Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Paraparesis, Spastic: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Fasciolidae: A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Infratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Schizophrenia, Catatonic: A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalSanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (1/221)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (2/221)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects.  (+info)

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by magnetic resonance cisternography--case report. (3/221)

A 49-year-old male with no history of head trauma suffered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discharge from the left nostril for one month. Coronal computed tomography (CT) showed lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus on both sides and CSF collection on the left side. CT cisternography could not identify the site of CSF leakage. Heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR cisternography) in the coronal plane clearly delineated a fistulous tract through the sphenoid bone into the sphenoid sinus. Patch graft with muscle fragment completely relieved the CSF rhinorrhea. Postoperative three-dimensional CT showed the two bone defects identified during surgery. Small bony dehiscences in the sphenoid bone and lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus predisposed the present patient to CSF fistula formation. MR cisternography in the coronal and sagittal planes is superior to CT scanning or CT cisternography for detection of the site of active CSF leakage.  (+info)

Peripheral injection of a new corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, astressin, blocks peripheral CRF- and abdominal surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. (4/221)

The effect of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists astressin and D-Phe CRF(12-41) injected i.v. on CRF-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) was investigated in conscious rats. Gastric transit was assessed by the recovery of methyl cellulose/phenol red solution 20 min after its intragastric administration. The 55% inhibition of GE induced by CRF (0.6 microgram i.v.) was antagonized by 87 and 100% by i.v. astressin at 3 and 10 microgram, respectively, and by 68 and 64% by i.v. D-Phe CRF(12-41) at 10 and 20 microgram, respectively. CRF (0.6 microgram)-injected intracisternally (i.c.) induced 68% reduction of GE was not modified by i.v. astressin (10 microgram) whereas i.c. astressin (3 or 10 microgram) blocked by 58 and 100%, respectively, i.v. CRF inhibitory action. Abdominal surgery with cecal manipulation reduced GE to 7.1 +/- 3.1 and 27.5 +/- 3.3% at 30 and 180 min postsurgery, respectively, compared with 40.3 +/- 4.3 and 59.5 +/- 2.9% at similar times after anesthesia alone. Astressin (3 microgram i.v.) completely and D-Phe CRF(12-41) (20 microgram i.v.) partially (60%) blocked surgery-induced gastric stasis observed at 30 or 180 min. The CRF antagonists alone (i.v. or i.c.) had no effect on basal GE. These data indicate that CRF acts in the brain and periphery to inhibit GE through receptor-mediated interaction and that peripheral CRF is involved in acute postoperative gastric ileus; astressin is a potent peripheral antagonist of CRF when injected i.v. whereas i.c. doses >/=3 microgram exert dual central and peripheral blockade of CRF action on gastric transit.  (+info)

HIV type 1 Nef protein is a viral factor for leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system. (5/221)

Recombinant HIV-1 Nef protein, but not Tat, gp120, and gp160, provoked leukocyte recruitment into the CNS in a rat model. The strong reduction of bioactivity by heat treatment of Nef, and the blocking effect of the mAb 2H12, which recognizes the carboxy-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 171-190 (but not of mAb 3E6, an anti-Nef Ab of the same isotype, which maps the aa sequence 168-175, as well as a mixture of mAbs to CD4) provided evidence for the specificity of the observed Nef effects. Using a modified Boyden chamber technique, Nef exhibited chemotactic activity on mononuclear cells in vitro. Coadministration of the anti-Nef mAb 2H12, as well as treatment of Nef by heat inhibited Nef-induced chemotaxis. Besides soluble Nef, chemotaxis was also induced by a Nef-expressing human astrocytoma cell line, but not by control cells. These data suggest a direct chemotactic activity of soluble Nef. The detection of elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after intracisternal Nef injection hint at the additional involvement of indirect mechanisms in Nef-induced leukocyte migration into rat CNS. These data propose a mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef protein may be essential for AIDS neuropathogenesis, as a mediator of the recruitment of leukocytes that may serve as vehicles of the virus and perpetrators for disease through their production of neurotoxins.  (+info)

High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. (6/221)

High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system.  (+info)

Neurodevelopmental outcome after antenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities. (7/221)

Posterior fossa abnormalities are sonographically diagnosable in the fetus. Anomalies of this region include Dandy-Walker malformation, enlarged cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Despite prenatal diagnosis, the uncertainties related to natural history and neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors make patient counseling difficult. The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of these lesions and elucidate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors in prenatally diagnosed posterior fossa abnormalities. Fifteen cases of posterior fossa abnormalities were reviewed. Antenatal diagnoses of Dandy-Walker malformation was made in 13 of these cases, arachnoid cyst in one case, and enlarged cisterna magna in one case. Hydrocephalus was present in 66% of patients. The sonographic diagnosis was concordant with the pathologic or neonatal radiologic diagnosis in 13 of 15 cases. Seven fetuses (47%) exhibited additional cranial or extracranial anomalies. A karyotypic abnormality (trisomy 18) was found in one of 15 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities. Neurodevelopmental delay was present in 80% of survivors with follow-up study to 4 years of age. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities is highly accurate, yet the differential diagnosis can be challenging. Cognitive and psychomotor developmental delays remain commonplace despite early diagnosis and treatment. The approach with families in cases of prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities should include a search for additional central nervous system and extra-central nervous system anomalies in the fetus and counseling of parents regarding potential adverse outcome for survivors.  (+info)

Intracisternal nor-binaltorphimine distinguishes central and peripheral kappa-opioid antinociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/221)

Systemic administration of nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) produces a long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor (kappaOR) antagonism and has kappa(1)-selectivity in nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to establish the pharmacological basis of central kappaOR antagonism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). After intracisternal (i.c.) administration of small doses of nor-BNI, the duration and selectivity of nor-BNI antagonism were evaluated against two kappaOR agonists, (trans)-3, 4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488) and bremazocine. Thermal antinociception was measured in the warm water (50 degrees C) tail-withdrawal assay and sedation was evaluated by observers blind to treatment conditions. Following i.c. pretreatment with 0.32 mg nor-BNI, a 5- to 10-fold rightward shift of the U50,488 baseline dose-effect curve was observed in antinociception. In contrast, this dose of nor-BNI only produced an insignificant 2-fold shift against bremazocine. Pretreatment with a smaller dose (0.032 mg) of nor-BNI produced a 3-fold shift of U50, 488, which lasted for 7 days, but failed to alter the potency of bremazocine. This differential antagonism profile of i.c. nor-BNI also was observed in sedation ratings. In addition, the centrally effective dose of nor-BNI (0.32 mg), when administered s.c. in the back, did not antagonize either U50,488- or bremazocine-induced antinociception and sedation. After i.c. pretreatment with the same dose, nor-BNI also did not antagonize the peripherally mediated effect of U50,488 against capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in the tail. These results indicate that i.c. nor-BNI produces central kappaOR antagonism and support the notion of two functional kappaOR subtypes in the central nervous system. Moreover, it provides a valuable pharmacological basis for further characterizing different sources of kappaOR-mediated effects, namely, from central or peripheral nervous system receptors.  (+info)

  • Comparison of Fetal Cerebellum and Cisterna Magna Length by 2D and 3D Ultrasonography between 18 and 24 Weeks of Pregnancy," ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 2012, Article ID 286141, 8 pages, 2012. (
  • We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques, which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats. (
  • Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. (
  • In 2003, the Cisterna magna theory aimed to harmonize the Gardner, Williams, Oldfield and Ball&Dyan theories with neural imaging findings to propose an objective proposal of the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. (
  • We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. (
  • Escalating BoNT/A doses were delivered by CED into the NHP hippocampus (n = 4) and cisterna magna (n = 5) for behavioral and histological assessment and to determine the highest nonlethal dose (LD0) and median lethal dose (LD50). (
  • Corpus callosal and vermian dysgenesis and enlarged cisterna magna were observed (Figure 1 ). (
  • Decreased cisterna magna depths may result from herniation of the brainstem down the spinal canal, whichmayoccurinassociationwithneuraltubeabnormalities. (
  • This fluid filled space, is the cisterna magna, which we'll talk some more about. (
  • Normally what you're supposed to have in this area is a cistern, a fluid pocket, if you will, and it's large and when the ancients found this they gave it the term magna, again for large, so it's the cisterna magna. (
  • Rats weighing between 450 and 500 grams underwent insertion of a cannula into the cisterna magna at least 5 days prior to physiological testing. (
  • Illustration of Aβ stable-isotope-labeling kinetics study in cisterna magna ported (CMP) rhesus monkeys. (
  • The arrests in northern Italy, aimed at the 'Ndrangheta's commercial interests, "confirm that northern Italy is the true theatre of operations for the 'Ndrangheta", Alberto Cisterna , an anti-mafia prosecutor, told AFP. (
  • Chiari-malformasjon betegner en patologisk kaudal ektopi av lillehjernetonsiller under nivå med foramen magnum. (
  • Denne artikkelen omhandler Chiari-malformasjon type 1 og gir en kort oversikt over dagens kunnskap om tilstanden, diagnostiske kriterier og behandlingsrasjonale. (
  • Fukushima T (1978) Endoscopy of Meckel's cave, cisterna magna, and cerebellopontine angle. (
  • Patients with complete resolution of their symptoms had a greater relative increase in cisterna magna area compared with those with only partial improvement (p = 0.022). (
  • Future patients in the program, who are expected to be treated earlier in their disease course, will receive AXO-AAV-GM2 co-delivered into the thalamus bilaterally as well as into the cisterna magna and spinal canal. (
  • Six patients had adequate sized cisterna magnas. (
  • The worry was that if it were enlarged, either there was something in his brain that was smaller than normal (thereby giving the cisterna magna room to grow), or that there were more cysts that we couldn't see (thereby pushing the cisterna magna to look big in ultrasounds). (
  • In addition, in those with complete improvement the preoperative cisterna magna area was smaller than in those who had either partial (0.020) or no (0.025) improvement. (
  • The cisterna magna ranges from 1 to 10 mm in depth over gestational age from 15 to 36 weeks and from 4 to 10 mm at term. (
  • In studying the data, the surgeons wanted to see if the size of the tonsillar hernation, the amount of CSF flow, and/or the size of the cisterna magna were related to the presence of clinical symptoms. (