Citraconic Anhydrides: Methylmaleic anhydrides.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Santalaceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasites that form connections (haustoria) to their hosts to obtain water and nutrients. The one-seeded fruit may be surrounded by a brightly colored nut-like structure.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Nitroso CompoundsPolymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.DelawareMaleic Hydrazide: 1,2-Dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione. A herbicide and plant growth regulator; also used to control suckering of tobacco. Its residue in food and tobacco is highly toxic, causing CNS disturbances and liver damage.Pyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)CarbanilidesHydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.PaperBenzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.DimethylformamideCrown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Dicarboxylic AcidsLiquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.ImidesGraphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Acrylic ResinsElectrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Electrowetting: Reducing the SURFACE TENSION at a liquid/solid interface by the application of an electric current across the interface thereby enhancing the WETTABILITY of the surface.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.

Identification of a critical lysine residue in apolipoprotein B-100 that mediates noncovalent interaction with apolipoprotein(a). (1/19)

We have previously shown that lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) assembly involves an initial noncovalent interaction between sequences within apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) kringle IV types 5-8 and the amino terminus of apolipoprotein B-100 (sequences between amino acids 680 and 781 in apoB-100), followed by formation of a disulfide bond. In the present study, citraconylation of lysine residues in apoB-100 abolished the ability of the modified low density lipoprotein to associate with apo(a), thereby demonstrating a direct role for lysine residues in apoB in the first step of Lp(a) assembly. To identify specific lysine residues in the amino terminus of apoB that are required for the noncovalent interaction, we initially used an affinity chromatography method in which recombinant forms of apo(a) (r-apo(a)) were immobilized on Sepharose beads. Assessment of the ability of carboxyl-terminal truncations of apoB-18 to bind to r-apo(a)-Sepharose revealed that a 25-amino acid sequence in apoB (amino acids 680-704) bound specifically to apo(a) in a lysine-dependent manner; citraconylation of the lysine residues in the apoB derivative encoding this sequence abolished the binding interaction. Using fluorescence spectrometry, we found that a synthetic peptide corresponding to this sequence bound directly to apo(a); the peptide also reduced covalent Lp(a) formation. Lysine residues present in this sequence (Lys(680) and Lys(690)) were mutated to alanine in the context of apoB-18. We found that the apoB-18 species containing the Lys(680) mutation was incapable of binding to r-apo(a)-Sepharose columns, whereas the apoB-18 species containing the Lys(690) mutation exhibited slightly reduced binding to these columns. Taken together, our data indicate that Lys(680) is critical for the noncovalent interaction of apo(a) and apoB-100 that precedes covalent Lp(a) formation.  (+info)

Modification of amino groups of human-erythrocyte glycoproteins and the new concept on the structural basis of M and M blood-group specificity. (2/19)

1. Various kinds of modification of amino groups of M and N blood group glycoproteins abolished their capacity to inhibit rabbit and human anti-M and anit-N sera. 2. The reversible modification of amino groups revealed that M and N blood group activity was restored after the removal of amino-group-blocking residues. 3. Modification of amino groups had an entirely different effect on the reactivity of red cell glycoproteins with Vicia graminea agglutinin. The serological activity of N glycoprotein towards Vicia graminea anti-N agglutinin was unchanged, whereas the weak activity of M glycoprotein towards this anti-N agglutinin was increased to the level of the of N glycoprotein. 4. These results indicate that there is a structural difference between M and N glycoproteins, which resides beyond the oligosaccharide chains. It suggests in turn that M and N blood group specificity is determined by amino acid sequence in the peptide chains of red cell glycoproteins.  (+info)

Chemical modification of glucose oxidase: possible formation of molten globule-like intermediate structure. (3/19)

Chemical modification of lysine residues in glucose oxidase was carried out using citraconic anhydride. Modification brought about changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme as evident by substantial lowering of V(max) and K(m). Enhancement of tryptophan fluorescence was observed with a dramatic change in its pH dependence due to modification. Near- and far-UV circular dichroism spectra of the native and modified forms suggested formation of molten globule-like structures, further supported by 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence which indicated higher exposure of hydrophobic residues as a result of chemical modification.  (+info)

Increased thermal and organic solvent tolerance of modified horseradish peroxidase. (4/19)

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was modified by maleic anhydride and citraconic anhydride. The thermal and organic solvent tolerances of native and modified enzyme were compared. These chemical modifications of HRP increased their thermostability both in aqueous buffer and some organic solvents, and also enhanced their tolerances of some organic solvents. We have studied the unfolding of native and modified HRP by heat to determine the conformational stability. The temperature at the midpoint of thermal denaturation (T(m)) was increased upon modification. Both enthalpy change (DeltaH(m)) and entropy change (DeltaS(m)) for unfolding of modified enzyme at T(m) were decreased compared with native enzyme. Circular dichroism studies proved that these modifications changed the conformation of HRP. The improvements of stability are related to side chain reorientations of aromatics upon both modifications.  (+info)

Improvement of activity and stability of chloroperoxidase by chemical modification. (5/19)

BACKGROUND: Enzymes show relative instability in solvents or at elevated temperature and lower activity in organic solvent than in water. These limit the industrial applications of enzymes. RESULTS: In order to improve the activity and stability of chloroperoxidase, chloroperoxidase was modified by citraconic anhydride, maleic anhydride or phthalic anhydride. The catalytic activities, thermostabilities and organic solvent tolerances of native and modified enzymes were compared. In aqueous buffer, modified chloroperoxidases showed similar Km values and greater catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km for both sulfoxidation and oxidation of phenol compared to native chloroperoxidase. Of these modified chloroperoxidases, citraconic anhydride-modified chloroperoxidase showed the greatest catalytic efficiency in aqueous buffer. These modifications of chloroperoxidase increased their catalytic efficiencies for sulfoxidation by 12%~26% and catalytic efficiencies for phenol oxidation by 7%~53% in aqueous buffer. However, in organic solvent (DMF), modified chloroperoxidases had lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km than native chloroperoxidase. These modifications also improved their thermostabilities by 1~2-fold and solvent tolerances of DMF. CD studies show that these modifications did not change the secondary structure of chloroperoxidase. Fluorescence spectra proved that these modifications changed the environment of tryptophan. CONCLUSION: Chemical modification of epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues of chloroperoxidase using citraconic anhydride, maleic anhydride or phthalic anhydride is a simple and powerful method to enhance catalytic properties of enzyme. The improvements of the activity and stability of chloroperoxidase are related to side chain reorientations of aromatics upon both modifications.  (+info)

Chemical modifications of ribonuclease U1. (6/19)

In order to obtain information on the nature of the amino acid residues involved in the activity of ribonuclease U1 [EC 3.1.4.8], various chemical modifications of the enzyme were carried out. RNase U1 was inactivated by reaction with iodoacetate at pH 5.5 with concomitant incorporation of 1 carboxymethyl group per molecule of the enzyme. The residue specifically modified by iodoacetate was identified as one of the glutamic acid residues, as in the case of RNase T1. The enzyme was also inactivated extensively by reaction with iodoacetamide at pH 8.0 with the loss of about one residue each of histidine and lysine. When RNase U1 was treated with a large excess of phenylglyoxal, the enzymatic activity and binding ability toward 3'-GMP were lost, with simultaneous modification of about 1 residue of arginine. The reaction of citraconic anhydride with RNase U1 led to the loss of enzymatic activity and modification of about 1 residue of lysine. The inactivated enzyme, however, retained binding ability toward 3'-GMP. These results indicate that there are marked similarities in the active sites of RNases T1 and U1.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: Kinetic activation and homing in on different interfaces. (7/19)

 (+info)

Chemical modification of lysine residues in lysozyme may dramatically influence its amyloid fibrillation. (8/19)

 (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation of citraconic anhydride via condensation of dialkyl succinates and formaldehyde. AU - Shekhawat,Dushyant. AU - Nagarajan,Kirthivasan. AU - Jackson,James E.. AU - Miller,Dennis J.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The formation of citraconic anhydride (CAN) from the condensation of succinic acid and its derivatives with formaldehyde over oxide catalysts is described. Alumina and aluminum phosphate are active catalysts that give selectivity to citraconic anhydride as high as 75% in an integral fixed bed reactor. Weakly acidic sites on the catalyst surface, particularly Lewis acid sites, are responsible for activating the desired reaction pathway. Strongly acidic sites lead to cracking and coking, while basic sites facilitate the Cannizzaro reaction of formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and methanol. Catalyst deactivation via coking occurs over the course of reaction, but activity is easily restored by regeneration in air at elevated temperatures. The reaction system under ...
0066] In a preferred embodiment of this application, the chelating agent employed for the preparation of solvent based compositions is selected from the group comprising polyols, gluconates, sorbitals, mannitols, carbonates, heptonates, hydroxamates, catechols, α-amino carboxylates, alkanolamines, metal-ion sequestrants, hydroxy-carboxylic acids, aminocarboxylic acids, amino polycarboxylic acids, polyamines, polyphosphates, phosphonic acids, crown ethers, amino acids, polycarboxylic acids, cyclodextrin, phosphonates, polyacrylates or polymeric polycarboxylates and condensed phosphates. However, the particular sequestering or chelating agents of the present application would include but are not limited to acetic acid, adenine, adipic acid, ADP, alanine, alanine, albumin, arginine, ascorbic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid, ATP, benzoic acid, n-butyric acid, casein, citraconic acid, citric acid, cysteine, dehydracetic acid, desferri-ferrichrysin, desferri-ferrichrome, desferri-ferrioxamin E, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - alpha-chain sequence of newt haemoglobin (Taricha granulosa).. AU - Coates, M.. AU - Brimhall, B.. AU - Stenzel, Peter. AU - Hermodson, M.. AU - Gibson, D.. AU - Jones, R. T.. AU - Vedvick, T.. PY - 1977/4. Y1 - 1977/4. N2 - The amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain of the major haemoglobin of a newt, T. granulosa, has been determined. The chain is 142 residues long and has an extra methionine at its N-terminus when compared with human alpha-chain. Most of the tryptic peptides were sequenced by a combination of the subtractive Edman method and by deduction from the compositions of overlapping fragments produced by various enzymic treatments. The sequence of two core regions was obtained by automatic sequencing of large peptides produced by trypsin cleavage at arginine residues only after blockage of lysine residues by citraconylation; by cleavage between aspartic acid and proline residues with 70% formic acid, and by cyanogen bromide cleavage at methionine residues. The ...
The isomerization of glucose to its more reactive isomer fructose is one of the most important steps in the overall conversion to these platform chemicals (Fig. 1).3-6 This reaction is catalyzed by Lewis acids, and the most studied catalyst is Sn-Beta zeolite.7,8 The unique activity of Sn-Beta zeolite for the isomerization and retro-aldolization of carbohydrates (Fig. 1) stems from the strong Lewis acid Sn sites embedded in the framework of Beta zeolite.9 Other zeolites modified with Sn have also been considered for sugar conversions.10-14 Sn (and Ti)-modified MFI zeolites, which have narrower pores than Beta zeolite, were found to be inactive for glucose isomerization.9,12 Although the glucose isomerization activity of Sn-modified MWW zeolite was very low,11 this catalyst was highly active for the retro-aldolization of sugars to methyl lactate in methanol. Other Sn-containing materials such as amorphous silica with an ordered mesoporous structure such as Sn-SBA-15 and Sn-MCM-41 can also ...
3AGN: Isomerization mechanism of aspartate to isoaspartate implied by structures of Ustilago sphaerogena ribonuclease U2 complexed with adenosine 3-monophosphate
Noncovalent interactions between cisplatin and graphene prototypes". Ma del Refugio Cuevas-Flores, Marco Antonio Garcia-Revilla and Massimiliano Bartolomei. ...
4-Chlorophthalic Anhydride | 118-45-6, chemical structure search 4-Chlorophthalic Anhydride including CAS No., molecular formula, chemical properties, chemical suppliers, price of chemical.
Endrtimes does not necessarily endorse or agree with every opinion expressed in every article/video posted on this site. The information provided here is done so for personal edification; Its up to the reader to separate truth from error, and to examine everything (like the Bereans) from a Biblical perspective. Let the Holy Scriptures be you guide! - - - FAIR USE NOTICE: These pages/videos may contain copyrighted (©) material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available to advance understanding of ecological, POLITICAL, HUMAN RIGHTS, economic, DEMOCRACY, scientific, MORAL, ETHICAL, and SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUES, etc. It is believed that this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar ...
Affiliation:九州大学,大学病院,研究員, Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry,Dental engineering/Regenerative dentistry,Periodontal dentistry,Social dentistry,Periodontology, Keywords:歯周病原細菌,Porphyromonas gingivalis,歯周炎,総頸動脈内膜中膜複合体,慢性辺縁性歯周炎,高次構造,安定型高次構造リポ多糖,歯周病,バイオフィルム,Tannerella forsythensis, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:15, Ongoing Project:非熱的不可逆エレクトロポレーションによるインプラント周囲炎の低侵襲治療法
5-Fluoroisatoic Anhydride 321-69-7 NMR spectrum, 5-Fluoroisatoic Anhydride H-NMR spectral analysis, 5-Fluoroisatoic Anhydride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
4124-31-6 Trichloroacetic anhydride testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 4124-31-6. Trichloroacetic anhydride. This chemical is colourless liquid
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA) (CAS 935-79-5) Industry Market Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA) Industry, 2011-2021...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-441570, (R)-(+)-2-Acetoxysuccinic anhydride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Disclosed is the preparation of novel difunctional cyanate monomers with increased aromatic chain length between the cyanate groups and thermosetting re...
While providing protection in hazardous environments, a firefighter ensemble (FE) contributes to the development of uncompensable heat stress due to high clothing insulation and the reduction in evaporative heat loss. Prolonged exposure to heat stress increases the risk of overexertion and heat illness in firefighters and reduces the performance time (PT) and rate of recovery even at low work inte
We, China 2-Dodecen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride, mixtureof isomers Manufacturers, China 2-Dodecen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride, mixtureof isomers Suppliers, provide quality 2-Dodecen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride, mixtureof isomers product and the products related with China 2-Dodecen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride, mixtureof isomers - huichengchem
China Methyl Hexahydrophthalic Anhydride (MHHPA), Find details about China Mhhpa, Methyl Hexahydrophthalic Anhydride; from Methyl Hexahydrophthalic Anhydride (MHHPA) - Heze Kingvolt Chemical Co., Ltd.
Global Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer Market is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the industry. The report provides a basic overview of the Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins, and the global market size (volume and value).. Access complete report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/2017-global-styrene-maleic-anhydride-copolymer-industry-depth-research-report. Key companies profiled in this report are Polyscope Polymers, Total Cray Valley (Tcv), Ineos, Sinopec, Baoding Lucky Chemical, Yinxin Chemical, Kaixin Fine Chemical more in terms of basic information, product categories, Sales (Volume), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%) (2012-2017).. Global Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer Market Report covers Alternate Styrene-Maleic ...
Alfa Aesar™ Methoxyacetic anhydride, 95% 25g Alfa Aesar™ Methoxyacetic anhydride, 95% Mercaptoe to Methoxya -Organics
China Anhydride Acetic manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Anhydride Acetic products in best price from certified Chinese Acetic manufacturers, Acetic Acid suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Looking for chlorendic anhydride? Find out information about chlorendic anhydride. C9H2Cl6O3 White, fine crystals used in fire-resistant polyester resins, in hardening epoxy resins, and as a chemical intermediate Explanation of chlorendic anhydride
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All metallic oxides that react with water to form a base solution are considered basic anhydrides, including lithium, magnesium, sodium and calcium oxides. Only the oxides formed by the alkali metals...
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Daniel, It might be worth your while to attempt antigen retrieval at a pH of 10 or 11 in an electric pressure cooker. You could also try the double whammy (antigen retrieval and enzyme digestion(protease or trypsin)). If this fails then the tissue is problably beyond resuscitation. Susie Smith, HT/HTL(ASCP), B.S. Research Associate Cytologix Corporation -----Original Message----- From: Daniel Martinez [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, November 07, 2000 9:45 AM To: [email protected] Subject: Antigen Retrieval Methods I currently have a rare Parkinsons case that I am having trouble staining. This tissue has been fixing in formalin for 13yrs. I am attempting to stain this tissue with several alpha-synuclein antibodies that we produce. To date, I have tried formic acid, proteinase-K, microwave, and boiling treatments. Any advice on other methods that might be worth trying would be appreciated. Thanks for your help Dan Martinez CNDR/University of Pennsylvania ...
Looking for chloroacetic anhydride? Find out information about chloroacetic anhydride. C4H4Cl2O3 Crystals with a melting point of 46°C; soluble in chloroform and ether; used in the preparation of cellulose chloracetates and in the N... Explanation of chloroacetic anhydride
Bis(trifluoromethyl)thiophosphinic acid, (CF3)2P(S)OH, has been prepared by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with salts of the acid. The new moderately strong monothio acid is stable in aqueous solution but yields 1 mol of CF3H per mole of acid upon alkaline hydrolysis. The acid has been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods including gas-phase infrared spectra which suggest that the acid has the (CF3)2P(S)OH structure. Dehydration of the acid with P4O10 proceeds smoothly to give good yields of the anhydride, ((CF3)2P(S))2O, which is extremely inert toward electrophilic reagents such as hydrogen halides and hydrogen sulfide. The infrared and nmr spectral properties of the acid and its anhydride are discussed. The anhydrides reactions are also discussed.(*ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Detection techniques using antibodies often fail to work on PFA- or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Antigen retrieval methods can then, in some cases, enable specific antibody detection. They work by reversing some of the chemical modification of epitopes during fixation. These procedures will not help much with epitope loss due to denaturation during sample treatment, like hot paraffin embedding. ...
I tried to do CD34 membrane antigen retrieval from paraffin embedded tissue section with microwave and enzyme methods, but just found these methods are not working. The protocols I used are as follows ...
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Maleic anhydride is the organic compound which is the maleic acids acid anhydride. It is produced in large quantities for the coatings and polymers applications.
The reaction between acetic anhydride and water is written as follows: (CH3CO)2O + H2O --| 2CH3COOH. This reaction produces two molecules of etanoic acid, a compound that appears as a colorless...
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Upon heating, itaconic anhydride isomerizes to citraconic acid anhydride, which can be hydrolyzed to citraconic acid (2- ... R. L. Shriner; S. G. Ford; l. J. Roll (1931). "Citraconic Anhydride and Citraconic Acid". Org. Synth. 28: 28. doi:10.15227/ ... Dry distillation of citric acid affords itaconic anhydride, which readily undergoes hydrolysis to itaconic acid. ... "Itaconic anhydride and itaconic acid". Org. Synth. 11: 70. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.011.0070. ...
... citraconic anhydrides MeSH D03.383.312.355 --- furaldehyde MeSH D03.383.312.490 --- lasalocid MeSH D03.383.312.520 --- maleic ... anhydrides MeSH D03.383.312.600 --- monensin MeSH D03.383.312.620 --- nafronyl MeSH D03.383.312.634 --- nigericin MeSH D03.383. ...
In the laboratory, citraconic acid can be produced by heating, itaconic acid anhydride to give citraconic acid anhydride, which ... "Citraconic Anhydride and Citraconic Acid". Org. Synth. 28: 28. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.011.0028. ... The acid displays the unusual property of spontaneously forming the anhydride, which, unlike maleic anhydride, is a liquid at ... Citraconic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3C2H(CO2H)2. It is a white solid. It is the cis-isomer of mesaconic ...
Shekhawat, D., Nagarajan, K., Jackson, J. E., & Miller, D. J. (2002). Formation of citraconic anhydride via condensation of ... Formation of citraconic anhydride via condensation of dialkyl succinates and formaldehyde. Applied Catalysis A: General. 2002; ... The formation of citraconic anhydride (CAN) from the condensation of succinic acid and its derivatives with formaldehyde over ... Shekhawat, Dushyant ; Nagarajan, Kirthivasan ; Jackson, James E. ; Miller, Dennis J./ Formation of citraconic anhydride via ...
Pre-heat steamer or water bath with staining dish containing Citraconic Anhydride Buffer until temperature reaches 95-100 °C.. ... Note: Since citraconic anhydride is considered a toxic agent, it is necessary to use a hood and to prevent contact with skin ... Citraconylation by citraconic anhydride provides an easy method for the reversible blocking of protein amino groups. The method ... 1. Namimatsu S, Ghazizadeh M and Sugisaki Y (2005) Reversing the effects of formalin fixation with citraconic anhydride and ...
Check for Discount on Citraconic anhydride Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide ... The price of Citraconic anhydride in 2016 Major end users of Citraconic anhydride Potential users of Citraconic anhydride The ... Citraconic anhydride Global Market and Forecast Research Table of Contents Part 1: General Information of Citraconic anhydride ... 2.2 Construction of Industry Chain of Citraconic anhydride Chapter 3: End User of Citraconic anhydride List of Tables ...
Reversing the effects of formalin fixation with citraconic anhydride and heat: a universal antigen retrieval method. , The ... Reversing the effects of formalin fixation with citraconic anhydride and heat: a universal antigen retrieval method. Shigeki ... Namimatsu S, Ghazizadeh M, Sugisaki Y. Reversing the effects of formalin fixation with citraconic anhydride and heat: a ... Deparaffinized tissue sections were placed in an electric kitchen pot containing 0.05% citraconic anhydride solution, pH 7.4, ...
... and other polymers such that upon exposure to aqueous environments the acid anhydride generates the corresponding acid which ... s or other polymer is eroded by action of the acid anhydride incorporated therein. ... The invention relates to the use of an acid anhydride incorporated as a latentiated catalyst in poly(ortho ester) ... unsaturated: maleic or citraconic anhydrides. 3. Aromatic: Benzoic anhydride. 4. Aromatic dibasic: phthalic anhydride or ...
In the laboratory, citraconic acid can be produced by heating, itaconic acid anhydride to give citraconic acid anhydride, which ... "Citraconic Anhydride and Citraconic Acid". Org. Synth. 28: 28. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.011.0028. ... The acid displays the unusual property of spontaneously forming the anhydride, which, unlike maleic anhydride, is a liquid at ... Citraconic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3C2H(CO2H)2. It is a white solid. It is the cis-isomer of mesaconic ...
... anhydrides of unsaturated organic acids such as maleic anhydride, itaconic anhydride and citraconic anhydride; esters of ... Maleic anhydride is most preferred.. The modification can be achieved by grafting the modifier onto the crystalline propylene ... A)-3: 50 parts by weight of a propylene homopolymer modified with maleic anhydride (0.09% by weight), having an MFR of 30 g/10 ... A)-1: 50 parts by weight of a propylene homopolymer modified With maleic anhydride (0.08% by weight), having an MFR of 230 g/10 ...
Citraconic anhydride. Amine-reactive compound (CAS 616-02-4) to reversibly cap lysines and other primary amines with carboxyl ...
Upon heating, itaconic anhydride isomerizes to citraconic acid anhydride, which can be hydrolyzed to citraconic acid (2- ... R. L. Shriner; S. G. Ford; l. J. Roll (1931). "Citraconic Anhydride and Citraconic Acid". Org. Synth. 28: 28. doi:10.15227/ ... Dry distillation of citric acid affords itaconic anhydride, which readily undergoes hydrolysis to itaconic acid. ... "Itaconic anhydride and itaconic acid". Org. Synth. 11: 70. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.011.0070. ...
A 0.05% citraconic anhydride solution (ImmunoSaver; Nissin EM Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used for antigen retrieval. ...
Suitable examples include maleic acid, maleic anhydride, itaconic acid, mesaconic acid, fumaric acid and citraconic acid. ... Maleic anhydride and itaconic acid are the preferred monoethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid monomer(s). ... Preferred are neutralized carboxylic acid monomers or anhydrides. Preferred initiator compounds are those, wherein n is 0 or 1 ... ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acids and the alkali metal and ammonium salts thereof as well as the anhydrides of the ...
Examples of such materials include maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride and itaconic anhydride, among others. ... 7-naphthalene tricarboxylic anhydride; 3,3,4-diphenyl tricarboxylic anhydride; 3,3,4-benzophenone tricarboxylic anhydride; 1, ... 4-tricarboxylic anhydride; diphenyl isopropylidene 3,3,4-tricarboxylic anhydride; 3,4,10-propylene tricarboxylic anhydride; 3, ... Anhydrides of such acids are useful as well.. Also useful as the acidic component are tricarboxylic acid anhydride materials ...
The maletic anhydride can be maleic anhyride itself or a monosubstituted maleic anhydride, such as citraconic anhydride, ... Theoretically, one mol of a maleic anhydride can be added to one mol of an olefin to obtain an alkenyl succinic anhydride. In ... ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A process for reacting an olefin with a maleic anhydride to obtain an alkenyl succinic anhydride ... This invention relates to a process for reacting an olefin with a maleic anhydride to obtain an alkenyl succinic anhydride. ...
... citraconic acid, ethacrylic acid, and tricarboxy ethylene, and salts and anhydrides thereof. ... 2. Carboxylic acid anhydride group-containing monomers: monoethylenically unsaturated polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, such as ... Especially preferred are copolymers of maleic acid, maleic anhydride, or malic acid salt with isobutylene or other C3 -C6, ... Exemplary types of such acid groups and other hydrophilic groups include carboxyl, carboxylic acid anhydride, carboxylic salt, ...
... citraconic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, maleic anhydride, vinyl sulfonic acids, allyl sulfonic acids, sulfoethylacrylate, ... Any olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid and carboxylic acid anhydride monomers can be used to form the core polymer of the ... The unsaturated carboxylic acid monomers can also include itaconic acid, citraconic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic ... Suitable monomers include acrylic acids and their anhydrides such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethacrylic acid, alpha- ...
Long-​chain derivatives of citraconic anhydride: new metabolites of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer. Assante, Gemma; Camarda, Lorenzo ...
Representative of such anhydrides include maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride, ... Polyimide with reduced anhydride content. US5175339 *. 14 May 1990. 29 Dic 1992. The Standard Oil Company. Process for ... 3,528,950 a low molecular weight prepolymer is prepared by reacting a poly-functional amine, a polyfunctional anhydride, and an ... Polyetherimides and precursors therefor from oxydiphtalic anhydride diester and a mixture of diamines. ...
Unsaturated acid anhydrides, e.g., maleic, citraconic, itaconic, cis-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic and bicyclo(2.2.1)-5- ... citraconic, mesaconic, itaconic, methylenemalonic, acetylenedicarboxylic and aconitic; and (v) aromatic acids, e.g., benzoic, ... heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydrides.. 12. Unsaturated acid halides such as cinnamyl acrylyl, methacrylyl, crotonyl, oleyl and ...
... non-cyclic anhydride moleties bonded to the divalent organic moleties. ... Examples of suitable cyclic anhydrides include maleic, succinic, iraconic, citraconic, glutaric, phthalic and hexahydrophthalic ... d) non-cyclic anhydride moieties bonded to the divalent organic moieties and. (e) bonded to each non-cyclic anhydride moiety, a ... d) non-cyclic anhydride moieties bonded to the divalent organic moleties.. For example, the lower molecular weight anhydride is ...
... citraconic acid and itaconic acid, and anhydrides thereof. As a tribasic or higher carboxylic acid, it may include trimellitic ... and the resin obtained may be subjected to heat treatment to convert it into an acid anhydride, or the acid anhydride may be ... isophthalic acid and anhydrides thereof, succinic acid, n-dodecenylsuccinic acid or anhydrides thereof, fumaric acid, maleic ... isophthalic acid and phthalic anhydride, and anhydrides thereof; alkyldicarboxylic acids such as succinic acid, adipic acid, ...
Among the suitable alpha, beta-ethylenically unsaturated acids are maleic, fumaric, aconitic, itaconic, citraconic, mesaconic, ... used herein in their broader sense to include available similarly reacting anhydrides such as maleic and phthalic anhydrides. ... 2 moles of phthalic auhydride and 4 moles R R1 of maleic anhydride by heating the mixture at a temperature of C. under an ...
... maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, itaconic acid, itaconic anhydride, citraconic acid, citraconic anhydride and mesaconic acid, ... and anhydrides thereof; unsaturated polycarboxylic acids (anhydrides) having a valence of 3 or more; mono[(meth) ... citraconic acid, fumaric acid, mesaconic acid and phthalic acid are preferred in view of alkali solubility, solubility in a ... citraconic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid and mesaconic acid; tricarboxylic acids such as tricarballylic acid, aconitic acid ...
An example of a particularly desirable blend is a blend of a homopolycarbonate of bisphenol-A with styrene/maleic anhydride ... such as styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer, and (3) a compatible polymer, such as styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer, exhibit ... citraconic, aconitic, itaconic, phenylmaleic as well as mixtures of the aforementioned anhydrides. Other suitable ... β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic anhydride, especially maleic anhydride. Other suitable anhydrides include the anhydrides ...
... as are tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, acrylic and methacrylic acid, and also citraconic, mesaconic and itaconic acid. ... 300 g of linseed oil were mixed with 100 g of maleic anhydride under a nitrogen atmosphere and the mixture was heated to 200 C ... 106 g of tripropylene glycol, 87 g of hexanediol and 104 g of trimellitic anhydride were esterified at 180 C. with 0.2 g of ... 79 g of dipropylene glycol, 87 g of hexanediol and 90 g of trimellitic anhydride were esterified at 180 C. with 0.2 g of ...
The corresponding anhydride is prepared starting with maleic anhydride instead of maleic acid. The anhydride may be named 5,6, ... Illustrative examples include fumaric acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid, glutaconic acid, etc. Also, in place of hexa ... Accordingly, when HET anhydride, A anhydride, B anhydride, etc., is reacted at room temperature with an alkylene polyamine, an ... In one embodiment the acid or anhydride is of the type known in the art as Chlorendie or HET acid or anhydride. This acid is ...
  • Alumina and aluminum phosphate are active catalysts that give selectivity to citraconic anhydride as high as 75% in an integral fixed bed reactor. (msu.edu)
  • The crude Waste plant solutions may sometimes contain quantities of such other acids as citraconic, which might tend to build up in the system with continued concentration and recycle of residues. (google.com)
  • We have found, however, that if the olefin is reacted with the maleic anhydride under the conditions defined above in the presence of a controlled amount of a hydroxy aromatic or an amino aromatic compound the reaction efiiciency is increased and polymer formation is appreciably inhibited. (google.com)
  • 7 . Structure according to claim 1 or 2 , in which the binder is a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride, having an MFI of 0.1 to 3, a density of between 0.920 and 0.930 and containing 2 to 40% by weight of insolubles in n-decane at 90 C. (google.com.au)
  • Since citraconic anhydride is considered a toxic agent, it is necessary to use a hood and to prevent contact with skin and eyes when performing the AR procedure, although the concentration needed was very low. (ihcworld.com)
  • The maleic, phthalic, acetic and trimellitic anhydrides appeared to be the most acutely toxic of the group discussed. (cdc.gov)