One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (1/221)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (2/221)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects.  (+info)

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by magnetic resonance cisternography--case report. (3/221)

A 49-year-old male with no history of head trauma suffered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discharge from the left nostril for one month. Coronal computed tomography (CT) showed lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus on both sides and CSF collection on the left side. CT cisternography could not identify the site of CSF leakage. Heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR cisternography) in the coronal plane clearly delineated a fistulous tract through the sphenoid bone into the sphenoid sinus. Patch graft with muscle fragment completely relieved the CSF rhinorrhea. Postoperative three-dimensional CT showed the two bone defects identified during surgery. Small bony dehiscences in the sphenoid bone and lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus predisposed the present patient to CSF fistula formation. MR cisternography in the coronal and sagittal planes is superior to CT scanning or CT cisternography for detection of the site of active CSF leakage.  (+info)

Peripheral injection of a new corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, astressin, blocks peripheral CRF- and abdominal surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. (4/221)

The effect of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists astressin and D-Phe CRF(12-41) injected i.v. on CRF-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) was investigated in conscious rats. Gastric transit was assessed by the recovery of methyl cellulose/phenol red solution 20 min after its intragastric administration. The 55% inhibition of GE induced by CRF (0.6 microgram i.v.) was antagonized by 87 and 100% by i.v. astressin at 3 and 10 microgram, respectively, and by 68 and 64% by i.v. D-Phe CRF(12-41) at 10 and 20 microgram, respectively. CRF (0.6 microgram)-injected intracisternally (i.c.) induced 68% reduction of GE was not modified by i.v. astressin (10 microgram) whereas i.c. astressin (3 or 10 microgram) blocked by 58 and 100%, respectively, i.v. CRF inhibitory action. Abdominal surgery with cecal manipulation reduced GE to 7.1 +/- 3.1 and 27.5 +/- 3.3% at 30 and 180 min postsurgery, respectively, compared with 40.3 +/- 4.3 and 59.5 +/- 2.9% at similar times after anesthesia alone. Astressin (3 microgram i.v.) completely and D-Phe CRF(12-41) (20 microgram i.v.) partially (60%) blocked surgery-induced gastric stasis observed at 30 or 180 min. The CRF antagonists alone (i.v. or i.c.) had no effect on basal GE. These data indicate that CRF acts in the brain and periphery to inhibit GE through receptor-mediated interaction and that peripheral CRF is involved in acute postoperative gastric ileus; astressin is a potent peripheral antagonist of CRF when injected i.v. whereas i.c. doses >/=3 microgram exert dual central and peripheral blockade of CRF action on gastric transit.  (+info)

HIV type 1 Nef protein is a viral factor for leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system. (5/221)

Recombinant HIV-1 Nef protein, but not Tat, gp120, and gp160, provoked leukocyte recruitment into the CNS in a rat model. The strong reduction of bioactivity by heat treatment of Nef, and the blocking effect of the mAb 2H12, which recognizes the carboxy-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 171-190 (but not of mAb 3E6, an anti-Nef Ab of the same isotype, which maps the aa sequence 168-175, as well as a mixture of mAbs to CD4) provided evidence for the specificity of the observed Nef effects. Using a modified Boyden chamber technique, Nef exhibited chemotactic activity on mononuclear cells in vitro. Coadministration of the anti-Nef mAb 2H12, as well as treatment of Nef by heat inhibited Nef-induced chemotaxis. Besides soluble Nef, chemotaxis was also induced by a Nef-expressing human astrocytoma cell line, but not by control cells. These data suggest a direct chemotactic activity of soluble Nef. The detection of elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after intracisternal Nef injection hint at the additional involvement of indirect mechanisms in Nef-induced leukocyte migration into rat CNS. These data propose a mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef protein may be essential for AIDS neuropathogenesis, as a mediator of the recruitment of leukocytes that may serve as vehicles of the virus and perpetrators for disease through their production of neurotoxins.  (+info)

High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. (6/221)

High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system.  (+info)

Neurodevelopmental outcome after antenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities. (7/221)

Posterior fossa abnormalities are sonographically diagnosable in the fetus. Anomalies of this region include Dandy-Walker malformation, enlarged cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Despite prenatal diagnosis, the uncertainties related to natural history and neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors make patient counseling difficult. The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of these lesions and elucidate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors in prenatally diagnosed posterior fossa abnormalities. Fifteen cases of posterior fossa abnormalities were reviewed. Antenatal diagnoses of Dandy-Walker malformation was made in 13 of these cases, arachnoid cyst in one case, and enlarged cisterna magna in one case. Hydrocephalus was present in 66% of patients. The sonographic diagnosis was concordant with the pathologic or neonatal radiologic diagnosis in 13 of 15 cases. Seven fetuses (47%) exhibited additional cranial or extracranial anomalies. A karyotypic abnormality (trisomy 18) was found in one of 15 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities. Neurodevelopmental delay was present in 80% of survivors with follow-up study to 4 years of age. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities is highly accurate, yet the differential diagnosis can be challenging. Cognitive and psychomotor developmental delays remain commonplace despite early diagnosis and treatment. The approach with families in cases of prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities should include a search for additional central nervous system and extra-central nervous system anomalies in the fetus and counseling of parents regarding potential adverse outcome for survivors.  (+info)

Intracisternal nor-binaltorphimine distinguishes central and peripheral kappa-opioid antinociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/221)

Systemic administration of nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) produces a long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor (kappaOR) antagonism and has kappa(1)-selectivity in nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to establish the pharmacological basis of central kappaOR antagonism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). After intracisternal (i.c.) administration of small doses of nor-BNI, the duration and selectivity of nor-BNI antagonism were evaluated against two kappaOR agonists, (trans)-3, 4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488) and bremazocine. Thermal antinociception was measured in the warm water (50 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay and sedation was evaluated by observers blind to treatment conditions. Following i.c. pretreatment with 0.32 mg nor-BNI, a 5- to 10-fold rightward shift of the U50,488 baseline dose-effect curve was observed in antinociception. In contrast, this dose of nor-BNI only produced an insignificant 2-fold shift against bremazocine. Pretreatment with a smaller dose (0.032 mg) of nor-BNI produced a 3-fold shift of U50, 488, which lasted for 7 days, but failed to alter the potency of bremazocine. This differential antagonism profile of i.c. nor-BNI also was observed in sedation ratings. In addition, the centrally effective dose of nor-BNI (0.32 mg), when administered s.c. in the back, did not antagonize either U50,488- or bremazocine-induced antinociception and sedation. After i.c. pretreatment with the same dose, nor-BNI also did not antagonize the peripherally mediated effect of U50,488 against capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in the tail. These results indicate that i.c. nor-BNI produces central kappaOR antagonism and support the notion of two functional kappaOR subtypes in the central nervous system. Moreover, it provides a valuable pharmacological basis for further characterizing different sources of kappaOR-mediated effects, namely, from central or peripheral nervous system receptors.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracisternal administration of transforming growth factor-β evokes fever through the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in brain endothelial cells. AU - Matsumura, Shigenobu. AU - Shibakusa, Tetsuro. AU - Fujikawa, Teppei. AU - Yamada, Hiroyuki. AU - Matsumura, Kiyoshi. AU - Inoue, Kazuo. AU - Fushiki, Tohru. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a pleiotropic cytokine, regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and plays a key role in development and tissue homeostasis. TGF-β functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine because it suppresses microglia and B-lymphocyte functions, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, we previously demonstrated that the intracisternal administration of TGF-β induces fever like that produced by proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of TGF-β-induced fever. The ...
Late cerebral ischemia carries high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the subsequent cerebral ischemia which is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide a therapeutic window for treatment of cerebral ischemia after SAH. Here we demonstrate that SAH increases the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 in cerebral vessels and reduces the neurology score in rats in additional with the CBF measured by an autoradiographic method. The intracisternal administration of SB-386023-b, a specific inhibitor of raf, given 6 h after SAH, aborts the receptor changes and protects the brain
Intracisternal administration of p-n-Octyphenol into neonatal rats causes hyperactivity with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling(TUNEL)-positive cells in the mesencephalon where immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase is reduced by the chemical ...
In this article, we are going to describe briefly the radiological features of subarachnoid cisterns. This article describes which modalities can be used to look for subarachnoid cisterns and how they are seen on different modalities. Ultrasound: Cisterna magna usually measures 2-10 mm in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters in an antenatal ultrasound. Cisterna magna is the only subarachnoid cistern that can …. Read More » ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
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Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, physiological saline body fluid with low protein content derived from ultrafiltration of the blood. It fills the space between the skull, brain and ventricles and surrounds the spinal cord. It serves as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord, transports hormones and neurotransmitters, helps to remove toxic metabolites and ensures the brain has a constant milieu. A healthy adult usually has around 100 to 150 mL of this special fluid, and daily production is normally around 500 mL.. Cellular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is requested to detect or exclude diseases affecting the central nervous system: infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoans; inflammation, e.g. multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome; leptomeningeal spread, i.e. cells from a peripheral tumour.. Samples are mostly taken by lumbar puncture and occasionally by cisternal puncture. In patients with a ventricular shunt, e.g. after surgery or during treatment of a hydrocephalus, ...
Cisterna definition, definition of cisterna, Anagrams of cisterna, words that start with Cisterna, and words that can be created from cisterna
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Diminished brain volume, evaluated by qualitative visual inspection, was a standard acquiring, and ventriculomegaly was current in all the children, using a predominant enlargement with the posterior portions from the lateral ventricles (trigone and posterior horn of lateral ventricles). Abnormalities from the corpus callosum (hypogenesis and hypoplasia) and delayed myelination were also frequent. Curiously, the cisterna magna was enlarged in the vast majority of cases, with or without the need of cerebellar discover this info here hypoplasia. A few of the kids showed a symmetrical enlargement from the anterior subarachnoid Place with the supratentorial compartment, invariably linked to significant ventriculomegaly ...
Reduced Mind quantity, evaluated by qualitative visual inspection, was a standard locating, and ventriculomegaly was current in all the kids, by using a predominant enlargement of the posterior portions on the lateral ventricles (trigone and posterior horn of lateral ventricles). Abnormalities on the corpus callosum (hypogenesis and hypoplasia) and delayed myelination were also prevalent. Interestingly, the cisterna magna was enlarged in a lot of the cases, with or with no cerebellar hypoplasia. Many of the children showed a symmetrical enlargement in the anterior subarachnoid House more info here in the supratentorial compartment, invariably connected with serious ventriculomegaly ...
Serial blood and CSF sample collections, including continuous CSF collections in rats, at protocol-determined time points allow determination of pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicokinetic (TK) parameters, modeling and antibody (Ab) analysis. CSF samples can be collected from non-human primate, rodent, canine or ovine models via a lumbar or cisterna magna tap or a CNS-implanted catheter that terminates in a subcutaneous access port.. Naive samples (CSF, serum, plasma and tissues) from non-human primates, canines, sheep and rats are available upon request for method development.. ...
Pelas aberturas do IV ventrículo (forames de Luschka e Magendie) o líquor atinge a cisterna magna e depois dela todo o espaço subaracnóideo da medula e encéfalo ...
We strive to provide the greatest products, customer service and overall experience to our clients in a constant effort to keep Magna the number one pick for their legal consulting and support needs. It is an honor to be recognized as the top provider in the industry. Below are a few publications who named Magna as Best of for the following categories.. ...
Launched in February, 2000 - Now Needed More Than Ever in 2012 http://www.detaxcanada.org/carta.htm Canadians have been stretched beyond their limits ! THE TIME IS AT HAND TO COMPOSE AND ESTABLISH A CANADIAN MAGNA CARTA THE OBJECTIVE 1. A Magna Carta (Grand Charter) declaring the SOVEREIGNTY and the RIGHTS of the Canadian People Direction or perspective…
Read how Magna Chargers supercharger boosts the C5 Corvette by almost 150 horsepower, brought to you by the experts at Corvette Fever Magazine.
Alle resultaten van 2019 Magna Racino Agility International - Jumping Open Large in een overzicht met de belangrijkste informatie en links naar de honden en geleiders.
So ive been keeping an eye on Magna for quite awhile now just in case they got some new stuff in and sure enough they did. Its 70D Nylon Ripstop in various colors. It comes with a DWR and it is calendered. Its $1.25 per yard and is for sale in increments ranging from 11 yards for $13.25 to 260 yards for $300. I just picked up the 25 yard bundle. Just trying to get the word out to yall in-case you didnt notice it. The smaller bundles go fast so get em while they are there. MagnaFabrics
Drop verses, off the earths tip pimp the ship Peep the script that I gripped They call it the Magna Carta Seems like I was the author in a past life Blow back I throw tracks always be waiting before the gates and await for the seven to shine off the heat maker, I rutterbake ya/ Hope wish spit kiss flip a wig nigga this isn t the eighteen-hundreds We keeps it burning on the road to Zion/ We ain t matrixing we just in syncing our iPods Driven ides outta my marches see how we sit and
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Bingham Dental​ providing professional dental care. Dr. Firstname​ Lastname​ is a Magna​ Dentist, call us today at 801-250-7422​!!
Bingham Dental​ providing professional dental care. Dr. Firstname​ Lastname​ is a Magna​ Dentist, call us today at 801-250-7422​!!
Most students of English history know that King Johns barons forced him to grant Magna Carta, the great charter of liberties that placed the English king under the law.
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisici elit, sed eiusmod tempor incidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Idque Caesaris facere voluntate liceret: sese habere. Magna pars studiorum, prodita quaerimus. Magna pars studiorum, prodita quaerimus. Fabio vel iudice vincam, sunt in culpa qui officia. Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus.. Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati, nihil urbis vigiliae. Non equidem invideo, miror magis posuere velit aliquet. Qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Prima luce, cum quibus mons aliud consensu ab eo. Petierunt uti sibi concilium totius Galliae in diem certam indicere.. ...
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TLorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate. ...
MI Developments, the real estate spin-off of Magna International, reported a third-quarter profit of $11.5 million, but a $27.4-million loss at Magna Entertainment Corp. created a bottom-line deficit of $15.9 million. MEC is controlled by MID.
If you use this site regularly and would like to help keep the site on the Internet, please consider donating a small sum to help pay for the hosting and bandwidth bill. There is no minimum donation, any sum is appreciated commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, ...
If you use this site regularly and would like to help keep the site on the Internet, please consider donating a small sum to help pay for the hosting and bandwidth bill. There is no minimum donation, any sum is appreciated commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, ...
If you use this site regularly and would like to help keep the site on the Internet, please consider donating a small sum to help pay for the hosting and bandwidth bill. There is no minimum donation, any sum is appreciated commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, ...
Romeget tellus risus. Suspendisse tempor erat ac nulla sollicitudin, ut eleifend magna scelerisque. Nulla egestas sodales Donec a luctus massa. Aliquam turpis felissque ipsum venenatis pellentesque. Donec id leo augue. Donec quis odio tincidunt, porta magna sit amet, rhoncus est.. ...
July 1, 2017 / By RadiusTheme. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nstrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nstrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur ...
July 1, 2017 / By RadiusTheme. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nstrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nstrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur ...
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Global Automotive Front End Module Market has been brewing up and impacting the international economy in terms of growth rate, revenue, sale, market share, and size. The Global Automotive Front ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressor effects of orexins injected intracisternally and to rostral ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rats. AU - Chen, Chiung Tong. AU - Hwang, Ling Ling. AU - Chang, Jaw Kang. AU - Dun, Nae J.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Orexin A and B, two recently isolated hypothalamic peptides, have been reported to increase food consumption upon intracerebroventricular injections in rats. In addition to the hypothalamus, orexin A-immunoreactive fibers have been observed in several areas of the medulla that are associated with cardiovascular functions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hypothesis that orexins may influence cardiovascular response by interacting with neurons in the medulla. Intracisternal injections of orexins A (0.0056- 7.0 nmol) or B (0.028-0.28 nmol) dose dependently increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 4-27 mmHg and heart rate (HR) by 26-80 beats/min in urethan-anesthetized rats, with orexin A being more effective in this regard. MAP and HR were ...
Background The role of nitric oxide (NO) production, at the brain-stem level, in ventilatory control and pain perception is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether NO synthase (NOS) inhibition can affect morphine-induced ventilatory depression or analgesia. The central hypothesis of this investigation was that NO, at supraspinal sites, can influence ventilation and nociception and can modulate the ventilatory depressant and antinociceptive actions of morphine. Using drug delivery via the fourth cerebral ventricle, the authors examined the ventilatory and nociceptive effects of an NOS inhibitor and an NO donor in the presence or absence of morphine sulfate (MS). Methods The studies were performed in awake dogs that were restrained in a stanchion using a fourth ventricle to cisterna magna perfusion system. The dogs were chronically prepared with fourth ventricle and cisterna magna guide cannulae, femoral arterial/venous catheters, and a tracheostomy. Agents were prepared in a ...
To date, researchers have developed various animal models of Alzheimers disease (AD) to investigate its mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic treatments. A widely recognized model that mimics the pathology of human sporadic AD involves intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with streptozotocin (STZ). However, ICV injections are an invasive approach, which creates limitations in generalizing the results. In this study, we produced a rodent model of AD using STZ (3 mg/kg) injection via the cisterna magna (CM) once every week for 4 weeks, and analyzed at 4 weeks and 16 weeks after final injection. In the CM-STZ rodent model of AD, we observed increase in extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and decrease and abnormal morphology of post-synaptic protein, PSD95 in 16 weeks STZ-injected group. The model developed using our less-invasive method induced features of AD-like pathology, including significantly increased extracellular amyloid-beta deposition, and decreased synaptic protein in the
The term median aperture refers to the midline opening at the caudal extreme of the fourth ventricle defined on the basis of dissection. Cerebrospinal fluid flows through it from the ventricle into the cisterna magna ( Gray-1918a ). ...
Estudaram-se o perfil eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas e a cota de albumina em cães sem e com cinomose na fase neurológica e não-neurológica. A punção da cisterna magna para a obtenção de amostras de liquor realizou-se em 30 cães. Analisaram-se teores de proteínas totais, cota de albumina e fracionamento eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas em gel de agarose. Os resultados foram semelhantes nos cães normais e nos cães com cinomose sem sinais neurológicos e significativamente elevados no grupo de cães com cinomose apresentando sinais neurológicos. O estudo do quadro protéico do líquido cérebroespinhal foi útil e contribuiu significativamente na detecção de lesões ao sistema nervoso central e de danos à barreira hematoencefálica durante a fase neurológica da cinomose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal maturation of cerebral cortex and behavioral deficit in adult rats after neonatal administration of antibodies to ganglioside.. AU - Kasarskis, Edward J.. AU - Karpiak, Stephen E.. AU - Rapport, Maurice M.. AU - Yu, Robert K.. AU - Bass, Norman H.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Five-day-old rats received a single injection (50 microliter) of antiserum to ganglioside into the cisterna magna and were compared to control animals injected with the antiserum which had been absorbed with pure GM1 ganglioside to remove the specific antibodies. Both groups showed normal rates of body growth. However, animals receiving antiganglioside serum had, at 60 days of age, impaired performance when tested on a complex learning task (DRL) as well as chemical and morphological alterations in the somatosensory cerebral cortex. Gross morphology and wet weight of whole brain were normal in both groups. Microchemical analysis of somatosensory isocortex revealed a normal content of total ...
Regrettably, Dr. Aguilar is certainly not a genuine physician as well as is actually not certified in the United States. As a matter of fact, this is actually not also his genuine label. It is actually difficult for a supplement to claim to add 5 ins to your penis and also the lab reports present Magna RX does not match the cases created on their tag.. Magna RX has undergone a class activity case in the condition of The golden state for fraudulent claims and also marketing plans. Depending on to the lawsuit, the Doctor who has actually identified on every bottle of Magna RX as the inventor of the product and previous head of state of his Condition Community of Urology has actually certainly never been certified to engage in medication in the USA.. Food and also Medicine Administration. Depending on to the legal action, Magna-RX was wrongly industried as a clinically backed love drug. The saddening honest truth is actually anybody along with adequate amount of money to obtain an inventory ...
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Cycling Trainers. You will find helpful, informative articles about Cycling Trainers, including Preseason training and Off season training. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Magna, UT that will answer all of your questions about Cycling Trainers.
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RX-485/385 Natural Sound Stereo Receiver 65W + 65W (8Ω) RMS Output Power, 0.04% THD, 20 - 20,000 Hz (RX-485) 45W + 45W (8Ω) RMS Output Power, 0.04% THD, 20 - 20,000 Hz (RX-385) High Dynamic Power, Low Impedance Drive Capability Continuously Variable Loudness Control 40-Station Random Preset Tuning Automatic Preset Tuning Preset Station Shifting Capability IF Count Direct PLL Synthesizer Tuning System Remote Control Capability Pure Direct Switch to Reproduce the Purest Source Sound (RX-485 Only) Thank you for selecting this YAMAHA stereo receiver. CAUTION RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK), NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE, REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. OWNERS MANUAL CONTENTS IMPORTANT! Please record the serial number of this unit in the space below. • Explanation of Graphical Symbols Safety Instructions ...................2 Supplied Accessories ..............4 ...
Find patient medical information for Magna C-7 Forte Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Magna has teamed with Ford to develop a carbon fiber subframe. Their design reduces weight by 34 percent compared to a conventional steel subframe.
There is no place for the return to barbarism of The Justinian Code to be found as the foundation of the EUs laws where everything is the gift of the State under license when we have 800 years ago renounced the Corpus Juris of the EU in favour of the Universal Rights of Mankind as enshrined in the Magna Carta where the people hold the rights and the state and its various goffers are the servants of the people ...
magna enim sunt iudicia tua et inenarrabilia verba tua propter hoc indisciplinatae animae erraverunt dum enim persuasum habent iniqui posse dominari
Chromaline Magna Cure Photostencil Film is at Nazdar SourceOne, your professional supplier of Equipment, Inks & Supplies for Screen & Digital printing.
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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute ...
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Magna Kansei Ltd. has launched a £4 million ($6.2 million) automated assembly plant in Washington, England. Magna Kansei is based in Sunderland, where it already employs 500 designing and injection molding a variety of plastic automotive parts. The new, 65,000-square-foot facility will supply…
It would be nice to link ,ol, elements such that the numbering would be connected. Then you could place list items in different sections, or put non-list things in between them, and have the browser determine the correct number for each item. My suggestion would be something like connecting form labels with form controls: ,section, ,h1,foobar,/h1, ,ol id=beginning, ,li,foo,/li, ,li,bar,/li, ,/ol, ,/section, ,section, ,h1,batbaz,/h1, ,ol liststart=beginning, ,li,bat,/li, ,li,baz,/li, ,/ol, ,aside, ,p, Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. ,/p, ,/aside, ,/section, ,section, ,h1,bangwhiz,/h1, ,ol liststart=beginning, ,li,bang,/li, ,li,whiz,/li, ,/ol, ,/section, which would give us foobar 1. foo 2. bar batbaz 3. bat 4. baz Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. bangwhiz 5. bang 6. whiz Real world page: ...
If you use this site regularly and would like to help keep the site on the Internet, please consider donating a small sum to help pay for the hosting and bandwidth bill. There is no minimum donation, any sum is appreciated commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco proident, ...
Ciao a tutti, qualcuno riesce ad aiutarmi a classificare questo bronzetto? Pesa 4,6 g per 16mm di diametro, al dritto ritratto elamato a dx, al rovescio cavallo al galoppo a dx con in esergo credo TAVS. Grazie
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Messenger Newspapers Homes - houses and property for sale or to let in the Trafford, Sale, Altrincham, Hale, Hale Barns, Bowden, Stretford, Urmston
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Today was one of those days where I had the entire afternoon free (days like this have become exceedingly rare for the last couple of months). Instead of spending the lovely (and by lovely I mean gray and drizzly) day taking a stroll outdoors or going for a jog like a true Berliner, I stayed…
Our shop retails Master Grade 1/100 RX-79(G) Gundam Ez8 (MG) (Gundam Model Kits) Mobile Suit Gundam Bandai 0077634 Gundam Kit/etc on the Web.
Please could someone recommend a choice between the following receivers: (price listed) 1) Yamaha RX-A810. \8 2) Yamaha RX-A820. \9 3) Yamaha RX-A1
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Quuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quiaolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi…. ...
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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur There are many variations of passages of Lorem Ipsum available, but the majority have suffered alteration in some form, by injected humour, or randomised words which dont look even slightly believable. If you are going to use a passage of Lorem Ipsum, you need to be sure there isnt anything embarrassing hidden in the middle of text. ...
with J. G. Greenfield: Martin, J. P.; Greenfield, J. G. (1923). "Tumour in Cisterna Magna". Proc R Soc Med. 16(Neurol Sect) ( ...
Mega cisterna magna is a condition in which the cisterna magna, the subarachnoid cistern below the fourth ventricle, is ... and instead it is mostly the cisterna magna that is enlarged (sometimes diagnosed as "mega cisterna magna"). In 1999, Calabró ... In mega cisterna magna, unlike in DWM: The cerebellum is not usually hypoplastic. The fourth ventricle is of relatively normal ... In true DWM, this will find a flow from the cerebral aqueduct to the posterior fossa and no flow between the cisterna magna and ...
The whole ventricular system and cisterna magna were flooded with blood. The gyri were flattened and sulci narrowed, consistent ...
He described the surgical technique of ventriculocisternostomy (lateral ventricle to cisterna magna,; a predecessor of today's ...
It receives CSF from the fourth ventricle via the median aperture (foramen of Magendie). The cisterna magna contains: The ... Some major subarachnoid cisterns: Cisterna magna also called cerebellomedullary cistern - the largest of the subarachnoid ...
Abnormalities on CT scan ranged from prominent valleculla to an enlarged cisterna magna with hypoplasia of the cerebellar ...
There he invented an approach for obtaining cerebrospinal fluid using a cannula to the cisterna magna in the brain of cats. The ...
It is done by inserting a needle through the skin below the external occipital protuberance into the cisterna magna and is an ... The needle is placed in the midline, passing just under the occipital bone, into the (usually large) cisterna magna (Fig. 23-2 ... Medications are diluted more rapidly in the larger and more rapidly circulating volume of cisterna magna than in the smaller ...
Največja in najpomembnejša je cisterna magna (cisterna cerebellomedullaris). Leži zadaj med malimi možgani in podaljšano ... Druge večje cisterne (lokacije so razvidne iz imen): cisterna interpeduncularis, cisterna chiasmatis, cisterna fossae lateralis ... Združita se v veliko možgansko veno (vena cerebri magna). Ta je zelo kratka in se vliva v sinus rectus. Zgornje malomožganske ... Cisterna pontis je ob bazilarni arteriji. Vanjo se odpirata stranski odprtini četrtega prekata. ...
... from the fourth ventricle into the cisterna magna. The two other openings of the fourth ventricle are the lateral apertures ( ...
... and enlargement of the cisterna magna and fourth ventricle of the brain. Animal models of 3C syndrome have not been created; ... the ventricles and the cisterna magna are dilated/enlarged, and Dandy-Walker malformation is present. These are reflected in ...
... cilium cingulate gyrus cingulum circle of Willis circulatory system circumflex artery cisterna cisterna chyli cisterna magna ... striatum stroma stylet styloglossus muscle stylohyoid muscle styloid process stylopharyngeus muscle subarachnoid cisternae ...
... from the fourth ventricle into the cisterna magna Antenna aperture, a physical parameter of an antenna Aperture (mollusc), the ...
... and with the cisterna magna, and in front of the pons with the interpeduncular cistern. This article incorporates text in the ... The pontine cistern, also cisterna pontis and cisterna pontocerebellaris is a notable subarachnoid cistern on the ventral ...
... cisterna magna MeSH A08.186.566.395 - dura mater MeSH A08.186.566.395.687 - subdural space MeSH A08.186.566.731 - pia mater ...
... an enlarged cisterna magna and a posterior fossa cyst. The gene IFT122 is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q21-3q24). ...
Enlargement of the cisterna magna Cerebellar hypoplasia There is no known definitive single mechanism that causes colpocephaly ...
Near each of the 3 corners of the inferior roof is an opening into the cisterna magna, the caudal opening being the foramen ...
... septum Superior cistern Cistern of lamina terminalis Chiasmatic cistern Interpeduncular cistern Pontine cistern Cisterna magna ...
The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullaris cistern) is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the ... The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. Cerebrospinal fluid ... puncture of the cisterna magna may be performed in rare instances. Boon, J.M.; Abrahams, P.H.; Meiring, J.H.; Welch, T. (2004 ... produced in the fourth ventricle drains into the cisterna magna via the lateral apertures and median aperture. The two other ...
... showing the normal fetal cerebellum and cisterna magna ...
Cisterna magna. *Pontine cistern. *Interpeduncular cistern. *Chiasmatic cistern. *Of lateral cerebral fossa ...
Cisterna magna. *Pontine cistern. *Interpeduncular cistern. *Chiasmatic cistern. *Of lateral cerebral fossa ...
... into the Cisterna Magna. And if that did not work I made a trepanation, opened the skull..." ...
Cisterna magna(英語:Cisterna magna). *Pontine cistern(英語:Pontine cistern) ...
Cisterna magna(英语:Cisterna magna). *Pontine cistern(英语:Pontine cistern) ...
... cisterna magna,又稱大池或cerebellomedullary cistern)和橋腦池(pontine cistern或cisterna pontocerebellaris),再進入脊髓和大
Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 268; Bergk, "Kritische bemerkungen," p. 265. Johnston, Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, pp. 268 ... et in balneis piscinae et euripi in domibus vel cisternae, et putei qui rapere dicuntur, scilicet per vim spiritus nocentis. ... See also Johnston, Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 268. In 186 BC, during the lifetime of Pacuvius, the Roman senate placed ... Patricia A. Johnston, "The Mystery Cults and Vergil's Georgics," in Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia (University of Texas Press, ...
8 Palazzo Cisterna The history of this church is closely linked to the Sienese Brotherhood. A community of merchants, bankers ... DAMENTIS MAGNA CVRA ET IMPENSA RESTI/ TVIT XYSTVM QUE SVO DE NOMINE APPELLARI/ VOLVIT (Sixtus IV, Supreme Pontiff, for the ... In 1600 Spanish missionaries acquired the palace and sold it to the Cisterna family at the beginning of the 20th century. It ... 7 Palazzo Baldoca Muccioli The Palazzo Cisterna was built by Guglielmo della Porta and served as his residence. Above the ...
There was also a prevalence of memento mori themes, dark clouds, and astrological signs (signa magna) such as comets, which ... He is also the patron of Casamassima, Cisterna di Latina and Palagiano, Italy.[5] ...
He is also the patron of Casamassima, Cisterna di Latina and Palagiano, Italy. Saint Roch is known as "São Roque" in Portuguese ... There was also a prevalence of memento mori themes, dark clouds, and astrological signs (signa magna) such as comets, which ...
Maddalena archipelago Made in Italy Madonie Regional Natural Park Magi Chapel Maggio Musicale Fiorentino Magna Graecia Magna ... Terre Cioccolato di Modica CIR Group Circolo degli Artisti Circuito del Garda Circus Maximus Circus of Maxentius Cisterna di ...
... cerebral aqueduct passes into the cisterna magna, a subarachnoid space surrounding the medulla and the cerebellum, via openings ... Other articles where Cisterna magna is discussed: human nervous system: Medulla oblongata: … ... science/cisterna-magna", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/cisterna-magna", "title": "Cisterna magna", " ... cerebral aqueduct passes into the cisterna magna, a subarachnoid space surrounding the medulla and the cerebellum, via openings ...
The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullaris cistern) is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the ... The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. Cerebrospinal fluid ... puncture of the cisterna magna may be performed in rare instances. Boon, J.M.; Abrahams, P.H.; Meiring, J.H.; Welch, T. (2004 ... produced in the fourth ventricle drains into the cisterna magna via the lateral apertures and median aperture. The two other ...
Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, ... Cannula Implantation into the Cisterna Magna of Rodents. Anna L.R. Xavier1, Natalie Linea Hauglund1, Stephanie von Holstein- ... The cisterna magna cannulation (CMc) procedure allows easy and direct access to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). By injecting ... Cisterna magna cannulation (CMc) is a straightforward procedure that enables direct access to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
... J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Mar 15;187(1):8-12. doi ...
... Radiology. 1994 Jul; ... To establish that incorrect scanning of the fetal posterior fossa may falsely create the appearance of a mega-cisterna magna ( ...
... ... "Comparison of Fetal Cerebellum and Cisterna Magna Length by 2D and 3D Ultrasonography between 18 and 24 Weeks of Pregnancy," ...
CISTERNA MAGNA Y ATRIUM Yeny. 514. 04-October-2010 19:35. Re: CISTERNA MAGNA Y ATRIUM Concepcio Bach. 473. 13-October-2010 12: ... cisterna magna khaled. 490. 24-October-2007 20:44. Re: edema nucal detectado a las 22 semanas Dr.Jaume Antich. 426. 25-October- ... Re: cisterna magna carolina. 449. 02-October-2011 16:08. edema nucal detectado a las 22 semanas joana. 475. 24-October-2007 21: ... Re: CISTERNA MAGNA Y ATRIUM Yeny. 474. 13-October-2010 21:02. ... Re: Cisterna Magna YESICA. 432. 28-May-2011 17:54. Re: Cisterna ...
CISTERNA MAGNA Y ATRIUM Yeny. 551. 04-October-2010 19:35. Re: CISTERNA MAGNA Y ATRIUM Concepcio Bach. 510. 13-October-2010 12: ... cisterna magna khaled. 536. 24-October-2007 20:44. Re: edema nucal detectado a las 22 semanas Dr.Jaume Antich. 463. 25-October- ... Re: cisterna magna carolina. 488. 02-October-2011 16:08. edema nucal detectado a las 22 semanas joana. 512. 24-October-2007 21: ... hola doctora me hicieron una ecografia dopler para ver como estaba mi bebe y salio todo normal menos la cisterna magna que ...
Cisterna Magna Absent Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Obstructive Hydrocephalus & Syringomyelia & Tumor of Meninges. ... 47 Possible Causes for Cisterna Magna Absent * Obstructive Hydrocephalus magna were absent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] dilatation of ... The reason for this large opening is to increase both of the posterior fossa and the cisterna magna, commonly absent in cases ... On ultrasound a "banana sign" is produced by the abnormal shape of the cerebellum combined with an absent cisterna magna.[ ...
... we also tested for a reduction in lymphatic outflow in aged mice after cisterna magna infusion. Cisterna magna infusions of 5 ... For cisterna magna infusion, mice were anesthetized as above and a surgical procedure to access this structure was performed74 ... After removal of the needle from the skull or the cisterna magna, the mice were quickly positioned under a Zeiss StereoLumar. ... Infusion of tracers into lateral ventricle or cisterna magna. Mice were anesthetized (80 mg/kg ketamine; 0.2 mg/kg medetomidine ...
Mega cisterna magna is considered to be a type of Dandy-Walker complex (Notaridis et al., 2006). Mega cisterna magna is ... Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna. Sample details ... CT of the head showed left posterior fossa mega cisterna magna. MRI of the brain without contrast was done for confirmation and ... Essays Related To Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna. Schizophrenia: Mental Health ...
cisterna. pl. cisternae; cistern.. cisterna cerebellomedullaris, cisterna magna. the enlarged subarachnoid space between the ... cisterna magna. (redirected from Cerebromedullary cistern) cisterna. [sis-ter´nah] (pl. cister´nae) (L.) cistern. ... cisterna mag´na c. cerebellomedullaris posterior.. cisterna magna. The cranial subarachnoid space between the medulla and the ... called also cisterna magna.. cisterna chy´li the dilated portion of the thoracic duct at its origin in the lumbar region; ...
My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna anatomic ... with or did it ... in Cisterna Magna by Laura H My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna ... Could a prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant cause bipolar disorders sometimes manic with psychosis? ...
Cisterna Magna 2. Cervical Cord 3. Nasopharynx 4. Mandible 5. Maxillary Sinus ...
cisterna synonyms, cisterna pronunciation, cisterna translation, English dictionary definition of cisterna. n. pl. cis·ter·nae ... cisterna. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to cisterna: Cisterna magna, Cisterna ... The cisterna magna is a space lying between the cerebellum and medulla oblongata that is important in collecting cerebral ... Objective: To determine the frequency of isolated mega cisterna magna (MCM) in Saudi population, compare the accuracy of fetal ...
Cisterna magna enlargement. -. 2/M. B. Yes. 1. 28. 15. -. Arachnoid cyst (left temporal area). -. 1/M. B. Yes. 1. 24. 12. - ...
Withdrawal from the cisterna magna is via conduit 30b. In FIG. 3 injection into the cisterna magna is accomplished via ... In that model either saline or Ox-N were circulated from the right cerebral ventricle to the cisterna magna at a rate of 3 ml/ ... 1, or alternatively, from the cisterna magna 24.. It is not necessary to conduct steps 10-18 in the sequence illustrated in FIG ... Upon exit at the cisterna magna after traversing the entire spinal subarachnoid space the pO2 had fallen to 243 63. The oxygen ...
In Vivo Spinal Distribution of Cy5.5 Fluorescent Dye after Injection via the Lateral Ventricle and Cisterna Magna in Rat Model ... Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cisterna Magna , Fluorescence , Lateral Ventricles , Models, Animal , Optical ... or cisterna magna (CM) of rats.. RESULTS:. Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher ... Cisterna Magna / Treatment Outcome / Lateral Ventricles / Models, Animal / Optical Imaging / Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ...
... the correlations of BVA and BTA with gestational age were analyzed.The BVA and BTA of 24 fetuses with mega cisterna magna were ... and to evaluate their clinical values in the diagnosis of mega cisterna magna.Methods Totally 320 normal singleton fetuses ... respectively.The BVA and BTA of 24 fetuses with mega cisterna magna were 4.23°-17.42°and 20.41°-40.89°,respectively,which were ... angle and brainstem-tentorium angle measured with three-dimensional ultrasonography and its application in mega cisterna magna ...
Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by ... Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury ... the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used ... step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using ...
In this study, we produced a rodent model of AD using STZ (3 mg/kg) injection via the cisterna magna (CM) once every week for 4 ... loss and amyloid beta alterations in the rodent hippocampus induced by streptozotocin injection into the cisterna magna ...
... in the cisterna magna (A, −15.7; L, 0.0; D, 7.6; midline). For locations 1, 3, and 4 a pair of cannulae was implanted ... For implantation of a catheter into the cisterna magna, a burr hole was made on the midline 5.0 mm posterior to the lambda ( ... 15.7 mm from the bregma), and the catheter was inserted 7.0 mm deep toward the cisterna magna, as described previously (Pandey ...
with J. G. Greenfield: Martin, J. P.; Greenfield, J. G. (1923). "Tumour in Cisterna Magna". Proc R Soc Med. 16(Neurol Sect) ( ...
A, CSF is collected from the cisterna magna of the rhesus monkey. B, 13C6-leucine is infused from 0 to 12 h, and CSF collected ... Cisterna magna ported rhesus monkey model.. All procedures related to the use of animals in these studies were reviewed and ... Human CSF was sampled by lumbar intrathecal catheter, whereas monkey CSF was sampled at the cisterna magna at the base of the ... 13C6-Leucine is intravenously administered to CMP rhesus monkeys for 12 h; CSF is collected from the cisterna magna port during ...
Cisterna Magna. Hemodynamics / physiology*. Injections. Neuropeptide Y / blood, pharmacology, physiology*. Norepinephrine / ...
The mean AP diameter of the cisterna magna measured 9.3 mm (SD 1.5) compared with 7 mm (SD 2.2) in nonaffected cases and 6 mm ( ... cisterna magna. COACH syndrome. cerebellar vermis hypoplasia/aplasia, oligophrenia, ataxia, coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis ...
The exogenous application of GABA into the cisterna magna of the freely moving rat decreases hindquarters vascular tone as well ... Cisterna Magna. Consciousness. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology. Hindlimb / blood supply*. ... The exogenous application of GABA into the cisterna magna of the freely moving rat decreases hindquarters vascular tone as well ... The results suggest that GABA(B) receptor stimulation via the cisterna magna induced hindquarters vasoconstriction, probably ...
Clinical significance of isolated enlargement of the cisterna magna (> 10 mm) on prenatal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16 ...
Retrocerebral Arachnoid Cyst, cisterna magna - Neurology Community - Oct 12, 2013 I have am a 30 year old male, when I was 15 I ...
No cisterna magna. -Enlarged lateral ventricles. -ELEVATED MSAFP with Aperta. 27 Whats the difference between spina bifida ...
  • cerebral aqueduct passes into the cisterna magna, a subarachnoid space surrounding the medulla and the cerebellum, via openings in the lateral recesses in the midline of the ventricle. (britannica.com)
  • The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of Fetal Cerebellum and Cisterna Magna Length by 2D and 3D Ultrasonography between 18 and 24 Weeks of Pregnancy," ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 2012, Article ID 286141, 8 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • This MRI characterizes the posterior fossa meningioma to be within the cisterna magna , exerting mass effect with superior displacement of the cerebellum. (symptoma.com)
  • On ultrasound a "banana sign" is produced by the abnormal shape of the cerebellum combined with an absent cisterna magna . (symptoma.com)
  • These abnormalities are secondary to the Arnold-Chiari malformation and include frontal bone scalloping (lemon sign), and obliteration of the cisterna magna with either an [sonoworld.com] " absent " cerebellum or abnormal anterior curvature of the cerebellar hemispheres (banana sign). (symptoma.com)
  • The cisterna magna is a space lying between the cerebellum and medulla oblongata that is important in collecting cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in some patients with contraindication or the impossibility of lumbar puncture and in intrathecal administration medication infusion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Surely the Cerebellum couldn't measure 4mm without them making mention of it, same with the Cisterna Magna? (bubhub.com.au)
  • Interestingly, you also have and an enlarged cisterna magna beneath the cerebellum. (thisisms.com)
  • To establish that incorrect scanning of the fetal posterior fossa may falsely create the appearance of a mega-cisterna magna (MCM) or Dandy-Walker variant (DWV). (nih.gov)
  • CT of the head showed left posterior fossa mega cisterna magna. (studydriver.com)
  • Posterior fossa area, cisterna magna area, and tonsillar herniation were assessed on T2-weighted MRI, whereas improvement of CSF flow was evaluated with phase-contrast cine flow MRI. (thejns.org)
  • Patients with CM were those with symptomatic cerebellar tonsil herniation and/or posterior fossa structures and cisterna magna compressions. (springer.com)
  • Megacisterna magna is prominent CSF space in posterior fossa of brain. (justanswer.com)
  • The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullaris cistern) is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 2) injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna or prechiasmatic cistern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Normally what you're supposed to have in this area is a cistern, a fluid pocket, if you will, and it's large and when the ancients found this they gave it the term magna, again for large, so it's the cisterna magna. (asap.org)
  • 2006). Mega cisterna magna is characterized by compressive atrophy of the vermis associated with cystic enlargement of the cisterna magna, and free communication across the foramen of Luschka and Magendie with the fourth ventricle and subarachnoid space. (studydriver.com)
  • Based on the observation that the severity of cerebral vasospasm is exponentially related to the subarachnoid blood volume [ 9 ], several studies using double hemorrhage injection model of cisterna magna have recently been performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the fourth ventricle the fluid is poured through the FORAMEN OF MAGENDIE and the two lateral FORAMINA OF LUSCHKA into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE and reaches the CISTERNA MAGNA. (scribd.com)
  • They did an MRI of the brain and it noted that a mega cisterna magna is noted but that the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces are appropriate for my age. (justanswer.com)
  • Objective: To determine the frequency of isolated mega cisterna magna (MCM) in Saudi population, compare the accuracy of fetal ultrasound with postnatal neuro-imaging, report the associated central nervous system (CNS) anomalies on postnatal neuro-imaging. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Objective To establish the ranges of normal reference values of fetal brainstem -vermis angle (BVA)and brainstem -tentorium angle (BTA)in normal fetuses at different gestational weeks,and to evaluate their clinical values in the diagnosis of mega cisterna magna . (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the effect of imaging angle on the measurement of fetal cisterna magna (CM) in the second trimester. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Other signs of fetal infection were intraventricular adhesions, periventricular pseudocysts, sulcation and gyral abnormal patterns, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cerebellar and cisterna magna abnormalities, and signs of striatal artery vasculopathy. (ajnr.org)
  • Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end, we report the translation of the human in vivo stable-isotope-labeling kinetics (SILK) method to a rhesus monkey cisterna magna ported (CMP) nonhuman primate model, and use the model to test the mechanisms of action of a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI). (jneurosci.org)
  • A, CSF is collected from the cisterna magna of the rhesus monkey. (nih.gov)
  • The rabbits received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna magna on days 0 and 2. (ahajournals.org)
  • When E5555 (2 μg/kg weight/injection), a novel PAR1 antagonist, was injected twice into the cisterna magna with autologous blood, enhancement of the contractile response to thrombin was almost completely inhibited, and the up-regulation of PAR-1 expression was prevented. (ahajournals.org)
  • SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • METHODS: Three-week old rats received an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. (mendeley.com)
  • The recombinant alpha-L-iduronidase was administered by intrathecal injection into the cisterna magna. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 2003, the Cisterna magna theory aimed to harmonize the Gardner, Williams, Oldfield and Ball&Dyan theories with neural imaging findings to propose an objective proposal of the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. (wikidoc.org)
  • We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques , which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escalating BoNT/A doses were delivered by CED into the NHP hippocampus (n = 4) and cisterna magna (n = 5) for behavioral and histological assessment and to determine the highest nonlethal dose (LD0) and median lethal dose (LD50). (thejns.org)
  • Mega cisterna magna is considered to be a type of Dandy-Walker complex (Notaridis et al. (studydriver.com)
  • Meningioma within the cisterna magna without dural attachment. (minervamedica.it)
  • Corpus callosal and vermian dysgenesis and enlarged cisterna magna were observed (Figure 1 ). (mondialisation.ca)
  • The worry was that if it were enlarged, either there was something in his brain that was smaller than normal (thereby giving the cisterna magna room to grow), or that there were more cysts that we couldn't see (thereby pushing the cisterna magna to look big in ultrasounds). (ecochildsplay.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and distribution characteristics of CED of BoNT/A into the NHP hippocampus and cisterna magna. (thejns.org)
  • 5 ng/kg for the NHP hippocampus and cisterna magna, respectively. (thejns.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid produced in the fourth ventricle drains into the cisterna magna via the lateral apertures and median aperture. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the most commonly used clinical method for obtaining cerebrospinal fluid is a lumbar puncture, puncture of the cisterna magna may be performed in rare instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, substrates and signaling molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (jove.com)
  • This fluid filled space, is the cisterna magna, which we'll talk some more about. (asap.org)
  • AXO-AAV-GM2 was administered into the cisterna magna and lumbar spinal canal only. (yahoo.com)
  • The authors present a case of mega cisterna magna associated with psychosis and look for possible explanations linking the two by reviewing the literature. (studydriver.com)
  • Could a prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant cause bipolar disorders sometimes manic with psychosis? (lookformedical.com)
  • Illustration of Aβ stable-isotope-labeling kinetics study in cisterna magna ported (CMP) rhesus monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant. (lookformedical.com)
  • The arrests in northern Italy, aimed at the 'Ndrangheta's commercial interests, "confirm that northern Italy is the true theatre of operations for the 'Ndrangheta", Alberto Cisterna , an anti-mafia prosecutor, told AFP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chiari-malformasjon betegner en patologisk kaudal ektopi av lillehjernetonsiller under nivå med foramen magnum. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Denne artikkelen omhandler Chiari-malformasjon type 1 og gir en kort oversikt over dagens kunnskap om tilstanden, diagnostiske kriterier og behandlingsrasjonale. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) and cisterna magna diameter (CM) were measured in the suboccipitobregmatic plane of the head. (sonoworld.com)
  • Fukushima T (1978) Endoscopy of Meckel's cave, cisterna magna, and cerebellopontine angle. (springer.com)
  • Ive had 2 mris of the brain in the past prior to this accident for headaches and both those mris never noted mega cisterna magna. (justanswer.com)
  • Patients with complete resolution of their symptoms had a greater relative increase in cisterna magna area compared with those with only partial improvement (p = 0.022). (thejns.org)
  • Future patients in the program, who are expected to be treated earlier in their disease course, will receive AXO-AAV-GM2 co-delivered into the thalamus bilaterally as well as into the cisterna magna and spinal canal. (yahoo.com)
  • Six patients had adequate sized cisterna magnas. (conquerchiari.org)
  • In addition, in those with complete improvement the preoperative cisterna magna area was smaller than in those who had either partial (0.020) or no (0.025) improvement. (thejns.org)
  • In studying the data, the surgeons wanted to see if the size of the tonsillar hernation, the amount of CSF flow, and/or the size of the cisterna magna were related to the presence of clinical symptoms. (conquerchiari.org)
  • Urapidil given either intracerebroventricularly or into the cisterna magna had no influence on baroreceptor responses. (ahajournals.org)