Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 73,000 kDa and is composed of two subunits of equal size.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to spermidine in the biosynthesis of spermine. It has an acidic isoelectric point at pH 5.0. EC 2.5.1.22.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC 2.5.1.9.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.12.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
An enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. EC 4.1.1.48.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.3.1.8
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC 2.7.8.8.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
citrate (Si)-synthase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • ... Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... Citrate synthase has three key amino acids in its active site (known as the catalytic triad) which catalyze the conversion of ... Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ...
... of the stereoisomeric configurations of methylcitric acid produced by si-citrate synthase and methylcitrate synthase using ... In enzymology, a 2-methylcitrate synthase (EC 2.3.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction propanoyl-CoA + H2O + ... Uchiyama H; Tabuchi T (1976). "Properties of methylcitrate synthase from Candida lipolytica". Agric. Biol. Chem. 40 (7): 1411- ... methylcitrate synthase, and methylcitrate synthetase. This enzyme participates in propanoate metabolism. ...
Simon; Heales, Simon J. R. (May 2014). "The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and ...
... citrate (Si)-synthase MeSH D08.811.913.050.387 - diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.425 - glycerol-3- ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 - spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 - spermine synthase MeSH D08.811. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 - nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.750 ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 - glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... citrate (Si)-synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ... squalene synthase EC 2.5.1.22: spermine synthase EC 2.5.1.23: sym-norspermidine synthase EC 2.5.1.24: discadenine synthase EC ...
ACC is also activated by citrate. When there is abundant acetyl-CoA in the cell cytoplasm for fat synthesis, it proceeds at an ... Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase. The major ... Hoffman, Simon; Alvares, Danielle; Adeli, Khosrow (2019). "Intestinal lipogenesis: how carbs turn on triglyceride production in ... Yin, D.; Clarke, S. D.; Peters, J. L.; Etherton, T. D. (1998-05-01). "Somatotropin-dependent decrease in fatty acid synthase ...
Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Cornah, Johanna E.; Smith, Steven M. (1 July 2005). "Arabidopsis Peroxisomal Citrate Synthase Is ... SI: Cell signalling and gene regulation. 21: 23-29. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2014.06.003. PMID 24996032. Scaffidi, Adrian; Waters, ... Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, Ian Alexander (1989). Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant ...
Sildenafil citrate, which increases blood flow to the genital area in men, is being used by some practitioners to stimulate the ... In: Simpson, Kathleen Rice, Creehan, Patricia A. eds. AWHONN's Perinatal Nursing. 4th Edition. 530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia ... Pathogenesis of symptoms in diabetic gastroparesis include: Loss of gastric neurons containing nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is ...
Gottschalk, G. (1969). "Partial purification and some properties of the (R)-citrate synthase from Clostridium acidi-urici". Eur ... Russell, R.J., Ferguson, J.M., Hough, D.W., Danson, M.J. and Taylor, G.L. (1997). "The crystal structure of citrate synthase ... Muir, J.M., Russell, R.J., Hough, D.W. and Danson, M.J. (1995). "Citrate synthase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon, ... Citrat (Si)-sintaza (EC 2.3.3.1, (R)-limunska sintaza, citrat kondenzujući enzim, citrat oksaloacetatna lijaza ((pro-3S)-CH2COO ...
Amar J. Majmundar; Waihay J. Wong & M. Celeste Simon (October 2010). "Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic ... ACO2 encodes an isomerase catalysing the reversible isomerisation of citrate and isocitrate. EPAS1 encodes a transcription ... "Identification of a novel iron-responsive element in murine and human erythroid delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA". The ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy ... Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Kasza I, Schmidt BA, et al. (July 2016). "Decreased Consumption of ... cannot be converted to carbohydrate but can be either fed into the TCA cycle by condensing with oxaloacetate to form citrate or ...
Citrate synthase. *Aconitase. *Isocitrate dehydrogenase. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase ... Johnsen SH, Lilleng H, Wilsgaard T, Bekkelund SI (January 2011). "Creatine kinase activity and blood pressure in a normal ...
Tong, E. K.; Duckworth, Harry W. (1975). "Quaternary structure of citrate synthase from Escherichia coli K 12". Biochemistry. ... Guiot, E.; Carayon, K; Delelis, O; Simon, F; Tauc, P; Zubin, E; Gottikh, M; Mouscadet, JF; et al. (2006). "Relationship between ... An example of such a conformational disease is ALAD porphyria, which results from a mutation of porphobilinogen synthase that ... The one protein that is established to function as a morpheein is porphobilinogen synthase, though there are suggestions ...
Citrate synthase activity was unchanged, suggesting an absence of mitochondrial proliferation that commonly occurs in response ... Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, ...
Citrate (Re)-synthase. *Decylhomocitrate synthase. *2-methylcitrate synthase. *2-ethylmalate synthase. *3-ethylmalate synthase ... Sonta, SI; Sandberg, AA (1977). "Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia: XXVIII. Value of detailed chromosome ...
Citrate - the ion that gives its name to the cycle - is a feedback inhibitor of citrate synthase and also inhibits PFK, ... Hyman, Anthony A.; Krishnan, Yamuna; Alberti, Simon; Wang, Jie; Saha, Shambaditya; Malinovska, Liliana; Patel, Avinash (2017-05 ... ATP synthase then ensues exactly as in oxidative phosphorylation. Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed in ... which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of additional ATP by ATP synthase. The ...
... citrate synthase activity, and induction of key metabolic genes. The effects of FGF21 on mitochondrial function require serine/ ... Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Kasza I, Schmidt BA, Cava E, Spelta F, Tosti V, Syed FA, Baar EL, Veronese ... Cummings NE, Williams EM, Kasza I, Konon EN, Schaid MD, Schmidt BA, Poudel C, Sherman DS, Yu D, Arriola Apelo SI, Cottrell SE, ... FGF21 is specifically induced by mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) activity. The oxidized form ...
Stone WS, Faraone SV, Su J, Tarbox SI, Van Eerdewegh P, Tsuang MT (May 2004). "Evidence for linkage between regulatory enzymes ... On the other hand, a high concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP) and citrate signifies that there is a high level of ... and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold". The ...
Somasundaram S, Sigthorsson G, Simpson RJ, Watts J, Jacob M, Tavares IA, et al. (May 2000). "Uncoupling of intestinal ... Aspirin decomposes rapidly in solutions of ammonium acetate or the acetates, carbonates, citrates, or hydroxides of the alkali ... Aspirin-modified PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) produces lipoxins, most of which are anti-inflammatory.[ ... role of inducible nitric oxide synthase". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 57 Suppl 5 (5): 125-36. PMID 17218764. Hayreh ...
Citrate synthase. *Aconitase. *Isocitrate dehydrogenase. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. *Succinyl CoA synthetase. *Succinate ... Selak MA, Armour SM, MacKenzie ED, Boulahbel H, Watson DG, Mansfield KD, Pan Y, Simon MC, Thompson CB, Gottlieb E (January 2005 ...
Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Kasza I, Schmidt BA, Cava E, Spelta F, Tosti V, Syed FA, Baar EL, Veronese ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase is the first enzyme for the parallel pathway performing condensation reaction in both steps - ... Cummings NE, Williams EM, Kasza I, Konon EN, Schaid MD, Schmidt BA, Poudel C, Sherman DS, Yu D, Arriola Apelo SI, Cottrell SE, ... acetohydroxyacid synthase, ketoacid reductoisomerase, dihydroxyacid dehygrogenase and aminotransferase.[3] Threonine ...
Citrate synthase. *Aconitase. *Isocitrate dehydrogenase. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. *Succinyl CoA synthetase. *Succinate ... NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Re/Si-specific). 1.6.2: Heme. *Methemoglobin reductase. *NADPH-hemoprotein reductase/Cytochrome P450 ...
Rattan SI (2006). "Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals" (PDF). Free Radic. Res. 40 (12): 1230-8. ... Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori T (2001). "ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 ( ... Citrate synthase. *Aconitase. *Isocitrate dehydrogenase. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. *Succinyl CoA synthetase. *Succinate ... Capaldi RA, Aggeler R (2002). "Mechanism of the F(1)F(0)-type ATP synthase, a biological rotary motor". Trends Biochem. Sci. 27 ...
... decomposes rapidly in solutions of ammonium acetate or the acetates, carbonates, citrates, or hydroxides of the alkali ... Somasundaram S, Sigthorsson G, Simpson RJ, Watts J, Jacob M, Tavares IA, et al. (May 2000). "Uncoupling of intestinal ... role of inducible nitric oxide synthase". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 57 Suppl 5 (5): 125-36. PMID 17218764.. ... officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, PTGS) enzyme required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. ...
Simon T, Verstuyft C, Mary-Krause M, Quteineh L, Drouet E, Méneveau N, Steg PG, Ferrières J, Danchin N, Becquemont L, French ... Thromboxane synthase inhibitors *Dipyridamole (+ aspirin). *Picotamide. *Terbogrel. *Receptor antagonists *Terbogrel. * ...
G→pyruvate→citrate. Glycine. *D-Glyceric acidemia. *Glutathione synthetase deficiency. *Sarcosinemia. *Glycine→Creatine: GAMT ... 6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency. *Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. Tyrosinemia. *Alkaptonuria/Ochronosis. *Type I ...
... si)-Synthase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Citrate (si)-Synthase" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Citrate (si)-Synthase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Citrate (si)-Synthase" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Citrate (si)-Synthase". ...
citrate (Si)-synthase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial matrix. • extracellular exosome. • ... Citrate inhibits the reaction and is an example of product inhibition. The inhibition of citrate synthase by acetyl-CoA ... Citrate synthase has three key amino acids in its active site (known as the catalytic triad) which catalyze the conversion of ... Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ...
... citrate (si)-synthase Remove constraint Subject: citrate (si)-synthase Start Over ... citrate (si)-synthase; humans; males; men; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; oxygen; skeletal muscle. Abstract:. ... It ...
Catalyzes both citrate generation and citrate cleavage. Part of a reversible tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that can fix carbon ... Citrate (Si)-synthase. Anaerolineae bacterium. 433. UniRef50_A0A0S3QTD0. Type I citrate synthase. Bacteroidetes bacterium CG2_ ... IPR016143 Citrate_synth-like_sm_a-sub. IPR002020 Citrate_synthase. IPR019810 Citrate_synthase_AS. IPR036969 Citrate_synthase_sf ... IPR016143 Citrate_synth-like_sm_a-sub. IPR002020 Citrate_synthase. IPR019810 Citrate_synthase_AS. IPR036969 Citrate_synthase_sf ...
... citrate (Si)-synthase activity, RNA binding, carbohydrate metabolic process, tricarboxylic acid cycle ... IPR002020 Citrate_synthase. IPR019810 Citrate_synthase_AS. IPR010109 Citrate_synthase_euk. IPR036969 Citrate_synthase_sf. ... IPR002020 Citrate_synthase. IPR019810 Citrate_synthase_AS. IPR010109 Citrate_synthase_euk. IPR036969 Citrate_synthase_sf. ... citrate (Si)-synthase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism * Electron Transport / drug effects * Electron Transport Complex IV / metabolism ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism * Cloning, Molecular * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant * HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / ... Recombinant AtFKBP42 prevents aggregation of citrate synthase in almost equimolar concentrations, and can be cross-linked to ...
... citrate (si)-synthase, peroxisomal; tP(AGG)CR - systematic name; tN(GTT)CR - systematic name; SAT4; RVS161; ADY2; ADP1; ATP- ... acetolactate synthase, regulatory subunit; STP22; CWH36; SNR43; PGS1; phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase; RER1; CDC10; cell ... threonine synthase (o-p-homoserine p-lyase); CTR86; PWP2; periodic tryptophan protein; YIH1; tS(CGA)CR - systematic name; BUD31 ...
Citrate (Si)-synthase [KO:K01647] [EC:2.3.3.1]. Glov_1113 conserved hypothetical protein [KO:K01647] [EC:2.3.3.1] ... Glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase play distinct roles in the sink-source nitrogen ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism. Glycogen / physiology*. Insulin / blood. Lactic Acid / blood. Liver / physiology. Male. ... 0/Blood Glucose; 0/Insulin; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 9005-79-2/Glycogen; EC 2.3.3.1/Citrate (si)-Synthase ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism. Cricetinae. Hibernation / physiology*. Kinetics. Membrane Potentials / physiology. ... 58-64-0/Adenosine Diphosphate; EC 1.-/Succinate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.3/NADH Dehydrogenase; EC 2.3.3.1/Citrate ...
... 1 citrate (Si)-synthase. EC 2.3.3.2 decylcitrate synthase. EC 2.3.3.3 citrate (Re)-synthase. EC 2.3.3.4 ... EC 2.3.3.6 2-ethylmalate synthase. EC 2.3.3.7 3-ethylmalate synthase. EC 2.3.3.8 ATP citrate synthase. EC 2.3.3.9 malate ... EC 2.3.3.14 homocitrate synthase. EC 2.3.3.15 sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase. EC 2.3.3.16 citrate synthase (unknown ... EC 2.3.3.10 hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. EC 2.3.3.11 2-hydroxyglutarate synthase. EC 2.3.3.12 3-propylmalate synthase. ...
E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was ... E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was ... E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was ... E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was ...
... kluyveri is phylogenetically related to homocitrate synthase and isopropylmalate synthase rather than to Si-citrate synthase. J ... 1966) Synthesis of glutamate and citrate by Clostridium kluyveri: An new type of citrate synthase. Biochemistry 5:1125-1133. ... 2 and 3 and SI Table 2) and the nonribosomal synthesis of proteins/polyketides (Fig. 4 and SI Fig. 6) in the genome of C. ... and ATP synthase (AtpA-I). For the other cytoplasmic enzymes involved see SI Table 2. The clostridial ferredoxin with two [ ...
citrate (Si)-synthase activity. 5.74736490002685. bayes_pls_golite062009. *transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl ... citrate metabolic process [ISS] Molecular Function:. ATP binding [IEA] ATP citrate synthase activity [ISS][NAS] succinate-CoA ... gi,24653990,ref,NP_725514.1, ATP citrate lyase, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] [NCBI NR] *gi,24653988,ref,NP_523755.1, ATP ... citrate lyase, isoform A [Drosophila melanogaster] [NCBI NR] *gi,21645324,gb,AAM70940.1, ATP citrate lyase, isoform B [ ...
citrate (Si)-synthase activity [TAS. ] Sequence:. Sequence:. [PDR BLAST] [ProtParam] 1 11 21 31 41 51 , , , , , , 1 MTVPYLNSNR ... Citrate synthase, catalyzes the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate, peroxisomal isozyme ... Citrate synthase 2. View Details. [298..401]. PSI-BLAST 1760.0 Citrate synthase ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Geobacter/classification/enzymology/genetics/metabolism*. *Proteomics/ ... Bottom Line: Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. ... Bottom Line: Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. ... Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase ...
... citrate synthase, and the metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PCr, inorganic phosphate, and creatine. Free adenosine ... citrate synthase, and the metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PCr, inorganic phosphate, and creatine. Free adenosine ... citrate synthase, and the metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PCr, inorganic phosphate, and creatine. Free adenosine ... citrate synthase, and the metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PCr, inorganic phosphate, and creatine. Free adenosine ...
Salts of citric acid are used in beverages and pharmaceuticals A salt or ester of citric acid Explanation of Citrate synthase ... Find out information about Citrate synthase. any salt or ester of citric acid. ... Related to Citrate synthase: Succinate dehydrogenase, ATP citrate synthase. citrate. any salt or ester of citric acid. Salts of ... citrate. [′si‚trāt] (biochemistry) A salt or ester of citric acid.. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us ...
Condensing enzyme --, citrate synthase Citrate (si)-synthase;an enzyme catalyzing the condensation of oxaloacetate, water, and ... acetyl-coa, forming citrate and coenzyme A; an important step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ...
MCA is formed by condensation of accumulated propionyl- CoA and oxalacetate by the enzyme si-citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7). MCA ...
citrate (Si)-synthase activity of CS dimer [mitochondrial matrix] Physical Entity CS dimer [mitochondrial matrix] ...
... of the stereoisomeric configurations of methylcitric acid produced by si-citrate synthase and methylcitrate synthase using ... In enzymology, a 2-methylcitrate synthase (EC 2.3.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction propanoyl-CoA + H2O + ... Uchiyama H; Tabuchi T (1976). "Properties of methylcitrate synthase from Candida lipolytica". Agric. Biol. Chem. 40 (7): 1411- ... methylcitrate synthase, and methylcitrate synthetase. This enzyme participates in propanoate metabolism. ...
This entry has been included to accommodate those citrate synthases for which the stereospecificity with respect to C2 of ... EC 2.3.3.1, citrate (Si)-synthase and EC 2.3.3.3, citrate (Re)-synthase]. ... citrate condensing enzyme; CoA-acetylating citrate oxaloacetate-lyase; citrate synthetase; citric synthase; citric-condensing ... This entry has been included to accommodate those citrate synthases for which the stereospecificity with respect to C2 of ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase Muscle Proteins Sequence Deletion Statement of principle. Cefalu, W. T., Nair, K. S., Seaquist, E. R., ...
Citrate synthase specific activity (μmol · [min · μg · protein]-1) did not differ with age. These data suggest that ... Citrate synthase specific activity (μmol · [min · μg · protein]-1) did not differ with age. These data suggest that ... Citrate synthase specific activity (μmol · [min · μg · protein]-1) did not differ with age. These data suggest that ... Citrate synthase specific activity (μmol · [min · μg · protein]-1) did not differ with age. These data suggest that ...
... citrate (si)-synthase; voles; disease transmission; Ctenophthalmus; genes; genetic variation; Xenopsylla cheopis; bacterial ... citrates; ectoparasites; enzyme activity; freezing; genes; hybridization; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; ribosomal RNA; ...
citrate condensing enzyme, EC 4.1.3.7; see citrate (si)‐synthase.. 2. β‐oxoacyl‐ACP synthase, EC 2.3.1.41; 3‐oxoacyl‐[acyl‐ ...
Evans, CT, Sümegi, B, Srere, P, Sherry, AD & Malloy, CR 1993, [13C]Propionate oxidation in wild-type and citrate synthase ... No glutamate labelling was detected when the tricarboxylic acid cycle was blocked either by deletion of citrate synthase or by ... No glutamate labelling was detected when the tricarboxylic acid cycle was blocked either by deletion of citrate synthase or by ... No glutamate labelling was detected when the tricarboxylic acid cycle was blocked either by deletion of citrate synthase or by ...
  • Maximal activity of citrate synthase indicates the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2]) consumption and citrate synthase activity in slow- and fast- twitch oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers of rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness and skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) mitochondrial content (citrate synthase enzyme activity). (elsevier.com)
  • Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity was significantly increased by 52 percent in T rats, indicating endurance conditioning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P 0.05). (utmb.edu)
  • Citrate synthase is found in nearly all cells capable of oxidative metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. (nih.gov)
  • The metabolism of propionate was examined in wild-type Escherichia coli and cells lacking citrate synthase by high-resolution 13 C n.m.r. (elsevier.com)
  • The citrate synthase knockdown cells exhibited severe defects in respiratory activity and marked decreases in ATP production, but great increases in glycolytic metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Citrate synthase (CS) is a direct RORalpha target gene and one mechanism by which RORalpha regulates lipid metabolism is via regulation of CS expression. (nih.gov)
  • For this purpose, the 5′-untranslated region sequence of gltA encoding citrate synthase was designed using an expression prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level. (dtu.dk)
  • We describe the development and validation of a R. bellii-specific, quantitative, real-time PCR TaqMan assay that targets a segment of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmids pAB7, pJNK3 and pJNK4 containing Escherichia coli cs ( gltA ), NADH insensitive cs ( gltA1 ), and citrate operon consisting of gltA1 gene along with Salmonella typhimurium Na + dependent citrate transporter ( citC ) gene under constitutive lac promoter were constructed in broad host range plasmid pUCPM18-Km r . (springer.com)
  • In reversal and prevention models, amphetamine administration significantly inhibited citrate synthase activity in rat hippocampus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our results showed that amphetamine inhibited citrate synthase activity and that valproate reversed and lithium prevented the enzyme inhibition. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Buch AD, Archana G, Naresh Kumar G (2009) Enhance citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescence ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene. (springer.com)
  • proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI). (nih.gov)
  • Citrate synthase specific activity (μmol · [min · μg · protein] -1 ) did not differ with age. (elsevier.com)
  • 3‐oxoacyl‐[acyl‐carrier‐protein]synthase (see fatty acid synthase complex). (oup.com)
  • Muscle oxidative capacity, as reflected by the protein content of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV, increased by ∼35% after training. (nih.gov)
  • The affected locus encoded a novel protein (CshA) that was homologous to glyoxysomal citrate synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • Targeting and processing of a chimeric protein with the N-terminal presequence of the precursor to glyoxysomal citrate synthase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate the role of the presequence in the transport of the protein to the microbodies, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that expressed beta-glucuronidase with the N-terminal presequence of the precursor to the glyoxysomal citrate synthase of pumpkin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A. The enzyme is found in nearly all cells capable of oxidative metablism. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme citrate synthase E.C. 2.3.3.1 (previously 4.1.3.7)] exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making enzyme in the first step of the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, MCI PBMCs showed higher activities of two enzymes regulating the energy machine, cytochrome C oxidase and citrate synthase , involved in the respiratory chain processes and Krebs cycle, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glyoxysomal citrate synthase in pumpkin is synthesized as a precursor that has a cleavable presequence at its N-terminal end. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Taken together, these results provide new insights into the function of peroxisomal citrate synthase in cell growth and multicellular development. (elsevier.com)
  • BAT citrate synthase activity was lower in transgenic animals regardless of acclimation temperature and BAT citrate synthase activity per depot was significantly higher only in the cold acclimated wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Muscle citrate synthase activity was increased in both genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was correlated with butanol production. (dtu.dk)
  • Citrate synthase activity measured in the muscle and the digestive gland of scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) collected during 2003 near Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As expected, the voluntary running model enhanced citrate synthase activity but caused no changes in absolute muscle mass or fiber size. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the end of the 4-h cold exposure, liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius tissues were removed, frozen, and analyzed for glycogen concentration and/or citrate synthase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Capillary:fiber ratio, number of capillary contacts per fiber, and citrate synthase activity (CS) were evaluated in the plantaris (Plant) and soleus (Sol) muscles. (elsevier.com)
  • An in vitro citrate synthase assay revealed that cshA disruption resulted in a 50% reduction in enzyme activity, implicating CshA as an active citrate synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • Among these proteins, only Snz1 showed the anti-aggregation activity against thermal denaturation of citrate synthase. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this work, we evaluated the activity of citrate synthase in rats, and the effects of the treatment with mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) on the enzyme activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In amphetamine-pretreated animals, valproate administration reversed citrate synthase activity inhibition induced by amphetamine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. (bvsalud.org)
  • The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma catecholamine concentrations and citrate synthase activity in soleus muscle were also determined in both groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abnormal cardiac function was accompanied by necrosis and lower citrate synthase activity in the mdx mouse heart, suggesting decreased mitochondrial content. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, to test for chaperone activity of the proteasome, we assay the reactivation of denatured citrate synthase. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • It is likely that enhanced citrate synthase activity contributes to the conversion of glucose to lipids in pancreatic cancer providing substrate for membrane lipids synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Citrate synthase is commonly used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria . (wikipedia.org)
  • YES NO PARTIAL The TCA cycle, also called the Krebs cycle, citrate cycle, and tricarboxylic acid cycle, is performed in eukaryotic mitochondria and in many prokaryotes. (jcvi.org)
  • Glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway and glutamate dehydrogenase play distinct roles in the sink-source nitrogen cycle in tobacco. (genome.jp)
  • No glutamate labelling was detected when the tricarboxylic acid cycle was blocked either by deletion of citrate synthase or by inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by malonate. (elsevier.com)
  • [5] Citrate synthase is localized within eukaryotic cells in the mitochondrial matrix , but is encoded by nuclear DNA rather than mitochondrial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intramitochondrial functions regulate nonmitochondrial citrate synthase (CIT2) expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (denigma.de)
  • We have examined the effects of perturbation of mitochondrial function on expression of two nuclear genes encoding the mitochondrial and peroxisomal forms of citrate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CIT1 and CIT2. (denigma.de)
  • DNA sequences from the 21 PCR citrate synthase A gene amplicons (GenBank accession nos. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the prevention model, pretreatment with lithium prevented amphetamine-induced citrate synthase inhibition. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Muscle samples were collected to determine enzyme activities of β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and the metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PCr, inorganic phosphate, and creatine. (elsevier.com)
  • Citrate synthase (CS) and octopine dehydrogenase (ODH) activities were used as indicators of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20 percent (P (bvsalud.org)
  • Two binding sites can be found therein: one reserved for citrate or oxaloacetate and the other for Coenzyme A. The active site contains three key residues: His274, His320, and Asp375 that are highly selective in their interactions with substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of the nuclear yeast genes for citrate synthase and fifteen other mitochondrial proteins by a new screening method. (ymdb.ca)
  • Both human and yeast proteasomes stimulate the recovery of the native structure of citrate synthase. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • YajL stimulated the renaturation of urea-unfolded citrate synthase and the solubilization of the urea-unfolded ribosomal proteins S1 and L3 and was more efficient as a chaperone in its oxidized form than in its reduced form. (ecoliwiki.net)
  • It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7. (rush.edu)
  • Catalyzes both citrate generation and citrate cleavage. (uniprot.org)
  • In additional, we confirmed that the concentration of citrate synthase , a marker of ExT efficacy, in soleus muscle was significantly higher in ExT than in Sed rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other names in common use include 2-methylcitrate oxaloacetate-lyase, MCS, methylcitrate synthase, and methylcitrate synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCA is formed by condensation of accumulated propionyl- CoA and oxalacetate by the enzyme si-citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7). (hmdb.ca)
  • Non-mitochondrial citrate synthase catalyses citrate synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle in gluconeogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Identification and characterization of a re-citrate synthase in Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1. (kegg.jp)
  • Activities of respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase influenced by pharmacologically different antidepressants and mood stabilizers. (nel.edu)
  • Here, we use such methods to test various QM/MM methods and the sensitivity of the results to details of the models for an important enzyme reaction, proton abstraction from acetyl-coenzyme A in citrate synthase. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Disrupted multicellular development on bacterial lawns resulted from the abnormal susceptibility to the environmental conditions, perhaps because of citrate insufficiency. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus the study demonstrates that artificial citrate operon in H. seropedicae Z67 enhances phosphate solubilization and plant growth promotion abilities. (springer.com)
  • Citrate synthase's 437 amino acid residues are organized into two main subunits, each consisting of 20 alpha-helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • These alpha helices compose approximately 75% of citrate synthase's tertiary structure , while the remaining residues mainly compose irregular extensions of the structure, save a single beta-sheet of 13 residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property refers to the forward direction: from oxaloacetate and acetate to citrate, to isocitrate, to 2-oxoglutarate, to succinate, to fumarate, to malate, to oxaloacetate, with the release of two molecules of C02. (jcvi.org)