Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Cistus: A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.TexasIntroduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.AlaskaSeeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Verbesina: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain galegine (GUANIDINES).Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.BrazilEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Manuscripts, MedicalTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.

Temporal and spatial patterns of seed dispersal in two Cistus species (Cistaceae). (1/13)

Cistus species are obligate seeding, early colonizers that follow disturbance, particularly fire, in Mediterranean ecosystems. We studied seed release, seed dispersal and soil seed populations in stands of Cistus ladanifer and C. libanotis. Seed release started in mid- to late summer (C. ladanifer) or in early autumn (C libanotis), and continued for a very extended period: 8-10 months in C. ladanifer, and for a mean of 16 months in C. libanotis. The xerochastic capsules of both species released seeds by successive dehiscence of the locules. All capsules begin to dehisce simultaneously at the start of the seed release period, but in C. libanotis capsule fragmentation replaced dehiscence early in the seed release period. In plants of both species, seed shadows were characterized by a peak of density beneath the plant canopy and a very short tail of much lower densities, indicating that seeds are concentrated beneath mother plants when dispersed. Nevertheless, in late May, at the onset of the fire season, soil seed densities beneath plant canopies were low compared with densities expected from seed shadows, but were apparently high enough to allow recovery of the stands if a disturbance, such as fire, had taken place. Seed-eating Bruchidae in summer and granivorous ants during the seed release period were apparently the main causes of seed losses. Results suggest that in both Cistus species, the staggered seed release could constitute an efficient risk-reducing trait. The plant pool of seeds existing throughout most of the year could be a relevant component of Cistus seed banks.  (+info)

Breeding system, flower visitors and seedling survival of two endangered species of Helianthemum (Cistaceae). (2/13)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helianthemum marifolium and H. caput-felis are two endangered plant species of the western Mediterranean. Several aspects of the reproduction of both species were examined to determine whether their rarity could be related to factors causing reproductive limitation. METHODS: The flowering and fruiting phenology of both species in two non-sympatric island populations (Mallorca, Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) were compared. Hand-pollination experiments were conducted to determine their fruit and seed production under different pollen sources. The composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effect of temporal variation and sun exposure on reproductive output and seedling survival were also investigated. KEY RESULTS: Flowering periods were longer for H. marifolium than for H. caput-felis in the populations studied. Helianthemum marifolium is mostly an outbreeder, i.e. fruit and seed set was three-fold higher when pollen came from other plants. In H. caput-felis, neither fruit nor seed set was affected by pollination treatments. Flower visitors were more diverse for H. caput-felis than for H. marifolium. In both species, most floral visits were made by hymenopterans. The total number of pollinator visits varied significantly between years, decreasing more than two-fold from 2001 to 2002, in both species. In agreement with its outbreeder character, variation in reproductive output between years was also observed in H. marifolium. It showed a 50 % decrease in fruit set in 2002, a pollinator-poor year. Finally, seedling survival increased three- to six-fold from 2001 to 2002. A correlation between seedling size and survival had also been detected. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive limitations were detected for neither species (i.e. fruit and seed set, pollination service and seedling survival on natural populations). Hence, the increasing rarity of these two species is probably a direct result of the destruction of their habitat.  (+info)

A new highly oxygenated pseudoguaianolide from a collection of the flowers of Parthenium hysterophorus. (3/13)

A new highly oxygenated pseudoguaianolide, 8-beta-acetoxyhysterone C, along with the known compounds, parthenin, coronopilin and hysterone C, has been isolated from a collection of the flowers of Parthenium hysterophorus. The structure of the new compound was derived from the extensive studies of its spectral (mainly 1D and 2D NMR) data.  (+info)

Alternaria jesenskae sp. nov., a new species from Slovakia on Fumana procumbens (Cistaceae). (4/13)

Alternaria jesenskae sp. nov. recovered from seeds of a shrubby perennial plant Fumana procumbens (Cistaceae) in Slovakia is described and illustrated. The new taxon can be clearly separated from the other related large-spored and filament-beaked Alternaria species based on sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 region as well as by its distinctive morphology. Even though the molecular data have shown close relatedness with A. multirostrata, the new species is morphologically most similar to A. tomatophila distinguished primarily by the pronounced colony pigmentation, conidial septation and beak branching.  (+info)

Environmental scales on the reproduction of a gypsophyte: a hierarchical approach. (5/13)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Environmental variability at several scales can determine plant reproductive success. The main goal of this work was to model the reproductive flexibility of a semi-arid specialist considering different scales of environmental variability. METHODS: A 2-year field study was performed on the determinants of the female reproductive success of Helianthemum squamatum, an Iberian gypsophyte, considering two scales of environmental variability: differences between two contrasting slope aspects; and, on individual scale, the neighbouring microenvironment. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate simultaneously the potential effects of environmental variability at both scales, together with flowering phenology and plant size on the reproductive output of H. squamatum. The following reproductive response variables were considered: number of flowers, fruit-set, number of viable and aborted seeds per fruit, and number of seeds per plant. KEY RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, environmental variability exerted a weak or even absent effect on the reproductive variables considered, while flowering phenology and plant size, which did not vary between slopes, played a major role. Surprisingly, the absolute reproductive variables were even higher in the extremely dry year of 2003, although only on the south-facing slope. The relatively milder conditions of the north-facing slope did not involve any advantage to this species in terms of reproductive output. CONCLUSIONS: The species seemed to be considerably well adapted to the environmental unpredictability characteristic of Mediterranean systems, considering its ability to maintain reproduction across contrasting environments and contrasting climatic conditions. These findings make us face the question of what must be considered stressful conditions in the case of a stress-tolerant specialist.  (+info)

The endophytic system of mediterranean Cytinus (cytinaceae) developing on five host Cistaceae species. (6/13)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One of the most extreme manifestations of parasitism is found in the genus Cytinus, a holoparasite whose vegetative body is reduced to an endophytic system living within its host root. There are two species of Cytinus in the Mediterranean, C. hypocistis and C. ruber, which parasitize various genera of Cistaceae, one of the most characteristic families of the Mediterranean scrublands. The aim of this work is to describe the endophytic systems of C. hypocistis and C. ruber, and their tissue relationships with their host. METHODS: Roots from five different hosts infected with C. hypocistis and C. ruber were harvested, and examined by anatomical techniques under light microscopy to elucidate the characteristics of the endophytic system of Cytinus, and to determine if differences in endophytic systems occur between the two species and in response to different hosts. KEY RESULTS: The endophyte structure is similar in both Cytinus species irrespective of the host species. In the initial stages of the endophyte, rows of parenchymal cells spread through the host pericyclic derivatives and phloem, and begin to generate small nodules in the outermost region of the host xylem. Later the nodules anastomose, and bands of parasitic tissue are formed. The host cambium continues to develop xylem tissue, and consequently the endophyte becomes enclosed within the xylem. The bands of parasitic tissue fuse to form a continuous sheath. This mature endophyte has well-developed vascular system with xylem and phloem, and forms sinkers with transfer cells that grow through the host xylem. CONCLUSIONS: The endophytic system of Cytinus develops in all host root tissues and reaches its most mature stages in the host xylem. It is more complex than previously reported, showing parenchyma, xylem and phloem tissues. This is the first report of well-developed phloem in a holoparasitic endophytic species.  (+info)

Axonal degeneration in sheep caused by the ingestion of Halimium brasiliense. (7/13)

Nervous system disease is reported in sheep from 2 farms in southern Brazil and in 33 farms in Uruguay. The illness was seasonal, occurring from May to November, during the growing season of Halimium brasiliense, and primarily affected sheep older than 3 years of age. Clinical signs included transient seizures that occurred mainly when sheep were disturbed or frightened. Most affected sheep recovered when removed to other pastures. Feeding trials produced clinical signs in 1 sheep after the ingestion of 2,117 g/kg of body weight of H. brasiliense over 142 days. Two sheep that had previously recovered from spontaneous toxicosis developed clinical signs after the ingestion of 263 g and 565 g of H. brasiliense per kg body weight given over 36 and 31 days, respectively. The main histologic lesion was vacuolation of the brain and spinal cord, with rare axonal spheroid formation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed segmental axonal swelling with degeneration and disappearance of the axonal organelles and vacuolation of the axoplasm. A pigment identified as ceroid was also present in neurons, astrocytes, and macrophages. These lesions suggested a novel morphologic manifestation of a toxic axonopathy.  (+info)

Adaptive radiation in mediterranean cistus (cistaceae). (8/13)

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  • Sun rose , also called rock rose , any of 80-110 species of low-growing flowering plants making up the genus Helianthemum in the rock rose family (Cistaceae), the flowers of which resemble single roses. (britannica.com)
  • A. Cronquist (1981) placed Cochlospermum and Amoreuxia in Bixaceae in the Violales, suggesting a close relationship to Flacourtiaceae and Cistaceae. (efloras.org)
  • Recently the neotropical tree Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is placed here, following APG IV (2016) The ability of Cistaceae to thrive in many Mediterranean habitats follows from two important ecological properties: mycorrhizal ability and fast renewal after wildfire. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of Cistaceae to create mycorrhizal relation with truffle mushroom (Tuber) prompted several studies about using them as host plants for truffle cultivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycorrhizal synthesis between Cistaceae and Tuberaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism allows the Cistaceae to produce a large number of young shoots simultaneously and at the right time, and thus to obtain an important advantage over other plants in the process of repopulating the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cistaceae has been listed as one of the 38 plants used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micol, V. Cistaceae aqueous extracts containing ellagitannins show antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity, and cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Effect of fire on hard-coated Cistaceae seed banks and its influence on techniques for quantifying seed banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cistaceae have also optimally adapted to the wildfires that frequently eradicate large areas of forest. (wikipedia.org)