mole ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypocitraturia, an important risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, is the result of numerous factors. We studied citrate excretion by patients with and without stones consuming normal and controlled formula diets. S
Calcium Citrate Malate is a readily-soluble form of calcium which is an easily absorbed and well-tolerated form of calcium. Calcium is an essential mineral required for healthy bone formation. Calcium bound to natural fruit acids called citric acid and malic acid results in the calcium compound, Calcium Citrate Malate. This form of calcium has been shown to have a superior benefit compared to many calcium supplements as it allows for 40% more calcium absorption than calcium carbonate or milk. Calcium Citrate Malate is easily digested and absorbed equally well with or without food.. Calcium is the basic bone-building mineral required by the body. Adequate calcium intake every day, over a lifetime, is important for maintaining sufficient bone density as we age and reducing risk for osteoporosis, a progressive bone disease leading to fragile, porous bones. Risk for osteoporosis is also influenced by age, sex, race, exercise, and many other dietary and lifestyle choices. Calcium Citrate Malate is ...
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Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
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Citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [Citric acid cycle. Wikipedia] |br|This biochemical diagram example shows metabolic pathways map of citric acid cycle reactions. |br|This sample was redesigned from the Wikimedia Commons file: TCA cycle.svg. [commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TCA_cycle.svg] |br|This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. [creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en] |br|The metabolic pathway map example Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Citric Acid Cycle
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Looking for dibasic magnesium citrate? Find out information about dibasic magnesium citrate. MgHC6H5O7·5H2O A white or yellowish powder soluble in water; used as a dietary supplement or in medicine Explanation of dibasic magnesium citrate
Introduction. Aim: The aim on my investigation is to find the percentage of citric acid present in lemon squash by using a method of neutralisation, by a method of titration and volumetric analysis. I will be using sodium hydroxide as an alkali, which will be neutralising the citric acid. Background Knowledge: Titration Titration is a technique for investigating the volume of solutions that react together. One solution is placed in a burette and slowly added to a fixed volume of another solution, usually measured with a pipette, until the end point of the reaction is shown using an indicator. Salts can be made by this method by repeating the titration between an acid and alkali using previously measured quantities without using the indicator. Citric acid Citric acid is the acid present in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons. It is commonly used to add a tang to fruit drinks and lemonades. Mixed with sodium hydrogencarbonate (commonly knows as bicarbonate of soda) and sugar, it becomes ...
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Civstallization is an established method used in the initial recovery of organic acids and amino acids, and more widely used for final purification of a diverse range of compounds.. [n citric acid production, the filtered broth is treated with Ca(OH)2 so that the relatively insoluble calcium citrate crystals will be precipitated from solution. Checks are made to ensure that the Ca(OH)2 has a low magnesium content, since magnesium citrate is more soluble and would remain in solution. The calcium citrate is filtered off and treated with sulphuric acid to precipitate the calcium as the insoluble sulphate and release the citric acid. After clarification with active carbon, the aqueous citric acid is evaporated to the point of crystallization (Lockwood and Irwin, 1964; Sodeck et al., 1981; Atkinson and Mavituna, 1991). Crystallization is also used in the recovery of amino acids; Samejima (1972) has reviewed methods for glutamic acid, lysine and other amino acids. The recovery of cephalosporin C as ...
Normal prostate tissue contains high levels of citrate. In the presence of prostate cancer, the citrate level is diminished. In this paper we show that it is possible to use europium-oxytetracycline complex as a citrate fluorescent probe and consequently as a prostate cancer probe. We analyzed normal nude male mice urine and urine from nude male mice in which prostate cancer was induced by intraprostatic inoculation of DU145 cells. The urine samples were collected from the animals at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 35th days after the surgery procedures. The intensity of europium emission at 615 nm in europium-oxytetracycline complex in the presence of citrate increases linearly. The citrate concentrations were determined from a calculated calibration curve. A concentration decrease in malignant prostate urine from the normal (PBS group) urine value from ∼8.0 mM to ∼2.4 mM (tumor group at 35th day) was found. The obtained results indicated that europium-oxytetracycline provides a significant ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1x9j: Structure of Butyrate Kinase 2 Reveals Both Open- and Citrate-Induced Closed Conformations: Implications For Substrate-Induced Fit Conformational Changes
Description: What is Magnesium Citrate? Magnesium is a mineral that can be found in a number of foods and is most prevalent in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, nuts and grains. Benefits of Magnesium Citrate Magnesium contributes to a reduction of tiredness and fatigue and to electrolyte balance. Magnesium contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism and normal functioning of the nervous system. Magnesium contributes to normal psychological function, muscle function and normal protein synthesis. It also contributes to the maintenance of normal bones and teeth and also has a role in the process of cell division. Who is Magnesium Citrate suitable for? For anyone engaged in a long term physical training plan, getting the right dietary balance is absolutely essential. The body requires the right kind of nutrients in order to perform and develop correctly, and whether these come from food or from supplements, they are needed for many purposes. As a dietary supplement we recommend consuming ...
Read the latest Magnesium Citrate by Olympian Labs reviews and find the latest results, side effects and user experiences from eVitamins. Have you taken Magnesium Citrate by Olympian Labs? Submit your own Magnesium Citrate review and let the world know what you think. United Kingdom
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative conservative and is also used to add an acidic or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things.. It is colorless or white crystalline powder and mainly used as an acidulant, flavoring and preservative preservative in foods and beverages. It is also used as an antioxidant, plasticizer and detergent, builder.. Mainly used in the food, beverage trade as the sour flavor agent, flavoring agent, antiseptic as well as an antistaling agent. ...
Then, the subject will undergo a sodium citrate nasal douche at a specific concentration or will douche with sterile water. There will be three concentrations used (3%, 6% and 9%) and a control solution (sterile water). Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the four groups using a coded bottle system. Both patient and tester will be blinded to the solution used as these will be made in the pharmacy and coded for anonymity - the code will be broken at the end of the trial. Subjects will then be retested with the bottles and threshold levels will be observed for the four odours at 15 minute intervals over 2 hours. The purpose of the repeated tests is to determine the length of the effect (if present) of the citrate on the olfactory ability of the patients (NB: sodium citrate is a licensed product for use in body cavities (e.g. stomach, bladder) and can be found in the British National Formulary - the concentrations proposed do not exceed those used elsewhere). ...
PT. Gloria Mitra Niagatama International (GloriaMNI) is a reliable supplier for anticaking agent, citric acid, cocoa powder, cornstarch, dextrose, fructose, glucose, MSG, sodium citrate in Indonesia
10. Appendix. Secondly, Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market report includes, development policies and plans are discussed, manufacturing processes and cost structures. This Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Industry report also states import/export, supply and consumption figures as well as cost, price, Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market gross margin and revenue by Key regions (North America, Europe, Japan, China, South East Asia, India) and other regions can be added.. Enquiry Here: www.marketsnresearch.com/inquiry-for-buying.html?repid=30579. Then, the report pay attention on worldwide Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) that major leading market players in Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) industry area with information such as Company Profile of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market, Sales Volume, Price, Gross Margin of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market and contact information. Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS ...
Sodium Citrate Tube - We are manufacturer and suppliers of Sodium Citrate Blood Tubes, Sodium Citrate Blood Collection Tubes and Blood Collection Tubes
Natural Factors Stress Relax Magnesium Citrate Powder Tropical Drink Mix 8.8oz Stress-RelaxO Magnesium Citrate Tropical Drink Mix is an easy-to-absorb source of magnesium that helps restore normal levels of magnesium and balance calcium intake. Magnesium is essential to the proper functioning of many of the bodys systems such as helping to metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth.* In addition, it supports proper muscle function, relieves stress and promotes overall relaxation and restful sleep. Suggested Usage: Add 1 scoop of powder to 1/2 cup of hot water, strirring well. Add an additional 1/2 cup of cold water or juice and drink once per day or as directed by a health professional. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 Scoop 3.3g Servings Per Container approx 75 Pure High Grade Ionic Magnesium Citrate 300mg 75% Stevia Leaf Powder 15mg** Other Ingredients: Citric Acid, natural tropical flavor (mango, peach, passion fruit).
Chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol is used in the treatment of .get complete information about chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol at 1mg.com
The anion exchange membrane find application in diverse process such as electrodialysis, diffusion analysis, membrane electrolysis, reverse osmosis and membrane fuel cells, which are energy, resource and environment saving. The development of ion-exchange membrane of high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability, which meet growing demand of the aforementioned processes, is of great importance. This paper deals with the determination of the membrane permselectivity coefficient of anion exchange membranes for concentration of citric acid using electrodialysis process. The permselectivity coefficient of three types of commercial anion exchange membranes; Neosepta ACS(Tokuyama, Japan), Neosepta AHA2(Tokuyama, Japan) and 204UZR412(Ionics. Inc., USA) were compared in consideration to the physicochemical data of these membranes published so far are not adequate to their industrial application particularly for citric acid concentration. The permselectivity coefficient is the ability of anion exchange ...
Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.. Science.gov (United States). Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J. 2009-01-01. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g ...
Instructions for use: Squeeze a pea-size amount onto your toothbrush Add water, brush and rinse 3 x 25ml/1.3 fl.oz. Made in Italy Ingredients: Cinnamon Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water/Eau), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Eugenol, Limonene, Cinnamal, Cinnamyl Alcohol, Benzyl Alcohol Ginger Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Benzyl Alcohol Jasmin Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Linalool, Benzyl Alcohol
ENRICHED FLOUR (WHEAT FLOUR, MALTED BARLEY FLOUR, NIACIN, THIAMINE MONONITRATE, RIBOFLAVIN, FOLIC ACID), WATER, SUGAR, SOYBEAN OIL, VEGETABLE OIL (COTTONSEED, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN, AND/OR HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL), YEAST, SALT, APRICOTS (PRESERVED WITH SODIUM SULFITE), WHEY, FOOD STARCH MODIFIED, DEFATTED SOY FLOUR, MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, EXTRACT OF CORN FLOUR AND MALTED BARLEY, LEAVENING (SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE, BAKING SODA), CORN SYRUP,NONFAT MILK, YELLOW CORN FLOUR, SODIUM STEAROYL LACTYLATE, CITRIC ACID , POTASSIUM SORBATE (AS PRESERVATIVES), DATEM, L-LYSENE, EGG YOLK WITH SODIUM SILICOALUMINATE, NATURAL FLAVOR, BHT, CITRIC ACID (PRESERVATIVE), ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, ANNATTO AND TURMERIC EXTRACT COLOR, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, SODIUM CITRATE, MALIC ACID, FD&C YELLOW 5 & 6 ...

Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution Information - Drugs.comPotassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution Information - Drugs.com

Easy to read patient leaflet for Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution. Includes indications, proper use, special ... Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution. Generic Name: Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution (poe TASS ee um SYE trate/ ... If you have an allergy to potassium citrate, citric acid, or any other part of potassium citrate and citric acid solution. ... What are some things I need to know or do while I take Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid Solution?. *Tell all of your health ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cdi/potassium-citrate-and-citric-acid-solution.html

citric acid and potassium citrate - WellSpan Health Librarycitric acid and potassium citrate - WellSpan Health Library

The combination of citric acid and potassium citrate is used to treat or prevent hypokalemia (low levels of... ... Citric acid is an alkalinizing agent that make the urine less acidic. Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is ... What is citric acid and potassium citrate?. Citric acid is an alkalinizing agent that make the urine less acidic. ... What other drugs will affect citric acid and potassium citrate?. The following drugs can interact with citric acid and ...
more infohttps://www.wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=d00439a1

Chemical Database: Citric acid, trisodium salt, compd. with potassium citrate and citric acid, (2:2:1) (EnvironmentalChemistry...Chemical Database: Citric acid, trisodium salt, compd. with potassium citrate and citric acid, (2:2:1) (EnvironmentalChemistry...

with potassium citrate and citric acid, (2:2:1) including: 5 synonyms/identifiers. ... This page contains information on the chemical Citric acid, trisodium salt, compd. ... Citric acid, trisodium salt, compd. with potassium citrate and citric acid, (2:2:1) *Sodium citrate, potassium citrate, citric ... Citric acid, trisodium salt, compd. with potassium citrate and citric acid, (2:2:1) Identifications. *CAS Number: 55049-48-4* ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Citric%A0acid%2C%A0trisodium%A0salt%2C%A0compd.%A0with%A0potassium%A0citrate%A0and%A0citric%A0acid%2C%A0%282%3A2%3A1%29.html

Potassium Citrate: The Contributions of Dr. Charles Pak | Kidney Stone Evaluation And Treatment ProgramPotassium Citrate: The Contributions of Dr. Charles Pak | Kidney Stone Evaluation And Treatment Program

accomplished just with citric acid?. You would care because citric acid is not a sodium or potassium salt but simply the one ... The problem is that citric acid is metabolized in the citric acid cycle, and it would be likely that any you ingested would ... My Urine Citric Acid was 247 (low) on my 24-hr urine collection. I was not drinking my lemon juice during that period and was ... Citric Acid is Ineffective. How would you know if increase of urine citrate really depended on taking alkali or could be ...
more infohttps://kidneystones.uchicago.edu/potassium-citrate-the-contributions-of-charles-pak-md/

Citric acid - WikipediaCitric acid - Wikipedia

The closely related acids isocitric acid, aconitic acid, and propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (tricarballylic acid, carballylic ... Citric acid cycle[edit]. Main article: Citric acid cycle. Citrate is an intermediate in the TCA cycle (aka TriCarboxylic Acid ... Citric acid is commonly used as a buffer to increase the solubility of brown heroin. Single-use citric acid sachets have been ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C. 6H. 8O. 7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrate

Citric Acid | SpringerLinkCitric Acid | SpringerLink

This monograph is devoted to different aspects associated with citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and organic ... Citrate Ions Citric Acid Inorganic Citrates Physical Properties of Citric Acid The Chemistry of Citric Acid ... Mathematical representations of citric acid dissociation, in electrolyte solutions and in buffers are discussed. Citric acid ... This monograph is devoted to different aspects associated with citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and organic ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-11233-6

China citric acid industry - EnglishChina citric acid industry - English

... citric acid industry has seen a fast growth in China before 2008 due to increasingdemand from both … ... China Citric Acid Market and ProductionAs the natural acid, ... China citric acid industry * 1. China Citric Acid Market and ... Brief introduction to citric acid industry Introduction to key raw materials of citric acid Supply and demand of citric acid ... 1 Brief introduction to citric acid industry 41.1 Development of citric acid in China 41.2 Government policy toward citric acid ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/linda3395/china-citric-acid-market-and-production

Category:Citric acid cycle - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Citric acid cycle - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Citric acid cycle". The following 180 files are in this category, out of 180 total. ... ciclo de Krebs (es); Sítrónsýruhringur (is); Kitar Krebs (ms); citric acid cycle (en-gb); د سېټريک اسيد څرخ (ps); Цикъл на ... Citric acid cycle with aconitate 2 zh-hans.svg 1,335 × 1,062; 368 KB. ... Citric acid cycle with aconitate 2 cs.svg 1,335 × 1,062; 353 KB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Citric_acid_cycle

Citric acid, tripentyl esterCitric acid, tripentyl ester

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C21H38O7/c1-4-7-10-13-26-18

Citric acid - WikipediaCitric acid - Wikipedia

The closely related acids isocitric acid, aconitic acid, and propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (tricarballylic acid, carballylic ... Citric acid cycleEdit. Main article: Citric acid cycle. Citrate is an intermediate in the TCA cycle (aka TriCarboxylic Acid ... For vitamin C, see ascorbic acid.. Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C. 6H. 8O. 7. It occurs ... Citric acid is commonly used as a buffer to increase the solubility of brown heroin. Single-use citric acid sachets have been ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid

RhymeZone: citric acid cycle definitionsRhymeZone: citric acid cycle definitions

Search for Citric acid cycle at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. Help ... Definitions of Citric acid cycle: *noun: in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving ...
more infohttp://www.rhymezone.com/r/d=citric_acid_cycle

CITRIC ACID || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGCITRIC ACID || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Citric acid is naturally found in ci ... read more. About CITRIC ACID: Citric acid is an alpha hydroxy acid used in personal ... ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACID; CITRIC ACID, ANHYDROUS; MONOHYDRATE CITRIC ACID; 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY-; 2-HYDROXY- ... About CITRIC ACID: Citric acid is an alpha hydroxy acid used in personal care products to adjust the acidity or promote skin ... Citric acid is naturally found in citric fruits and juices, providing the characteristic acidic taste. ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701385/CITRIC_ACID/

Citric Acid (Acidum Citricum)Citric Acid (Acidum Citricum)

CITRIC ACID, H3C6H1O7, H1O=200. This acid occurs in many plants and acidulous fruits, especially in those belonging to ... Citric Acid (Acidum Citricum). ACIDUM CITRICUM - CITRIC ACID, H3C6H1O7, H1O=200.. This acid occurs in many plants and acidulous ... Citric acid is readily absorbed by the stomach and intestines, and is excreted in part by the kidneys in the urine in ... According to Bence Jones and Eylandt, the acidity of urine is increased by citric, as it is by tartaric acid, and a deposit of ...
more infohttps://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Materia-Medica-Therapeutics-Inorganic-Substances/Citric-Acid-Acidum-Citricum.html

Citric acid urine test: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCitric acid urine test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Citric acid urine test measures the level of citric acid in urine. ... citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... Citric acid urine test measures the level of citric acid in urine. ... A low level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003618.htm

Does Citric Acid Conduct Electricity? | Reference.comDoes Citric Acid Conduct Electricity? | Reference.com

This is because it is an example of a weak acid, which breaks down in water... ... Citric acid is not a good conductor of electricity. ... On the pH scale, citric acid is a 4, and hydrochloric acid is ... Citric acid is not a good conductor of electricity. This is because it is an example of a weak acid, which breaks down in water ... Citric acid only produces relatively few ions, making it a weak conductor for electricity. On the other hand, strong acids ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/citric-acid-conduct-electricity-93b4732332f46a45

Do bananas contain citric acid? | Reference.comDo bananas contain citric acid? | Reference.com

They are safe for people with citric acid sensitivities to consume although they can cause reactions in people who are allergic ... Where does the citric acid cycle take place?. A: The citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria in cells. ... What fruits contain citric acid?. A: Citric acid is primarily found in citrus fruits, especially lemons and limes. The amount ... What is the PH of citric acid?. A: The pH of citric acid is 2.2. pH measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance or ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/food/bananas-contain-citric-acid-1601b2fdb41814b0

Citric Acid & Canning Fruits | Garden GuidesCitric Acid & Canning Fruits | Garden Guides

Though most fruit has some acid, a specific pH balance is required to kill harmful bacteria that can cause food poisoning. ... Citric acid is often added when canning fruits at home so that the preserved fruit is safe to eat. ... Citric acid is often used when canning fruits with a low acid content. Acid is required to kill botulinum spores that can cause ... require a boost from citric acid.. Function. Citric acid is used to bring canned fruits pH level to below 4.6, which is the ...
more infohttps://www.gardenguides.com/104026-citric-acid-canning-fruits.html

Citric Acid?Citric Acid?

Is it from citric fruits or from animals? I am noticing that Citric Acid is in fruit lollies which are a natural lolly so Im ... orange or grapefruit and Citric Acid is also in Vegetable can soups where all vegetables are in it. I find this acid is be ... Could someone be able to elaborate more for me in regards to what Citric Acid is please? ... Citric Acid? Could someone be able to elaborate more for me in regards to what Citric Acid is please? Is it from citric fruits ...
more infohttp://www.veganforum.com/forums/showthread.php?19915-Citric-Acid&s=2d9f52a2ebe031b49c5402eb8c7d0a0c

Citric Acid (for Mozzarella & Ricotta)Citric Acid (for Mozzarella & Ricotta)

One 8oz bag provides enough citric acid for up to 30 batches of Mozzarella and/or Ricotta! ... Produce your own delicious Mozzarella and Ricotta with our non-GMO citric acid! ... CITRIC ACID. Citric acid (sometimes referred to as sour salt) exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables. It is used as a ... Citric Acid is used for making the 30 Minute Mozzarella and Ricotta Cheeses.. CONTAINS: Citric Acid (Non-GMO Corn based). ...
more infohttps://www.cheesemaking.com/shop/citric-acid.html

Citric Acid in Apple Browning | LIVESTRONG.COMCitric Acid in Apple Browning | LIVESTRONG.COM

Citric Acid. Citric acid can be purchased at drug stores and some supermarkets. If youre shopping at the supermarket, look for ... Dip each apple slice in the citric acid solution.. Commercial Products. If you cannot locate citric acid or would prefer a ... Often stocked alongside canning products, these powders typically contain either citric acid or ascorbic acid, along with sugar ... Citric Acid in Apple Browning by MICHELLE POWELL-SMITH Oct. 03, 2017. ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/529386-citric-acid-in-apple-browning/

NOW Citric Acid at Netrition.com.NOW Citric Acid at Netrition.com.

NOW Citric Acid is a food grade acid that is present in many natural foods. It can be used to reduce spoilage in sprouting by ... Powdered citric acid can be added to dry foods when you want a sour flavor. Citric acid is a dry alternative to lemon juice or ... Citric acids acidic pH makes it useful as a preservative. Citric acid is added to jams, jellies, candy, canned foods and meat ... Citric Acid is useful in sprouting, canning, drying or freezing. NOW Citric Acid can be used to preserve Vitamin C content, ...
more infohttps://www.netrition.com/now_citric_acid.html

citric acid and sodium citrate | Cignacitric acid and sodium citrate | Cigna

The combination of citric acid and sodium citrate is used to prevent gout or kidney stones, or metabolic acidosis in people ... Citric acid and sodium citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in... ... Citric acid and sodium citrate are both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less acidic. ... What is citric acid and sodium citrate?. Citric acid and sodium citrate are both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/individuals-families/health-wellness/hw/medications/citric-acid-and-sodium-citrate-d03952a1

Nomination Summary for Citric acid (N81353)Nomination Summary for Citric acid (N81353)

Nomination Summary for Nomination Summary for Citric acid (N81353). Nomination Summary for Citric acid (N81353). Nominated ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/getinvolved/nominate/summary/nm-n81353.html

citric acid and sodium citratecitric acid and sodium citrate

The combination of citric acid and sodium citrate is used to prevent gout or kidney stones, or metabolic acidosis in people ... Citric acid and sodium citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in... ... Citric acid and sodium citrate are both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less acidic. ... What is citric acid and sodium citrate?. Citric acid and sodium citrate are both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less ...
more infohttps://www.adventisthealthcare.com/health/library/topic/?id=d03952a1

Alfa Aesar™ Citric acid, 99+%Alfa Aesar™ Citric acid, 99+%

citric acid, citric acid, anhydrous, citro, anhydrous citric acid, citrate, aciletten, citretten, chemfill, hydrocerol a, 1,2,3 ... citric acid, citric acid, anhydrous, citro, anhydrous citric acid, citrate, aciletten, citretten, chemfill, hydrocerol a, 1,2,3 ... citric acid, citric acid, anhydrous, citro, anhydrous citric acid, citrate, aciletten, citretten, chemfill, hydrocerol a, 1,2,3 ... Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/citric-acid-99-6/p-7080737
  • Citric acid is a food preservative that is sold as a powder and mixed with water to create a syrup solution that you can then add to fruit before sealing the cans. (gardenguides.com)
  • Citric acid is added to jams, jellies, candy, canned foods and meat products as a preservative. (netrition.com)
  • Read labels carefully, since citric acid may be used as a preservative in many more foods than you might expect. (wisegeek.org)
  • Citric acid is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. (hmdb.ca)
  • Citric acid was added as an edible preservative to increase the thermal stability of C-phycocyanin extracted from A. platensis , followed by incubation at 80 °C for 1 h. (springer.com)
  • The use of citric acid as an edible preservative increased the stability of C-phycocyanin in high thermal processing applications and extraction. (springer.com)
  • After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with lime (calcium hydroxide) to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid. (veganforum.com)
  • Citric acid results from the three carboxide groups and it's ion is a citrate ion. (creationwiki.org)
  • The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from the citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid, often called citrate, as the ionized form predominates at biological pH) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a schematic outline of the cycle: The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the final common pathway for oxidation - in other words harvesting high energy electrons--fuel molecules such as carbohydrate fatty acids, and amino acids by entering the cycle as Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA). (wikibooks.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA may also be obtained from the oxidation of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This biochemical chart display how proteins, polysaccharides and fats from food are digested into gastrointestinal tract into aminoacids, monosaccharides and fatty acids, and then broken down and oxidized to carbon dioxide and water in cellular processes of energy generation. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Apr 24, 2017· Pure citric acid is available as a crystalline powder at gourmet cooking stores. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Nov 16, 2017· Citric Acid: The Recap Let's recap the main points you need to know about citric acid. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Citric acid is an alpha hydroxy acid used in personal care products to adjust the acidity or promote skin peeling and re-growth in the case of anti-aging products. (ewg.org)
  • According to Bence Jones and Eylandt, the acidity of urine is increased by citric, as it is by tartaric acid, and a deposit of free uric acid may be induced by it. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Wine makers aim for a pH of 3.5 which equates to 0.6% acidity and which is equivalent to 6g of citric acid/litre of water, or 2 lemons/litre of water. (homedistiller.org)
  • A pH of 5.0 equates to 0.4% acidity and is equivalent to 4g of citric acid/litre of water, or 1 large lemon/litre of water. (homedistiller.org)
  • This monograph is devoted to different aspects associated with citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and organic solutions. (springer.com)
  • It includes information about properties, occurrence and technological applications of citric acid and inorganic citrates. (springer.com)
  • They are safe for people with citric acid sensitivities to consume although they can cause reactions in people who are allergic to latex. (reference.com)
  • Citric acid can cause many different allergic reactions in different people. (creationwiki.org)
  • The definition for the citric acid cycle generally is a series of chemicals reactions in a cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. (creationwiki.org)
  • Therefore, the pyruvate dehydrogenase relates to the reactions of the citric acid cycle itself. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other biochemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-the-counter solutions of citric acid are generally offered at low concentrations, so they are more safe. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • In one reaction, called oxidation, the acid begins to remove the zinc atoms from the zinc. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • An aqueous ammoniated citric acid cleaning solution effectively cleans metal parts at room temperature. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • The solution is prepared by diluting a concentrated aqueous citric acid solution containing between 1-10 % ammoniation, the concentrated solution being prepared in a special way. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Powdered citric acid can be added to dry foods when you want a sour flavor. (netrition.com)
  • This is citric acid, which adds an exterior coating to the candies and provides quite a bit of sour taste. (wisegeek.org)
  • Sour salt, used in cooking, is citric acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In biochemistry , it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle , which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric acid forms a vital part of human metabolism and is present in every human body. (reference.com)
  • Citric acid is used in the process of metabolism in the humans, animals and plants. (creationwiki.org)
  • Moreover, citric acid is found to be associated with maple syrup urine disease, primary hypomagnesemia, propionic acidemia, and tyrosinemia I, which are inborn errors of metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • A. P. Il'chenko, O. G. Cherniavskaia, N. V. Shishkanova, and T. V. Finogenova, "Metabolism of Yarrowia lipolytica grown on ethanol under conditions promoting the production of alpha-ketoglutaric and citric acids: a comparative study of the central metabolism enzymes," Mikrobiologiya , vol. 71, pp. 269-274, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications. (fishersci.ca)
  • Citric acid is widely used since it is a nontoxic substance that is easily stored. (creationwiki.org)
  • The citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria in cells. (reference.com)
  • By acting as the first stage of cellular respiration, the generation of high energy electrons from the citric acid cycle, in turn, are used in oxidative phosphorylation to reduce O 2 , generate proton gradient, and, later, the synthesis of ATP. (wikibooks.org)
  • The NADH generated by the citric acid cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NADH and FADH2 generated by the citric acid cycle are, in turn, used by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway to generate energy-rich ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Good lemon-juice yields from 2 1/2 to 10 per cent, of citric acid, the quantity varying because it decreases in proportion to the time that the lemons are kept, and it may quite disappear, separating into glucose, carbonic anhydride, and some acetic acid . (chestofbooks.com)
  • It is also obtained by fermentation of glucose (citric acid cycle) and by synthesis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • I am noticing that Citric Acid is in fruit lollies which are a natural lolly so Im presuming its from a lemon, orange or grapefruit and Citric Acid is also in Vegetable can soups where all vegetables are in it. (veganforum.com)
  • Mathematical representations of citric acid dissociation, in electrolyte solutions and in buffers are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Placing a strong electrolyte into a solution such as citric acid will increase its conductivity because solutions that contain large amounts of electrolytes produce more ions. (reference.com)
  • One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is decarboxylated by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase generating acetyl-CoA according to the following reaction scheme: CH3C(=O)C(=O)O−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3C(=O)SCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2 The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the starting point for the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1917, American food chemist James Currie discovered certain strains of the mold Aspergillus niger could be efficient citric acid producers, and the pharmaceutical company Pfizer began industrial-level production using this technique two years later, followed by Citrique Belge in 1929. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American food chemist James Currie, in 1917, discovered that the mold , aspergillus niger , had certain strains that could be used for the production of citric acid. (creationwiki.org)
  • Though most fruit has some acid, a specific pH balance is required to kill harmful bacteria that can cause food poisoning. (gardenguides.com)
  • Citric acid helps kill those bacteria. (gardenguides.com)
  • Components of the citric acid cycle were derived from anaerobic bacteria, and the TCA cycle itself may have evolved more than once. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is washed with hot water (it would dissolve in cold), and then treated with sulphuric acid, which forms sulphate of calcium (to be removed by filtration), and the solution concentrated at a moderate temperature, to allow citric acid to crystallize out. (chestofbooks.com)
  • the citric acid can be recovered from its calcium salt by adding sulfuric acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While citric acid powder is a lung irritant and causes coughing when inhaled, the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology does not recognize citric acid as an ingested allergen. (reference.com)
  • Citric acid is used in soft drinks and in laxatives and cathartics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You can use lemon juice can as an alternative, however citric acid is usually more effective. (gardenguides.com)
  • Citric acid is a dry alternative to lemon juice or vinegar in dry foods. (netrition.com)
  • Dipping a piece of rusty iron into the citric acid solution starts the reaction. (steunmijnclub.nl)