Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)MalatesOxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.IsocitratesAluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.SulfonesAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Coenzyme ADicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aconitic AcidRanitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.PyruvatesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dicarboxylic AcidsCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexAnticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.PiperazinesLigases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phosphofructokinases: Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Burns, ChemicalGlutaratesHexosediphosphatesAcidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.GluconatesEye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.TartratesPhosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.FructosephosphatesCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.HexosephosphatesMalonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Medullary Sponge Kidney: A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)MalonatesBisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)ButanonesHemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Adenine NucleotidesEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Bartonella: A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)

Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation. (1/1622)

Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (2/1622)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Imaging experimental intraabdominal abscesses with 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG. (3/1622)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of technetium-99m-labeled polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes (99mTc-PEG liposomes) and technetium-99m-labeled nonspecific human immunoglobulin G (99mTc-HYNIC IgG) for the scintigraphic detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses in comparison with that of a standard agent, gallium-67 citrate. BACKGROUND: Scintigraphic imaging techniques can be very useful for the rapid and accurate localization of intraabdominal abscesses. Two newly developed radiolabeled agents, 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, have shown to be excellent agents for imaging experimental focal infection, but have not yet been studied in the detection of abdominal abscesses. METHODS: Intraabdominal abscesses were induced in 42 rats using the cecal ligation and puncture technique. Seven days later, randomized groups of rats received 99mTc-PEG liposomes, 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, or 67Ga citrate intravenously. The rats were imaged up to 24 hours after the injection. The biodistribution of the radiolabel was determined by counting dissected tissues ex vivo. Macroscopic intraabdominal abnormalities and focal uptake on the images were independently scored on a semiquantitative scale. RESULTS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes provided the earliest scintigraphic visualization of the abscess (as soon as 2 hours after the injection vs. 4 hours for the other two agents). Liposomes, IgG, and gallium all showed similarly high absolute uptake in the abscess. Focal uptake of liposomes and gallium correlated best with the extent of the macroscopic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG performed at least as well as the standard agent, 67Ga citrate, in the detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses, with obvious advantages such as lower radiation exposure and more favorable physical properties. Of the two technetium agents, the liposomes seemed to be superior, providing the earliest diagnostic image and the best correlation with the inflammatory abnormalities. In addition, the preferential localization of radiolabeled PEG liposomes holds promise for targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated drugs.  (+info)

Metabolic behaviour and cleavage capacity in the amphibian egg. (4/1622)

During the winter season the full grown Bufo arenarum oocyte shows the metabolic behaviour characteristic of differentiated tissues of the same species. Due to seasonal variations, during the amplexus period, it acquires the metabolic behaviour of the segmenting egg. Short-time-induced ovulations (5-6 h) determine germinal vesicle breakdown immediately before the expulsion of the oocyte, without modifying the ovarian metabolism of the same. The incidence of the operative type of metabolism upon their capacity to cleave after insemination and needle pricking, has been studied in coelomic oocytes, which have attained nuclear maturation and have not experienced oviducal secretion effects. The results obtained indicate that the segmenting capacity of the egg is attained only when, through biochemical modifications, the oocyte acquires the metabolic behaviour characterizing embryonic cells. It is postulated that the metabolic changes observed in the oocyte constitue a fundamental aspect of cytoplasmic maturation.  (+info)

Differences in phosphofructokinase regulation in normal and tumor rat thyroid cells. (5/1622)

The kinetic and molecular properties of a phosphofructokinase derived from a transplantable rat thyroid tumor lacking regulatory control on the glycolytic pathway were studied. The properties of the near-purified enzyme (specific activity 140 units/mg) were compared with those of phosphofructokinase from normal rat thyroid (specific activity 134 units/mg). The electrophoretic mobilities and gel elution behavior of these two enzymes were almost similar. The thyroid tumor phosphofructokinase showed, however, a greater degree of size and/or shape heterogeneity in the presence of ATP than the normal thyroid enzyme, as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Kinetic studies below pH 7.4 showed a sigmoid response curve for both enzymes when the velocity was determined at 1 mM ATP with varying levels of fructose-6-P. The interaction coefficient, however, was 4.2 and 2.6 for normal and tumor thyroid phosphofructokinase, respectively. Ammonium sulfate decreased the cooperative interactions with the substrate fructose-6-P in both enzymes. The thyroid tumor enzyme, however, was less sensitive to the inhibition by ATP and by citrate. The reversal of citrate inhibition by cyclic 3':5'-adenosine monophosphate was also less effective with the thyroid tumor phosphofructokinase, while the protective effect of fructose-6-P was stronger. The difference in citrate inhibition between tumor and normal thyroid enzyme was not strongly affected by varying the MgCl2 concentration up to 10 mM. It is concluded that the complex allosteric regulation typical of the normal thyroid phosphofructokinase is still present in the enzyme isolated from the thyroid tumor tissue. The latter, however, is more loosely controlled by its physiological effectors, such as ATP, citrate, and cyclic AMP.  (+info)

Myositis ossificans demonstrated by positive gallium-67 and technetium-99m-HMDP bone imaging but negative technetium-99m-MIBI imaging. (6/1622)

Gallium-67-citrate and 99mTc-diphosphate bone imaging agents are localized in myositis ossificans, a tumor-like benign soft-tissue mass that makes it impossible to differentiate between malignant tumor and the infection/inflammatory process. We present such a myositis ossificans patient whose bone and 67Ga-citrate imagings showed increased uptake in the left thigh and two foci of the right gluteal region leading to inconclusive results. Technetium-99m-MIBI imaging showed the absence of substantial uptake in these regions. ACT scan confirmed myositis ossificans. The lack of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in myositis ossificans means that 99mTc-MIBI imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis.  (+info)

Radiation exposure from gallium-67-citrate patients. (7/1622)

OBJECTIVE: Serial monitoring of patients was performed to determine the radiation exposure contributed by patients injected with 67Ga-citrate to their surroundings. Radiology and nursing staff distance exposure estimates were made for various patient care tasks and imaging tests. METHODS: Fifteen adult patients were surveyed early (mean 4.3 min) and 11 of the 15 were surveyed at 3 d (mean 68.8 h) postinjection. The standard adult lymphoma imaging activity of 333-407 MBq (9-11 mCi) resulted in a range of 3.7-8.1 MBq/kg (0.1-0.22 mCi/kg). Dose rate measurements were made in the anterior, posterior, and left and right lateral projections at the level of the umbilicus, at distances of patient's surface and at 30.5 cm and 100 cm with a calibrated ion chamber. Time of contact-routine task analyses also were obtained for nursing and radiology personnel. Using a radiation survey-derived biexponential pharmacokinetic relationship, radiation exposures were determined for hospital personnel and family members at various times after injection. RESULTS: Based on the study population survey results, the mean instantaneous exposures (microSv/h) for an administered activity of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 67Ga-citrate were determined. The task analyses revealed the maximum patient contact time for any procedure performed at a distance equal to, or less than, 30.5 cm was 30 min. CONCLUSION: The quantitation of radiation exposure scenarios from 67Ga-citrate patients has determined that no special precautions are necessary for medical personnel when performing routine tasks associated with these patients.  (+info)

Randomised trial of two pharmacological methods of bowel preparation for day case colonoscopy. (8/1622)

AIMS: To undertake a prospective, single blind, randomised trial comparing the efficacy and tolerance of two outpatient colonoscopy bowel preparation regimens. METHODS: Patients aged between 18 months and 16 years being admitted for day case colonoscopy were allocated randomly to receive either Picolax (an oral, sugar free powder containing sodium picosulphate 10 mg/sachet with magnesium citrate) and clear fluids or bisacodyl tablets with an unrestricted diet and a phosphate enema just before colonoscopy. Patient compliance, bowel frequency, and associated symptoms were recorded, and the adequacy of the bowel preparation was assessed in a blinded manner. RESULTS: 63 of 66 patients completed the trial. Mean age, mean weight, extent of colonoscopy, and distribution of underlying pathology were similar in both groups. Bowel preparation was good or excellent in all of the patients in the Picolax group (n = 32) compared with 22 patients in the bisacodyl/phosphate enema group (n = 31). The latter group experienced more abdominal discomfort during bowel preparation but three of the Picolax group vomited and the lack of solid food distressed some children. CONCLUSIONS: All bowel preparation methods have limitations and unpleasant side effects but the use of Picolax and clear fluids proved superior to bisacodyl tablets and a phosphate enema in children undergoing day case colonoscopy.  (+info)

*Citrate synthase

Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... Citrate synthase is commonly used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Citrate synthase ... The enzyme citrate synthase [E.C. 2.3.3.1 (previously 4.1.3.7)] exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making ... Citrate synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...

*Caffeine citrate

It is a citrate salt of caffeine. Caffeine citrate is in the xanthine family of medication. It works by stimulating the ... Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i. ... Caffeine citrate, sold under the trade name Cafcit among others, is a medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature ... Caffeine citrate functions in much the same capacity as does caffeine, but takes effect more quickly; its speed of dissociation ...

*Trisodium citrate

Sodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda. Sodium citrate is common as an ingredient in ... Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. It is sometimes referred to simply as sodium citrate, though sodium ... The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting ... Sodium Citrate can be used as an emulsifier when making cheese. It allows the cheese to melt without becoming greasy. As a ...

*Triethyl citrate

... is also used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastics. Triethyl citrate has been ... Triethyl citrate at Sigma-Aldrich Record of Triethyl citrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational ... Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive (E number E1505) to ... Effect of Eco-Friendly Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer". Biomacromolecules. 5 (6): 2281-2288. doi:10.1021/bm049690f. PMID 15530043 ...

*Monocalcium citrate

Calcium citrate Dicalcium citrate Food Additives in Europe 2000, pp. 322-324, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2002 ISBN 928930829X ... Monocalcium citrate is a compound with formula C12H14CaO14. It is a calcium acid salt of citric acid. It is used as a firming ...

*Dicalcium citrate

... is a compound with formula C6H6CaO7. It is a calcium acid salt of citric acid. Calcium citrate Monocalcium ... citrate Food Additives in Europe 2000, pp. 322-324, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2002 ISBN 928930829X.. ...

*Monosodium citrate

... , more correctly, sodium dihydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid. Disodium citrate and trisodium ... Monosodium citrate is used as an anticoagulant in donated blood. Clinical Hematology: Theory and Procedures, Mary Louise ... citrate are also known. It can be prepared by partial neutralisation of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate or carbonate ...

*Lithium citrate

... (Li3C6H5O7) is a chemical compound of lithium and citrate that is used as a mood stabilizer in psychiatric ... Lithium citrate was removed from 7Up in 1948. Medication description Medical use Archived 2006-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. ... Lithia water contains various lithium salts, including the citrate. An early version of Coca-Cola available in pharmacies' soda ... when it was formulated in 1929 because it contained lithium citrate. The beverage was a patent medicine marketed as a cure for ...

*Citrate dehydratase

In enzymology, a citrate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction citrate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate hydro-lyase (cis-aconitate-forming). This enzyme is also called citrate ... rightleftharpoons } cis-aconitate + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, citrate, and two products, cis-aconitate and H2O ...

*Calcium citrate

... is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Citracal). Calcium makes up 24.1% of calcium citrate ( ... Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, ... 3 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 C6H8O7(l) → Ca3(C6H5O7)2(s) + 6 H2O(l) The calcium citrate thus produced may be sold as-is, or it may be ... Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fermentation process by which citric acid is ...

*Disodium citrate

... , more properly, disodium hydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid with the chemical formula Na2C6H6O7 ... Disodium citrate may be used in patients to alleviate discomfort from urinary tract infections.[medical citation needed] " ... "Alkarate from Macleods: Disodium Hydrogen Citrate". drugsupdate.com. "OTC Treatment". ...

*Potassium citrate

P5675 Medscape on hypocitraturia Potassium Citrate for Kidney Stones Potassium Citrate "Potassium citrate for cystitis". ... Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. ... Potassium citrate is rapidly absorbed when given by mouth and is excreted in the urine. Since it is an alkaline salt it is ... Potassium citrate is an effective way to treat/manage gout and arrhythmia[medical citation needed], if the patient is ...

*Sodium citrate

... may refer to any of the sodium salts of citrate (though most commonly the third): Monosodium citrate Disodium ... citrate Trisodium citrate The three forms of the salt are collectively known by the E number E331. Sodium citrates are used as ...

*Citrate test

The citrate test detects the ability of an organism to use citrate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacteria are ... Use of citrate involves the enzyme citrase, which breaks down citrate to oxaloacetate and acetate. Oxaloacetate is further ... Bacterial colonies are picked up from a straight wire and inoculated into slope of Simmons citrate agar and incubated overnight ... Examples: Escherichia coli: Negative Klebsiella pneumoniae: Positive Frateuria aurantia: Positive Inoculate Simmons citrate ...

*Magnesium citrate

... is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid in a 1:1 ratio (1 magnesium atom per citrate ... Magnesium citrate, as a supplement in pill form, is useful for the prevention of kidney stones. Magnesium citrate is generally ... As a food additive, magnesium citrate is used to regulate acidity and is known as E number E345. Magnesium citrate works by ... magnesium citrate. Cerner Multum. Drugs.com. 12 April 2009. Saline laxatives. MedicineNet. Magnesium citrate Patient Advice. ...

*Citrate (Re)-synthase

... citrate synthase, Re-citrate-synthase, and citrate oxaloacetate-lyase [(pro-3R)-CH2COO-->acetyl-CoA]. Dittbrenner S, Chowdhury ... Gottschalk G, Barker HA (1966). "Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri. A new type of citrate synthase". ... citrate + CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, H2O, and oxaloacetate, whereas its two products are citrate and ... In enzymology, a citrate (Re)-synthase (EC 2.3.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + H2O + ...

*Citrate CoA-transferase

In enzymology, a citrate CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + citrate ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:citrate CoA-transferase. This enzyme participates in citrate cycle (tca ... the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and citrate, whereas its two products are acetate and (3S)-citryl-CoA. This ... cycle). Dimroth P, Loyal R, Eggerer H (1977). "Characterization of the isolated transferase subunit of citrate lyase as a CoA- ...

*Calcium citrate malate

... at Jost Chemical "Calcium citrate malate as source for calcium for use in foods for Particular ... Calcium citrate malate is a water-soluble calcium supplement. It is the calcium salt of citric acid and malic acid with ... Calcium citrate malate's bioavailability stems from its water-solubility and its method of dissolution. When dissolved, it ... The European Food Safety Authority has concluded that calcium citrate malate is "slightly more bioavailable" than other forms ...

*Apocholate citrate agar

The name comes for apocholate and citrate in agar. 1959 Jan;174(1-2):75-80. Apocholate citrate agar for isolation of Shigella ... Apocholate Citrate Agar or ACA is a selective environment used to isolate Shigella and Salmonella bacteria. ...

*Iron(III) citrate

ferric ammonium citrate ferrous citrate Sigma-Aldrich: Product Specification - Iron(III) citrate, technical grade. Accessed on ... Ferric citrate or iron(III) citrate is an ionic chemical compound with formula FeC 6H 5O 7, consisting of a trivalent iron ... Ferric citrates play important roles in the metabolism of iron by living organisms. Citrate anions are released by plant roots ... and form soluble ferric citrates that can be absorbed by the organism. Ferric citrate easily forms coordination complexs, ...

*Ammonium ferric citrate

... has a range of uses, including: As a food additive, where it has the E number E381, and is used as an ... Ammonium ferric citrate has the formula (NH4)5[Fe(C6H4O7)2]. A distinguishing feature of this compound is that it is very ... In medical imaging, ammonium ferric citrate is used as a contrast medium. As a hematinic. Food additive List of food additives ... soluble in water, in contrast to ferric citrate which is not very soluble. In its crystal structure each citric acid moiety has ...

*Citrate lyase deacetylase

In enzymology, a citrate lyase deacetylase (EC 3.1.2.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction [citrate (pro-3S)- ... This enzyme is also called [citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase] thiolesterase. Giffhorn F, Rode H, Kuhn A, Gottschalk G (1980). "Citrate ... citrate (pro-3S)-lyase](acetyl form)]] and H2O, whereas its two products are [[[citrate (pro-3S)-lyase](thiol form)]] and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is [citrate-(pro-3S)-lyase](acetyl-form) hydrolase. ...

*Simmons' citrate agar

... is used for differentiating gram-negative bacteria on the basis of citrate utilization.[dead link] It is ... Organisms growing on Simmons' citrate agar are capable of using citrate as the sole carbon source and they can metabolize the ... The medium contains citrate, ammonium ions, and other inorganic ions needed for growth. It also contains bromothymol blue, a pH ... Organisms degrading citrate must also use the ammonium salts, producing ammonia, thus increasing the pH of the medium. The ...

*Citrate-CoA ligase

In enzymology, a citrate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + citrate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... citrate:CoA ligase, and citrate thiokinase. This enzyme participates in citric acid cycle. Lill U, Schreil A, Eggerer H (1982 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is citrate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include citryl-CoA ... Aoshima M, Ishii M, Igarashi Y (2004). "A novel enzyme, citryl-CoA synthetase, catalysing the first step of the citrate ...

*ATP citrate lyase

... citrate lyase catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and orthophosphate: citrate + ATP + CoA ... "Entrez Gene: ATP citrate lyase". Guay C, Madiraju SR, Aumais A, Joly E, Prentki M (December 2007). "A role for ATP-citrate ... ATP citrate lyase is an enzyme that in animals represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. ATP citrate lyase is ... ATP-citrate lyase is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of citrate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, along with ...
Looking for anticoagulant sodium citrate solution? Find out information about anticoagulant sodium citrate solution. in chemistry, homogeneous mixture mixture, in chemistry, a physical combination of two or more pure substances . A mixture is distinguished from a compound,... Explanation of anticoagulant sodium citrate solution
The "Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market" Report offers an inclusive and decision-making overview, including definitions, classifications and its applications. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is anticipated to reflect a positive growth trend in forthcoming years. The essential driving forces behind the growth and popularity of Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is analysed detailed in this report.. The "Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report" further describes detailed information about tactics and strategies used by leading key companies in the Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate industry. It also gives an extensive study about different market segments and regions.. Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report Provides Comprehensive Analysis as Following: • Market segments and sub- ...
10. Appendix. Secondly, Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market report includes, development policies and plans are discussed, manufacturing processes and cost structures. This Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Industry report also states import/export, supply and consumption figures as well as cost, price, Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market gross margin and revenue by Key regions (North America, Europe, Japan, China, South East Asia, India) and other regions can be added.. Enquiry Here: www.marketsnresearch.com/inquiry-for-buying.html?repid=30579. Then, the report pay attention on worldwide Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) that major leading market players in Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) industry area with information such as Company Profile of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market, Sales Volume, Price, Gross Margin of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market and contact information. Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS ...
Lead citrate is a key precursor for the green recycling of spent lead acid battery paste in a citric acid/sodium citrate (CA/SC) solution. In this study, the main paste component, PbSO4, was leached and crystallized to yield lead citrate. Results showed that the leaching of PbSO4 in citric acid/sodium citrate solution was remarkably enhanced by an increase in temperature from 35 °C to 95 °C and an increase in sodium citrate (SC) concentration from 50 to 650 g/L. In comparison, increasing the citric acid/sodium citrate molar ratio inhibited this leaching. Controlled crystallization through cooling the solution or adjusting the pH of the solution can effectively produce lead citrate crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of four products obtained in a comparison test were all consistent with Pb3(C6H5O7)2. However, the scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the morphology was distinct from rods to sheets, which were mainly affected by the temperature variation.
anticoagulant sodium citrate & anticoagulant sodium citrate online Wholesalers - choose anticoagulant sodium citrate from 513 list of China anticoagulant sodium citrate Manufacturers.
anticoagulant sodium citrate & anticoagulant sodium citrate online Wholesalers - choose anticoagulant sodium citrate from 513 list of China anticoagulant sodium citrate Manufacturers.
sodium citrate food grade & sodium citrate food grade online Wholesalers - choose sodium citrate food grade from 478 list of China sodium citrate food grade Manufacturers.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ 1mol_l_ tri_ Sodium Citrate Solution \ 05568-24 for more molecular products just contact us
China Food Grade Sodium Citrate, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Citrate from Food Grade Sodium Citrate - Hugestone Enterprise Co., Ltd.
China Sodium Citrate Dehydrate/Anhydrous, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Citrate from Sodium Citrate Dehydrate/Anhydrous - Hugestone Enterprise Co., Ltd.
Sodium Citrate Factory directory ☆ Sodium Citrate Factory manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Sodium Citrate Factory buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Then, the subject will undergo a sodium citrate nasal douche at a specific concentration or will douche with sterile water. There will be three concentrations used (3%, 6% and 9%) and a control solution (sterile water). Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the four groups using a coded bottle system. Both patient and tester will be blinded to the solution used as these will be made in the pharmacy and coded for anonymity - the code will be broken at the end of the trial. Subjects will then be retested with the bottles and threshold levels will be observed for the four odours at 15 minute intervals over 2 hours. The purpose of the repeated tests is to determine the length of the effect (if present) of the citrate on the olfactory ability of the patients (NB: sodium citrate is a licensed product for use in body cavities (e.g. stomach, bladder) and can be found in the British National Formulary - the concentrations proposed do not exceed those used elsewhere). ...
Sodium Citrate found in: CapitolBrand® CB-S2779-2.5KG Sodium Citrate, Crystal, ACS Reagent Grade, 2.5Kg, CapitolBrand® CB-S2779-500G Sodium Citrate,..
High Quality Sodium Citrate Supplier, FOODCHEM is Top Sodium Citrate Supplier and Manufacturer in China for more than 10 years, Buy Sodium Citrate Food Grade and Feed Grade at Foodchem
Quality Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Of Citric Acid Series CAS NO.813-94-5 / 7693-13-2 for sale - buy cheap Sodium Citrate Dihydrate from aginatethickener manufacturer.
Pastorino, A. J., C. L. Hansen, and D. J. McMahon. 2003. Effect of sodium citrate on the chemical composition and structure-function relationships of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 86:3113-3121. ...
Low hazard for health. Plant derived, biodegradable and suitable for Greywater and septic tanks.. Sodium Citrate is the Sodium Salt of citric acid, which is found in many citric fruits. Sodium citrate is often used as a sequestering agent that can bind and capture other atoms.. ...
Pharmacology refers to the chemical makeup and behavior of ANTICOAGULANT CITRATE DEXTROSE A (anhydrous citric acid, dextrose monohydrate, and trisodium citrate dihydrate solution).
Sodium Citrate containing medications, Sodium Citrate indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing sodium citrate. Find information on sodium citrate use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
[110 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Sodium Citrate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Sodium Citrate Revenue,...
Get your resealable tub of food grade bulk Sodium Citrate Powder online at Ozdingo. It is a sodium salt of citric acid with a sour salt taste. Used as an acidity regulator in food and drinks, as an emulsifier for oils, and as a laundry product builder. Trisodium citrate, Trisodium salt, Dihydrate, Dehydrate. na3c6h5o7.
... - Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralization of citric acid with high purity sodium source and subsequent crystallization.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SeraLab \ Human Whole Blood Sodium Citrate PBMC Isolation Male Individual Donor \ BSCIM-123-PBMC for more molecular products just contact us
Find and save ideas about Potassium sulfate on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Sodium citrate, Chemistry cat and Science memes.
On the spur of the moment, I thought of brewing a pumpkin beer today. Dont have any fresh pumpkin, but I do have canned; however, there is nothing on the label to indicate whether it has any preservatives, so Im thinking that it probably _doesnt_ ... but I dont want to take a chance; besides, my brewing book says not to use canned pumpkin with preservatives. So I thought of making a cherry beer instead using cherry pie filling. Besides the ingredients which I know are alright, it lists citric and ascorbic acids (I think they are okay) and sodium citrate and red 40 color (I presume dye wont be a problem either). I did a google for sodium citrate and read enough to see that it is sometimes used as a preservative. I dont know what the concentration is in the can, but were talking about a 21 oz. can in a 5 gallon batch, so it will become very diluted. Im tempted to just give it a try, but thought Id at least see what sort of replies I might get while my water is heating up ...
Sodium citrate | Na3C6H5O7 or C6H5Na3O7 | CID 6224 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Question - Can I give my dog sodium citrate dihydrate? Will be going to - D0. Find the answer to this and other Dog questions on JustAnswer
This recipe adds sodium citrate to a cheddar and Gouda cheeses to give it a modernist twist. The immersion blender makes the queso texture smooth, then add sweet shrimp, diced peppers and tomatoes. - Amazing Food Made Easy
China Trisodium Phosphate Tsp Purity 98%, Find details about China Trisodium Phosphate 98% Tech&Food Grade Tsp, Tsp from Trisodium Phosphate Tsp Purity 98% - Zouping Changshan Zefeng Fertilizer Co., Ltd.
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 994-36-5(1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:?)),please inquire us for 994-36-5(1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:?)).
Specifically developed for Northern and Southern transfer protocols and nucleic acid preparations. Supplied in pouches in two concentrations (2x and 20x).
We are pleased to welcome you to our new website. As a thank you for your continued customer loyalty, all newly registered accounts will receive a complimentary 5% discount.. ...
Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 NMR spectrum, Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate H-NMR spectral analysis, Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Citrates are used to make the urine more alkaline (less acid). This helps prevent certain kinds of kidney stones. Citrates are sometimes used with other medicines to help treat kidney stones that may occur with gout. They are also used to make the blood more alkaline in certain conditions ...
The enzyme activity of thrombin, β-factor Xa-E and trypsin was enhanced in 1.0 M sodium citrate solution. Thrombin activated factor X. Synthetic substrate S-2222, designed for factor Xa, was...
Citrates are rather important not just in lime crisis but in bottling and kegging cocktails since fruit juice decays over time. In creating a cocktail, 18 brix seemed to be the perfect sugar level. For example, 1.75 parts spirit, 2.75 parts citrate, and 1.25 parts water achieves this ratio. The kegged cocktail has quickly become the modern day punch and offers fast, efficient, consistent, and cost-effective options. Citrates are rather good for carbonation, for unlike juice, they have no sediment that can also act as nucleation points for CO2 gas. In carbonation, very cold starting temperatures are ideal as well as pressurizing and releasing cycles. There are ways of weighing the grams of CO2 per liter, and monitoring this can achieve consistency. Carbonating the whole kit and caboodle also allows for greater carbonation; in certain drinks such as the French 75, only 1/3 to 1/2 of the volume is carbonated, while a carbonated French 75 can be done completely ...
The sodium-dependent citrate transporter of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCitS) belongs to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2-HCT) family and allows the cell t...
Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL sodium citrate plasma. Stability: Uncentrifuged or centrifuged in an unopened tube kept at 18-24°C must be tested within 24 hours from the time of specimen collection. If testing is not completed within 24 hours, plasma should be removed from the cells and frozen at -20°C for up to two weeks.. NOTE: Patients with a hematocrit of ,55% must be recollected using an altered amount of sodium citrate.. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Molecular formula: Na3C6H5O7-2H2O Shape: white or colorless powder Purity min ninty percent Characteristic: soluble in water easily Inner Package: polythene film Outer Packing: compound plastic & knitting bags Method of packing: It can be based on...
Open Food Facts is made by a non-profit association, independent from the industry. It is made for all, by all, and it is funded by all. You can support our work by donating to Open Food Facts and also by using the Lilo search engine ...
Beverages containing citrate may be useful in increasing urine citrate content and urine pH. Such changes in urine chemistry could help prevent kidney stones. Diet orange soda has more citrate than other similar beverages. The investigators are interested in whether diet soda will improve urine chemistry in the appropriate manner ...
Name:D-Fructose-1,6-diphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate,CAS:81028-91-3.Properties:Molecular Fomula:C6H27Na3O20P2,Molar Mass:550.183,Boling Point:722.6°C at 760 mmHg,Flashing Point:390.8°C,Vapor Presure:4.13E-24mmHg at 25°C,MSDS,Hazard,Safety.
sample_1: LC8, [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1 mM; potassium phosphate 50 mM; sodium citrate 50 mM; glycerol 3%; DSS 1 mM; sodium chloride 100 mM. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 0.3 M; pH: 5.5; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 298 K ...
Streptomycin Sulphate · Neomycine Sulphate · Tetracyclin Hydrochloride · Benzocaine · Ascorbic acid · Sodium Citrate · Polyglycols. *PEG 200, PEG 300, PEG 400 *PEG 1000, PEG 1500, PEG 4000. *PEG 6000, PEG 8000, PEG 20000 ...
Prestone Radiator Flush and Cleaner, Biodegradable, Series: AS-105Y, 22 oz Capacity, Bottle Packing, Liquid, Clear, Sweet Odor/Scent, Composition: Sodium Citrate, Water, >215 deg F Flash Point, 7.5 - 9.5 pH, 1.051 Density, 1 Cst at 68 deg F Viscosity, For Light Flushing and Heavy Duty Cleaning For Cooling Systems to Help Prevent Overheating ...
Frut information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Infosint, Frut indications, usages and related health products lists
Hydrolysis as a function of pH was performed under GLP compliance and used as the key study. The result showed FAT 45176/A at pH 4 has a half-life period of 12233.9 hours (about 1.4 years) at 25 °C, at pH 7 has a half-life period of 84.8 hours (about 3.5 days) at 25 °C, and is unstable at pH 9 with a half-life period of shorter than one day at 25 °C. ...
Sodium Citrate Tube - We are manufacturer and suppliers of Sodium Citrate Blood Tubes, Sodium Citrate Blood Collection Tubes and Blood Collection Tubes
List of wholesalers , traders for sodium citrate food additive, 675 sodium citrate food additive manufacturers & sodium citrate food additive suppliers from China.
China Sodium Citrate, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Food Additive from Sodium Citrate - Tianjin Kunyu International Co., Ltd.
View drug interactions between citric acid / potassium citrate and sodium citrate. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
ALPHA CHEMIKA is an ISO 9001:2000 certified manufacturer, supplier & exporter of BUFFER CITRATE SOLUTION including all laboratory Chemicals, and offered to our clients at the best industry prices, Inquire us for more products details.
Calories in Willpowder Sodium Citrate. Find nutrition facts for Willpowder Sodium Citrate and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
A method of treating blood withdrawn from patient including: simultaneously withdrawing blood and infusing withdrawn blood from and to the patient by flowing the withdrawn blood through an extracorporeal dialysis circuit including a dialyzer having a semi-permeable dialysis membrane and a dialysate side adjacent the membrane; feeding a dialysate containing 1 to 5 mM total calcium and 2 to 8 mM citrate to the dialysate side of the dialyzer, and introducing an anticoagulation fluid including at least 8 mM citrate into the arterial blood line.
1. Sodium citrate solution may be injected into the blood of a mammal (the cat) in sufficient amount to temporarily completely paralyze the cardiac vagus with gradual but entire recovery in twenty to thirty minutes. Similar or slightly larger doses tend, also, to lower blood pressure, slow the heart, and impair respiratory movements.. 2. Using acetylcholine, evidence is found that the sodium citrate paralyzes the cardiac vagus at the synapses between pre- and postganglionic fibers in case of the cat just as was previously found by direct evidence in case of the turtle.. 3. Sodium citrate seems to cause the effects (described in no. 1 above) by lowering the calcium ions in the blood and in the heart to the critical point; and all these ill effects may be prevented (in decerebrate animals) by intravenous injection of calcium chloride solution, in proper amount, either immediately before or during the early part of the sodium citrate transfusion, whether the citrate be given alone or as citrated ...
HCMM : Second-tier assay of newborn screening specimens when abnormal propionyl carnitine or methionine concentrations are identified in a primary newborn screen
Citrate, a substance being related to de novo fatty acid synthesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, has a pivotal role in cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate intracellular citrate in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially under hypoxic condition, remain poorly understood. Here we find that hypoxia (1% O2) induces DNA damage-independent ATM activation (oxidized ATM) and suppression of oxidized ATM reduces intracellular citrate via decreasing the levels of phosphofructokinase (PFKP) and citrate synthase (CS), two key glucose metabolism-associated enzymes. Mechanistically, PFKP is regulated by HIF1A at the translational level, whereas CS is of posttranscriptional regulation by UBR5-mediated ubiquitination. Interestingly, accumulation of citrate in cytoplasm or exogenous citrate significantly enhances cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of hypoxic TNBC cells in vitro and in mice xenografts. The underlying mechanism mainly involves citrate-stimulated activation of
AS 3 - dextrose monohydrate, sodium citrate, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, citric acid monohydrate and adenine injection, solution - Prescription (RX) Marketed Drugs Encyclopedia
Sodium sitrat - Trisodium sitrat - Sodium sitrat dihidrat l Farmakope Inggris Sodium Citrate BP Sodium Citrate Ph Eur. Trisodium Citrate Ph Eur. C6H5Na3O7,2H2O - 294.1 - 6132-04-3 DEFINISI Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate. Konten 99,0 persen hingga 101,0 persen (zat anhydrat). KARAKTER ...
PRAKASH CHEMICALS PVT LTD, Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate and 50 more Products. A Supplier on Alibaba.com.
Sodium Citrate is a colorless crystal or white crystalloid powder. It has a cool and salty flavor. It is a flavoring agent and a stabilizer in food and ...
Genlyte Orange 3.5g/1.5g/2.9g - 28.5g Oral Powder (Sodium Citrate) drug information. Find its price or cost and dose. It is manufactured by Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Genvista).
1. Rat costal cartilage was found to begin to calcify normally when the rats weigh 35-45g. 2. The cartilage is suggested as a model for the study in vivo of mechanisms concerned with normal calcification. 3. The model was tested by studying the incorporation of fluoride into the mineral deposited in the tissue. 4. The percentage of inorganic material in cartilage rose from approx. 3% of the dry weight in the uncalcified tissue to 62% in the tissue from rats weighing 300g. 5. Mineral deposited had a calcium/phosphorus molar ratio of 1·65. 6. After the oral administration of sodium fluoride to rats, fluoride was incorporated into cartilage mineral. 7. The concentration of fluoride in cartilage ash increased rapidly with calcification and the mineral became more highly fluoridated than the corresponding rib bone. 8. Fluoridated mineral showed a marked decrease in citrate concentration.. ...
In this study we investigated the transcriptional role of the sterol regulatory element (SRE) present in the promoter of the mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC). We show that wild-type (but not mutated) CIC SRE cloned in front of the luciferase promoter confers transcriptional activation of the gene reporter. We also demonstrate that insulin activates, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit, the gene reporter activity driven by the CIC promoter containing wild-type (but not mutated) SRE. Finally, both insulin treatment and overexpression of SRE binding protein (SREBP-1) increase the CIC transcript and protein levels, whereas PUFA have an opposite effect. These results show that SRE/SREBP-1 play a role in the transcriptional regulation of CIC by insulin and PUF. ...
and pump spray products. Citric acid is also one of a group of ingredients known as alpha hydroxy acids that are used as the active ingredients in chemical skin peels. Sodium citrate may be used in all types of cosmetic products, including baby products, make-up, lipstick, bath products, soaps and detergents, hair dyes and colors, and hair and skin care products. Tributyl citrate and triethyl citrate may be used in bath products, other cleansing products, and creams and lotions. Citric acid and its diammonium, potassium and sodium salts are all used to help preserve cosmetics and personal care products by chelating (complexing) metals. Citric acid and its salts are also added to cosmetics to help adjust the acid/base balance. Other functions of the citrate ingredients include: Buffering ...
We obtained venous blood from 6 healthy individuals who had not taken any medication during the previous 10 days and had given their informed consent. The blood was collected into 1/10th volume of 10.9 mmol/L trisodium citrate and was centrifuged at 180g for 15 min at 20 °C to obtain platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP (3.5-4.5 mL) was acidified with 1/6th volume of acid-citrate- dextrose (71 mmol/L citric acid, 85 mmol/L trisodium citrate, and 110 mmol/L d-glucose, pH ∼4.4). The acidified PRP from each healthy individual was divided into 2 aliquots. We added dibutyryl cAMP (final concentration, 2 mmol/L) to one of the aliquots; to the other we added nothing. The PRP was incubated for 20 min at 37 °C. Platelets were then pelleted by centrifugation at 700g for 20 min at 20 °C, then washed once with a buffer containing 137 mmol/L NaCl, 2.6 mmol/L KCl, 1.0 mmol/L MgCl2, 11.9 mmol/L NaHCO3, 5.6 mmol/L d-glucose, 1 mmol/L EDTA (buffer A; pH 6.5). For the platelet suspensions pretreated with ...
I received a sample of blood accidentally anticoagulated with heparin. I am told that Genomic DNA isolated from heparinized blood is much harder to use in PCR reactions. Does anyone have experience with this? Is there a way to get around the purported problem? Is there a quick and dirty way to get rid of teh heparin? Any thoughts appreciated. Bob Wildin, M.D., University of Washington. Email wilddrb at u.washington.edu ...
10101-89-0 Trisodium phosphate (sodium phosphate tribasic) testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 10101-89-0. phosphoric acid trisodium salt, trisodium phosphate, sodium phosphate,. This chemical is white crystals
The enzyme is specific for (2S,3S)-methylcitrate, showing no activity with (2R,3S)-methylcitrate. The enzyme can also use cis-aconitate as a substrate but more slowly. Bo
Trisodium phosphate was at one time extensively used in formulations for a variety of consumer-grade soaps and detergents, and the most common use for trisodium phosphate has been in cleaning agents. The pH of a 1% solution is 12 (i.e., very basic), and the solution is sufficiently alkaline to saponify grease and oils. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. This versatility and low manufacturing price made TSP the basis for a plethora of cleaning products sold in the mid-20th century. TSP is still sold and used as a cleaning agent, but since the late 1960s, its use has diminished in the United States and many other parts of the world because, like many phosphate-based cleaners, it is known to cause extensive eutrophication of lakes and rivers once it enters a water system.[8] Substitutes are generally not as effective.[9] TSP is commonly used after cleaning a surface with mineral spirits to remove hydrocarbon ...
Alfa Aesar TrisodiumCitrate, Honeywell TrisodiumCitrate, VWR TrisodiumCitrate, Spectrum TrisodiumCitrate,BDH TrisodiumCitrate,Acros TrisodiumCitrate, Panreac TrisodiumCitrate, FisherScientific TrisodiumCitrate, Suvchem TrisodiumCitrate, GFS TrisodiumCitrate
1) Fix cells for 30 minutes in 70% ethanol. 2) Resuspend in 1 ml 0.1% Nonidet P-40, 10 mM NaCl, 50 mM sodium citrate pH 7.0. Add Pi to 100 ug/ml. Incubate on benchtop for 30 min. 3) Pellet and wash cells twice, resuspend in 50 mM citrate buffer . 4) View under microscope, stable for at least a few hours. VERY intense. Try this. Cells are dead of course, so this only works for terminal experiments. Its essentially a stripped-down flow cytometry protocol. kevin -- Kevin A. Morano Thiele Lab Dept. of Biological Chemistry University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0606 kmorano at umich.edu ...
Estimating calcium vs magnesium binding affinity - posted in Biochemistry: Trisodium citrate is commonly used as a medical anticoagulant and works by binding divalent cations. When the concentration of free calcium falls below about 225 nmol, coagulation cannot proceed. Citrate also binds magnesium and I have found plenty of references that state when performing regional anticoagulation with citrate, such as with a dialysis circuit, the patient will lose both Ca and Mg....
Abstract of a clinical trial in overweight females taking HCA before meals. Those taking the drug lost more weight, but there was no correlation with satiety. ...
DL-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme is a trisodium salt key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, ketone bodies and terpenes.
Mouse eyes were immediately enucleated from euthanized animals, lenses were dissected in PBS and then immersed into 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS at 37°C for 30 minutes. The fixed lenses were washed three times with PBS then sectioned into 150-μm slices with a vibratome (Leica VT1000 S; Leica, Wetlar, Germany). The slices were postfixed for 2 minutes in 4% PFA in PBS then washed three times with PBS before immunohistochemical analysis. A rabbit antibody against the intracellular loop of Cx46,26 a rabbit antibody against the C-terminal region of Cx50,27 a rabbit anti-βDystroglycan (anti-βDys) antibody (MANDAG2[7D11]; Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA, USA), and a rabbit anti-ZO-1 antibody (40-2200; Thermo-Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) were used. Antigen retrieval was performed on sections destined for antibody labeling with the exception of anti-Cx50 labeling. The sections were placed in citrate buffer (10 mM sodium citrate, 0.05% vol/vol Tween 20) at 80°C for 30 minutes ...
Get an overview of PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (injection, solution, concentrate), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that include the same medication.
As sample material for the molecular genetic detection of hereditary diseases, for parentage analysis as well as for determining coat colour and blood type, EDTA whole blood samples (approx. 1 ml) are suitable. Alternatively, in dogs and cats, buccal swabs, so-called cheek swabs, can be used. For each animal, 2 buccal swabs (without transport medium) should be supplied. To create DNA profiles and parentage reports in dogs and cats, we recommend to always send in a blood sample. For all genetic testing in horses, it is sufficient to supply about 20 hair roots from mane or tail for DNA isolation. EDTA blood is the most suitable sample material. It is absolutely essential to use EDTA as anticoagulant. Lithium heparin or citrate are unsuitable as anticoagulants, as they may inhibit the subsequent PCR. In very rare cases, haemolysis induced by transport or extreme stress during sample collection might lead to the situation that no result can be obtained. However, the percentage of blood samples which ...
What happens if you inhibit CIC in a cancer cell which is using CIC to both limit ROS production and to deliver cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA for anabolism? The whole extra-mitochondrial cycle should shut down, meaning acetyl-CoA has nowhere to go other than around the TCA. Less citrate can be exported, so cytosolic citrate levels fall. Falling cytoplasmic citrate allows increased glycolysis and this can feed even more acetyl-CoA in to the TCA. Complex I is still dysfunctional so we are then in to a massively elevated NADH:NAD+ ratio. We will also increase FADH2 driven CoQ reduction via complex II as the TCA turns. A high NADH:NAD+ is the prerequisite to getting an electron on to an oxygen atom to generate superoxide in complex I, back in Protons (22) I speculated this might be at FeS N-1a. A reduced CoQ couple also drives this via reverse electron transport ...
2 mL plasma from a FULL sodium citrate Blue top tube. Allow tube to fill to proper capacity. Mix immediately by gentle inversion 4 times. Whole blood from one EDTA tube must also be submitted. If , 15 min for delivery, centrifuge blue top tube and freeze plasma ...
Actually one of the oldest laboratory tests still in use takes advantage of this fact: in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test the clotting factors are inactivated by, say, sodium citrate and then the time of erythrocyte sedimentation is measured. The rate of sedimentation is increased in many diseases and in some other cases (such as because of old age or pregnancy). The test is used mainly for screening and usually followed by more specific tests if required ...
Clotted samples, samples collected in containers other than 3.2% Buffered Sodium Citrate, tubes filled less than 90%, samples from patients with a Hematocrit greater than 55%, hemolyzed samples due to ex-vivo causes (i.e., difficult draw, poor sample draw), whole blood samples that were frozen before processing ...
other: This study was conducted according to the appropriate OECD test guideline and in compliance with GLP. The study is a read accross from sodium citrate (CAS 68-04-2). ...
Dublin, Oct. 14, 2013-- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the Sodium citrate Market Research Report 2012 report to their offering. Sodium citrate Market Research Report 2012 presents comprehensive data on sodium citrate markets globally and regionally The report includes sodium citrate description, covers its application areas and related patterns.
The superior ability of citrate excretion in a carrot (Daucus carota L.) mutant cell line, namely IPG (insoluble phosphate grower) [Takita et al. (1999a) Plant Cell Physiol. 40: 489] cells has been characterized in terms of citrate transport at the plasma membrane. IPG cells released about a 20-fold increase in citrate in comparison with malate, while the concentration of malate was only 35% lower than that of citrate in the cell sap. Citrate excretion was sensitive to anion channel blockers, such as niflumic acid and anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These results indicate that IPG cells release citrate through the plasma membrane using citrate specific anion channels. The rate of citrate release from IPG cells was not affected by the concentration of aluminum (0 and 50 µM), soluble Pi (0 or 2 mM) and the pH (4.5-5.6) of the medium, suggesting that anion channels would not be regulated by such external conditions. Citrate excretion correlated with the H+ efflux, possibly from the action of ...
China Sodium Citrate Blood Collection Tube manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Sodium Citrate Blood Collection Tube products in best price from certified Chinese Tube Components manufacturers, Blood Pressure suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypocitraturia, an important risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, is the result of numerous factors. We studied citrate excretion by patients with and without stones consuming normal and controlled formula diets. S
Quality Food Grade Transparent White Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Crystal CAS NO.6100-05-6 for sale - buy cheap Sodium Citrate Dihydrate from aginatethickener manufacturer.
Normal prostate tissue contains high levels of citrate. In the presence of prostate cancer, the citrate level is diminished. In this paper we show that it is possible to use europium-oxytetracycline complex as a citrate fluorescent probe and consequently as a prostate cancer probe. We analyzed normal nude male mice urine and urine from nude male mice in which prostate cancer was induced by intraprostatic inoculation of DU145 cells. The urine samples were collected from the animals at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 35th days after the surgery procedures. The intensity of europium emission at 615 nm in europium-oxytetracycline complex in the presence of citrate increases linearly. The citrate concentrations were determined from a calculated calibration curve. A concentration decrease in malignant prostate urine from the normal (PBS group) urine value from ∼8.0 mM to ∼2.4 mM (tumor group at 35th day) was found. The obtained results indicated that europium-oxytetracycline provides a significant ...
PT. Gloria Mitra Niagatama International (GloriaMNI) is a reliable supplier for anticaking agent, citric acid, cocoa powder, cornstarch, dextrose, fructose, glucose, MSG, sodium citrate in Indonesia
2016 Global and Chinese Sodium Citrate Pentahydrate (CAS 6858-44-2) Industry Market Research Report is a market research report available at US $2800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
We have chewable Calcium Citrate Supplements as well as liquid and tablet calcium citrate with vitamin D. Free Shipping on any order $49+
Chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol is used in the treatment of .get complete information about chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with chlorpheniramine + codeine + sodium citrate + menthol at 1mg.com
Calcium citrate malate is a water-soluble calcium supplement. It is the calcium salt of citric acid and malic acid with variable composition. Calcium citrate malates bioavailability stems from its water-solubility and its method of dissolution. When dissolved, it releases calcium ions and a calcium citrate complex. Calcium ions are absorbed directly into intestinal cells, and the citrate complex enters the body through paracellular absorption.[citation needed] Calcium citrate malate is similar to calcium malate and other calcium salts. The European Food Safety Authority has concluded that calcium citrate malate is "slightly more bioavailable" than other forms of calcium supplementation. Calcium citrate malate at Jost Chemical "Calcium citrate malate as source for calcium for use in foods for Particular Nutritional Uses and in foods for the general population (including food supplements)" (PDF). The EFSA Journal. 612: 1-24. 2007. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2007.612Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food ...
Natural Factors Potassium Citrate 90 TabletsNatural Factors Potassium Citrate tablets contain 99 mg of Potassium. Potassium maintains healthy nerves and muscles in conjunction with calcium. It is an electrolyte, supporting normal heart function and the fluid balance in the body.* Citrates are extremely well-tolerated and well-absorbed making Natural Factors Potassium Citrate tablets an excellent way to get this important mineral. Directions:1 tablet, 1 - 5 times per day or as directed by a health professional. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 Tablet Amount Per Serving %DV Potassium as potassium citrate 99mg Other Ingredients: Cellulose, di-calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate (vegetable grade).
Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.. Science.gov (United States). Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J. 2009-01-01. Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g ...
Shop the best Calcium Citrate - Swanson Health Products products at Swanson Health Products. Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on Calcium Citrate - Swanson Health Products products.
Get Calcium Citrate + Vitamin D - 200 Caplets - Vitamin World On Sale today at Vitamin World! Compare Shopping Misc. prices & check availability for Calcium Citrate + Vitamin D - 200 Caplets - Vitamin World. Get it right now at your nearest store in Olympia.
Instructions for use: Squeeze a pea-size amount onto your toothbrush Add water, brush and rinse 3 x 25ml/1.3 fl.oz. Made in Italy Ingredients: Cinnamon Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water/Eau), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Eugenol, Limonene, Cinnamal, Cinnamyl Alcohol, Benzyl Alcohol Ginger Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Benzyl Alcohol Jasmin Mint: Glycerin, Aluminum Hydroxide, Aqua (Water), Silica, Aroma (Flavor), Cellulose Gum, Titanium Dioxide, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Saccharin, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Linalool, Benzyl Alcohol

Potassium Citrate - Drugs.comPotassium Citrate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Potassium Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Potassium Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Potassium Citrate. In the US, Potassium Citrate (potassium citrate systemic) is a member of the drug class urinary pH modifiers ... Citrolith (Potassium Citrate and Sodium Citrate). Beach Products, United States. *Crashtone (Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid) ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/potassium-citrate.html

Potassium Citrate - DrugBankPotassium Citrate - DrugBank

Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis. Potassium Citrate is indicated also ... also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid. It is a white, hygroscopic crystalline powder. It is ... Potassium Citrate-Sodium Citrate-Citric Acid. Potassium Citrate (550 mg/5mL) + Citric acid monohydrate (334 mg/5mL) + Trisodium ... Potassium Citrate therapy appears to increase urinary citrate mainly by modifying the renal handling of citrate, rather than by ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB09125

Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets | VetDepot.comPotassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets | VetDepot.com

Potassium citrate is used as an aid in the prevention of urinary stone formation by increasing urinary pH. Potassium citrate is ... VetDepot offers Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets at the most competitive prices. Get the best deals on all your pet meds ... Use Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets to help prevent kidney stones in dogs and cats. This product increases urinary pH to ... ", "prodUrl":"/potassium-citrate-5-meq-100-tablets.html" }, { "prodNum":"1016214", "prodUrl":"/potassium-citrate-10-meq-100- ...
more infohttps://www.vetdepot.com/potassium-citrate-10-meq-100-tablets.html

Calcium Citrate in Mumbai,Calcium Citrate Manufacturers and Suppliers from indiaCalcium Citrate in Mumbai,Calcium Citrate Manufacturers and Suppliers from india

Get contact details of Calcium Citrate Manufacturers, Wholesale Calcium Citrate Exporters, Best Calcium Citrate Traders & ... Business Directory for Calcium Citrate Suppliers in Mumbai - ... Ferric Ammonium Citrate, Magnesium Citrate, Zinc Citrate, Bulk ... Calcium Citrate Malate, Calcium Fumarate, calcium citrate, Calcium Succinate, Calcium Disodium Edetate, Calcium Lactobionate, ... Deals in choline bitartarate, L Glutamic Acid, Fine Chemicals, l lysine mono hydrochloride, Calcium Citrate, ferric ammonium ...
more infohttp://www.indianyellowpages.com/mumbai/calcium-citrate.htm

Lindberg - Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium 360 Capsules - Save 54%Lindberg - Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium 360 Capsules - Save 54%

Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium 360 Capsules Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium Build and Maintain Healthy Bones* Calcium Citrate ... calcium absorption from calcium citrate was 22% to 27% higher than the carbonate form of calcium.* Calcium citrate is also ... Plus Magnesium provides an easily absorbed citrate form of calcium to build and maintain healthy bones and teeth.* In human ... Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium Build and Maintain Healthy Bones*. Calcium Citrate Plus Magnesium provides an easily absorbed ...
more infohttps://www.nutritionexpress.com/supplements/calcium/calcium+magnesium/lindberg+calcium+citrate+plus+magnesium+360+capsules.aspx

Calories in Twinlab Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium Citrate) - Calories and Nutrition Facts | MyFitnessPal.comCalories in Twinlab Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium Citrate) - Calories and Nutrition Facts | MyFitnessPal.com

Natural Potassium Citrate) and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database. ... Natural Potassium Citrate). Find nutrition facts for Twinlab Potassium Caps ( ... Calories in Twinlab Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium Citrate). Nutrition Facts. Twinlab - Potassium Caps (Natural Potassium ...
more infohttp://www.myfitnesspal.com/food/calories/twinlab-potassium-caps-natural-potassium-citrate-20979645

Potassium Citrate Sales Market Share, Growth by Top Company, Region, Application, Driver, Trends & Forecasts by 2022 | BusinessPotassium Citrate Sales Market Share, Growth by Top Company, Region, Application, Driver, Trends & Forecasts by 2022 | Business

Global Potassium Citrate market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Potassium Citrate sales volume, price, revenue ( ... Industry key players analysis of Potassium Citrate Sales Market. • Price and Gross Margin Analysis of Potassium Citrate Sales ... Development Trend of Potassium Citrate Sales Market. • Feasibility analysis of new project investments for Potassium Citrate ... Potassium Citrate Sales Market report presents an all-inclusive study of the market by analysing the key development trends, ...
more infohttp://beforeitsnews.com/business/2017/03/potassium-citrate-sales-market-share-growth-by-top-company-region-application-driver-trends-forecasts-by-2022-3209508.html

Orphenadrine Citrate Tablets (OrfenAce) - SteriMax Inc.	Orphenadrine Citrate Tablets (OrfenAce) - SteriMax Inc.

Orphenadrine citrate is indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort ...
more infohttp://sterimaxinc.com/products/oral-solids-2/orphenadrine-citrate-tablets/

Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder - Best Prices Guaranteed!Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder - Best Prices Guaranteed!

Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder. Fast-acting powder. Support bone health and optimal blood pressure. Best price on Nutricost ... Potassium Citrate Powder - Potassium Citrate is an important mineral that your body needs in order to strengthen your bones and ... Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder is the fast-acting potassium citrate supplement you need in order to guard your blood ... Q. What are the benefits to taking a potassium citrate supplement?. A. Potassium citrate supplements are consumed by people in ...
more infohttps://www.esupplements.com/products/nutricost-potassium-citrate-powder/

Orphenadrine Citrate Injection - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canoe.comOrphenadrine Citrate Injection - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canoe.com

Orphenadrine Citrate Injection: Orphenadrine belongs to the group of medications called skeletal muscle relaxants. It is used ...
more infohttp://chealth.canoe.com/drug/getdrug/orphenadrine-citrate-injection

Buy Generic Orphenadrine citrate (Norflex) without prescription / Muscle RelaxantsBuy Generic Orphenadrine citrate (Norflex) without prescription / Muscle Relaxants

Orphenadrine citrate 35 mg. Paracetamol 450 mg medication is used to treat pain and discomfort from muscle injuries such as ... Orphenadrine Citrate 35 mg, 100 tabs Orphenadrine Citrate $49.00 Orphenadrine Citrate 35 mg, 200 tabs Orphenadrine Citrate $ ... Eacthtablet contains: Orphenadrine citrate 35 mg. Paracetamol 450 mg. Orphenadrine Citrate Oral Uses. Orphenadrine medication ... Home » Muscle Relaxants » Orphenadrine Citrate Pay with Bitcoin and get 20% discount! Click here. ...
more infohttp://pharmaoffshore.com/?cPath=138

Buy discount Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu online | Buy Jamieson Calcium Citrate With...Buy discount Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu online | Buy Jamieson Calcium Citrate With...

You can buy Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu or Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg ... Learn more about Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu. Including prices, strength, indication, ... warnings, side effects, and directions of Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu ... Order Jamieson Calcium Citrate With Vitamin D 250 mg / 1.25 mcg / 50 iu online safely and securely from your trusted certified ...
more infohttps://www.qualityprescriptiondrugs.com/brand/non-prescription/jamieson-calcium-citrate-with-vitamin-d/buy-jamieson-calcium-citrate-with-vitamin-d-250-mg-and-1.25-mcg-and-50-iu-online

User manual Photographers Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G | PDF-MANUALS.comUser manual Photographers' Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G | PDF-MANUALS.com

Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Citrate, 100, 10-0980, 100G ... Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G User manual, User manual Photographers ... Additional parameters of the Photographers Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G:. Synonyms Tribasic citrate of ... Formulary Potassium Citrate - 100 10-0980 100G, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Citrate, 100 ...
more infohttp://www.pdf-manuals.com/photographers-formulary-potassium-citrate-100-10-0980-100g-12949-manual

Nature Made Calcium Citrate with Magnesium, 90 Count - VitaOto - Vitamins and SupplementsNature Made Calcium Citrate with Magnesium, 90 Count - VitaOto - Vitamins and Supplements

120-Count Calcium Citrate with D3 200 Cplts GNC Calcium Citrate 1000 Mg180 Vegetarian Caplets Healthboost Plus Calcium Citrate ... 180 Count 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 240-Count 21st Century Calcium Citrate Caplets, ... 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 120-Count. $9.62 * Nature Made Calcium Citrate with Magnesium, 180 Count. $17.99. $ ... 21st Century Calcium Citrate +D Caplets, 240-Count. $10.99 * Citracal Citracal Calcium Citrate with Vitamin D Maximum, Coated ...
more infohttps://www.vitaoto.com/nature-made-calcium-citrate-with-magnesium-90-count.html

citrate, potassium and potassium citrate Coupon - Get Instant citrate, potassium and potassium citrate Savingscitrate, potassium and potassium citrate Coupon - Get Instant citrate, potassium and potassium citrate Savings

... or more on citrate, potassium and potassium citrate. Use your citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupon at over 60,000 ... potassium and potassium citrate coupon and drug savings card and save up to 80% ... complete the short form on the right to instantly receive all citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupons). 1. citrate, ... Use it as a citrate, potassium and potassium citrate coupon or as a way to save on ALL medication purchases* *The Medication ...
more infohttp://medicationcoupons.com/citrate__potassium_and_potassium_citrate_coupon

Citrate synthase - WikipediaCitrate synthase - Wikipedia

Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... citrate (Si)-synthase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • ... citrate metabolic process. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • carbohydrate metabolic process. • metabolism. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... Finally, the hydroxyl added to the carbonyl in the previous step is deprotonated and citrate [−O2CCH2C(OH)(CO2−)CH2CO2−] is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrate_synthase

Triethyl citrate - WikipediaTriethyl citrate - Wikipedia

Triethyl citrate at Sigma-Aldrich *^ a b Record of Triethyl citrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive (E number E1505) to ... Triethyl citrate has been used as a pseudo-emulsifier in e-cigarette juices. It functions essentially like lecithin used in ... Triethyl citrate is also used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastics.[5] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E1505

Why dispose Magnesium Citrate?Why dispose Magnesium Citrate?

Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom percitrate molecule), called belowby the common but ambiguous name magnesiumcitrate ( ... Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule), called below by the common but ambiguous name magnesium ... Compared to magnesium citrate (3:2), it is much more water soluble, less alkaline, and contains 29.9% less magnesium by weight ... citrate (which can also mean magnesium citrate (3:2)), is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid. It is a ...
more infohttp://www.answers.com/Q/Why_dispose_Magnesium_Citrate

citrate anion (CHEBI:133748)citrate anion (CHEBI:133748)

citrate(1−) (CHEBI:35804) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(2−) (CHEBI:35808) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(4−) (CHEBI:132362) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is a tricarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35753) citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is conjugate base of ... CHEBI:133748 - citrate anion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:133748

FERRIC CITRATEFERRIC CITRATE

... (59 Fe) FERRIC CITRATE 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; iron(+3) cation 54063-42-2 CITRATE more infohttps://scitoys.com/scichem/jqp071/170848.html

Trimethyl citrateTrimethyl citrate

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttp://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C9H14O7/c1-14-6

Butamirate Citrate - Drugs.comButamirate Citrate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Butamirate Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Butamirate Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butamirate Citrate may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Butamirate Citrate. Butamirate. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/butamirate-citrate.html

Fentanyl Citrate InjectionFentanyl Citrate Injection

This Fentanyl Citrate Injection page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ...
more infohttps://www.empowher.com/media/reference/fentanyl-citrate-injection

potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733)potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733)

... has part citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733) has ... potassium citrate Note: (2012-05-31) Note that name potassium citrate has been used for both anhydrous potassium citrate and ... potassium citrate monohydrate (CHEBI:64746) has part potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733). ... CHEBI:64733 - potassium citrate (anhydrous). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:64733

Potassium citrate | DailyStrengthPotassium citrate | DailyStrength

Does anyone out there take potassium citrate to help keep their urine more alkaline? If I drink baking soda with water I test ... Does anyone out there take potassium citrate to help keep their urine more alkaline? If I drink baking soda with water I test ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/interstitial-cystitis-ic/discussion/potassium-citra_1
  • Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i.e., it takes a larger dose to get the same amount of caffeine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effervescence created by adding the powder to water enhances the absorption of the citrate-mineral chelates. (thorne.com)
  • Caffeine citrate, sold under the trade name Cafcit among others, is a medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine citrate is in the xanthine family of medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In method of action, the preparation is exactly identical to that of caffeine base as the citrate counter ion dissociates in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to magnesium citrate (3:2), it is much more water soluble, less alkaline, and contains 29.9% less magnesium by weight. (answers.com)
  • Adults and older children, ages 12 years and older, can usually take up to 10 ounces (oz.) of magnesium citrate oral solution with 8 oz. of water. (healthline.com)
  • One scoop of Cal-Mag Citrate Effervescent Powder also provides 500 mg of vitamin C. (thorne.com)
  • Cal-Mag Citrate Effervescent Powder helps maintain normal bone and muscle health. (thorne.com)
  • Maximal activity of citrate synthase indicates the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citrate synthase's 437 amino acid residues are organized into two main subunits, each consisting of 20 alpha-helices. (wikipedia.org)