Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Paraparesis, Spastic: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Fasciolidae: A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Schizophrenia, Catatonic: A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalSanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (1/221)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (2/221)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects.  (+info)

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by magnetic resonance cisternography--case report. (3/221)

A 49-year-old male with no history of head trauma suffered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discharge from the left nostril for one month. Coronal computed tomography (CT) showed lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus on both sides and CSF collection on the left side. CT cisternography could not identify the site of CSF leakage. Heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR cisternography) in the coronal plane clearly delineated a fistulous tract through the sphenoid bone into the sphenoid sinus. Patch graft with muscle fragment completely relieved the CSF rhinorrhea. Postoperative three-dimensional CT showed the two bone defects identified during surgery. Small bony dehiscences in the sphenoid bone and lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus predisposed the present patient to CSF fistula formation. MR cisternography in the coronal and sagittal planes is superior to CT scanning or CT cisternography for detection of the site of active CSF leakage.  (+info)

Peripheral injection of a new corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, astressin, blocks peripheral CRF- and abdominal surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. (4/221)

The effect of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists astressin and D-Phe CRF(12-41) injected i.v. on CRF-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) was investigated in conscious rats. Gastric transit was assessed by the recovery of methyl cellulose/phenol red solution 20 min after its intragastric administration. The 55% inhibition of GE induced by CRF (0.6 microgram i.v.) was antagonized by 87 and 100% by i.v. astressin at 3 and 10 microgram, respectively, and by 68 and 64% by i.v. D-Phe CRF(12-41) at 10 and 20 microgram, respectively. CRF (0.6 microgram)-injected intracisternally (i.c.) induced 68% reduction of GE was not modified by i.v. astressin (10 microgram) whereas i.c. astressin (3 or 10 microgram) blocked by 58 and 100%, respectively, i.v. CRF inhibitory action. Abdominal surgery with cecal manipulation reduced GE to 7.1 +/- 3.1 and 27.5 +/- 3.3% at 30 and 180 min postsurgery, respectively, compared with 40.3 +/- 4.3 and 59.5 +/- 2.9% at similar times after anesthesia alone. Astressin (3 microgram i.v.) completely and D-Phe CRF(12-41) (20 microgram i.v.) partially (60%) blocked surgery-induced gastric stasis observed at 30 or 180 min. The CRF antagonists alone (i.v. or i.c.) had no effect on basal GE. These data indicate that CRF acts in the brain and periphery to inhibit GE through receptor-mediated interaction and that peripheral CRF is involved in acute postoperative gastric ileus; astressin is a potent peripheral antagonist of CRF when injected i.v. whereas i.c. doses >/=3 microgram exert dual central and peripheral blockade of CRF action on gastric transit.  (+info)

HIV type 1 Nef protein is a viral factor for leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system. (5/221)

Recombinant HIV-1 Nef protein, but not Tat, gp120, and gp160, provoked leukocyte recruitment into the CNS in a rat model. The strong reduction of bioactivity by heat treatment of Nef, and the blocking effect of the mAb 2H12, which recognizes the carboxy-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 171-190 (but not of mAb 3E6, an anti-Nef Ab of the same isotype, which maps the aa sequence 168-175, as well as a mixture of mAbs to CD4) provided evidence for the specificity of the observed Nef effects. Using a modified Boyden chamber technique, Nef exhibited chemotactic activity on mononuclear cells in vitro. Coadministration of the anti-Nef mAb 2H12, as well as treatment of Nef by heat inhibited Nef-induced chemotaxis. Besides soluble Nef, chemotaxis was also induced by a Nef-expressing human astrocytoma cell line, but not by control cells. These data suggest a direct chemotactic activity of soluble Nef. The detection of elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after intracisternal Nef injection hint at the additional involvement of indirect mechanisms in Nef-induced leukocyte migration into rat CNS. These data propose a mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef protein may be essential for AIDS neuropathogenesis, as a mediator of the recruitment of leukocytes that may serve as vehicles of the virus and perpetrators for disease through their production of neurotoxins.  (+info)

High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. (6/221)

High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system.  (+info)

Neurodevelopmental outcome after antenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities. (7/221)

Posterior fossa abnormalities are sonographically diagnosable in the fetus. Anomalies of this region include Dandy-Walker malformation, enlarged cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Despite prenatal diagnosis, the uncertainties related to natural history and neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors make patient counseling difficult. The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of these lesions and elucidate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors in prenatally diagnosed posterior fossa abnormalities. Fifteen cases of posterior fossa abnormalities were reviewed. Antenatal diagnoses of Dandy-Walker malformation was made in 13 of these cases, arachnoid cyst in one case, and enlarged cisterna magna in one case. Hydrocephalus was present in 66% of patients. The sonographic diagnosis was concordant with the pathologic or neonatal radiologic diagnosis in 13 of 15 cases. Seven fetuses (47%) exhibited additional cranial or extracranial anomalies. A karyotypic abnormality (trisomy 18) was found in one of 15 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities. Neurodevelopmental delay was present in 80% of survivors with follow-up study to 4 years of age. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities is highly accurate, yet the differential diagnosis can be challenging. Cognitive and psychomotor developmental delays remain commonplace despite early diagnosis and treatment. The approach with families in cases of prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities should include a search for additional central nervous system and extra-central nervous system anomalies in the fetus and counseling of parents regarding potential adverse outcome for survivors.  (+info)

Intracisternal nor-binaltorphimine distinguishes central and peripheral kappa-opioid antinociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/221)

Systemic administration of nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) produces a long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor (kappaOR) antagonism and has kappa(1)-selectivity in nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to establish the pharmacological basis of central kappaOR antagonism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). After intracisternal (i.c.) administration of small doses of nor-BNI, the duration and selectivity of nor-BNI antagonism were evaluated against two kappaOR agonists, (trans)-3, 4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488) and bremazocine. Thermal antinociception was measured in the warm water (50 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay and sedation was evaluated by observers blind to treatment conditions. Following i.c. pretreatment with 0.32 mg nor-BNI, a 5- to 10-fold rightward shift of the U50,488 baseline dose-effect curve was observed in antinociception. In contrast, this dose of nor-BNI only produced an insignificant 2-fold shift against bremazocine. Pretreatment with a smaller dose (0.032 mg) of nor-BNI produced a 3-fold shift of U50, 488, which lasted for 7 days, but failed to alter the potency of bremazocine. This differential antagonism profile of i.c. nor-BNI also was observed in sedation ratings. In addition, the centrally effective dose of nor-BNI (0.32 mg), when administered s.c. in the back, did not antagonize either U50,488- or bremazocine-induced antinociception and sedation. After i.c. pretreatment with the same dose, nor-BNI also did not antagonize the peripherally mediated effect of U50,488 against capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in the tail. These results indicate that i.c. nor-BNI produces central kappaOR antagonism and support the notion of two functional kappaOR subtypes in the central nervous system. Moreover, it provides a valuable pharmacological basis for further characterizing different sources of kappaOR-mediated effects, namely, from central or peripheral nervous system receptors.  (+info)

Intracisternal administration of p-n-Octyphenol into neonatal rats causes hyperactivity with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling(TUNEL)-positive cells in the mesencephalon where immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase is reduced by the chemical ...
In this article, we are going to describe briefly the radiological features of subarachnoid cisterns. This article describes which modalities can be used to look for subarachnoid cisterns and how they are seen on different modalities. Ultrasound: Cisterna magna usually measures 2-10 mm in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters in an antenatal ultrasound. Cisterna magna is the only subarachnoid cistern that can …. Read More » ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
This page provides relevant content and local businesses that can help with your search for information on Pet Allergy Treatments. You will find informative articles about Pet Allergy Treatments, including Pet allergies. Below you will also find local businesses that may provide the products or services you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Magna, UT that can help answer your questions about Pet Allergy Treatments.
Cisterna definition, definition of cisterna, Anagrams of cisterna, words that start with Cisterna, and words that can be created from cisterna
This is Suman Sri from Magna Infotech (URL: www.magna.in ). We have an urgent Oracle DBA opening for one of our clients. Please go through our company details below: Magna Infotech is a premier provider of IT services to clients worldwide. Incorporated in Danbury, CT - USA since 1995, Magna offers unique solutions to build,…
Diminished brain volume, evaluated by qualitative visual inspection, was a standard acquiring, and ventriculomegaly was current in all the children, using a predominant enlargement with the posterior portions from the lateral ventricles (trigone and posterior horn of lateral ventricles). Abnormalities from the corpus callosum (hypogenesis and hypoplasia) and delayed myelination were also frequent. Curiously, the cisterna magna was enlarged in the vast majority of cases, with or without the need of cerebellar discover this info here hypoplasia. A few of the kids showed a symmetrical enlargement from the anterior subarachnoid Place with the supratentorial compartment, invariably linked to significant ventriculomegaly ...
Reduced Mind quantity, evaluated by qualitative visual inspection, was a standard locating, and ventriculomegaly was current in all the kids, by using a predominant enlargement of the posterior portions on the lateral ventricles (trigone and posterior horn of lateral ventricles). Abnormalities on the corpus callosum (hypogenesis and hypoplasia) and delayed myelination were also prevalent. Interestingly, the cisterna magna was enlarged in a lot of the cases, with or with no cerebellar hypoplasia. Many of the children showed a symmetrical enlargement in the anterior subarachnoid House more info here in the supratentorial compartment, invariably connected with serious ventriculomegaly ...
Serial blood and CSF sample collections, including continuous CSF collections in rats, at protocol-determined time points allow determination of pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicokinetic (TK) parameters, modeling and antibody (Ab) analysis. CSF samples can be collected from non-human primate, rodent, canine or ovine models via a lumbar or cisterna magna tap or a CNS-implanted catheter that terminates in a subcutaneous access port.. Naive samples (CSF, serum, plasma and tissues) from non-human primates, canines, sheep and rats are available upon request for method development.. ...
Pelas aberturas do IV ventrículo (forames de Luschka e Magendie) o líquor atinge a cisterna magna e depois dela todo o espaço subaracnóideo da medula e encéfalo ...
Launched in February, 2000 - Now Needed More Than Ever in 2012 http://www.detaxcanada.org/carta.htm Canadians have been stretched beyond their limits ! THE TIME IS AT HAND TO COMPOSE AND ESTABLISH A CANADIAN MAGNA CARTA THE OBJECTIVE 1. A Magna Carta (Grand Charter) declaring the SOVEREIGNTY and the RIGHTS of the Canadian People Direction or perspective…
Read how Magna Chargers supercharger boosts the C5 Corvette by almost 150 horsepower, brought to you by the experts at Corvette Fever Magazine.
So ive been keeping an eye on Magna for quite awhile now just in case they got some new stuff in and sure enough they did. Its 70D Nylon Ripstop in various colors. It comes with a DWR and it is calendered. Its $1.25 per yard and is for sale in increments ranging from 11 yards for $13.25 to 260 yards for $300. I just picked up the 25 yard bundle. Just trying to get the word out to yall in-case you didnt notice it. The smaller bundles go fast so get em while they are there. MagnaFabrics
Drop verses, off the earths tip pimp the ship Peep the script that I gripped They call it the Magna Carta Seems like I was the author in a past life Blow back I throw tracks always be waiting before the gates and await for the seven to shine off the heat maker, I rutterbake ya/ Hope wish spit kiss flip a wig nigga this isn t the eighteen-hundreds We keeps it burning on the road to Zion/ We ain t matrixing we just in syncing our iPods Driven ides outta my marches see how we sit and
Bingham Dental​ providing professional dental care. Dr. Firstname​ Lastname​ is a Magna​ Dentist, call us today at 801-250-7422​!!
Bingham Dental​ providing professional dental care. Dr. Firstname​ Lastname​ is a Magna​ Dentist, call us today at 801-250-7422​!!
Most students of English history know that King Johns barons forced him to grant Magna Carta, the great charter of liberties that placed the English king under the law.
TLorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate. ...
MI Developments, the real estate spin-off of Magna International, reported a third-quarter profit of $11.5 million, but a $27.4-million loss at Magna Entertainment Corp. created a bottom-line deficit of $15.9 million. MEC is controlled by MID.
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident. Read more > ...
Vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. ...
Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wi...
Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. quis nostrud exercitation. ut aliquip ex ea commodo c...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minimveniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip. sed diam nonummy nibh euismod.. ...
Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. quis nostrud exercitation. ut aliquip ex ea commodo c...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Read More ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Read More ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat […]. ...
The style guide provides you with a blueprint of the themes default post and page HTML styles. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.. ...
The term median aperture refers to the midline opening at the caudal extreme of the fourth ventricle defined on the basis of dissection. Cerebrospinal fluid flows through it from the ventricle into the cisterna magna ( Gray-1918a ). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal maturation of cerebral cortex and behavioral deficit in adult rats after neonatal administration of antibodies to ganglioside.. AU - Kasarskis, Edward J.. AU - Karpiak, Stephen E.. AU - Rapport, Maurice M.. AU - Yu, Robert K.. AU - Bass, Norman H.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Five-day-old rats received a single injection (50 microliter) of antiserum to ganglioside into the cisterna magna and were compared to control animals injected with the antiserum which had been absorbed with pure GM1 ganglioside to remove the specific antibodies. Both groups showed normal rates of body growth. However, animals receiving antiganglioside serum had, at 60 days of age, impaired performance when tested on a complex learning task (DRL) as well as chemical and morphological alterations in the somatosensory cerebral cortex. Gross morphology and wet weight of whole brain were normal in both groups. Microchemical analysis of somatosensory isocortex revealed a normal content of total ...
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Cycling Trainers. You will find helpful, informative articles about Cycling Trainers, including Preseason training and Off season training. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Magna, UT that will answer all of your questions about Cycling Trainers.
RX-485/385 Natural Sound Stereo Receiver 65W + 65W (8Ω) RMS Output Power, 0.04% THD, 20 - 20,000 Hz (RX-485) 45W + 45W (8Ω) RMS Output Power, 0.04% THD, 20 - 20,000 Hz (RX-385) High Dynamic Power, Low Impedance Drive Capability Continuously Variable Loudness Control 40-Station Random Preset Tuning Automatic Preset Tuning Preset Station Shifting Capability IF Count Direct PLL Synthesizer Tuning System Remote Control Capability Pure Direct Switch to Reproduce the Purest Source Sound (RX-485 Only) Thank you for selecting this YAMAHA stereo receiver. CAUTION RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK), NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE, REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. OWNERS MANUAL CONTENTS IMPORTANT! Please record the serial number of this unit in the space below. • Explanation of Graphical Symbols Safety Instructions ...................2 Supplied Accessories ..............4 ...
Find patient medical information for Magna C-7 Forte Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Magna has teamed with Ford to develop a carbon fiber subframe. Their design reduces weight by 34 percent compared to a conventional steel subframe.
occupatio magna creata est omnibus hominibus et iugum grave super filios Adam a die exitus de ventre matris eorum usque in diem sepulturae in matrem
magna enim sunt iudicia tua et inenarrabilia verba tua propter hoc indisciplinatae animae erraverunt dum enim persuasum habent iniqui posse dominari
There is no place for the return to barbarism of The Justinian Code to be found as the foundation of the EUs laws where everything is the gift of the State under license when we have 800 years ago renounced the Corpus Juris of the EU in favour of the Universal Rights of Mankind as enshrined in the Magna Carta where the people hold the rights and the state and its various goffers are the servants of the people ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Lorem ipsum dolor sit aadipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Lorem ipsum dolor sit aadipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet conse ctetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing eeeeelitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sitdfsdf amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.. ...
It would be nice to link ,ol, elements such that the numbering would be connected. Then you could place list items in different sections, or put non-list things in between them, and have the browser determine the correct number for each item. My suggestion would be something like connecting form labels with form controls: ,section, ,h1,foobar,/h1, ,ol id=beginning, ,li,foo,/li, ,li,bar,/li, ,/ol, ,/section, ,section, ,h1,batbaz,/h1, ,ol liststart=beginning, ,li,bat,/li, ,li,baz,/li, ,/ol, ,aside, ,p, Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. ,/p, ,/aside, ,/section, ,section, ,h1,bangwhiz,/h1, ,ol liststart=beginning, ,li,bang,/li, ,li,whiz,/li, ,/ol, ,/section, which would give us foobar 1. foo 2. bar batbaz 3. bat 4. baz Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. bangwhiz 5. bang 6. whiz Real world page: ...
Immunoassays have never been easier. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam cursus. Morbi ut mi. Nullam enim leo, egestas id, condimentum at, laoreet mattis, massa. Sed eleifend nonummy diam. Praesent mauris ante, elementum et, bibendum at, posuere sit amet, nibh. Duis tincidunt lectus quis dui viverra vestibulum. Suspendisse vulputate aliquam dui. Nulla elementum dui ut augue. Aliquam vehicula mi at mauris. Maecenas placerat, nisl at consequat rhoncus, sem nunc gravida justo, quis eleifend arcu velit quis lacus. Morbi magna magna, tincidunt a, mattis non, imperdiet vitae, tellus. Sed odio est, auctor ac, sollicitudin in, consequat vitae, orci. Fusce id felis. Vivamus sollicitudin metus eget eros.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. ...
LoSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSStus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh ...
Our shop retails Master Grade 1/100 RX-79(G) Gundam Ez8 (MG) (Gundam Model Kits) Mobile Suit Gundam Bandai 0077634 Gundam Kit/etc on the Web.
Quuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quiaolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi…. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit.Lorem ipsum dolor amet laboris consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do. ...
Lepidoptera Britannica, sistens digestimen novam lepidopterorum quae in Magna Britannica reperiunter ... adjunguntur dissertationes variae ad historiam naturalam spectantes Lepid. Britannica (1): 1-136 (1803), (2): 137-376 ([1809]), (3): 377-512 ([1811]), (4): 513-609 (1828 ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor ut sit ame dolore adipiscing elit, sed nonumy nibh sed euismod laoreet dolore magna aliquarm erat volutpat Nostrud duis molestie at dolore.. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis
Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the central nervous system characterized by a strong inflammation of the meninges and the subarachnoid space. Pneumococcal meningitis in humans is associated with long-term sequelae including sensory-motor deficits, seizures, and impairments of learning and memory. In order to evaluate this in an animal model, Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured overnight in Todd Hewitt broth, diluted in fresh medium and grown to logarithmic phase, washed and resuspended in sterile normal saline 5 × 109 cfu/ml. Meningitis was induced by inoculating 10 μL of the S. pneumoniae suspension into the cisterna magna of the animals (rats, 60 days old, weighing 250-300 g) after removal of 10 μL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). All surgical procedures and bacteria administrations were performed under anesthesia. Meningitis was documented by a quantitative culture of 5 μl of CSF obtained by puncture of the cisterna magna at 8 h and 16 h after infection followed by the initiation ...
Intracisternal injection of a stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog increases gastric prostaglandins release and mucosal resistance to injury through central vagal pathways. The effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin (INDO) and nabumetone on intracisternal injection of various doses of TRH-induced gastric acid secretion and changes in mucosal resistance were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Doses of INDO (5 mg/kg) and nabumetone (13.75 mg/kg) producing similar acute anti-inflammatory response in the carrageenin-induced paw edema were injected i.p. in all studies. INDO potentiated the acid secretion induced by intracisternal injection of TRH at 25, 50 and 200 ng by 5.1-, 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, whereas nabumetone did not modify the secretory response to TRH. Moderate erosions were observed in 100% of rats treated with the combination of INDO and TRH (200 ng) whereas no erosions were observed when TRH or INDO were given alone or TRH in ...
The patient is a 26-year-old African-American single male with a past psychiatric history of three episodes of unspecified psychosis but no significant past medical history and was brought to the hospital by emergency medical services for bizarre behavior. He arrived to the emergency department with catatonic symptoms and intermittent violent outbursts. Urine toxicology was negative. He was admitted to the inpatient unit for stabilization, where he arrived mute and akinetic. He exhibited catatonic symptoms and refused to eat for the first three days of his inpatient stay. His catatonic symptoms resolved with the administration of benzodiazepines; however, he went on to have episodes of violence, including biting staff members and jumping over a high barrier. There was brief improvement in his psychotic symptoms after he received antipsychotic medication that was given as needed for agitation. He refused to take any medication secondary to poor insight into his illness. He did not believe that he ...
INTRODUCTION. Seeding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and leptomeninges by human tumor cells is associated with hydrocephalus and poor prognosis. CSF tumor spread is most commonly found in breast carcinoma in adults, and medulloblastoma in children. We evaluated breast cancer and medulloblastoma leptomeningeal (LM) tumor models as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology, and survival. METHODS. MDA-MB231BR human breast carcinoma cells expressing HER2 (1 x 106 cells) and DAOY human medulloblastoma cells (1.5 x 106 or 5 x 106) were injected into the right lateral cerebral ventricle or the cisterna magna of adult female or male nude rats, respectively. Animals underwent weekly MRI (T2-weighted and T1-weighted with or without gadolinium). Ventricular volume and ventricular/cerebral ratio were measured as markers of hydrocephalus. Rat brains were harvested 1-4 weeks after tumor cell injection, or followed for survival, and coronal sections were evaluated by histology and ...
A subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in the rat was produced by the injection of blood via a previously implanted catheter connected to the cisterna magna. Repeated angiographical examinations of the vertebro-basilar arteries revealed a biphasic vasospasm with a maximal acute spasm at ten minutes and a maximal late spasm at two days after cisternal blood injection. Fluorescence microscopical examination of the major cerebral arteries at day two after the SAH revealed a reduction in the fluorescence intensity and in the number of histochemically visible sympathetic nerve terminals. ...
Definition of vena cerebri magna in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vena cerebri magna. What does vena cerebri magna mean? Information and translations of vena cerebri magna in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Object. The radical scavenger (±)-N,N′-propylenedinicotinamide (AVS) was shown recently to ameliorate delayed neurological deficits resulting from ischemia in patients who have had an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AVS administration after experimental SAH on 1) behavioral deficits; 2) angiographically confirmed basilar artery (BA) spasm; and 3) blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes.. Methods. These parameters were measured by 1) using a battery of well-characterized chronic assessment tasks over a 5-day observation period; 2) assessing in vivo the mean vessel diameter 2 days after SAH; and 3) evaluating the extravasation of protein-bound Evans Blue dye by using a spectrophotofluorimetric technique 2 days after SAH. Groups of eight to 10 rats received injections of 400 µl of autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Within 5 minutes after the surgical procedures were completed the rats were treated with an intravenously ...
The median aperture of the brain (or foramen of Magendie) is an opening in the hollow nerve tube, connecting the fourth ventricle of the brain with the subarachnoid space. The median aperture, along with the two lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka), one on the left and one on the right, are the three primary routes for cerebrospinal fluid to escape into the cisterna magna. ...
All details for these 3 small children are described in the tables, aside from enlargement of your cisterna magna as well as anterior supratentorial subarachnoid space, as this information was not laid out in the report or through the neurologist. Two expert neuroradiologists (MdFVA, AMB-L) reviewed many of the MRI scans. One particular youngster underwent T2 weighted imaging only; for that reason, it was impossible To guage the existence of calcifications on MRI. However, this little one experienced calcifications on CT scans ...
Acute hydrocephalus was produced in newborn rabbits by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. The light microscopic changes which occurred in the ependyma and periventricular brain tissue were studied. Some animals also received intraventricula
other oligopeptides with gastroprotective properties. Neuropeptides. In 1979, the team of Y. Taché and coauthors reported for the first time that peptides act in the brain to protect against the development of gastric erosions induced by cold restraint stress in rats [11,26,41]. They injected the 14-amino acid neuropeptide bombesin into the cisterna magna and noted the changes in the autonomic nervous system activity, resulting in the simultaneous inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion and motility [42].In future decades the involvement of neuropeptides in the regulation of the function of gut was confirmed by numerous papers of other authors [6,28,29,41,38,39,43]. Thus, it was shown that opioid peptides, the most numerous family of neuropeptides, have much broader physiological effects than the regulation of emotions. The elucidation of the biological effects of opioid peptides showed their important role in the integration of nervous, endocrine and immune system, since the receptors ...
1. The minimal lethal dose of procaine hydrochloride; that is, the dose which causes paralysis of the respiratory center, when injected into the cisterna magna of dogs, bears a closer relationship to the spinal length than to the weight of the dog.. 2. In the sample of procaine hydrochloride thus tested (Metz) the m.l.d. lay between 1.3 and 1.5 mgm. per centimeter spinal length.1. ...
Magna International Inc. (TSE:MG) (NYSE:MGA) - Equities research analysts at Cormark upped their FY2020 earnings per share estimates for Magna International in a research report issued to clients and investors on Wednesday. Cormark analyst D. Tyerman now expects that the company will post earnings of $11.71 per share for the year, up from their prior […]
The mammalian Golgi complex is composed of stacks of flattened cisternae linked through tubules to form a contiguous juxtanuclear ribbon. The stacked cisternae reflect the compartmentalization of Golgi enzymes for the processing of transiting cargo (Mellman and Simons, 1992; Puthenveedu and Linstedt, 2005). Cargo movement through the stack has been variously suggested to occur in vesicles, in maturing cisternae, or by tubular connections between cisternae (Malhotra et al., 1989; Mollenhauer and Morre, 1991; Glick et al., 1997; Allan and Balch, 1999; Pelham and Rothman, 2000; Trucco et al., 2004). Although not exclusive of other processes, maturation has gained recent support (Emr et al., 2009). This model starts with the creation of cargo-containing cis-Golgi cisternae. The cargo stays within these cisternae and is sequentially processed when the cis enzymes are replaced with medial enzymes, which are subsequently replaced with trans enzymes. As cisternae progress through the Golgi stack, this ...
Bill of rights or branding exercise? As the Magna Carta approaches its 800th anniversary, it has become a symbol of issues that stray far from its original remit
this is legal notes testing Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore ...
High-resolution versions of our original photographs are available for purchase for you to use in printed publications or elsewhere. Contact us for further information. Be sure to make a note of the URL of the photos you are interested in. We do not sell these photos for profit, only to cover the maintenance costs of the website.. ...
1/day each: plane shift, telekinesis. Actions. Multiattack. The githyanki doorkeeper makes two attacks, using its necrotic greatsword and/or its withering blast if corporeal, or its withering touch and/or its withering blast if incorporeal.. Necrotic Greatsword. Melee Weapon Attack: +9 to hit, reach 5 ft., one target. Hit: 15 (3d6+5) slashing damage plus 7 (2d6) necrotic damage.. Withering Touch. Melee Weapon Attack: +6 to hit, reach 5 ft., one target. Hit: 16 (4d6+2) necrotic damage plus 7 (2d6) cold damage.. Withering Blast. Ranged Spell Attack: +8 to hit, range 120 ft., one target. Hit: 15 (3d6+4) necrotic damage plus 7 (2d6) cold damage.. Tags: 5E D&D, monsters, undead ...
Alan, great call on Magna Graduate!...i bet him myself, but i must admit, i might not have done so if you hadnt gotten me looking at the race...i remembered he had outrun Stevie Wonderboy & Co. on BC Day (though of course, those are 2yos), and i saw that he had also finished quite strongly in the Pegasus (last 1/4 in 12 flat)...didnt look like there was much opposing spoeed in the race today, and i thought he could work out a nice trip, and i also considered the "BC Bounce" in regard to Suave and Perfect Drift, so i decided to take a shot with him @ 4/1...wow, what a race!...i think the soft early fractions won the race for him, as Magna had plenty of gas left in the tank when Suave came to challenge him leaving the turn...i thought Velazquez waited just a touch too long to push the button, but other than that, he gave him a superlative ride...and a GREAT job by Pletcher, who seems to have gotten the best out of this horse...thanks again for the heads-up!.... ...
Etiam pulvinar consectetur dolor sed malesuada. Ut convallis euismod dolor nec pretium. Nunc ut tristique massa. Nam sodales mi vitae dolor ullamcorper et vulputate enim accumsan. Morbi orci magna, tincidunt vitae molestie nec, molestie at mi. Nulla nulla lorem, suscipit in posuere in, interdum non magna. ...
Sed magna nulla, pulvinar vel ante vel, fringilla vulputate nibh. In placerat facilisis tincidunt. Integer quis erat dictum, placerat massa non, bibendum ante. Duis aliquet tellus magna, quis egestas enim vulputate sed. Phasellus in dui malesuada, lacinia urna sed.. ...
Etiam pulvinar consectetur dolor sed malesuada. Ut convallis euismod dolor nec pretium. Nunc ut tristique massa. Nam sodales mi vitae dolor ullamcorper et vulputate enim accumsan. Morbi orci magna, tincidunt vitae molestie nec, molestie at mi. Nulla nulla lorem, suscipit in posuere in, interdum non magna. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore ...
Consequat te olim letalis premo ad hos olim odio olim indoles ut venio iusto. Euismod, sagaciter diam neque antehabeo blandit, jumentum transverbero luptatum.
Buy XFX RS XXX Edition Radeon RX 570 DirectX 12 RX-570P427D6 4GB OC+ 1284 MHz XFX Custom Backplate 256-Bit DDR5 PCI Express 3.0 CrossFireX Support Video Card with fast shipping and top-rated customer service. Once you know, you Newegg!
On Mar 2, 2008, at 8:53 AM, Mark Bonnici wrote: , , Thanks for your reply but what if I need something like this , , \newenvironment{mybox}{% , \textbf {% \textbf opening brace , }% , { }% \textbf closing brace , } , , \begin{mybox} , Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do , eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim , ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut , aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. , \end{mybox} , , The text will not be in bold. Now, I know that I can use \bfseries , instead of \textbf but I need a solution for any command which does , not have a corresponding environment. , , Thanks. , ,, -----Original Message----- ,, From: Lars Madsen [mailto:daleif at imf.au.dk] ,, ,, your question has already been answered on comp.text.tex, the ,, environment equivalent to \parbox is the minipage environment ,, ,, /daleif Hi, You can use \bgroup and \egroup instead: \documentclass{article} \newenvironment{myboldbox}{% ...
A slow metabolism means that it takes a longer time for your body to process food and turn it into the energy you need.. Durabitur vel diam a metus bibendum ullamcorper a vel orci. In non sapien scelerisque tellus mollis hendrerit non ut quam. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Duis eleifend tempus massa, sit amet imperdiet justo congue at. Curabitur nec consectetur arcu. Duis et sem lacus. Etiam magna nibh, lobortis eu odio vel, scelerisque commodo libero. Sed eu libero eget metus efficitur lobortis id ac purus.. ...
Cras posuere orci sit amet nisi euismod maximus. Maecenas neque dui, mattis ut nulla et, commodo ullamcorper odio. Nullam nec sagittis dui. Nullam nibh lacus, pretium sit amet metus a, imperdiet faucibus magna. ...
Giuseppe Biondi Zoccai was born in San Remo, Italy, on 25 July 1974. He obtained his MD diploma magna cum laude at the University of Milan, Italy, in 1999 with a thesi..
Dolor aliquet augue augue sit magnis, magna aenean aenean et! Et tempor, facilisis cursus turpis tempor odio, cursus montes ac turpis. Ultrices! Massa integer augue ridiculus adipiscing, massa cras pid. Turpis placerat scelerisque, vut odio mus non, mattis porttitor, nunc odio, turpis tortor sit? Pid amet, sed facilisis ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. ...
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. ...
Donec sed odio dui. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Sed posuere consectetur est at lobortis. Maecenas faucibus mollis interdum. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et. Integer posuere erat a ante venenatis dapibus … Read More. ...
Disclaimer Text goes in this spot. Magna adipiscing vel eu semper ridiculus sodales a augue adipiscing nisl aliquam vestibulum dis consectetur parturient. ...
Integer volutpat ante et accumsan commophasellus sed aliquam feugiat lorem aliquet ut enim rutrum phasellus iaculis accumsan dolore magna aliquam veroeros.. ...
腦脊液完全是在腦和脊髓內部合成和循環的,是體現腦與軀體其它部分隔離的一個典型例子。生產腦脊液的部位是脈絡叢。脈絡叢穿過脈絡裂,沿著穹隆/海馬傘的軌跡進入側腦室;同時通過其頂部進入第三腦室(英语:Third ventricle)和第四腦室(英语:Fourth ventricle)。腦脊液在脈絡叢生成後,通過腦室間孔(interventricular foramen或foramen of Monro)進入第三腦室,而後通過塞爾維氏大腦導水管(Sylvians cerebral aqueduct)進入第四腦室,隨後通過正中孔(medial aperture或foramen of Magendie)和兩個外側孔(lateral aperture或foramen of Luschka),分別進入小腦延髓池(cisterna magna,又稱大池或cerebellomedullary cistern)和橋腦池(pontine cistern或cisterna pontocerebellaris),再進入脊髓和大腦半球外部。腦脊液可以通過蜘蛛膜顆粒(arachnoid granulation)進入靜脈系統。 ...
Although cerebral vasospasm in SAH patients is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, the precise mechanisms for the delayed cerebral vasospasm remain unclear. Cerebral vasospasm after SAH was attenuated not only by local administration of superoxide dismutase18,19⇓⇓ but also by overexpression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the transgenic mice,20 suggesting the pivotal role of oxygen radicals in the development of cerebral vasospasm. In the present experiment, we demonstrated that the time course of the development of vasospasm in the rat 2-hemorrhage model was similar to that of vasospasm after a SAH in the clinical situation. Minimal narrowing was present by 1 to 2 days and had progressively increased by 5 days after the second injection of autologous blood into cisterna magna. The delayed cerebral vasospasm in SAH rats was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with DPI, an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. Considering other reports with our results, NAD(P)H-derived superoxide might be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proof of concept. T2 - Endogenous antiangiogenic factors predict the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm post subarachnoid hemorrhage. AU - Testai, Fernando D.. AU - Aiyagari, Venkatesh. AU - Hillmann, Maureen. AU - Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh. AU - Dawson, Glyn. AU - Gorelick, Philip. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Background The pathogenesis of vasospasm (VS) post aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is multifactorial and not completely understood. The authors hypothesize that circulating antiangiogenic factors play an important role in brain injury post SAH and that elevated levels predict the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm. Methods In this study the authors measured the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of soluble endoglin (sEng) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) in controls and SAH patients within 48 h of the bleed. Patients were prospectively followed and subcategorized into those with (sVS) and without symptomatic vasospasm (no-sVS). Results ...
1. Tachyphylaxis occurs when renin is repeatedly injected into dogs and cats regardless of whether they are normal, anesthetized, pithed, hepatectomized, suprarenalectomized, nephrectomized, or eviscerated.. 2. The pressor response to renin in brief experiments is independent of the height of the arterial pressure or the presence of the suprarenals. Evisceration and large doses of ergotamine reduce the response. It is largely uninfluenced by pithing, intracisternal injection of renin, cocaine, strychnine, caffeine, and infusion of sodium bicarbonate or hydrochloric acid. It may be slightly increased by large blood transfusions or hepatectomy but the result is short lived.. 3. There is no parallelism between the pressor responses to carotid sinus stimulation, adrenine, and tyramine on the one hand and renin on the other.. 4. Section of the brain may be followed by depressor responses to renin.. 5. Intracisternal injection of renin elicits no significant rise in blood pressure or other circulatory ...
SILVA, Neuzimar de Souza Freire; SAKATA, Rioko Kimiko and ISSY, Adriana Machado. Effects of different spinal morphine doses in rats. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2004, vol.54, n.1, pp.60-67. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942004000100008.. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal morphine promotes adequate pain relief, but is not free from side effects. This study aimed at investigating the effects of different spinal morphine doses. METHODS: Five groups of seven rats were studied, 24 h after spinal catheter insertion via cisterna magna under anesthesia with muscular ketamine and xylazine. G1 received 10 µl saline solution; groups G2, G3, G4 and G5 received respectively 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 1 µg morphine in 10 µl saline solution. Animals were submitted to tail immersion test in hot water at M0 (prior to injection), and M15, M30, M60, M120 and M180 minutes after the injection. RESULTS: Analgesic effects were observed in groups receiving morphine, in different times, as compared to ...
The cerebellum has a normal configuration and can be small (Fig. 5). A characteristic criterion of the mega cisterna magna is an absent hydrocephalus, which is part of the DWM triad. located in the subarachnoid space and does not communicate with the fourth ventricle. The cerebellum and its vermis are normal. It causes hydrocephalus by pressing over the fourth ventricle. For Further Reading Fig. 5. Axial CT image of a patient with mega cisterna magna. Note the intact cerebellar vermis (white arrowhead ) and the normally configured small cerebellum. It involves lymphatic proliferation in the bones and viscera. The disease affects children and young adults. There are three forms of lymphangiomatosis: ¼ Cystic form: this form is known as "cystic hygroma," and most commonly occurs in the neck or the axilla in children. ¼ Capillary form: this form affects the skin. ¼ Cavernous form: this form affects the bone, soft tissues, and the viscera. Cystic hygroma is usually diagnosed before 2 years of ...
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the major complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, its pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated, and effective therapeutic strategies are yet to be established. We have reported, in the previous meeting, that thrombin plays a key role in up-regulation of the proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) expression and development of the vasospastic response to thrombin in the basilar artery of rabbit double hemorrhage-SAH model. In the present study, we demonstrated a new strategy to prevent the development of such vasospastic response using selective PAR1 antagonists. The rabbits received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna magna on days 0 and 2. The contractile responses were examined on day 7 using basilar artery ring preparations, in the absence of endothelial cells. Thrombin and PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1-AP) slightly contracted the control artery only at high concentrations (10 U/ml thrombin or 100 μM PAR-1AP). In SAH, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of dural sinus thrombosis by urokinase infusion. AU - Smith, T. P.. AU - Higashida, R. T.. AU - Barnwell, S. L.. AU - Halbach, V. V.. AU - Dowd, C. F.. AU - Fraser, K. W.. AU - Teitelbaum, G. P.. AU - Hieshima, G. B.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - PURPOSE: To gain a preliminary understanding of the role of thrombolytic therapy for the thrombosed dural sinus, we retrospectively reviewed our initial experience. METHODS: Seven patients, ages 25 to 71, who presented with symptomatic dural sinus thrombosis and who failed a trial of medical therapy were treated with direct infusion of urokinase into the thrombosed sinus. Patients received urokinase doses ranging from 20 000 to 150 000 U/h with a mean infusion time of 163 hours (range 88 to 244 hours). RESULTS: Patency of the affected dural sinus was achieved with antegrade flow in all patients. Six patients either improved neurologically over their prethrombolysis state or were healthy after thrombolysis; one of them required ...
Department of Neurosurgery, New Childrens Hospital, Australia.. Firstly, 14 patients are described who developed either an acquired Chiari malformation (ACM) alone (7 cases) or ACM and syringomyelia (7 cases) after lumbar subarachnoid space (SAS) shunting or in one case, epidural anaesthesia with SAS penetration. Four groups are considered: 3 cases with craniofacial dysostosis and communicating hydrocephalus (CH), 4 cases with CH alone, 3 cases with pseudotumour cerebri (PTC) and a miscellaneous group (4 cases). Initial treatment was varied: resiting the shunt to ventricle or cisterna magna [6], adding an H-V valve [1], syrinx shunting [4] and posterior fossa decompression [3]. Further treatment was required in 6 cases. Secondly, incidence was examined in 87 patients with PTC initially treated either by lumbar SAS shunting [70] or cisterna magna shunting [17]. In the first sub-group, 11 cases (15.7 per cent) developed an ACM, 3 symptomatic (as above) and eight asymptomatic with 1 case also ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The anaerobic bacterium Finegoldia magna is part of the human commensal microbiota, but is also an important opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium expresses a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, SufA, which partially degrade the antibacterial chemokine MIG/CXCL9. Here, we show that MIG/CXCL9 is produced by human keratinocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli. In contrast to the virulent human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the presence of F. magna had no enhancing effect on the MIG/CXCL9 expression by keratinocytes, suggesting poor detection of the latter by pathogen-recognition receptors. When MIG/CXCL9 was exposed to SufA-expressing F. magna, the molecule was processed into several smaller fragments. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed that SufA cleaves MIG/CXCL9 at several sites in the COOH-terminal region of the molecule. At equimolar concentrations, SufA-generated MIG/CXCL9 fragments were not bactericidal against F. magna, but retained their ability to kill S. pyogenes. Moreover, the ...
He described the surgical technique of ventriculocisternostomy (lateral ventricle to cisterna magna,; a predecessor of today's ...
It receives CSF from the fourth ventricle via the median aperture (foramen of Magendie). The cisterna magna contains: The ... Some major subarachnoid cisterns: Cisterna magna also called cerebellomedullary cistern - the largest of the subarachnoid ...
These represent closely associated forms of the disorder: DWS malformation, DWS mega cisterna magna and DWS variant. The DWS ... This is caused by open communication of the posteroinferior fourth ventricle and the cisterna magna through the enlarged ...
Največja in najpomembnejša je cisterna magna (cisterna cerebellomedullaris). Leži zadaj med malimi možgani in podaljšano ... Druge večje cisterne (lokacije so razvidne iz imen): cisterna interpeduncularis, cisterna chiasmatis, cisterna fossae lateralis ... Združita se v veliko možgansko veno (vena cerebri magna). Ta je zelo kratka in se vliva v sinus rectus. Zgornje malomožganske ... Cisterna pontis je ob bazilarni arteriji. Vanjo se odpirata stranski odprtini četrtega prekata. ...
It is done by inserting a needle through the skin below the external occipital protuberance into the cisterna magna and is an ... The needle is placed in the midline, passing just under the occipital bone, into the (usually large) cisterna magna (Fig. 23-2 ... Medications are diluted more rapidly in the larger and more rapidly circulating volume of cisterna magna than in the smaller ...
It was there that he invented an approach for obtaining cerebrospinal fluid using a cannula to the cisterna magna in the brain ...
... from the fourth ventricle into the cisterna magna. The two other openings of the fourth ventricle are the lateral apertures ( ...
... and enlargement of the cisterna magna and fourth ventricle of the brain. Animal models of 3C syndrome have not been created; ... the ventricles and the cisterna magna are dilated/enlarged, and Dandy-Walker malformation is present. These are reflected in ...
... cilium cingulate gyrus cingulum circle of Willis circulatory system circumflex artery cisterna cisterna chyli cisterna magna ... striatum stroma stylet styloglossus muscle stylohyoid muscle styloid process stylopharyngeus muscle subarachnoid cisternae ...
... and with the cisterna magna, and in front of the pons with the interpeduncular cistern. This article incorporates text in the ... The pontine cistern, also cisterna pontis and cisterna pontocerebellaris is a notable subarachnoid cistern on the ventral ...
... cisterna magna MeSH A08.186.566.395 --- dura mater MeSH A08.186.566.395.687 --- subdural space MeSH A08.186.566.731 --- pia ...
... an enlarged cisterna magna and a posterior fossa cyst. The gene IFT122 is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q21-3q24). ...
Enlargement of the cisterna magna Cerebellar hypoplasia Colpocephaly is characterized by disproportionately large occipital ...
... septum Superior cistern Cistern of lamina terminalis Chiasmatic cistern Interpeduncular cistern Pontine cistern Cisterna magna ...
... showing the normal fetal cerebellum and cisterna magna ...
The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullaris cistern) is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the ... The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. Cerebrospinal fluid ... puncture of the cisterna magna is also rarely performed. Boon, J.M.; Abrahams, P.H.; Meiring, J.H.; Welch, T. (2004). "Lumbar ... produced in the fourth ventricle drains into the cisterna magna via the lateral apertures and median aperture. The two other ...
Cisterna magna. *Pontine cistern. *Interpeduncular cistern. *Chiasmatic cistern. *Of lateral cerebral fossa ...
... into the Cisterna Magna. And if that did not work I made a trepanation, opened the skull..." ...
Cisterna magna(英語:Cisterna magna). *Pontine cistern(英語:Pontine cistern) ...
... cisterna magna,又稱大池或cerebellomedullary cistern)和橋腦池(pontine cistern或cisterna pontocerebellaris),再進入脊髓和大
Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 268; Bergk, "Kritische bemerkungen," p. 265. Johnston, Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, pp. 268 ... et in balneis piscinae et euripi in domibus vel cisternae, et putei qui rapere dicuntur, scilicet per vim spiritus nocentis. ... See also Johnston, Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 268. In 186 BC, during the lifetime of Pacuvius, the Roman senate placed ... Patricia A. Johnston, "The Mystery Cults and Vergil's Georgics," in Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia (University of Texas Press, ...
Magna Utah Central (1979-04-08) (Discontinued 2016-**-**) Magna Utah East (1974-01-14) Oquirrh East (1965-10-17) Magna Utah ... Santiago Chile La Cisterna (1976-04-18) Santiago Chile South (1974-12-08) Santiago Chile La Florida (1979-06-10) Santiago Chile ...
... cerebral aqueduct passes into the cisterna magna, a subarachnoid space surrounding the medulla and the cerebellum, via openings ... Other articles where Cisterna magna is discussed: human nervous system: Medulla oblongata: … ... science/cisterna-magna", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/cisterna-magna", "title": "Cisterna magna", " ... cerebral aqueduct passes into the cisterna magna, a subarachnoid space surrounding the medulla and the cerebellum, via openings ...
The cisterna magna (or cerebellomedullaris cistern) is one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the ... The cisterna magna is located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata. Cerebrospinal fluid ... puncture of the cisterna magna is also rarely performed. Boon, J.M.; Abrahams, P.H.; Meiring, J.H.; Welch, T. (2004). "Lumbar ... produced in the fourth ventricle drains into the cisterna magna via the lateral apertures and median aperture. The two other ...
Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, ... Cannula Implantation into the Cisterna Magna of Rodents. Anna L.R. Xavier1, Natalie Linea Hauglund1, Stephanie von Holstein- ... The cisterna magna cannulation (CMc) procedure allows easy and direct access to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). By injecting ... Cisterna magna cannulation (CMc) is a straightforward procedure that enables direct access to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
... ... "Comparison of Fetal Cerebellum and Cisterna Magna Length by 2D and 3D Ultrasonography between 18 and 24 Weeks of Pregnancy," ...
Cisterna Magna Absent Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Obstructive Hydrocephalus & Syringomyelia & Tumor of Meninges. ... 47 Possible Causes for Cisterna Magna Absent * Obstructive Hydrocephalus magna were absent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] dilatation of ... The reason for this large opening is to increase both of the posterior fossa and the cisterna magna, commonly absent in cases ... On ultrasound a "banana sign" is produced by the abnormal shape of the cerebellum combined with an absent cisterna magna.[ ...
Mega cisterna magna is considered to be a type of Dandy-Walker complex (Notaridis et al., 2006). Mega cisterna magna is ... Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna. Sample details ... CT of the head showed left posterior fossa mega cisterna magna. MRI of the brain without contrast was done for confirmation and ... Essays Related To Schizophrenia Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna. Schizophrenia: Mental Health ...
cisterna. pl. cisternae; cistern.. cisterna cerebellomedullaris, cisterna magna. the enlarged subarachnoid space between the ... cisterna magna. (redirected from Cerebromedullary cistern) cisterna. [sis-ter´nah] (pl. cister´nae) (L.) cistern. ... cisterna mag´na c. cerebellomedullaris posterior.. cisterna magna. The cranial subarachnoid space between the medulla and the ... called also cisterna magna.. cisterna chy´li the dilated portion of the thoracic duct at its origin in the lumbar region; ...
My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna anatomic ... with or did it ... in Cisterna Magna by Laura H My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna ... Could a prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant cause bipolar disorders sometimes manic with psychosis? ...
Cisterna Magna 2. Cervical Cord 3. Nasopharynx 4. Mandible 5. Maxillary Sinus ...
cisterna synonyms, cisterna pronunciation, cisterna translation, English dictionary definition of cisterna. n. pl. cis·ter·nae ... cisterna. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to cisterna: Cisterna magna, Cisterna ... The cisterna magna is a space lying between the cerebellum and medulla oblongata that is important in collecting cerebral ... Objective: To determine the frequency of isolated mega cisterna magna (MCM) in Saudi population, compare the accuracy of fetal ...
Withdrawal from the cisterna magna is via conduit 30b. In FIG. 3 injection into the cisterna magna is accomplished via ... In that model either saline or Ox-N were circulated from the right cerebral ventricle to the cisterna magna at a rate of 3 ml/ ... 1, or alternatively, from the cisterna magna 24.. It is not necessary to conduct steps 10-18 in the sequence illustrated in FIG ... Upon exit at the cisterna magna after traversing the entire spinal subarachnoid space the pO2 had fallen to 243 63. The oxygen ...
Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by ... Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury ... the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used ... step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using ...
In Vivo Spinal Distribution of Cy5.5 Fluorescent Dye after Injection via the Lateral Ventricle and Cisterna Magna in Rat Model ... Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cisterna Magna , Fluorescence , Lateral Ventricles , Models, Animal , Optical ... or cisterna magna (CM) of rats. RESULTS:. Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher ... Cisterna Magna / Treatment Outcome / Lateral Ventricles / Models, Animal / Optical Imaging / Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ...
... in the cisterna magna (A, −15.7; L, 0.0; D, 7.6; midline). For locations 1, 3, and 4 a pair of cannulae was implanted ... For implantation of a catheter into the cisterna magna, a burr hole was made on the midline 5.0 mm posterior to the lambda ( ... 15.7 mm from the bregma), and the catheter was inserted 7.0 mm deep toward the cisterna magna, as described previously (Pandey ...
A, CSF is collected from the cisterna magna of the rhesus monkey. B, 13C6-leucine is infused from 0 to 12 h, and CSF collected ... Cisterna magna ported rhesus monkey model.. All procedures related to the use of animals in these studies were reviewed and ... Human CSF was sampled by lumbar intrathecal catheter, whereas monkey CSF was sampled at the cisterna magna at the base of the ... 13C6-Leucine is intravenously administered to CMP rhesus monkeys for 12 h; CSF is collected from the cisterna magna port during ...
Cisterna Magna. Hemodynamics / physiology*. Injections. Neuropeptide Y / blood, pharmacology, physiology*. Norepinephrine / ...
The mean AP diameter of the cisterna magna measured 9.3 mm (SD 1.5) compared with 7 mm (SD 2.2) in nonaffected cases and 6 mm ( ... cisterna magna. COACH syndrome. cerebellar vermis hypoplasia/aplasia, oligophrenia, ataxia, coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis ...
The exogenous application of GABA into the cisterna magna of the freely moving rat decreases hindquarters vascular tone as well ... Cisterna Magna. Consciousness. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology. Hindlimb / blood supply*. ... The exogenous application of GABA into the cisterna magna of the freely moving rat decreases hindquarters vascular tone as well ... The results suggest that GABA(B) receptor stimulation via the cisterna magna induced hindquarters vasoconstriction, probably ...
Clinical significance of isolated enlargement of the cisterna magna (> 10 mm) on prenatal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16 ...
Retrocerebral Arachnoid Cyst, cisterna magna - Neurology Community - Oct 12, 2013 I have am a 30 year old male, when I was 15 I ...
No cisterna magna. -Enlarged lateral ventricles. -ELEVATED MSAFP with Aperta. 27 Whats the difference between spina bifida ...
cisterna magna 17 where is the cisterna magna just bellow the cerebellum ...
Whitney NSun HPollock JMRoss DA: The human foramen magnum-normal anatomy of the cisterna magna in adults. Neuroradiology 55: ... Whitney NSun HPollock JMRoss DA: The human foramen magnum-normal anatomy of the cisterna magna in adults. Neuroradiology 55: ... The human foramen magnum-normal anatomy of the cisterna magna in adults. . Neuroradiology. 55. :. 1333. -. 1339. , 2013. ), ... The human foramen magnum-normal anatomy of the cisterna magna in adults. . Neuroradiology. 55. :. 1333. -. 1339. , 2013. ), ...
LD0 and LD50 were 4.2 and 18 ng/kg, and 5 and , 5 ng/kg for the NHP hippocampus and cisterna magna, respectively. Gd-albumin ... Escalating BoNT/A doses were delivered by CED into the NHP hippocampus (n = 4) and cisterna magna (n = 5) for behavioral and ... Convection-enhanced delivery of botulinum toxin serotype A into the nonhuman primate cisterna magna and hippocampus ... was to determine the toxicity and distribution characteristics of CED of BoNT/A into the NHP hippocampus and cisterna magna. ...
Cisterna Magna Subarachnoid Space Arachnoid Granules Venous Sinuses. ...
  • Objective: To determine the frequency of isolated mega cisterna magna (MCM) in Saudi population, compare the accuracy of fetal ultrasound with postnatal neuro-imaging, report the associated central nervous system (CNS) anomalies on postnatal neuro-imaging. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the effect of imaging angle on the measurement of fetal cisterna magna (CM) in the second trimester. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cases were identified from the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey (NorCAS) and regional Fetal Medicine Unit databases for the period 1986-2004 for DWM/V and 1995-2005 for MCM (defined as a cisterna magna ≥10 mm). (ovid.com)
  • We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escalating BoNT/A doses were delivered by CED into the NHP hippocampus (n = 4) and cisterna magna (n = 5) for behavioral and histological assessment and to determine the highest nonlethal dose (LD0) and median lethal dose (LD50). (thejns.org)
  • Either route allows the medication delivered through the catheter to flow to the cisterna magna. (neuromodulation.com)
  • Five groups of seven rats were studied, 24 h after spinal catheter insertion via cisterna magna under anesthesia with muscular ketamine and xylazine. (scielo.br)
  • Rats weighing between 450 and 500 grams underwent insertion of a cannula into the cisterna magna at least 5 days prior to physiological testing. (ahajournals.org)
  • While the clinical method most commonly used for obtaining cerebrospinal fluid is a lumbar puncture, puncture of the cisterna magna is also rarely performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • AXO-AAV-GM2 was administered into the cisterna magna and lumbar spinal canal only. (yahoo.com)
  • The authors present a case of mega cisterna magna associated with psychosis and look for possible explanations linking the two by reviewing the literature. (studydriver.com)
  • Could a prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant cause bipolar disorders sometimes manic with psychosis? (lookformedical.com)
  • Illustration of Aβ stable-isotope-labeling kinetics study in cisterna magna ported (CMP) rhesus monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • My husband has had several CT scans without contrast which show he has prominent cisterna magna anatomic variant. (lookformedical.com)
  • Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, substrates and signaling molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (jove.com)
  • In this mode of drug delivery, the medication is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the cisterna magna. (neuromodulation.com)
  • This fluid filled space, is the cisterna magna, which we'll talk some more about. (asap.org)
  • The arrests in northern Italy, aimed at the 'Ndrangheta's commercial interests, "confirm that northern Italy is the true theatre of operations for the 'Ndrangheta", Alberto Cisterna , an anti-mafia prosecutor, told AFP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chiari-malformasjon betegner en patologisk kaudal ektopi av lillehjernetonsiller under nivå med foramen magnum. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Denne artikkelen omhandler Chiari-malformasjon type 1 og gir en kort oversikt over dagens kunnskap om tilstanden, diagnostiske kriterier og behandlingsrasjonale. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Pelas aberturas do IV ventrículo (forames de Luschka e Magendie) o líquor atinge a cisterna magna e depois dela todo o espaço subaracnóideo da medula e encéfalo. (prezi.com)
  • Transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) and cisterna magna diameter (CM) were measured in the suboccipitobregmatic plane of the head. (sonoworld.com)
  • Capturing one frame per minute, two-photon microscopy shows a fluorescent green tracer moving into the brain along an artery (shown in red on left side) and picking up particles (black dots) en route to a vein (shown in blue on right side) for eventual clearance out of the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Patients with complete resolution of their symptoms had a greater relative increase in cisterna magna area compared with those with only partial improvement (p = 0.022). (thejns.org)
  • Future patients in the program, who are expected to be treated earlier in their disease course, will receive AXO-AAV-GM2 co-delivered into the thalamus bilaterally as well as into the cisterna magna and spinal canal. (yahoo.com)
  • Six patients had adequate sized cisterna magnas. (conquerchiari.org)
  • The worry was that if it were enlarged, either there was something in his brain that was smaller than normal (thereby giving the cisterna magna room to grow), or that there were more cysts that we couldn't see (thereby pushing the cisterna magna to look big in ultrasounds). (ecochildsplay.com)
  • In addition, in those with complete improvement the preoperative cisterna magna area was smaller than in those who had either partial (0.020) or no (0.025) improvement. (thejns.org)
  • In studying the data, the surgeons wanted to see if the size of the tonsillar hernation, the amount of CSF flow, and/or the size of the cisterna magna were related to the presence of clinical symptoms. (conquerchiari.org)
  • The present study therefore characterized the response to the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen injected into the cisterna magna of the conscious rat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and distribution characteristics of CED of BoNT/A into the NHP hippocampus and cisterna magna. (thejns.org)
  • Urapidil given either intracerebroventricularly or into the cisterna magna had no influence on baroreceptor responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the cisterna magna model has been used frequently. (biomedcentral.com)