Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.
Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A non-hereditary KIDNEY disorder characterized by the abnormally dilated (ECTASIA) medullary and inner papillary portions of the collecting ducts. These collecting ducts usually contain CYSTS or DIVERTICULA filled with jelly-like material or small calculi (KIDNEY STONES) leading to infections or obstruction. It should be distinguished from congenital or hereditary POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)

Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation. (1/1622)

Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (2/1622)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Imaging experimental intraabdominal abscesses with 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG. (3/1622)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of technetium-99m-labeled polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes (99mTc-PEG liposomes) and technetium-99m-labeled nonspecific human immunoglobulin G (99mTc-HYNIC IgG) for the scintigraphic detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses in comparison with that of a standard agent, gallium-67 citrate. BACKGROUND: Scintigraphic imaging techniques can be very useful for the rapid and accurate localization of intraabdominal abscesses. Two newly developed radiolabeled agents, 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, have shown to be excellent agents for imaging experimental focal infection, but have not yet been studied in the detection of abdominal abscesses. METHODS: Intraabdominal abscesses were induced in 42 rats using the cecal ligation and puncture technique. Seven days later, randomized groups of rats received 99mTc-PEG liposomes, 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, or 67Ga citrate intravenously. The rats were imaged up to 24 hours after the injection. The biodistribution of the radiolabel was determined by counting dissected tissues ex vivo. Macroscopic intraabdominal abnormalities and focal uptake on the images were independently scored on a semiquantitative scale. RESULTS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes provided the earliest scintigraphic visualization of the abscess (as soon as 2 hours after the injection vs. 4 hours for the other two agents). Liposomes, IgG, and gallium all showed similarly high absolute uptake in the abscess. Focal uptake of liposomes and gallium correlated best with the extent of the macroscopic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG performed at least as well as the standard agent, 67Ga citrate, in the detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses, with obvious advantages such as lower radiation exposure and more favorable physical properties. Of the two technetium agents, the liposomes seemed to be superior, providing the earliest diagnostic image and the best correlation with the inflammatory abnormalities. In addition, the preferential localization of radiolabeled PEG liposomes holds promise for targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated drugs.  (+info)

Metabolic behaviour and cleavage capacity in the amphibian egg. (4/1622)

During the winter season the full grown Bufo arenarum oocyte shows the metabolic behaviour characteristic of differentiated tissues of the same species. Due to seasonal variations, during the amplexus period, it acquires the metabolic behaviour of the segmenting egg. Short-time-induced ovulations (5-6 h) determine germinal vesicle breakdown immediately before the expulsion of the oocyte, without modifying the ovarian metabolism of the same. The incidence of the operative type of metabolism upon their capacity to cleave after insemination and needle pricking, has been studied in coelomic oocytes, which have attained nuclear maturation and have not experienced oviducal secretion effects. The results obtained indicate that the segmenting capacity of the egg is attained only when, through biochemical modifications, the oocyte acquires the metabolic behaviour characterizing embryonic cells. It is postulated that the metabolic changes observed in the oocyte constitue a fundamental aspect of cytoplasmic maturation.  (+info)

Differences in phosphofructokinase regulation in normal and tumor rat thyroid cells. (5/1622)

The kinetic and molecular properties of a phosphofructokinase derived from a transplantable rat thyroid tumor lacking regulatory control on the glycolytic pathway were studied. The properties of the near-purified enzyme (specific activity 140 units/mg) were compared with those of phosphofructokinase from normal rat thyroid (specific activity 134 units/mg). The electrophoretic mobilities and gel elution behavior of these two enzymes were almost similar. The thyroid tumor phosphofructokinase showed, however, a greater degree of size and/or shape heterogeneity in the presence of ATP than the normal thyroid enzyme, as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Kinetic studies below pH 7.4 showed a sigmoid response curve for both enzymes when the velocity was determined at 1 mM ATP with varying levels of fructose-6-P. The interaction coefficient, however, was 4.2 and 2.6 for normal and tumor thyroid phosphofructokinase, respectively. Ammonium sulfate decreased the cooperative interactions with the substrate fructose-6-P in both enzymes. The thyroid tumor enzyme, however, was less sensitive to the inhibition by ATP and by citrate. The reversal of citrate inhibition by cyclic 3':5'-adenosine monophosphate was also less effective with the thyroid tumor phosphofructokinase, while the protective effect of fructose-6-P was stronger. The difference in citrate inhibition between tumor and normal thyroid enzyme was not strongly affected by varying the MgCl2 concentration up to 10 mM. It is concluded that the complex allosteric regulation typical of the normal thyroid phosphofructokinase is still present in the enzyme isolated from the thyroid tumor tissue. The latter, however, is more loosely controlled by its physiological effectors, such as ATP, citrate, and cyclic AMP.  (+info)

Myositis ossificans demonstrated by positive gallium-67 and technetium-99m-HMDP bone imaging but negative technetium-99m-MIBI imaging. (6/1622)

Gallium-67-citrate and 99mTc-diphosphate bone imaging agents are localized in myositis ossificans, a tumor-like benign soft-tissue mass that makes it impossible to differentiate between malignant tumor and the infection/inflammatory process. We present such a myositis ossificans patient whose bone and 67Ga-citrate imagings showed increased uptake in the left thigh and two foci of the right gluteal region leading to inconclusive results. Technetium-99m-MIBI imaging showed the absence of substantial uptake in these regions. ACT scan confirmed myositis ossificans. The lack of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in myositis ossificans means that 99mTc-MIBI imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis.  (+info)

Radiation exposure from gallium-67-citrate patients. (7/1622)

OBJECTIVE: Serial monitoring of patients was performed to determine the radiation exposure contributed by patients injected with 67Ga-citrate to their surroundings. Radiology and nursing staff distance exposure estimates were made for various patient care tasks and imaging tests. METHODS: Fifteen adult patients were surveyed early (mean 4.3 min) and 11 of the 15 were surveyed at 3 d (mean 68.8 h) postinjection. The standard adult lymphoma imaging activity of 333-407 MBq (9-11 mCi) resulted in a range of 3.7-8.1 MBq/kg (0.1-0.22 mCi/kg). Dose rate measurements were made in the anterior, posterior, and left and right lateral projections at the level of the umbilicus, at distances of patient's surface and at 30.5 cm and 100 cm with a calibrated ion chamber. Time of contact-routine task analyses also were obtained for nursing and radiology personnel. Using a radiation survey-derived biexponential pharmacokinetic relationship, radiation exposures were determined for hospital personnel and family members at various times after injection. RESULTS: Based on the study population survey results, the mean instantaneous exposures (microSv/h) for an administered activity of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 67Ga-citrate were determined. The task analyses revealed the maximum patient contact time for any procedure performed at a distance equal to, or less than, 30.5 cm was 30 min. CONCLUSION: The quantitation of radiation exposure scenarios from 67Ga-citrate patients has determined that no special precautions are necessary for medical personnel when performing routine tasks associated with these patients.  (+info)

Randomised trial of two pharmacological methods of bowel preparation for day case colonoscopy. (8/1622)

AIMS: To undertake a prospective, single blind, randomised trial comparing the efficacy and tolerance of two outpatient colonoscopy bowel preparation regimens. METHODS: Patients aged between 18 months and 16 years being admitted for day case colonoscopy were allocated randomly to receive either Picolax (an oral, sugar free powder containing sodium picosulphate 10 mg/sachet with magnesium citrate) and clear fluids or bisacodyl tablets with an unrestricted diet and a phosphate enema just before colonoscopy. Patient compliance, bowel frequency, and associated symptoms were recorded, and the adequacy of the bowel preparation was assessed in a blinded manner. RESULTS: 63 of 66 patients completed the trial. Mean age, mean weight, extent of colonoscopy, and distribution of underlying pathology were similar in both groups. Bowel preparation was good or excellent in all of the patients in the Picolax group (n = 32) compared with 22 patients in the bisacodyl/phosphate enema group (n = 31). The latter group experienced more abdominal discomfort during bowel preparation but three of the Picolax group vomited and the lack of solid food distressed some children. CONCLUSIONS: All bowel preparation methods have limitations and unpleasant side effects but the use of Picolax and clear fluids proved superior to bisacodyl tablets and a phosphate enema in children undergoing day case colonoscopy.  (+info)

Looking for anticoagulant sodium citrate solution? Find out information about anticoagulant sodium citrate solution. in chemistry, homogeneous mixture mixture, in chemistry, a physical combination of two or more pure substances . A mixture is distinguished from a compound,... Explanation of anticoagulant sodium citrate solution
The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report offers an inclusive and decision-making overview, including definitions, classifications and its applications. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is anticipated to reflect a positive growth trend in forthcoming years. The essential driving forces behind the growth and popularity of Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate market is analysed detailed in this report.. The Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report further describes detailed information about tactics and strategies used by leading key companies in the Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate industry. It also gives an extensive study about different market segments and regions.. Trisodium Citrate 5 5 hydrate Market Report Provides Comprehensive Analysis as Following: • Market segments and sub- ...
10. Appendix. Secondly, Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market report includes, development policies and plans are discussed, manufacturing processes and cost structures. This Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Industry report also states import/export, supply and consumption figures as well as cost, price, Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market gross margin and revenue by Key regions (North America, Europe, Japan, China, South East Asia, India) and other regions can be added.. Enquiry Here: www.marketsnresearch.com/inquiry-for-buying.html?repid=30579. Then, the report pay attention on worldwide Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) that major leading market players in Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) industry area with information such as Company Profile of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market, Sales Volume, Price, Gross Margin of Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) Market and contact information. Global Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS ...
Lead citrate is a key precursor for the green recycling of spent lead acid battery paste in a citric acid/sodium citrate (CA/SC) solution. In this study, the main paste component, PbSO4, was leached and crystallized to yield lead citrate. Results showed that the leaching of PbSO4 in citric acid/sodium citrate solution was remarkably enhanced by an increase in temperature from 35 °C to 95 °C and an increase in sodium citrate (SC) concentration from 50 to 650 g/L. In comparison, increasing the citric acid/sodium citrate molar ratio inhibited this leaching. Controlled crystallization through cooling the solution or adjusting the pH of the solution can effectively produce lead citrate crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of four products obtained in a comparison test were all consistent with Pb3(C6H5O7)2. However, the scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the morphology was distinct from rods to sheets, which were mainly affected by the temperature variation.
anticoagulant sodium citrate & anticoagulant sodium citrate online Wholesalers - choose anticoagulant sodium citrate from 513 list of China anticoagulant sodium citrate Manufacturers.
anticoagulant sodium citrate & anticoagulant sodium citrate online Wholesalers - choose anticoagulant sodium citrate from 513 list of China anticoagulant sodium citrate Manufacturers.
sodium citrate food grade & sodium citrate food grade online Wholesalers - choose sodium citrate food grade from 478 list of China sodium citrate food grade Manufacturers.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ 1mol_l_ tri_ Sodium Citrate Solution \ 05568-24 for more molecular products just contact us
China Food Grade Sodium Citrate, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Citrate from Food Grade Sodium Citrate - Hugestone Enterprise Co., Ltd.
China Sodium Citrate Dehydrate/Anhydrous, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Citrate from Sodium Citrate Dehydrate/Anhydrous - Hugestone Enterprise Co., Ltd.
Get verified list of sodium citrate (cas no 68-04-2), sodium citrate manufacturers, sodium citrate suppliers and exporters. These sodium citrate manufacturing companies provide high quality products as per clients requirement.
Sodium Citrate Factory directory ☆ Sodium Citrate Factory manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Sodium Citrate Factory buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Find Sodium Acid Citrate at Price Range 86.00 - 90.00 INR/Kilograms in Shivaji Enclave, New Delhi. Buy Sodium Acid Citrate from WANG PHARMACEUTICALS & CHEMICALS with minimum order quantity 500 kg Kilograms.
Then, the subject will undergo a sodium citrate nasal douche at a specific concentration or will douche with sterile water. There will be three concentrations used (3%, 6% and 9%) and a control solution (sterile water). Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the four groups using a coded bottle system. Both patient and tester will be blinded to the solution used as these will be made in the pharmacy and coded for anonymity - the code will be broken at the end of the trial. Subjects will then be retested with the bottles and threshold levels will be observed for the four odours at 15 minute intervals over 2 hours. The purpose of the repeated tests is to determine the length of the effect (if present) of the citrate on the olfactory ability of the patients (NB: sodium citrate is a licensed product for use in body cavities (e.g. stomach, bladder) and can be found in the British National Formulary - the concentrations proposed do not exceed those used elsewhere). ...
Food Grade /Sodium Citrate / 6132-04-3 with Factory Price!!(id:10941374). View product details of Food Grade /Sodium Citrate / 6132-04-3 with Factory Price!! from Atn Investments Pty Ltd manufacturer in EC21
Sodium Citrate found in: CapitolBrand® CB-S2779-2.5KG Sodium Citrate, Crystal, ACS Reagent Grade, 2.5Kg, CapitolBrand® CB-S2779-500G Sodium Citrate,..
High Quality Sodium Citrate Supplier, FOODCHEM is Top Sodium Citrate Supplier and Manufacturer in China for more than 10 years, Buy Sodium Citrate Food Grade and Feed Grade at Foodchem
Quality Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Of Citric Acid Series CAS NO.813-94-5 / 7693-13-2 for sale - buy cheap Sodium Citrate Dihydrate from aginatethickener manufacturer.
Citrate Utilization Test- Principle, Procedure, Results. It identifies organisms capable of using sodium citrate as the sole carbon source.
Pastorino, A. J., C. L. Hansen, and D. J. McMahon. 2003. Effect of sodium citrate on the chemical composition and structure-function relationships of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 86:3113-3121. ...
Low hazard for health. Plant derived, biodegradable and suitable for Greywater and septic tanks.. Sodium Citrate is the Sodium Salt of citric acid, which is found in many citric fruits. Sodium citrate is often used as a sequestering agent that can bind and capture other atoms.. ...
Pharmacology refers to the chemical makeup and behavior of ANTICOAGULANT CITRATE DEXTROSE A (anhydrous citric acid, dextrose monohydrate, and trisodium citrate dihydrate solution).
Sodium Citrate containing medications, Sodium Citrate indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing sodium citrate. Find information on sodium citrate use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
[110 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Sodium Citrate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Sodium Citrate Revenue,...
Get your resealable tub of food grade bulk Sodium Citrate Powder online at Ozdingo. It is a sodium salt of citric acid with a sour salt taste. Used as an acidity regulator in food and drinks, as an emulsifier for oils, and as a laundry product builder. Trisodium citrate, Trisodium salt, Dihydrate, Dehydrate. na3c6h5o7.
Trisodium citrate E331 or E331iii is available in Pakistan at Humayun Wellchem Lahore for the food and beverages industry used as an antioxidant in food.
Sodium Citrate (dihydrate) - Trisodium citrate dihydrate is a tribasic salt of citric acid. It is produced by complete neutralization of citric acid with high purity sodium source and subsequent crystallization.
We,China Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 Suppliers and China Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 Manufacturers, provide Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 product and the products related with China Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 - Nandu Chemical
Bovine/Calf Blood In Sodium Citrate R200-0050 Background : Citrated bovine blood is aseptically collected and prepared to order from our colony of animals. Thes
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SeraLab \ Human Whole Blood Sodium Citrate PBMC Isolation Male Individual Donor \ BSCIM-123-PBMC for more molecular products just contact us
Find and save ideas about Potassium sulfate on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Sodium citrate, Chemistry cat and Science memes.
Sodium CitrateAn acid salt used as a relatively strong sequestrant.1 lb. Cardboard Cylinder Storage Conditions: Dry and cool (68- 72ºF, 20- 22ºC)Ingredients: Sodium Citrate
On the spur of the moment, I thought of brewing a pumpkin beer today. Dont have any fresh pumpkin, but I do have canned; however, there is nothing on the label to indicate whether it has any preservatives, so Im thinking that it probably _doesnt_ ... but I dont want to take a chance; besides, my brewing book says not to use canned pumpkin with preservatives. So I thought of making a cherry beer instead using cherry pie filling. Besides the ingredients which I know are alright, it lists citric and ascorbic acids (I think they are okay) and sodium citrate and red 40 color (I presume dye wont be a problem either). I did a google for sodium citrate and read enough to see that it is sometimes used as a preservative. I dont know what the concentration is in the can, but were talking about a 21 oz. can in a 5 gallon batch, so it will become very diluted. Im tempted to just give it a try, but thought Id at least see what sort of replies I might get while my water is heating up ...
Sodium citrate | Na3C6H5O7 or C6H5Na3O7 | CID 6224 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Question - Can I give my dog sodium citrate dihydrate? Will be going to - D0. Find the answer to this and other Dog questions on JustAnswer
This recipe adds sodium citrate to a cheddar and Gouda cheeses to give it a modernist twist. The immersion blender makes the queso texture smooth, then add sweet shrimp, diced peppers and tomatoes. - Amazing Food Made Easy
The market research report Global Sodium Citrate Market comprises of market growth, trends, forecasts, key competitor analysis and new business opportunities.
0.1M Citric acid-Sodium citrate buffer buffer - pH range 3.0 - 6.2 Prepare a 0.1M solution of citric acid monohydrate, C 6H8 O 7&H 2O (21.01g/l) and a 0.1M solution of trisodium citrate dihydrate, C 6H5 O 7Na 3&2H 2O (29.41g/l). Mix the volumes shown in the table. Or dissolve the masses shown and make up to 100cm 3 withwater ...
Find substitute medicine(s) for generic FERRIC CITRATE at Netmeds.com. Find dosages, compare prices and get up to 20% off on prescription medicines.
China Trisodium Phosphate Tsp Purity 98%, Find details about China Trisodium Phosphate 98% Tech&Food Grade Tsp, Tsp from Trisodium Phosphate Tsp Purity 98% - Zouping Changshan Zefeng Fertilizer Co., Ltd.
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 994-36-5(1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:?)),please inquire us for 994-36-5(1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:?)).
Specifically developed for Northern and Southern transfer protocols and nucleic acid preparations. Supplied in pouches in two concentrations (2x and 20x).
We are pleased to welcome you to our new website. As a thank you for your continued customer loyalty, all newly registered accounts will receive a complimentary 5% discount.. ...
Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate 10101-89-0 NMR spectrum, Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate H-NMR spectral analysis, Trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Citrates are used to make the urine more alkaline (less acid). This helps prevent certain kinds of kidney stones. Citrates are sometimes used with other medicines to help treat kidney stones that may occur with gout. They are also used to make the blood more alkaline in certain conditions ...
Sodium Citrate Tube - We are manufacturer and suppliers of Sodium Citrate Blood Tubes, Sodium Citrate Blood Collection Tubes and Blood Collection Tubes
List of wholesalers , traders for sodium citrate food additive, 675 sodium citrate food additive manufacturers & sodium citrate food additive suppliers from China.
China Sodium Citrate, Find details about China Sodium Citrate, Food Additive from Sodium Citrate - Tianjin Kunyu International Co., Ltd.
Sodium Citrate used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. Along with other salts of citric acid, such as Magnesium Citrate, Calcium Citrate and Potassium Citrate. As an experienced Sodium Citrate manufacturer and supplier, we has been supplying and exporting Sodium Citrate for almost 10 years, please be assured to buy ...
Trisodium citrate (CAS 68-04-2) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on trisodium citrate market globally and regionally
View drug interactions between citric acid / potassium citrate and sodium citrate. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
ALPHA CHEMIKA is an ISO 9001:2000 certified manufacturer, supplier & exporter of BUFFER CITRATE SOLUTION including all laboratory Chemicals, and offered to our clients at the best industry prices, Inquire us for more products details.
Buffer solution for HPCE, 20 mM sodium citrate, pH 6.0 (25 °C), Honeywell Fluka™ 100mL; Plastic bottle Buffer solution for HPCE, 20 mM sodium citrate, pH 6.0...
Calories in Willpowder Sodium Citrate. Find nutrition facts for Willpowder Sodium Citrate and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
A method of treating blood withdrawn from patient including: simultaneously withdrawing blood and infusing withdrawn blood from and to the patient by flowing the withdrawn blood through an extracorporeal dialysis circuit including a dialyzer having a semi-permeable dialysis membrane and a dialysate side adjacent the membrane; feeding a dialysate containing 1 to 5 mM total calcium and 2 to 8 mM citrate to the dialysate side of the dialyzer, and introducing an anticoagulation fluid including at least 8 mM citrate into the arterial blood line.
1. Sodium citrate solution may be injected into the blood of a mammal (the cat) in sufficient amount to temporarily completely paralyze the cardiac vagus with gradual but entire recovery in twenty to thirty minutes. Similar or slightly larger doses tend, also, to lower blood pressure, slow the heart, and impair respiratory movements.. 2. Using acetylcholine, evidence is found that the sodium citrate paralyzes the cardiac vagus at the synapses between pre- and postganglionic fibers in case of the cat just as was previously found by direct evidence in case of the turtle.. 3. Sodium citrate seems to cause the effects (described in no. 1 above) by lowering the calcium ions in the blood and in the heart to the critical point; and all these ill effects may be prevented (in decerebrate animals) by intravenous injection of calcium chloride solution, in proper amount, either immediately before or during the early part of the sodium citrate transfusion, whether the citrate be given alone or as citrated ...
HCMM : Second-tier assay of newborn screening specimens when abnormal propionyl carnitine or methionine concentrations are identified in a primary newborn screen
Citrate, a substance being related to de novo fatty acid synthesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, has a pivotal role in cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate intracellular citrate in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially under hypoxic condition, remain poorly understood. Here we find that hypoxia (1% O2) induces DNA damage-independent ATM activation (oxidized ATM) and suppression of oxidized ATM reduces intracellular citrate via decreasing the levels of phosphofructokinase (PFKP) and citrate synthase (CS), two key glucose metabolism-associated enzymes. Mechanistically, PFKP is regulated by HIF1A at the translational level, whereas CS is of posttranscriptional regulation by UBR5-mediated ubiquitination. Interestingly, accumulation of citrate in cytoplasm or exogenous citrate significantly enhances cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of hypoxic TNBC cells in vitro and in mice xenografts. The underlying mechanism mainly involves citrate-stimulated activation of
AS 3 - dextrose monohydrate, sodium citrate, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, citric acid monohydrate and adenine injection, solution - Prescription (RX) Marketed Drugs Encyclopedia
Sodium sitrat - Trisodium sitrat - Sodium sitrat dihidrat l Farmakope Inggris Sodium Citrate BP Sodium Citrate Ph Eur. Trisodium Citrate Ph Eur. C6H5Na3O7,2H2O - 294.1 - 6132-04-3 DEFINISI Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate. Konten 99,0 persen hingga 101,0 persen (zat anhydrat). KARAKTER ...
Sodium sitrat - Trisodium sitrat - Sodium sitrat dihidrat l Farmakope Inggris Sodium Citrate BP Sodium Citrate Ph Eur. Trisodium Citrate Ph Eur. C6H5Na3O7,2H2O - 294.1 - 6132-04-3 DEFINISI Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate dihydrate. Konten 99,0 persen hingga 101,0 persen (zat anhydrat). KARAKTER ...
PRAKASH CHEMICALS PVT LTD, Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate and 50 more Products. A Supplier on Alibaba.com.
Add the citric acid to the water. Stir till the citric acid is dissolved. Warning before adding the baking soda - it will fizz like mad. Make sure the pot you use is a large one.. Add the baking soda. Stir thoroughly while its fizzing. Once the foam dies down, it will fizz gently for a while - possibly over an hour. Keep an eye on the pot, and stir from time to time if you start seeing any cloudiness.. Once the fizzing has died down, heat the liquid on medium-high until it comes to the boil. Reduce heat to medium and keep stirring. You want to cook off all the water. Stir constantly, you want to break up the crystals as they form. Once all the water is cooked off, youre left with what looks like slightly odd shaped salt. Thats your sodium citrate.. The thickness of the cheese product will depend on the ratio of liquid to cheese. If you weigh the cheese and then add the liquid as a percent of the weight you will get:. ...
Blood should be collected in a blue-top tube containing 3.2% buffered sodium citrate. 1 Evacuated collection tubes must be filled to completion to ensure a proper blood to anticoagulant ratio. 2,3 The sample should be mixed immediately by gentle inversion at least six times to ensure adequate mixing of the anticoagulant with the blood. A discard tube is not required prior to collection of ...
Alfa Aesar™ Gold nanoparticles, 10nm, supplied in 0.1mg/mL sodium citrate with stabilizer, OD1, 520nm absorption 25mL Alfa Aesar™ Gold...
Silver nanospheres 50 nm avg. part. size, 0.02 mg/mL (in 2mM aqueous sodium citrate), citrate functionalized; Linear Formula: Ag; find Sigma-Aldrich-796131 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Sodium Citrate is a colorless crystal or white crystalloid powder. It has a cool and salty flavor. It is a flavoring agent and a stabilizer in food and ...
Genlyte Lemon 3.5g/2.9g/1.5g - 28.5g Oral Powder (Sodium Citrate) drug information. Find its price or cost and dose. It is manufactured by Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Genvista).
BM-Lyte ORS 2.6g/1.5g/2.9g/13.5g - 21.8g Oral Powder (Sodium Citrate) drug information. Find its price or cost and dose. It is manufactured by BMW PHARMACO INDIA PVT.LTD.
1. Rat costal cartilage was found to begin to calcify normally when the rats weigh 35-45g. 2. The cartilage is suggested as a model for the study in vivo of mechanisms concerned with normal calcification. 3. The model was tested by studying the incorporation of fluoride into the mineral deposited in the tissue. 4. The percentage of inorganic material in cartilage rose from approx. 3% of the dry weight in the uncalcified tissue to 62% in the tissue from rats weighing 300g. 5. Mineral deposited had a calcium/phosphorus molar ratio of 1·65. 6. After the oral administration of sodium fluoride to rats, fluoride was incorporated into cartilage mineral. 7. The concentration of fluoride in cartilage ash increased rapidly with calcification and the mineral became more highly fluoridated than the corresponding rib bone. 8. Fluoridated mineral showed a marked decrease in citrate concentration.. ...
In this study we investigated the transcriptional role of the sterol regulatory element (SRE) present in the promoter of the mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC). We show that wild-type (but not mutated) CIC SRE cloned in front of the luciferase promoter confers transcriptional activation of the gene reporter. We also demonstrate that insulin activates, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit, the gene reporter activity driven by the CIC promoter containing wild-type (but not mutated) SRE. Finally, both insulin treatment and overexpression of SRE binding protein (SREBP-1) increase the CIC transcript and protein levels, whereas PUFA have an opposite effect. These results show that SRE/SREBP-1 play a role in the transcriptional regulation of CIC by insulin and PUF. ...
and pump spray products. Citric acid is also one of a group of ingredients known as alpha hydroxy acids that are used as the active ingredients in chemical skin peels. Sodium citrate may be used in all types of cosmetic products, including baby products, make-up, lipstick, bath products, soaps and detergents, hair dyes and colors, and hair and skin care products. Tributyl citrate and triethyl citrate may be used in bath products, other cleansing products, and creams and lotions. Citric acid and its diammonium, potassium and sodium salts are all used to help preserve cosmetics and personal care products by chelating (complexing) metals. Citric acid and its salts are also added to cosmetics to help adjust the acid/base balance. Other functions of the citrate ingredients include: Buffering ...
We obtained venous blood from 6 healthy individuals who had not taken any medication during the previous 10 days and had given their informed consent. The blood was collected into 1/10th volume of 10.9 mmol/L trisodium citrate and was centrifuged at 180g for 15 min at 20 °C to obtain platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP (3.5-4.5 mL) was acidified with 1/6th volume of acid-citrate- dextrose (71 mmol/L citric acid, 85 mmol/L trisodium citrate, and 110 mmol/L d-glucose, pH ∼4.4). The acidified PRP from each healthy individual was divided into 2 aliquots. We added dibutyryl cAMP (final concentration, 2 mmol/L) to one of the aliquots; to the other we added nothing. The PRP was incubated for 20 min at 37 °C. Platelets were then pelleted by centrifugation at 700g for 20 min at 20 °C, then washed once with a buffer containing 137 mmol/L NaCl, 2.6 mmol/L KCl, 1.0 mmol/L MgCl2, 11.9 mmol/L NaHCO3, 5.6 mmol/L d-glucose, 1 mmol/L EDTA (buffer A; pH 6.5). For the platelet suspensions pretreated with ...
Alkasolve information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sam-On, Alkasolve indications, usages and related health products lists
In this series, blood and urinary tests confirmed the usual features of FHHNC (15) in CLDN19 patients: (1) persistent hypomagnesemia unresponsive to Mg2+ administration, (2) thiazide-sensitive hypercalciuria with normal serum Ca2+ levels and a slightly increased parathormone level, (3) low urinary citrate excretion, and (4) progressive renal failure leading to ESRD. However, one can note some peculiar renal findings. First, although FHHNC is mostly diagnosed during the first years of life (age of diagnosis within the first decade for all patients, within the first year of life for 8 of 12 patients) (5), it can be asymptomatic until the end of the second decade as exemplified by patient F2.3. In patients with CLDN16-related FHHNC, a genotype-phenotype correlation has been established and age at onset and severity may be predicted from the CLDN16 genotype (12). Because of the recent recognition of CLDN19 mutations in humans and their low frequency, this analysis has not yet been performed in ...
I received a sample of blood accidentally anticoagulated with heparin. I am told that Genomic DNA isolated from heparinized blood is much harder to use in PCR reactions. Does anyone have experience with this? Is there a way to get around the purported problem? Is there a quick and dirty way to get rid of teh heparin? Any thoughts appreciated. Bob Wildin, M.D., University of Washington. Email wilddrb at u.washington.edu ...
10101-89-0 Trisodium phosphate (sodium phosphate tribasic) testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 10101-89-0. phosphoric acid trisodium salt, trisodium phosphate, sodium phosphate,. This chemical is white crystals
The enzyme is specific for (2S,3S)-methylcitrate, showing no activity with (2R,3S)-methylcitrate. The enzyme can also use cis-aconitate as a substrate but more slowly. Bo
Trisodium phosphate was at one time extensively used in formulations for a variety of consumer-grade soaps and detergents, and the most common use for trisodium phosphate has been in cleaning agents. The pH of a 1% solution is 12 (i.e., very basic), and the solution is sufficiently alkaline to saponify grease and oils. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. This versatility and low manufacturing price made TSP the basis for a plethora of cleaning products sold in the mid-20th century. TSP is still sold and used as a cleaning agent, but since the late 1960s, its use has diminished in the United States and many other parts of the world because, like many phosphate-based cleaners, it is known to cause extensive eutrophication of lakes and rivers once it enters a water system.[8] Substitutes are generally not as effective.[9] TSP is commonly used after cleaning a surface with mineral spirits to remove hydrocarbon ...
Alfa Aesar TrisodiumCitrate, Honeywell TrisodiumCitrate, VWR TrisodiumCitrate, Spectrum TrisodiumCitrate,BDH TrisodiumCitrate,Acros TrisodiumCitrate, Panreac TrisodiumCitrate, FisherScientific TrisodiumCitrate, Suvchem TrisodiumCitrate, GFS TrisodiumCitrate
1) Fix cells for 30 minutes in 70% ethanol. 2) Resuspend in 1 ml 0.1% Nonidet P-40, 10 mM NaCl, 50 mM sodium citrate pH 7.0. Add Pi to 100 ug/ml. Incubate on benchtop for 30 min. 3) Pellet and wash cells twice, resuspend in 50 mM citrate buffer . 4) View under microscope, stable for at least a few hours. VERY intense. Try this. Cells are dead of course, so this only works for terminal experiments. Its essentially a stripped-down flow cytometry protocol. kevin -- Kevin A. Morano Thiele Lab Dept. of Biological Chemistry University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0606 kmorano at umich.edu ...
Estimating calcium vs magnesium binding affinity - posted in Biochemistry: Trisodium citrate is commonly used as a medical anticoagulant and works by binding divalent cations. When the concentration of free calcium falls below about 225 nmol, coagulation cannot proceed. Citrate also binds magnesium and I have found plenty of references that state when performing regional anticoagulation with citrate, such as with a dialysis circuit, the patient will lose both Ca and Mg....
Abstract of a clinical trial in overweight females taking HCA before meals. Those taking the drug lost more weight, but there was no correlation with satiety. ...
DL-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme is a trisodium salt key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, ketone bodies and terpenes.
Mouse eyes were immediately enucleated from euthanized animals, lenses were dissected in PBS and then immersed into 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS at 37°C for 30 minutes. The fixed lenses were washed three times with PBS then sectioned into 150-μm slices with a vibratome (Leica VT1000 S; Leica, Wetlar, Germany). The slices were postfixed for 2 minutes in 4% PFA in PBS then washed three times with PBS before immunohistochemical analysis. A rabbit antibody against the intracellular loop of Cx46,26 a rabbit antibody against the C-terminal region of Cx50,27 a rabbit anti-βDystroglycan (anti-βDys) antibody (MANDAG2[7D11]; Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA, USA), and a rabbit anti-ZO-1 antibody (40-2200; Thermo-Fisher, Waltham, MA, USA) were used. Antigen retrieval was performed on sections destined for antibody labeling with the exception of anti-Cx50 labeling. The sections were placed in citrate buffer (10 mM sodium citrate, 0.05% vol/vol Tween 20) at 80°C for 30 minutes ...
Get an overview of PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (injection, solution, concentrate), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that include the same medication.
Phosphorous is an important soil nutrient that plays a role in the overall health of lawns, crops, garden vegetables and other plants. Trisodium phosphate, or TSP, is a form of phosphorous that can help protect the health of your plants, although it is not one of the more common forms of phosphorous fertilizer.
As sample material for the molecular genetic detection of hereditary diseases, for parentage analysis as well as for determining coat colour and blood type, EDTA whole blood samples (approx. 1 ml) are suitable. Alternatively, in dogs and cats, buccal swabs, so-called cheek swabs, can be used. For each animal, 2 buccal swabs (without transport medium) should be supplied. To create DNA profiles and parentage reports in dogs and cats, we recommend to always send in a blood sample. For all genetic testing in horses, it is sufficient to supply about 20 hair roots from mane or tail for DNA isolation. EDTA blood is the most suitable sample material. It is absolutely essential to use EDTA as anticoagulant. Lithium heparin or citrate are unsuitable as anticoagulants, as they may inhibit the subsequent PCR. In very rare cases, haemolysis induced by transport or extreme stress during sample collection might lead to the situation that no result can be obtained. However, the percentage of blood samples which ...
Citrate reduction[edit]. An early, and very common, method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles is citrate reduction. This ... In this method, the citrate ion traditionally acts as both the reducing agent and the capping ligand,[18] making it a useful ... When silver nitrate (AgNO3) is reduced by a weak reducing agent like citrate, the reduction rate is lower which means that new ... The reason for the increased monodispersity when using NaBH4 is that it is a stronger reducing agent than citrate. The impact ...
... at Sigma-Aldrich *^ a b Record of Triethyl citrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive (E number E1505) to ... Triethyl citrate has been used as a pseudo-emulsifier in e-cigarette juices. It functions essentially like lecithin used in ... Triethyl citrate is also used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastics.[5] ...
G→pyruvate→citrate. glycine→serine→. *3-Phosphoglyceric acid. *glycine→creatine: Glycocyamine. *Phosphocreatine ...
Citrate + CoA-SH Citrate synthase Aldol condensation This is the same as step 0 and restarts the cycle. The reaction is ... In the citric acid cycle all the intermediates (e.g. citrate, iso-citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate, ... Citrate + CoA-SH Citrate synthase Aldol condensation irreversible, extends the 4C oxaloacetate to a 6C molecule ... The citrate then goes through a series of chemical transformations, losing two carboxyl groups as CO2. The carbons lost as CO2 ...
... was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.[3] Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum-as is its genus name Malus.[4][5] In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince[6] and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.[7] It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.[8] It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. It is also a component of some artificial ...
... in suspension is frequently used medically as a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures. It is most often used in imaging of the GI tract during what is colloquially known as a "barium meal". It is administered orally, or by enema, as a suspension of fine particles in a thick milk like solution (often with sweetening and flavoring agents added). Although barium is a heavy metal, and its water-soluble compounds are often highly toxic, the low solubility of barium sulfate protects the patient from absorbing harmful amounts of the metal. Barium sulfate is also readily removed from the body, unlike Thorotrast, which it replaced. Due to the relatively high atomic number (Z = 56) of barium, its compounds absorb X-rays more strongly than compounds derived from lighter nuclei.. ...
... is a molecule that was used as a radiocontrast agent, typically for performing myelography studies. It was marketed under the trade names Pantopaque (in North America) and Myodil (rest of the world).. Iofendylate is an iodobenzene (an iodinated oil-based substance) and as such it was recommended that the physician remove it from the patient at the end of the myelography study, which was a difficult and painful part of the procedure. Moreover, because complete removal could not always be achieved (or even attempted by some physicians), iofendylate's persistence in the body might sometimes lead to arachnoiditis, a potentially painful and debilitating lifelong disorder of the spine.[1][2] As a result, the substance, which was used extensively for over three decades, became the subject of multiple lawsuits filed around the world.[3]. Iofendylate's use ceased when water-soluble agents suitable for spinal enhancement (such as metrizamide) became available in the late 1970s. With those ...
ATP citrate lyase: ACL, acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi ⇌ citrate + CoA + ATP. ...
Nursing considerations: Early generations of IV contrast carried considerable nephrotoxicity, necessitating continual assessment of renal function. IV and PO fluids are encouraged post operation to facilitate excretion of contrast. There is a common myth in medicine and nursing that patients may be allergic to iodine in contrast, however, there is considerable evidence to the contrary. This is likely a carryover of confusion regarding contrast-reactions to early generations of IV contrast which were of sufficiently high osmolarity to induce degranulation of mast cells which manifests clinically as similar in appearance to anaphlylaxis due to massive release of histamine. There is no need to assess patients for allergies to iodine or shellfish as allergy to iodine is physiologically impossible in a hemodynamically stable patient. Allergy to iodine would immediately manifest as overwhelming anaphylaxis due to presence of iodine in triiodothyronine(T3) and thyroxine(T4). Shellfish allergies have ...
... (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography. Ultrasound contrast agents rely on the different ways in which sound waves are reflected from interfaces between substances. This may be the surface of a small air bubble or a more complex structure. Commercially available contrast media are gas-filled microbubbles that are administered intravenously to the systemic circulation. Microbubbles have a high degree of echogenicity (the ability of an object to reflect ultrasound waves). There is a great difference in echogenicity between the gas in the microbubbles and the soft tissue surroundings of the body. Thus, ultrasonic imaging using microbubble contrast agents enhances the ultrasound backscatter, (reflection) of the ultrasound waves, to produce a sonogram with increased contrast due to the high echogenicity difference. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to image blood perfusion in organs, measure blood flow rate in the ...
"Sildenafil citrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Viagra at The Periodic Table of Videos ( ... "Sildenafil Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 1 December 2014. Goldstein I, Burnett AL, ... "Viagra- sildenafil citrate tablet, film coated". DailyMed. Retrieved 6 October 2020. "Viagra EPAR". European Medicines Agency. ... "Viagra (Sildenafil Citrate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 11 July 2018. Peterson K ( ...
Product Information: tamoxifen citrate oral tablets, tamoxifen citrate oral tablets. Watson Laboratories (per manufacturer), ... "Tamoxifen Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2014-01-04. Retrieved 27 ... "Tamoxifen Citrate - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020. Thomas B, Magos A (2009). "Modern management of ... Steiner AZ, Terplan M, Paulson RJ (June 2005). "Comparison of tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a meta- ...
... citrate is approved for medical use in the United States with an indication "to treat adults with moderately to ... "Tofacitinib citrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Serious heart problems and cancer with ... In May 2018, the FDA approved tofacitinib citrate "for the treatment of adult patients in the U.S. with moderately to severely ... "Tofacitinib Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 1 June 2018. "FDA approves new treatment for ...
"Cerenia (maropitant citrate) Injectable Solution, Dogs" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-19. Package Insert for Cerenia at Pfizer ... Maropitant (INN; trade name: Cerenia /səˈriːniə/ sə-REE-nee-ə), used as maropitant citrate (USAN), is a neurokinin-1 (NK1) ... ISBN 978-0-7020-2858-8. Plumb DC (2011). "Maropitant Citrate". Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook (7th ed.). Stockholm, Wis.; ...
... hydrate, piperazine adipate and piperazine citrate (used to treat ascariasis and enterobiasis) are the most common ... Two common salts in the form of which piperazine is usually prepared for pharmaceutical or veterinary purposes are the citrate ...
"Fentanyl Citrate - Drug Summary". pdr.net. Retrieved 23 October 2015. Davio, Kelly (November 5, 2018). "FDA Approves Painkiller ... "Sufentanil citrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... "Sufenta (Sufentanil Citrate Injection) Drug Information: Overdosage and Contraindications - Prescribing Information at RxList ...
Standard saline citrate (SSC). *HEPES-buffered saline (HBS) (recipes from Dittmar, Liu, Ausubel etc.) ...
Light blue: sodium citrate. Citrate is a reversible anticoagulant, and these tubes are used for coagulation assays. ... The additives may include anticoagulants (EDTA, sodium citrate, heparin) or a gel with density between those of blood cells and ... Light yellow: Contains sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS). Used for blood culture specimens or acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), ...
These include sodium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, magnesium citrate, and Bicitra (a combination of citric acid monohydrate ... The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact, citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium ... The therapy with potassium citrate, or magnesium potassium citrate, is commonly prescribed in clinical practice in order to ... Caudarella, R; Vescini, F (September 2009). "Urinary citrate and renal stone disease: the preventive role of alkali citrate ...
Ferric pyrophosphate citrate is a mixed-ligand iron complex in which iron (III) is bound to pyrophosphate and citrate. ... "Triferic (ferric pyrophosphate citrate) solution". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2 March 2016. Retrieved 30 April ... Ferric pyrophosphate citrate was approved for medical use in the United States in January 2015. ... "Ferric pyrophosphate citrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ...
Toremifene (toremifene citrate; see figure 8), chemically designated as 2-(p-[(Z)-4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-butenyl]phenoxy)-N,N- ... dimethylethylamine citrate, is a chlorinated derivative of the nonsteroidal triphenylethylene antiestrogen tamoxifen with a ...
A02BA07 (WHO) (ranitidine bismuth citrate). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S2 (Pharmacy only) ...
Citrate. +. Klebsiella aerogenes[1], previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase ... positive, citrate positive, indole negative, rod-shaped bacterium.[2] The bacterium is approximately 1-3 microns in length, and ...
"Viagra -sildenafil citrate tablet". Daily Med- U.S National Library of Medicine. Retrieved November 5, 2015. Khera M, Goldstein ...
The citrate transported out of the mitochondrial matrix by the tricarboxylate transport protein is catalyzed by citrate lyase ... It is believed low levels of citrate in the cytosol and high levels of citrate in the mitochondria caused by the impaired ... "Pathogenic mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier SLC25A1 lead to impaired citrate export required for lipid, ... "Acetylation of human mitochondrial citrate carrier modulates mitochondrial citrate/malate exchange activity to sustain NADPH ...
H.S. Yathirajan; B. Nagaraj; P. Nagaraja; M. Bolte (2005). "Sildenafil citrate monohydrate" (PDF). Acta Crystallographica. 61 ( ...
"Fentanyl Citrate Injection, USP" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. Yadav SK, Maurya CK, Gupta PK, Jain AK, Ganesan K, ... "ACTIQ® (fentanyl citrate) oral transmucosal lozenge (1968 version revised in 2011)" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. ... "Fentanyl, Fentanyl Citrate, Fentanyl Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ... Following the patch, a flavoured lollipop of fentanyl citrate mixed with inert fillers was introduced in 1998 under the brand ...
Diphenhydramine citrate 38 mg (sedative antihistamine). There are concerns drugs like Midol, which is a NSAID, increases risk ...
... citrate and tartrate. Alkali metal alkoxides react to give the metal alkoxide complexes of varying complexity. The compounds ...
Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... citrate (Si)-synthase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • ... citrate metabolic process. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • carbohydrate metabolic process. • metabolism. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... Finally, the hydroxyl added to the carbonyl in the previous step is deprotonated and citrate [−O2CCH2C(OH)(CO2−)CH2CO2−] is ...
Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom percitrate molecule), called belowby the common but ambiguous name magnesiumcitrate ( ... Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule), called below by the common but ambiguous name magnesium ... Compared to magnesium citrate (3:2), it is much more water soluble, less alkaline, and contains 29.9% less magnesium by weight ... citrate (which can also mean magnesium citrate (3:2)), is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid. It is a ...
citrate(1−) (CHEBI:35804) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(2−) (CHEBI:35808) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(4−) (CHEBI:132362) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is a tricarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35753) citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is conjugate base of ... CHEBI:133748 - citrate anion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
SODIUM CITRATE PENTAHYDRATE. ICSC. : 1220. Trisodium citrate pentahydrate. 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, trisodium ...
... has part citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733) has ... potassium citrate Note: (2012-05-31) Note that name potassium citrate has been used for both anhydrous potassium citrate and ... potassium citrate monohydrate (CHEBI:64746) has part potassium citrate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:64733). ... CHEBI:64733 - potassium citrate (anhydrous). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Magnesium Citrate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Magnesium citrate is used to treat occasional constipation on a short-term basis. Magnesium citrate is in a class of ... Before taking magnesium citrate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium citrate, any other ... Do not take magnesium citrate for more than 1 week, unless your doctor tells you to do so. Magnesium citrate usually causes a ...
... sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide, which is then exposed to light. In the areas ... Other articles where Ferric ammonium citrate is discussed: blueprint: … ... sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide, which is then exposed to light. In the areas ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Butamirate Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Butamirate Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butamirate Citrate may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Butamirate Citrate. Butamirate. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Potassium Citrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Potassium Citrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Potassium Citrate. In the US, Potassium Citrate (potassium citrate systemic) is a member of the drug class urinary pH modifiers ... Citrolith (Potassium Citrate and Sodium Citrate). Beach Products, United States. *Crashtone (Potassium Citrate and Citric Acid) ...
... (59 Fe) FERRIC CITRATE 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate; iron(+3) cation 54063-42-2 CITRATE
About SODIUM CITRATE: Cosmetic manufacturers use sodium citrate to adjust the acidity of a product. Citrate, in the form of ... Synonym(s): MONOSODIUM CITRATE, 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY-, MONOSODIUM SALT; 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, ...
Magnesium citrate is a laxative that works by softening the stool, which makes it easier to pass. In this article, we look at ... the benefits, risks, and side effects of magnesium citrate for constipation. We also discuss alternative treatments. ... Many people use magnesium citrate to relieve occasional constipation. ... Is magnesium citrate safe to use?. Magnesium citrate is generally safe for adults who do not have any health issues, and who ...
Dilauryl Citrate is a diester of lauryl alcohol and citric acid.. 1,2,3-PROPANETRICARBOXYLIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY-, DIDODECYL ESTER ...
Some people find relief from magnesium citrate, a supplement that can relax your bowels and provide a laxative effect. Learn ... how to use magnesium citrate for constipation relief. ... Who can safely use magnesium citrate?. Magnesium citrate is ... What are the side effects of magnesium citrate?. Although magnesium citrate is safe for most people, you may encounter side ... of magnesium citrate oral solution with 8 oz. of water. Speak with your doctor to learn if these standard dosages are safe for ...
... but studies with citrate ions have shown that when the plasma citrate concentration exceeds 10 mg per 100 ml., plutonium ... Artificial loading of blood with tri-sodium citrate to above 10 mg/100 ml. is possible in the intact animal with little toxic ... We report the results of an experiment designed to evaluate the use of citrate in the treatment of acute plutonium poisoning ... citrate is formed in preference to the plutonium-transferrin complex2. ...
This Fentanyl Citrate Injection page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ...
Brands A-Z Natures Way Calcium Citrate Categories Supplements Minerals Calcium Calcium Citrate ... Natures Way, Calcium Citrate 2 Results (showing 1 - 2) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
P5675 Medscape on hypocitraturia Potassium Citrate for Kidney Stones Potassium Citrate "Potassium citrate for cystitis". ... Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. ... Potassium citrate is rapidly absorbed when given by mouth, and is excreted in the urine. Since it is an alkaline salt, it is ... Potassium citrate is an effective way to treat/manage gout and arrhythmia,[medical citation needed] if the patient is ...
Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Citracal). Calcium makes up 24.1% of calcium citrate ( ... Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, ... 3 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 C6H8O7(l) → Ca3(C6H5O7)2(s) + 6 H2O(l) The calcium citrate thus produced may be sold as-is, or it may be ... Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fungal fermentation process by which citric acid is ...
... definition, a white crystalline powder, C 22 H 30 N 6 O 4 S, that temporarily normalizes erectile function ... And with sildenafil citrate going generic in three years, Pfizer will soon lose sole ownership over the Viagra formula. ...
The efficacy of citrate and nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH was similar, however, citrate was safer. Unexpectedly, citrate ... And the winner is: regional citrate anticoagulation. [Crit Care Med. 2009]. *[Is citrate anticoagulation a safe and effective ... for citrate, 0.36 (interquartile range, 0-0.83) for nadroparin (p = 0.31). Citrate conferred less metabolic alkalosis (p = ... Citrate anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration.. Oudemans-van Straaten HM1, Bosman RJ, Koopmans M, van der ...
Medical definition of magnesium citrate: a crystalline salt used in the form of a lemony acidulous effervescent solution as a ... Share magnesium citrate. Post the Definition of magnesium citrate to Facebook Share the Definition of magnesium citrate on ... Resources for magnesium citrate. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year magnesium citrate first appeared Time ... Comments on magnesium citrate. What made you want to look up magnesium citrate? Please tell us where you read or heard it ( ...
zenegramail order sildenafil citrate. mail order off line sildenafil citrate 5where to order sildenafil without a doctor, The ... 5money order sildenafil citrate. Your online drugstore, zenegra mail order sildenafil citrate. sildenafil money order online, ... 5mail order sildenafil citrate zenegraprint sildenafil citrate order form Get all latest information here mail order sildenafil ... 5 mail order sildenafil citrate Delivery is fast and effect is stable. 5 Money Order Sildenafil Citrate - print sildenafil ...
This article provides all of the important patient information on tamoxifen citrate. Includes info on medications uses, side ... Tamoxifen citrate is a medication used to treat certain types of breast cancer. It can cause certain serious health ... Patients taking tamoxifen citrate are at risk for experiencing side effects. The serious side effects should be immediately ... Patient Information on Tamoxifen Citrate. written by: R. Elizabeth C. Kitchen•edited by: Diana Cooper•updated: 4/2/2011 ...
Title: Sildamax Sildenafil Citrate 100mg at Privatemeds.ws, Author: privatemeds, Name: Sildamax Sildenafil Citrate 100mg at ... Sildamax Sildenafil Citrate 100mg at Privatemeds.ws. Including Sildamax Sildenafil Citrate 100mg. You can get your medications ... Including Sildamax Sildenafil Citrate 100mg. You can get your medications at a fraction of the price that you would pay for the ...
a 20 mg tamoxifen tablet given once daily, the 20 mg tamoxifen citrate tablet was bioequivalent to the 10 mg tamoxifen citrate ... TAMOXIFEN CITRATE tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... Tamoxifen citrate tablets are indicated only for high-risk women. "High risk" is defined as women at least 35 years of age with ... Tamoxifen citrate tablets are indicated to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer. This ...
Prescribing data from Medicares prescription drug benefit, known as Part D, was compiled and released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the federal agency that oversees the program. The data for 2015 includes more than 1.4 billion prescriptions written by nearly 1.4 million doctors, nurses and other providers. This database lists about 447,000 of those providers who wrote 50 or more prescriptions for at least one drug that year. More than three-fourths of these prescriptions went to patients 65 and older; the rest were for disabled patients. Methodology ». ...
magnesium citrate 1.745 GM per 1 FL OZ Oral Solution. SY. 4. 1052760. magnesium citrate 1.745 GM per 29.6 ML Oral Solution. SY ... MAGNESIUM CITRATE (UNII: RHO26O1T9V) (MAGNESIUM CATION - UNII:T6V3LHY838) MAGNESIUM CITRATE. 1.745 g in 29.6 mL. ... MAGNESIUM CITRATE liquid. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... MAGNESIUM CITRATE liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be ...
Natural Factors, Stress-Relax, Magnesium Citrate, Natural Berry Drink Mix, 8.8 oz (250 g) Powder. 11 ...
... is used to control phosphorus levels in adults with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis. Ferric... ... Ferric citrate contains iron that binds to the phosphates you take in through food, which helps your body absorb fewer ... What is ferric citrate?. Ferric citrate contains iron that binds to the phosphates you take in through food, which helps your ... What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ferric citrate?. You should not use ferric citrate if you are ...
  • The enzyme citrate synthase E.C. (previously] exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making enzyme in the first step of the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium citrate (1:1) (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule), called below by the common but ambiguous name magnesium citrate (which can also mean magnesium citrate (3:2)), is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid. (answers.com)
  • Citrate, in the form of citric acid, is also found in citric fruits and juices. (ewg.org)
  • Dilauryl Citrate is a diester of lauryl alcohol and citric acid. (ewg.org)
  • Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium citrate is produced by adding potassium bicarbonate or potassium carbonate to a solution of citric acid until effervescence ceases, filtering the solution, and evaporating to granulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fungal fermentation process by which citric acid is produced industrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • The citric acid in the broth solution is neutralized by limewater, precipitating insoluble calcium citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 C6H8O7(l) → Ca3(C6H5O7)2(s) + 6 H2O(l) The calcium citrate thus produced may be sold as-is, or it may be converted to citric acid using dilute sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to NGP verified citric acid, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, cane sugar, organic cane sugar, and golden brown sugar the company is starting to produce whey protein concentrates/Isolates with sunflower lecithin instead of soy lecithin. (prnewswire.com)
  • Zinc citrate is a zinc salt derived from citric acid. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • To make zinc citrate, zinc oxide is combined with citric acid. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Therefore, foods rich in naturally-occurring citric acid contain calcium citrate, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (livestrong.com)
  • Listed as citric acid on food labels, calcium citrate is considered a safe food additive. (livestrong.com)
  • Pure lemon juice contains 1.44 grams per ounce of calcium citrate, or citric acid. (livestrong.com)
  • Calcium citrate (as citric acid) helps to produce acids required for enzyme activity in cheese manufacturing. (livestrong.com)
  • Calcium (as Citrate/Ascorbate reacted from Calcium Carbonate and Citric/Ascorbic Acids) 500 mg. (thorne.com)
  • Magnesium (as Citrate/Ascorbate reacted from Magnesium Oxide and Citric/Ascorbic Acids) 200 mg. (thorne.com)
  • Therefore it is possible to freely read across from one citrate salt to another salt and conduct the hazard assessment for tripotassium citrate on the properties of citric acid. (europa.eu)
  • 5400 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 5400 * 1.59 = 8586 mg/kg tripotassium citrate (using MW(tripotassium citrate)/MW(citric acid) = 306.4/192.9 = 1.59. (europa.eu)
  • Sodium citrate, the sodium salt of citric acid, is safe to use and already licensed for medicinal uses in the stomach and bladder. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • The citric acid ingredients most commonly used in cosmetics are citric acid, sodium citrate, tributyl citrate and triethyl citrate. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • The next most commonly used citric acid-derived ingredients were sodium, tributyl and triethyl citrate. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Sodium citrate is a salt derived from citric acid that is commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Other natural salts of citric acid that are used in cosmetics and personal care products include potassium citrate, aluminum citrate, diammonium citrate, ferric citrate, magnesium citrate, monosodium citrate and zinc citrate. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Other citric acid esters that may be used in cosmetics include Tri-C12-13 Alkyl Citrate, Tri-C14-15 Alkyl Citrate, tricaprylyl citrate, triethylhexyl citrate, triisocetyl citrate, trioctyldodecyl citrate, triisostearyl citrate, isodecyl citrate, stearyl citrate, dilauryl citrate and ethyl citrate. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Cosmetic manufacturers use sodium citrate to adjust the acidity of a product. (ewg.org)
  • Show all 390 recent products that contain SODIUM CITRATE. (ewg.org)
  • Magnesium citrate may interact with drugs, including specific antibiotics and medications that doctors prescribe to lower calcium concentration in the urine, such as potassium or sodium phosphate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Difco formulation does not include ferric ammonium citrate and sodium thiosulfate. (fda.gov)
  • Artificial loading of blood with tri-sodium citrate to above 10 mg/100 ml. is possible in the intact animal with little toxic reaction, as has been shown for man 3 . (nature.com)
  • In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment for kidney stones has remained the same for decades - increased fluid intake, limited sodium intake, diuretics and potassium citrate therapy. (medworm.com)
  • What Are the Uses of Sodium Citrate? (reference.com)
  • Sodium Citrate, also known as canestan oasis, is used as a laxative to prevent and manage constipation. (reference.com)
  • In surgical operations, sodium citrate prevents inhalations of stomach acid to the airways. (reference.com)
  • Sodium citrate used for culinary purposes comprises of three salts: monosodium citrate, disodium citrate and Trisodium citrate. (reference.com)
  • It is commonly known as sodium citrate E331. (reference.com)
  • When used in medication, sodium citrate helps lessen the acidity levels in the urine. (reference.com)
  • Sodium citrate is administered rectally as enema when used to relieve constipation before surgery. (reference.com)
  • It is advisable to follow doctor's instructions while taking sodium citrate as a medication. (reference.com)
  • A study by the University of East Anglia (UEA) with the Smell & Taste clinic at the James Paget University Hospital showed sodium citrate nasal spray could offer temporary improvement in the ability to smell for patients suffering from anosmia or hyposmia -- the loss of smell -- in cases caused by a virus or other non-obstructive causes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium citrate is known to bind calcium. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carl Philpott from UEA said: "The sodium citrate nasal spray was designed to 'mop up' calcium molecules in nasal mucus and as a result, temporarily turn up the sense of smell. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the randomised trial, patients were treated either with sodium citrate spray or sterile water. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the patients randomised to be treated with sodium citrate spray, one third showed an improvement with the peak effect seen between 15 and 30 minutes after treatment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Philpott said: "This study offers proof of concept that sodium citrate spray may enhance a damaged sense of smell in patients with partial loss of smell not caused by obstructions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium citrate may be used in all types of cosmetic products, including baby products, make-up, lipstick, bath products, soaps and detergents, hair dyes and colors, and hair and skin care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • tripotassium citrate (anh. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There was no available data for acute toxicity for tripotassium citrate. (europa.eu)
  • Based on the available information, no classification or labelling is required for tripotassium citrate in accordance with the current EU regulations. (europa.eu)
  • sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide, which is then exposed to light. (britannica.com)
  • Read the side effects of Ferrous Ammonium Citrate as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Strides Shasun said it has received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration for potassium citrate extended release tablets USP 5 mEq, 10 mEq and 15 mEq. (medworm.com)
  • Zydus Cadila has received the final approval from the USFDA to market Potassium Citrate ER tablets in the strengths of 5 mEq, 10 mEq and 15 mEq. (medworm.com)
  • You should not take potassium citrate tablets if you have problems with your esophagus, stomach, or intestines that make it difficult for you to swallow or digest pills. (cigna.com)
  • Manufacturer Exporter of Quality Pharmaceutical Formulation, dapoxetine tablets,Sildenafil Citrate Tablets 50, 100, 200mg - Centurion Laboratories offering worldwide exporting services on quality Pharmaceutical Formulation , Verdenafil with. (folkd.com)
  • Brencon pest control service dus power prices are expensive approved for jelly with hours and kamagra sildenafil citrate tablets pills. (duvalia.com)
  • pussy effective and tablets citrate sildenafil kamagra not oral. (duvalia.com)
  • Both, effects cialis and kamagra sildenafil citrate tablets distracted metro should be taken one side before actionable erection. (duvalia.com)
  • Since kamagra sites has been made cardiovascular in mexican 1998, kamagra sildenafil citrate tablets it has maintained its vote in the abuse of generic pictures and its jelly. (duvalia.com)
  • Probably i did really since there were such a kamagra sildenafil citrate tablets suitable music in penis we decided to do some drug before buying a condition. (duvalia.com)
  • Battery:i charged it not in kamagra sildenafil citrate tablets the dysfunction i had it and it saw me through class of commuting and usually knocking around and using around the book. (duvalia.com)
  • Sildenafil Citrate tablets action, what is Viagra professional? (miranda-im.org)
  • In the rare event you have a painful or prolonged erection the cause is almost always psychological for everyone who is looking to purchase generic Cialis Sildenafil Citrate tablets action at lowest prices. (miranda-im.org)
  • Manufactured by Bayer first sign of heart sleeping fever an erection that lasts Sildenafil Citrate tablets action longer than normal respiratory infection vomiting bronchitis sore throat runny nose The side effect rates of are based on a dosage of 50 mg in people with erectile dysfunction, as reported in clinical trials for the brand equivalent, Viagra (see the FDA package insert. (miranda-im.org)
  • The processes that cause these two viagra, it is ok to take the pills suffering the Sildenafil Citrate tablets action results of overdose. (miranda-im.org)
  • All medicines have Sildenafil Citrate tablets action resulting in total systemic drug exposure (AUCs) for unbound sildenafil and extra strain on your heart. (miranda-im.org)
  • The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. (genome.jp)
  • Tamoxifen citrate is a medication used to treat certain types of breast cancer. (brighthub.com)
  • Ferric citrate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
  • Branded medicines like Viagra have been exploitatively priced for years due to the fact that Pfizer had a patent on the active ingredient sildenafil citrate that was, at the time, the only oral treatment available to treat the symptoms of ED. As they had a monopoly on the sex medication market they could charge as they pleased. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Magnesium Citrate is an over-the-counter ( OTC ) medication that can be used as a nutritional supplement or for treatment of acid indigestion and constipation . (rxlist.com)
  • This medication contains magnesium citrate. (rxlist.com)
  • Sildenafil Citrate 100 mg is an intense and productive medication that attempts to advance improvement in exotic obstacles in a grown-up person. (hootakes.com)
  • Adults and older children, ages 12 years and older, can usually take up to 10 ounces (oz.) of magnesium citrate oral solution with 8 oz. of water. (healthline.com)
  • For example, if you're taking certain medications to treat HIV , magnesium citrate can stop these drugs from working properly. (healthline.com)
  • mail order off line sildenafil citrate 5where to order sildenafil without a doctor, The trusted online source for prescription drugs at low prices. (geocities.jp)
  • What other drugs will affect ferric citrate? (rexhealth.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is used to treat constipation, according to Drugs.com, and though ingesting it can induce temporary weight loss, laxatives are not an eff. (reference.com)
  • What Other Drugs Interact with Magnesium Citrate? (rxlist.com)
  • Magnesium Citrate has no known severe interactions with any drugs. (rxlist.com)
  • Magnesium Citrate has mild interactions with at least 44 different drugs. (rxlist.com)
  • Cialis works faster than other ED drugs and lasts sildenafil citrate reviews. (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • Cheapest drugs online - buy and save sildenafil citrate reviews. (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • Note: (2012-05-31) Note that name potassium citrate has been used for both anhydrous potassium citrate and the monohydrate form. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Calcium makes up 24.1% of calcium citrate (anhydrous) and 21.1% of calcium citrate (tetrahydrate) by mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium citrate is in a class of medications called saline laxatives. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium citrate, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in magnesium citrate preparations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if you are taking other medications, take them at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking magnesium citrate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In many cases, addressing the underlying cause for constipation may reduce the need for medications, including magnesium citrate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You can often treat occasional constipation with over-the-counter (OTC) medications or supplements, such as magnesium citrate. (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium citrate may also interact with some medications. (healthline.com)
  • Ask your doctor if magnesium citrate can interfere with any medications or supplements that you're taking. (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is known to interact poorly with several medications and antibiotics, according to MedicineNet. (reference.com)
  • Clomiphene citrate online pharmacy, Testosterone Cypionate injection reviews, buy HGH energizer. (reed-electronics.com)
  • Your online drugstore, zenegra mail order sildenafil citrate. (geocities.jp)
  • sildenafil money order online, where to order sildenafil without a doctor - Online Order Sildenafil shop, zenegramoney order sildenafil citrate. (geocities.jp)
  • 5mail order sildenafil citrate zenegraprint sildenafil citrate order form Get all latest information here mail order sildenafil citrate, Simple and fast way to order Order Sildenafil online from your seat. (geocities.jp)
  • Do not take magnesium citrate for more than 1 week, unless your doctor tells you to do so. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take magnesium citrate exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adults and children alike should take magnesium citrate with a full glass of water. (reference.com)
  • How long does it take magnesium citrate to work? (reference.com)
  • Can You Take Magnesium Citrate After Eating? (livestrong.com)
  • An accidental overdose of ferric citrate by a child can be fatal. (rexhealth.com)
  • What happens if I overdose my pet on CitraVet Potassium Citrate? (1800petmeds.com)
  • The substitution of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for any other fentanyl product may result in fatal overdose. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • As a result of these differences, the substitution of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for any other fentanyl product may result in fatal overdose. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is available as an oral solution or tablet, which is sometimes combined with calcium. (healthline.com)
  • If you're taking magnesium citrate for constipation, choose the oral solution. (healthline.com)
  • In oral care products, alternatives to zinc citrate in the fight against bad breath are artificial antimicrobial agents or other natural agents like terpenes (found in spearmint oil) and tea tree oil that inhibit the odor-causing compounds. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Le Fildena ou citrate de sildénafil est un traitement oral pour les troubles d'érection ou pour l'impuissance chez les hommes. (folkd.com)
  • ST. LOUIS, Mar 03, 2010 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Covidien (NYSE: COV), a leading global provider of healthcare products, today announced that Mallinckrodt Inc., a Covidien company, has launched its Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate (CII) to distributors serving retail pharmacies across the country. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate (CII) on October 30, 2009. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate, a Class II controlled substance, is an opioid analgesic indicated only for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients 16 years of age and older with malignancies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Covidien's launch of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate in the U.S. includes 200 mcg, 400 mcg, 600 mcg, 800 mcg, 1,200 mcg and 1,600 mcg strengths. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Reports of serious adverse events, including deaths, in patients treated with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate have been reported. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is indicated only for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients with malignancies who are already receiving and who are tolerant to around-the-clock opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is not indicated for use in opioid non-tolerant patients including those with only as needed (PRN) prior exposure. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is contraindicated in the management of acute or postoperative pain including headache/migraine. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • When prescribing, do not convert patients on a mcg per mcg basis to oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate from other fentanyl products. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • When dispensing, do not substitute an oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate prescription for other fentanyl products. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Substantial differences exist in the pharmacokinetic profile of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate compared to other fentanyl products that result in clinically important differences in the extent of absorption of fentanyl. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Triethyl citrate is also used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triethyl citrate has been used as a pseudo- emulsifier in e-cigarette juices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The China Triethyl Citrate Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Triethyl Citrate industry. (bharatbook.com)
  • The Triethyl Citrate market analysis is provided for the China markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (bharatbook.com)
  • The Triethyl Citrate industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (bharatbook.com)
  • Tributyl citrate and triethyl citrate may be used in bath products, other cleansing products, and creams and lotions. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Tributyl citrate and triethyl citrate may also be used in cosmetics and personal care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Researchers wanted to see if there was a link between using clomiphene citrate and the occurrence of certain birth defects. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings should be interpreted with caution because they are based on small numbers of women who used clomiphene citrate. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, it is difficult to determine whether the findings are due to the use of the clomiphene citrate or because these women had difficulty getting pregnant due to some underlying conditions that affected fertility. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the links between clomiphene citrate and Dandy-Walker malformation, coarctation of the aorta, esophageal atresia, and omphalocele have not been observed in previous studies. (cdc.gov)
  • More studies are needed to understand if there is a link between birth defects and clomiphene citrate. (cdc.gov)
  • Clomiphene citrate online pharmacy, riptropin HGH for sale, are steroids legal to buy online. (reed-electronics.com)
  • As a food additive, magnesium citrate is used to regulate acidity and is known as E number E345. (answers.com)
  • Magnesium citrate may help treat constipation, but it might also cause a few side effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Learn more about using magnesium citrate to treat constipation. (healthline.com)
  • How can you use magnesium citrate to treat constipation? (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is used to treat occasional constipation on a short-term basis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does magnesium citrate work for constipation? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are times when magnesium citrate may not be the best option for treating constipation , and choosing other alternatives may help avoid any complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When used correctly, many people find that magnesium citrate is a simple solution to occasional constipation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Steve Clark recommends using magnesium citrate to relieve constipation because it is gentle, non-addictive and does not cause bowel spasms or urgency unless the recommended dosage is exceeded. (reference.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is only intended for occasional use in treatment of constipation. (rxlist.com)
  • Zinc citrate is a form of zinc, an essential mineral, which is easily absorbed by the body. (livestrong.com)
  • If you are unable to consume enough zinc from your normal daily diet, your doctor may recommend that you take zinc citrate supplements to ensure that you receive appropriate levels of zinc. (livestrong.com)
  • Before taking this dietary supplement, discuss zinc citrate side effects with your medical provider. (livestrong.com)
  • Zinc citrate is typically administered orally as a capsule or tablet. (livestrong.com)
  • This distinctive taste may arise when you place a zinc citrate supplement on your tongue or immediately after swallowing the tablet or capsule. (livestrong.com)
  • Eating a small snack or drinking a flavored beverage after taking zinc citrate can help reduce or eliminate the metallic taste in your mouth. (livestrong.com)
  • If you consume unusually high levels of zinc citrate, you may also experience abdominal cramping or diarrhea. (livestrong.com)
  • Talk with a doctor if you experience severe or persistent upset stomach side effects while taking zinc citrate. (livestrong.com)
  • Infrequently, flu-like symptoms may develop as a side effect of zinc citrate. (livestrong.com)
  • Zinc toxicity may develop if you take unusually high doses of zinc citrate. (livestrong.com)
  • If any of these side effects emerge while you are taking zinc citrate, consult a doctor immediately. (livestrong.com)
  • Zinc citrate is a multifunctional ingredient. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • In toothpaste and mouthwash, the primary role that Tom's of Maine's has found zinc citrate to provide is that it can help freshen breath by reducing the impact of odorous compounds produced in our mouth by bacteria. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • In our Mineral Confidence deodorant zinc citrate works by helping to neutralize odor. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Zinc citrate is precipitated from the neutralization mixture. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • The crystalline zinc citrate that precipitates is then dehydrated and milled. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Zinc citrate was reviewed by the FDA (Federal Registry, 21 CFR Part 356) and it was determined that zinc citrate is safe. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is an ingredient in some laxatives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The first active ingredient ever to be released for treating erectile dysfunction or ED orally was known as sildenafil citrate and marketed as Viagra. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Much like Viagra, generic Malegra jelly also contains 100 mg of the active ingredient known as sildenafil citrate that works to effectively combat the symptoms of ED by boosting blood flow to the pelvic region inside a man's body. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Ferric citrate is used to control phosphorus levels in adults with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis. (rexhealth.com)
  • Ferric citrate is also used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease who are not on dialysis. (rexhealth.com)
  • Magnesium Citrate is a well-absorbed form of magnesium, which is often deficient in diets but essential for maintaining bone density, normal cardiac rhythmicity, and lung and kidney function. (thorne.com)
  • Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis. (cigna.com)
  • Each tablet contains 15.2 mg of tamoxifen citrate which is equivalent to 10 mg of tamoxifen. (nih.gov)
  • Do not crush or chew a ferric citrate tablet. (rexhealth.com)
  • CitraVet Potassium Citrate is a liver-flavored chewable tablet recommended for dogs and cats that are prone to recurring urinary stones (calcium oxalate stones) or low urine pH levels. (1800petmeds.com)
  • The recommended dose for CitraVet Potassium Citrate is 1 tablet per 22 lbs, 1/2 tablet per 11 lbs, and 1/4 tablet per 5 lbs every 12 hours or as prescribed by your veterinarian. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is an osmotic laxative that softens stool by drawing more water into the intestines, according to Dr. Steve Clark, N.D. It also relaxes bowel spasms. (reference.com)
  • In many individuals, bioavailability of calcium citrate is found to be equal to that of the cheaper calcium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike calcium carbonate, which is basic and neutralizes stomach acid, calcium citrate has no effect on stomach acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium carbonate is harder to digest than calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate carries a risk of "acid rebound" (the stomach overcompensates by producing more acid), so individuals who are sensitive to antacids or who have difficulty producing adequate stomach acid may choose calcium citrate over calcium carbonate for supplementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to recent research into calcium absorption after gastric bypass surgery, calcium citrate may have improved bioavailability over calcium carbonate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who are taking calcium citrate as a dietary supplement after surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium citrate may cause stomach cramps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium citrate is usually administered by mouth in dilute aqueous solution, because of its somewhat caustic effect on the stomach lining, and the potential for other mild health hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious side effects of potassium citrate include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth. (cigna.com)
  • A clinical study indicated that supplementing with magnesium in the form of magnesium citrate offers better absorption than magnesium oxide, a form found in many poorly-absorbed magnesium supplements. (thorne.com)
  • The citrate process proved capable of absorption of greater than 90% of the SO2 from the flue gas with ultimate conversion to elemental sulfur. (cdc.gov)
  • The effervescence created by adding the powder to water enhances the absorption of the citrate-mineral chelates. (thorne.com)
  • https://www.livestrong.com/article/314839-soft-drinks-with-potassium-citrate/ US Fire extinguishing composition and method for fire extinguishing 5945025A, James A. Cunningham Xiaofang Wangy et al 2019 IOP Conf. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, Potassium Citrate (potassium citrate systemic) is a member of the drug class urinary pH modifiers and is used to treat Nephrolithiasis and Renal Tubular Acidosis . (drugs.com)
  • Regional anticoagulation with citrate or systemic anticoagulation with the low-molecular weight heparin nadroparin. (nih.gov)
  • Tripotaβium citrate monohydrate (Ph. (drugs.com)
  • Of the 215 randomized patients, 200 received CVVH per protocol (97 citrate and 103 nadroparin). (nih.gov)
  • Citrate reduced mortality in surgical patients (p = 0.007), sepsis (p = 0.01), higher Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment score (p = 0.006), and lower age (p = 0.009). (nih.gov)
  • Patients taking tamoxifen citrate are at risk for experiencing side effects. (brighthub.com)
  • It is not yet known whether giving tamoxifen citrate or letrozole with or without palbociclib may work better in treating patients with stage I-III invasive breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well tamoxifen citrate, anastrozole, or fulvestrant work in treating patients with stage I-III invasive lobular breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether giving tamoxifen citrate, anastrozole, or fulvestrant will work better in treating patients with invasive lobular breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well fulvestrant and tamoxifen citrate work in treating patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. (cancer.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well tamoxifen citrate or aromatase inhibitor works in treating elderly patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer that can be removed by surgery. (cancer.gov)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of potassium citrate in geriatric patients. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well fulvestrant or tamoxifen citrate work in treating patients with cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • This 1-year monocentric retrospective study included all patients exposed to citrate in OL-POST-HDF with nadroparin decrease for more than one month. (hindawi.com)
  • Citrate dialysate can also induce hypocalcemia in chronic hemodialysed patients either in conventional low-flux hemodialysis [ 19 ] or in OL-POST-HDF [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In our center, since the 1st of May 2013, simultaneously delivering citrate dialysate, in replacement of acetate, and conducting nadroparin withdrawal for all the patients on Gambro® machines and treated with OL-POST HDF have been decided. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a retrospective and monocentric study conducted on chronic and stable dialyzed patients who were exposed to citrate-containing dialysate from the 1st of May 2013 to the 30th of April 2014 in our center. (hindawi.com)
  • Some people find relief from using magnesium citrate, a supplement that can relax your bowels and provide a laxative effect . (healthline.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is a saline laxative that generally produces a bowel movement within 30 minutes to three hours, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • The ratio of calcium and magnesium in Cal-Mag Citrate Effervescent Powder is especially desirable for individuals who need a higher amount of calcium but who, because of magnesium's laxative-like characteristic, cannot tolerate an equal amount of magnesium. (thorne.com)
  • Magnesium citrate is a saline laxative that is thought to work by increasing fluid in the small intestine. (webmd.com)
  • The crystal structure comprises a three-dimensional network in which eightfold coordinated Ca2+ cations are linked by citrate anions and hydrogen bonds between two non-coordinating crystal water molecules and two coordinating water molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • And with sildenafil citrate going generic in three years, Pfizer will soon lose sole ownership over the Viagra formula. (dictionary.com)
  • Some people think that sildenafil citrate containing products that are not Viagra will not function as well because they are cheaper and not produced by Pfizer. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Smaller pharmaceutical companies can use sildenafil citrate, which is a relatively inexpensive compound to produce, and make generic medicines based on the formulation of Viagra. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Products such as the jelly form of sildenafil citrate known as Malegra are generic medicines of the original anti-ED treatment known as Viagra. (selfgrowth.com)
  • See risks and benefits of VIAGRA® (sildenafil citrate). (folkd.com)
  • pharmacology) The citrate salt of sildenafil , marketed as Viagra , a treatment for erectile dysfunction. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Viagra is indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men sildenafil citrate reviews . (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • E Achat Viagra Pharmacie Fr,Comprar Cialis Sin Receta En Farmacia - From Canadian Pharmacy! (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • zenegra is there a generic sildenafil citrate - Fastest way of online order without any unnecessary movement, zenegra generic sildenafil citrate. (geocities.jp)
  • What Are Warnings and Precautions for Magnesium Citrate? (rxlist.com)
  • Magnesium citrate may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before taking magnesium citrate, it is essential that a person understands how it works, its side effects, and how it interacts with other substances. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drinking alcohol along with magnesium citrate may make diarrhea and other intestinal side effects worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are the side effects of magnesium citrate? (healthline.com)
  • Although magnesium citrate is safe for most people, you may encounter side effects after using it. (healthline.com)
  • If you experience any of these side effects, stop taking magnesium citrate and call your doctor right away. (healthline.com)
  • What Are Side Effects Associated with Using Magnesium Citrate? (rxlist.com)
  • List Magnesium Citrate side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
  • In Online Postdilution Hemodiafiltration (OL-POST-HDF), several issues are remaining concerning the possibility of stopping anticoagulation during sessions and the side effects of citrate solutions on calcium metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Citrate dialysate does not allow anticoagulation discontinuation or decrease but has no significant side effects on mineral bone metabolism or erythropoiesis. (hindawi.com)