Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 73,000 kDa and is composed of two subunits of equal size.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to spermidine in the biosynthesis of spermine. It has an acidic isoelectric point at pH 5.0. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
An enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. EC
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of kidney calculi, including:

1. Calcium oxalate calculi: These are the most common type of calculus and are often associated with conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or excessive intake of calcium supplements.
2. Uric acid calculi: These are more common in people with gout or a diet high in meat and sugar.
3. Cystine calculi: These are rare and usually associated with a genetic disorder called cystinuria.
4. Struvite calculi: These are often seen in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Symptoms of kidney calculi may include:

1. Flank pain (pain in the side or back)
2. Pain while urinating
3. Blood in the urine
4. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
5. Fever and chills
6. Nausea and vomiting

Kidney calculi are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound. Treatment options for kidney calculi depend on the size and location of the calculus, as well as the severity of any underlying conditions. Small calculi may be treated with conservative measures such as fluid intake and medication to help flush out the crystals, while larger calculi may require surgical intervention to remove them.

Preventive measures for kidney calculi include staying hydrated to help flush out excess minerals in the urine, maintaining a balanced diet low in oxalate and animal protein, and avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or gout can also help prevent the development of kidney calculi.

Overall, kidney calculi are a common condition that can be managed with proper diagnosis and treatment. However, they can cause significant discomfort and potentially lead to complications if left untreated, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Nephrolithiasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, diet, dehydration, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. The most common types of kidney stones are made of calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, or other substances.

Symptoms of nephrolithiasis can include severe pain in the side or back, nausea and vomiting, fever, chills, and blood in the urine. Treatment options for nephrolithiasis depend on the size and location of the kidney stones, as well as the severity of the symptoms.

Small stones may pass on their own with plenty of fluids, while larger stones may require medication or surgical intervention to remove them. In some cases, nephrolithiasis may lead to complications such as chronic kidney disease or sepsis, which can be life-threatening.

Preventative measures for nephrolithiasis include staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water, limiting salt and animal protein intake, and managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes. If you suspect you have a kidney stone, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is the most common cause of anovulation, affecting up to 75% of women with PCOS.
2. Hypothalamic dysfunction: The hypothalamus regulates hormonal signals that stimulate ovulation. Disruptions in these signals can lead to anovulation.
3. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can disrupt hormone levels and lead to anovulation.
4. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This condition is characterized by the premature loss of ovarian function before age 40.
5. Ovarian insufficiency: This occurs when the ovaries lose their ability to produce eggs, often due to aging or medical treatment.
6. Chronic diseases: Certain conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and obesity can increase the risk of anovulation.
7. Luteal phase defect: This occurs when the uterine lining does not properly thicken during the second half of the menstrual cycle, making it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
8. Ovulatory disorders: Disorders such as ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease can interfere with ovulation.
9. Genetic factors: Some genetic mutations can affect ovulation, such as those associated with Turner syndrome or other rare genetic conditions.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants, can disrupt ovulation.

Anovulation is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including hormone levels and imaging studies. Treatment options for anovulation depend on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Hormonal medications to stimulate ovulation
2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
3. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and stress management
4. Surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove any blockages in the reproductive tract
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as IVF with egg donation or surrogacy.

It's important for women experiencing irregular periods or anovulation to seek medical attention, as timely diagnosis and treatment can improve their chances of conceiving and reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.

Types of Urinary Calculi:

1. Calcium oxalate stones: These are the most common type of kidney stone and are often caused by excess calcium and oxalate in the urine.
2. Uric acid stones: These stones are often associated with gout or a diet high in meat and seafood.
3. Cystine stones: These stones are rare and usually occur in people with a genetic disorder that affects the transport of cystine in the kidneys.
4. Struvite stones: These stones are often associated with urinary tract infections.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Dehydration: Not drinking enough water can cause a decrease in urine production, which can increase the concentration of minerals in the urine and increase the risk of stone formation.
2. Diet: A diet high in animal protein, sodium, and sugar can increase the risk of stone formation.
3. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi.
4. Genetics: A family history of kidney stones can increase an individual's risk.
5. Other factors: Other factors that can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi include a high body mass index (BMI), a sedentary lifestyle, and certain medications such as certain antibiotics and diuretics.


1. Severe pain in the side or back, below the ribs
2. Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen or groin
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Blood in the urine (hematuria)
5. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
6. Frequent urination or a burning sensation during urination


1. Medical history and physical examination
2. Urinalysis to check for blood, protein, and white blood cells in the urine
3. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound to confirm the presence of calculi
4. Laboratory tests to check for underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease or infection


1. Drinking plenty of water to help flush out small calculi
2. Pain management with medication
3. Medical expulsive therapy with medication to help pass larger calculi
4. Shock wave lithotripsy to break down larger calculi into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily
5. Surgery to remove large or unbreakable calculi


1. Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated and help prevent the formation of calculi
2. Limiting the intake of animal protein, sodium, and sugar
3. Managing underlying medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease
4. Maintaining a healthy weight and exercise regularly
5. Avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation.

There are several potential causes of ED, including:

1. Aging: As men age, the blood vessels that supply the penis with blood can become less responsive, leading to ED.
2. Heart disease: Men with heart disease are at a higher risk for developing ED.
3. Diabetes: Men with diabetes are also at a higher risk for developing ED.
4. Prostate surgery or treatment: Surgery or treatment for prostate cancer can sometimes cause ED.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure drugs, can cause ED as a side effect.
6. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a lack of exercise can contribute to ED.
7. Psychological factors: Psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and relationship issues can also contribute to ED.
8. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease, can cause ED.
9. Peyronie's disease: A condition in which scar tissue inside the penis causes it to curve and become less responsive to stimulation.
10. Trauma: Injury to the penis or nerves that control erections can cause ED.
11. Venous leak: A condition in which the veins that empty blood from the penis are damaged, leading to a weak or inconsistent erection.

There are several treatment options available for ED, including:

1. Medications: Drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) can help improve blood flow to the penis and achieve an erection.
2. Vacuum constriction devices: These devices are placed over the penis and use vacuum pressure to increase blood flow and create an erection.
3. Penile injections: Alprostadil (Caverject) is a medication that can be injected into the penis to increase blood flow and achieve an erection.
4. Penile implants: A surgically implanted device that can be inflated with saline solution to create an erection.
5. Lifestyle changes: Improving physical activity, losing weight, quitting smoking, and reducing stress can help improve blood flow and reduce the risk of ED.
6. Counseling and therapy: Addressing relationship issues or psychological factors that may be contributing to ED can also be helpful.

It's important to note that ED is a common condition and can affect men of all ages and backgrounds. If you are experiencing erectile dysfunction, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

There are several types of alkalosis, including:

1. Respiratory alkalosis: This type is caused by an excessive breathing of carbon dioxide into the lungs, which increases the bicarbonate levels in the blood.
2. Metabolic alkalosis: This type is caused by a decrease in the production of acid in the body, such as in diabetic ketoacidosis or liver disease.
3. Inherited alkalosis: This type is caused by inherited genetic disorders that affect the regulation of acid-base homeostasis.
4. Drug-induced alkalosis: Certain medications, such as antacids and diuretics, can increase bicarbonate levels in the blood.
5. Post-operative alkalosis: This type can occur after surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, due to the release of bicarbonate from damaged tissues.

The symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on the severity and duration of the condition. They may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* Tingling sensations in the extremities
* Confusion and disorientation

If left untreated, alkalosis can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Respiratory acidosis (a decrease in blood pH due to a lack of oxygen)
* Cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)
* Seizures
* Coma

Diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:

* Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis to measure the pH and PCO2 levels in the blood
* Serum electrolyte levels to assess the levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride
* Urine testing to assess the levels of bicarbonate and other electrolytes

Treatment of alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. General measures may include:

* Correction of any underlying metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or kidney disease
* Discontinuation of medications that may be contributing to the alkalosis
* Fluid and electrolyte replacement to correct dehydration or imbalances
* Oxygen therapy to treat respiratory acidosis

In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. In some cases, medications such as sodium bicarbonate may be prescribed to help restore acid-base balance. Surgery may be required in cases where the alkalosis is caused by a structural problem, such as a hiatal hernia.

Prognosis for alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes. However, untreated severe alkalosis can lead to complications such as seizures, coma, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Prevention of alkalosis involves identifying and treating underlying conditions that may contribute to the development of the condition. This includes managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and avoiding medications that may cause alkalosis. Additionally, maintaining a balanced diet and staying hydrated can help prevent electrolyte imbalances that can lead to alkalosis.

In conclusion, alkalosis is a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body, which can lead to respiratory and metabolic disturbances. The diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include fluid and electrolyte replacement, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with alkalosis.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

A burn that is caused by direct contact with a chemical substance or agent, such as a strong acid or base, and results in damage to the skin and underlying tissues. Chemical burns can be particularly severe and may require extensive treatment, including surgery and skin grafting.

Examples of how Burns, Chemical is used in medical literature:

1. "The patient sustained a chemical burn on her hand when she spilled a beaker of sulfuric acid."
2. "The burn team was called in to treat the victim of a chemical explosion, who had suffered extensive burns, including chemical burns to his face and arms."
3. "The patient was admitted with severe chemical burns on her legs and feet, caused by exposure to a corrosive substance at work."
4. "Chemical burns can be difficult to treat, as they may require specialized equipment and techniques to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing."
5. "The patient required multiple debridements and skin grafting procedures to treat her chemical burns, which had resulted in extensive scarring and disfigurement."

There are several types of eye burns, including:

1. Chemical burns: These occur when the eye comes into contact with a corrosive substance, such as bleach or drain cleaner.
2. Thermal burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to heat or flames, such as from a fire or a hot surface.
3. Ultraviolet (UV) burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to UV radiation, such as from the sun or a tanning bed.
4. Radiation burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to ionizing radiation, such as from a nuclear accident or cancer treatment.

Symptoms of eye burns can include:

* Pain and redness in the eye
* Discharge or crusting around the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Swelling of the eyelids or the surface of the eye
* Increased tearing or dryness

Treatment for eye burns depends on the cause and severity of the injury. Mild cases may require only topical medications, such as antibiotic ointments or anti-inflammatory drops. More severe cases may require more aggressive treatment, such as oral medications, patching, or even surgery. In some cases, eye burns can lead to long-term vision problems or scarring, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.

PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.

There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:

1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
3. Acne
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea

PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.

There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:

1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.

It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.

The most common types of urolithiasis are:

1. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis): These are formed in the kidneys and can be made of various substances such as calcium oxalate, uric acid, or cystine.
2. Bladder stones (cystolithiasis): These are formed in the bladder and are typically made of calcium oxalate or magnesium ammonium phosphate.
3. Ureteral stones (ureterolithiasis): These are formed in the ureters, the narrow tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder.
4. Urethral stones (urethrolithiasis): These are formed in the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.

Urolithiasis can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Pain in the abdomen or back
2. Frequent urination
3. Painful urination
4. Blood in the urine
5. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
6. Fever and chills
7. Nausea and vomiting

Treatment for urolithiasis depends on the type of stone, its size, and the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) to break them up or surgery to remove them. Preventive measures include drinking plenty of water, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding certain foods that can increase the risk of stone formation.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

The symptoms of MSK can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* High blood pressure
* Kidney pain
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function
* Increased risk of kidney failure

The exact cause of MSK is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of the kidneys. The condition is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but can sometimes be present at birth.

There is no cure for MSK, but treatment options may include:

* Medications to control high blood pressure and slow the progression of kidney disease
* Dialysis to filter waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so
* Kidney transplantation

The prognosis for MSK is generally poor, with a median survival age of around 50 years. However, with appropriate treatment and management, some individuals with MSK can live into their 60s or 70s.

In summary, Medullary Sponge Kidney is a rare and inherited kidney disorder characterized by cysts in the medulla of the kidneys, which can cause chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, and other complications. While there is no cure for MSK, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

The normal range of oxalate in the urine is between 2-5 mg/day. If the level of oxalate in the urine exceeds this range, it can lead to a variety of health problems, including:

1. Kidney stones: Excessive oxalate in the urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Nephrocalcinosis: This is a condition where there is an accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to damage and scarring of the kidneys.
3. Chronic kidney disease: Prolonged exposure to high levels of oxalate can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Some people with hyperoxaluria may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

There are several causes of hyperoxaluria, including:

1. Primary hyperoxaluria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver's ability to produce oxalate.
2. Enteric hyperoxaluria: This occurs when there is an overgrowth of oxalate-producing bacteria in the gut.
3. Dietary factors: Consuming high amounts of oxalate-rich foods can lead to hyperoxaluria.
4. Intestinal diseases: Certain conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis can increase the amount of oxalate in the gut and lead to hyperoxaluria.

The diagnosis of hyperoxaluria typically involves a combination of urine tests and imaging studies, such as a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) x-ray or a CT scan. A 24-hour urine oxalate test can measure the amount of oxalate in the urine, while a blood test can check for elevated levels of oxalate in the blood.

Treatment for hyperoxaluria depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Dietary modifications: Avoiding oxalate-rich foods and reducing the intake of vitamin C, magnesium, and calcium can help lower oxalate levels.
2. Medications: Drugs such as sodium alginate or potassium citrate can help bind oxalate in the gut and reduce its absorption into the bloodstream.
3. Dialysis: In advanced cases of hyperoxaluria, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess oxalate from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases of primary hyperoxaluria, a liver transplant may be necessary to correct the underlying genetic defect.

In conclusion, hyperoxaluria is a condition characterized by excessive levels of oxalate in the body, which can lead to kidney damage and other complications. Early detection and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition."

Treatment for hypercalciuria typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, this may involve medication to lower calcium levels or surgery to remove any kidney stones or tumors that may be contributing to the condition. It is important for individuals with hypercalciuria to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and monitor their calcium levels regularly.

If you suspect you may have hypercalciuria, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider as soon as possible. They can perform tests to confirm the diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment. With proper treatment, it is possible to manage hypercalciuria and prevent any complications.

... of the stereoisomeric configurations of methylcitric acid produced by si-citrate synthase and methylcitrate synthase using ... In enzymology, a 2-methylcitrate synthase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction propanoyl-CoA + H2O + ... Uchiyama H; Tabuchi T (1976). "Properties of methylcitrate synthase from Candida lipolytica". Agric. Biol. Chem. 40 (7): 1411- ... methylcitrate synthase, and methylcitrate synthetase. This enzyme participates in propanoate metabolism. ...
... citrate (pro-3S)-lyase EC Now EC, citrate (Si)-synthase EC Now EC, ATP citrate synthase EC ... anthranilate synthase EC Now EC, citrate (Re)-synthase EC Now EC, decylhomocitrate synthase ... 11-diene synthase EC S-linalool synthase EC R-linalool synthase EC isoprene synthase EC ... α-santalene synthase EC β-santalene synthase EC 10-epi-γ-eudesmol synthase EC α-eudesmol synthase ...
Simon; Heales, Simon J. R. (May 2014). "The ketogenic diet component decanoic acid increases mitochondrial citrate synthase and ...
... citrate (Si)-synthase MeSH D08.811.913.050.387 - diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.425 - glycerol-3- ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 - spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 - spermine synthase MeSH D08.811. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 - nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.750 ... glycogen synthase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.429.500 - glycogen synthase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... citrate (Si)-synthase EC decylcitrate synthase EC citrate (Re)-synthase EC decylhomocitrate synthase ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 3-ethylmalate synthase EC ATP citrate synthase EC malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC sucrose synthase EC sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ... squalene synthase EC spermine synthase EC sym-norspermidine synthase EC discadenine synthase EC ...
ACC is also activated by citrate. When there is abundant acetyl-CoA in the cell cytoplasm for fat synthesis, it proceeds at an ... Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase. The major ... Hoffman, Simon; Alvares, Danielle; Adeli, Khosrow (2019). "Intestinal lipogenesis: how carbs turn on triglyceride production in ... Yin, D.; Clarke, S. D.; Peters, J. L.; Etherton, T. D. (1998-05-01). "Somatotropin-dependent decrease in fatty acid synthase ...
Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Cornah, Johanna E.; Smith, Steven M. (1 July 2005). "Arabidopsis Peroxisomal Citrate Synthase Is ... SI: Cell signalling and gene regulation. 21: 23-29. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2014.06.003. PMID 24996032. Scaffidi, Adrian; Waters, ... Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, Ian Alexander (1989). Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant ...
2Fdox ATP citrate lyase: ACL, acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi ⇌ citrate + CoA + ATP α-keto-glutarate:ferredoxin ... The electrochemical potential of the protons across the membrane is used to synthesize ATP by the FoF1 ATP synthase. This ... Kushkevych, Ivan; Procházka, Jiří; Gajdács, Márió; Rittmann, Simon K.-M. R.; Vítězová, Monika (2021-06-15). "Molecular ...
Sildenafil citrate, which increases blood flow to the genital area in men, is being used by some practitioners to stimulate the ... In: Simpson, Kathleen Rice, Creehan, Patricia A. eds. AWHONN's Perinatal Nursing. 4th Edition. 530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia ... Pathogenesis of symptoms in diabetic gastroparesis include: Loss of gastric neurons containing nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy ... Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Kasza I, Schmidt BA, et al. (July 2016). "Decreased Consumption of ... cannot be converted to carbohydrate but can be either fed into the TCA cycle by condensing with oxaloacetate to form citrate or ...
Amar J. Majmundar; Waihay J. Wong & M. Celeste Simon (October 2010). "Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic ... ACO2 encodes an isomerase catalysing the reversible isomerisation of citrate and isocitrate. EPAS1 encodes a transcription ... "Identification of a novel iron-responsive element in murine and human erythroid delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA". The ...
Tong, E. K.; Duckworth, Harry W. (1975). "Quaternary structure of citrate synthase from Escherichia coli K 12". Biochemistry. ... Guiot, E.; Carayon, K; Delelis, O; Simon, F; Tauc, P; Zubin, E; Gottikh, M; Mouscadet, JF; et al. (2006). "Relationship between ... An example of such a conformational disease is ALAD porphyria, which results from a mutation of porphobilinogen synthase that ... The one protein that is established to function as a morpheein is porphobilinogen synthase, though there are suggestions ...
Citrate converted into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, this is an ATP dependent step and the key enzyme is the ATP citrate lyase ... The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase is the oxygen-sensitive enzyme that permits the reduction of CO2 to CO ... Schwander, Thomas; Schada von Borzyskowski, Lennart; Burgener, Simon; Cortina, Niña Socorro; Erb, Tobias J. (2016). "A ... Citrate + ATP + CoA ⟶ Oxaloacetate + Acetyl − CoA + ADP + Pi {\displaystyle {\ce {Citrate + ATP + CoA -> Oxaloacetate + Acetyl- ...
Citrate synthase activity was unchanged, suggesting an absence of mitochondrial proliferation that commonly occurs in response ... Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, ...
Citrate - the ion that gives its name to the cycle - is a feedback inhibitor of citrate synthase and also inhibits PFK, ... Hyman, Anthony A.; Krishnan, Yamuna; Alberti, Simon; Wang, Jie; Saha, Shambaditya; Malinovska, Liliana; Patel, Avinash (2017-05 ... ATP synthase then ensues exactly as in oxidative phosphorylation. Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed in ... which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of additional ATP by ATP synthase. The ...
... biovar anthracis Paul SI, Rahman MM, Salam MA, Khan MA, Islam MT (15 December 2021). "Identification of marine ... Chateau, Alice; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine (18 January 2022). "Heme A Synthase Deficiency ... Negative Use of citrate: Positive The Central Public Health Laboratory in the United Kingdom tests for motility, hemolysis, ...
Stone WS, Faraone SV, Su J, Tarbox SI, Van Eerdewegh P, Tsuang MT (May 2004). "Evidence for linkage between regulatory enzymes ... On the other hand, a high concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and citrate signifies that there is a high level of ... and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold". The ...
Laine L, Maller ES, Yu C, Quan H, Simon T (August 2004). "Ulcer formation with low-dose enteric-coated aspirin and the effect ... Aspirin decomposes rapidly in solutions of ammonium acetate or the acetates, carbonates, citrates, or hydroxides of the alkali ... Aspirin-modified PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) produces lipoxins, most of which are anti-inflammatory.[ ... Somasundaram S, Sigthorsson G, Simpson RJ, Watts J, Jacob M, Tavares IA, et al. (May 2000). "Uncoupling of intestinal ...
... citrate synthase activity, and induction of key metabolic genes. The effects of FGF21 on mitochondrial function require serine/ ... Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Kasza I, Schmidt BA, et al. (July 2016). "Decreased Consumption of ... In Hep G2 cells, FGF21 is specifically induced by mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) activity. ... December 2010). "SIRT3 deacetylates mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 and regulates ketone body ...
Citrate (Si)-Synthase. *Citrate Synthase. *Citrate Synthase, Mitochondrial. Description. From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by ... this gene is a Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl ...
Citrate (si)-synthase Descripteur en anglais: Citrate (si)-Synthase Descripteur en espagnol: Citrato (si)-Sintasa Espagnol ... Citrate (si)-synthase - Concept préféré Concept UI. M0004514. Terme préféré. Citrate (si)-synthase ... It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase 76% 12 Citations (Scopus) View all 19 research outputs ...
... citratus interacts with citrate (Si)-synthase and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase of R. solanacearum with binding affinity of -9.7 ... Jose, Susanna K; Simon, Betty; Simon, Ebby George; Eapen, Anu; John, Reetu A; Putta, Tharani; Dutta, Amit Kumar; Pulimood, Anna ... John, Anoop; Chowdhury, Sudipta Dhar; Kurien, Reuben Thomas; David, Deepu; Dutta, Amit Kumar; Simon, Ebby George; Abraham, ... Sanjeevi, Rajesh; John, Reetu Amrita; Kurien, Reuben Thomas; Dutta, Amit Kumar; Simon, Ebby George; David, Deepu; Joseph, ...
Citrate (si)-Synthase [D08.811.913.050.368] * Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase [D08.811.913.050.387] ... 3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase [D08.811.913.050.622] * Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase [D08.811.913.050 ...
For all types of RTA, drinking a solution of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate will lower the acid level in your blood. This ... Essayez de regarder cette vidéo sur www.youtube.com, ou activez JavaScript dans votre navigateur si ce nest pas déjà le cas. ... Children with type 2 RTA will also drink an alkali solution (sodium bicarbonate or potassium citrate) to lower the acid level ... abnormal excretion of glucose, amino acids, citrate, bicarbonate, and phosphate into the urine ...
... citrate synthase, ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA hydrolase, acetylcarnitine transferase, HMG-CoA lyase, HMG-CoA synthase, ... Ogle CK, Ogle JD, Mao JX, Simon J, Noel JG, Li BG & Alexander W (1994). Effect of glutamine on phagocytosis and bacterial ... The maximum catalytic activities of the following enzymes of citrate and acetyl-CoA metabolism were then measured in ... The quantitative contribution of pyruvate to CO2, lactate, aspartate, alanine, citrate, acetyl-CoA and ketone bodies accounted ...
Density increases specific enzymes in your muscles (specifically ones like citrate synthase in the mitochondria - energy ... John Simpson. Fits into Her Jeans Again After Losing 21 Pounds and 9.5 Inches ... biopsies and studied them under a microscope and run them through experiments to determine fiber type and citrate synthase ...
Yue, W.W., Grizot, S. & Buchanan, S.K. (2003). Structural evidence for iron-free citrate and ferric citrate binding to the TonB ... Noinaj, N. & Buchanan, S.K. (2014). FhaC takes a bow to FHA in the two-partner do-si-do. Mol. Microbiol. 92:1155-1158. [LINK] ... Fo membrane domain of ATP synthase from bovine heart mitochondria: purification, subunit composition, and reconstitution with ... Tong, J., Dolezal, P., Selkrig, J., Crawford, S., Simpson, A.G.B., Nicholas Noinaj, N., Buchanan, S.K., Gabriel, K. & Lithgow, ...
Asma: La N-acetilcisteína puede causar broncoespasmo en personas con asma si se inhala o se ingiere por vía oral. Si toma N- ... Badawy, A., Baker El, Nashar A., and El, Totongy M. Clomiphene citrate plus N-acetyl cysteine versus clomiphene citrate for ... Jiang, B., Haverty, M., and Brecher, P. N-acetyl-L-cysteine enhances interleukin-1beta-induced nitric oxide synthase expression ... N-acetyl-cysteine is a novel adjuvant to clomiphene citrate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary ...
Sildenafil Citrate Tablets IP Kamagra. Half a month later, Tyisha Pingree, president of Augustine Latson Group, joined more ... Cellucor Super HD is formulated to burn fat through its inhibitors of fatty acid synthase. The inheritance rights of Qiana ... She had run out of bullets, so she could only take out a military sildenafil citrate tablets IP Kamagra human tongue that ...
Acheter Du Vrai Sildenafil Citrate vous Acheter Du Vrai Sildenafil Citrate souhaitez Acheter Du Vrai Sildenafil Citrate faire ... Vous pouvez suivre la question ou voter pour indiquer si une réponse est utile, mais vous ne pouvez pas répondre à ce fil de ... Wilsons approach to was regarded by some as too which drives ATP synthase (complex V) to synthesize ATP that help make every ... Acheter Du Vrai Sildenafil Citrate. Commander Silagra Pas Cher. Achat Vrai Sildenafil Citrate En Ligne. ...
Rickettsial DNA was identified in 101 ticks (27%) by sequencing PCR products of fragments of the citrate synthase and outer ... Sagui E, Ollivier L, Gaillard T, Simon F, Brisou P, Puech P, et al. Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis ... Sagui, E., Ollivier, L., Gaillard, T., Simon, F., Brisou, P., Puech, P....Todesco, A. (2008). Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, ...
Down-regulated genes in Atlantic included an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a malate synthase and an ATP citrate synthase, and in ... Crosslin JM, Hamm PB, Eggers JE, Rondon SI, Sengoda VG, Munyaneza JE. First report of zebra chip dDisease and "Candidatus ... Only one gene in Waneta was up-regulated in those pathways; this gene is annotated as an ATP synthase gamma chain (Fig. 3 and ... The one exception was a galactinol synthase that was up-regulated in Atlantic (Additional file 1: Table S7). ...
Choi SH, Choi SI, Jung TD, Cho BY, Lee JH, Kim SH, Yoon SA, Ham YM, Yoon WJ, Cho JH and Lee OH: Anti-photoaging effect of jeju ... inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β when compared with the UVB‑vehicle group (P. ... The separated supernatant was reacted with citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5.6, 5 mM sodium taurocholate) containing 4- ... Jung TD, Choi SI, Choi SH, Cho BY, Sim WS, Han-Xionggao, Lee SJ, Park SJ, Kim DB, Kim YC, et al: Changes in the anti-allergic ...
Mendez MG, Kojima SI, Goldman RD. Vimentin induces changes in cell shape, motility, and adhesion during the epithelial to ... Cells were washed in PBS and antigens were retrieved by incubation for 30 min in citrate buffer (10 mM citric acid, pH 6.0 and ... Ellie E, Loiseau H, Lafond F, Arsaut J, Demotes-Mainard J. Differential expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in ... Hara A, Okayasu I. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human astrocytic gliomas: correlation ...
Frączyk, Tomasz and Zawisza, Izabela and Goch, Wojciech and Stefaniak, Ewelina and Drew, Simon and Bal, Wojciech (2016) On the ... Phosphorylation of thymidylate synthase affects slow-binding inhibition by 5-fluoro-dUMP and N4-hydroxy-dCMP. Molecular ... Inhibition of development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages by either treatment with citrate or amino acid starvation. ... Ufnalska, Iwona and Drew, Simon and Zhukov, Igor and Szutkowski, Kosma and Wawrzyniak, Urszula E. and Wróblewski, Wojciech and ...
When citrate synthase was thermally denatured in the presence Cepharanthine of an 8-fold molar excess of SurA (based on citrate ... Figure 2 Ball and stick model of a δ -doped Si:P layer viewed along the [110] 10058-F4 mw direction. Thirty-two layers in the [ ... PpiDΔParv finally, which lacks the PPIase domain (Figure 2A), protected citrate synthase about 2-fold more effectively from ... In contrast, an 8-fold excess of PpiD reduced aggregation of citrate synthase significantly, although less effectively than ...
In rice, MATEs are involved in aluminium (Al) resistance by secreting Al-citrate conjugates [55]. Assuming similar functions in ... In addition, an agmatinase (Esi0039_0062), and a spermine synthase (Esi0000_0445) were specifically down-regulated by Cu, ... Simon M Dittami. View author publications. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar ... This was true for a cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) synthase (Esi0016_0173), a putative phosphatidylinositol-4- ...
Priefer UB, Simon R, Puhler A. Extension of the host range of Escherichia coli vectors by incorporation of RSF1010 replication ... phytoene synthase (CrtB) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase (CrtE). ... copper citrate with sodium carbonate) to Cu+. The excess of Cu2+ remaining after the reaction was determined by the iodometric ...
Jabir M.S., Ritchie N.D., Li D., Bayes H.K., Tourlomousis P., Puleston D., Lupton A., Hopkins L., Simon A.K., and Bryant C., et ... Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed using an H-7100 electron microscope (Hitachi, ... Regulation of inflammatory response by 3-methyladenine involves the coordinative actions on Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β ... Jabir M.S., Ritchie N.D., Li D., Bayes H.K., Tourlomousis P., Puleston D., Lupton A., Hopkins L., Simon A.K., and Bryant C., et ...
gov.si). *There are millions of tiny particles floating in the air that can provide this surface, and these particles are ... Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase ... The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.. ... gov.si). *The presto range of products, together with the spray paints mady by European Aerosols, is the perfect repair system ...
... which represented the presence of Si-O-Si, Si-CH3, CH2, and CH3 functional groups for the substrates coated with PDMS. ... Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: PF-543; ceramide; SPHK; SPT; ceramide synthases; ... The synthesis includes the reduction of NaAuCl4 using sodium citrate in high temperature (around 90 ⁰C). The two main ... Nicolas A. Frank, Márió Széles, Sergi H. Akone, Sari Rasheed, Stephan Hüttel, Simon Frewert, Mostafa M. Hamed, Jennifer ...
Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) revealed 9 genogroups and 13 subgroups. Seven genogroups ... Wu AC , Rekant SI , Baca ER , Jenkins RM , Perelygina LM , Hilliard JK , Schmid DS , Leman RF . MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 ... Simon TR . MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 69 (9) 231-235 ...
PI Name:Si Jieru PubMed/DOI: 31847588 Angelica polysaccharide ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimers disease rat through ... Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS/NOS2) (1) *Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) (1) ... Methyllycaconitine Citrate (MLA) (1) *Metrifonate (1) *MF Tricyclic (1) *miR-128 (1) ...
UDP Glucose Glycogen Glucosyl Transferase use Glycogen Synthase UDP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase use UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate ... UK 92,480 10 use Sildenafil Citrate UK 92480 10 use Sildenafil Citrate ... Unit, SI use International System of Units Unit, Trauma use Trauma Centers ... UDP-Glucose Glycogen Glucosyl Transferase use Glycogen Synthase UDP-Glucuronic Acid 3-O-beta-D-Galactosyl-D-Galactose ...
  • 2. Novel signaling molecules implicated in tumor-associated fatty acid synthase-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and survival: Role of exogenous dietary fatty acids, p53-p21WAF1/CIP1, ERK1/2 MAPK, p27KIP1, BRCA1, and NF-kappaB. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase-dependent neoplastic lipogenesis as the mechanism of gamma-linolenic acid-induced toxicity to tumor cells: an extension to Nwankwo's hypothesis. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by PdpaMn. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Regulating effect of β-ketoacyl synthase domain of fatty acid synthase on fatty acyl chain length in de novo fatty acid synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • 10. A conditional mutant of the fatty acid synthase unveils unexpected cross talks in mycobacterial lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Fatty acid synthase inhibition triggers apoptosis during S phase in human cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • be unfavorable side effectsThe supplement has potent stimulants that can cause anxiousness Super HD with components like Amla fruit and Yohimbe extract, Cellucor Super HD is formulated to burn fat through its inhibitors of fatty acid synthase. (sc-celje.si)
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A. The enzyme is found in nearly all cells capable of oxidative metablism. (nih.gov)
  • It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC (nih.gov)
  • 8. Quantitative metabolic flux analysis reveals an unconventional pathway of fatty acid synthesis in cancer cells deficient for the mitochondrial citrate transport protein. (nih.gov)
  • The bgl23-D was a novel dominant mutation in the A. thaliana cellulose synthase-like D5 (ATCSLD5) gene that was reported to function in the division of guard mother cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • also known as hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS]), which catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to hydroxymethylbilane. (medscape.com)
  • rather, CO(2) is assimilated via two reactions, conversion of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl coenzyme A [acetyl-CoA]) to pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvate synthase (DET0724-0727) and pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (DET0119-0120). (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A. The enzyme is found in nearly all cells capable of oxidative metablism. (nih.gov)
  • It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC (nih.gov)
  • 6. Effect of thymidylate synthase gene polymorphism on the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer patients. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Functional polymorphisms of ATP citrate lyase gene predicts clinical outcome of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)

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