Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.
An atrophic and sclerotic condition of the head of the PENIS, glans penis. Sometimes it leads to stenosis and occasionally obliteration of the external meatal orifice.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Sexual activities of humans.
An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Pediatric urinary tract infection and reflux. (1/423)

Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training should be evaluated for the presence of reflux. Children who may be lost to follow-up and those who have recurrent urinary tract infections should also be evaluated. The preferred method for evaluation of urinary reflux is a voiding cystourethrogram. Documented reflux is initially treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Patients who have breakthrough infections on prophylaxis, develop new renal scarring, have high-grade reflux or cannot comply with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for surgical correction. The preferred method of surgery is ureteral reimplantation. A newer method involves injection of the bladder trigone with collagen.  (+info)

Adult circumcision. (2/423)

Adult circumcision can be performed under local or regional anesthesia. Medical indications for this procedure include phimosis, paraphimosis, recurrent balanitis and posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce). Nonmedical reasons may be social, cultural, personal or religious. The procedure is commonly performed using either the dorsal slit or the sleeve technique. The dorsal slit is especially useful in patients who have phimosis. The sleeve technique may provide better control of bleeding in patients with large subcutaneous veins. A dorsal penile nerve block, with or without a circumferential penile block, provides adequate anesthesia. Informed consent must be obtained. Possible complications of adult circumcision include infection, bleeding, poor cosmetic results and a change in sensation during intercourse.  (+info)

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. (3/423)

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes as "benchmarks", and updated them by searching the Medline database for more recent information. RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. We could find little scientific evidence of adverse effects on sexual, psychological, or emotional health. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided with the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks.  (+info)

Circumcision and neonatal tetanus: disclosure of risk and its reduction by topical antibiotics. (4/423)

BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have paradoxically suggested that circumcisions protect against neonatal tetanus (NNT), but these observations have not been adjusted for differences in the length of survival of cases and controls. METHODS: Boy cases (n = 133) and their sex-matched controls (n = 399) were extracted from a population-based study of NNT undertaken in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In the resulting file, circumcisions were censored such that analysis was restricted to only those that occurred before onset in cases or before age of onset in the matched case for controls. The effect of topical antibiotics in circumcision wounds was then evaluated. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, circumcision before onset posed a significant risk for NNT (matched odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0). The risk of NNT in those circumcised before onset and treated with topical antibiotics did not differ significantly from the referent group who had not been circumcised before onset (matched OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.2-6.8), whereas the lack of topical use was associated with significant risk (matched OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6). This suggests that topical antibiotics are likely to be highly effective in preventing NNT from circumcision wounds. We estimated an overall risk of about 16 fatal NNT cases per 1000 live boy births with circumcision wounds that were not protected by topical antibiotics, and that circumcision and umbilical wounds each accounted for about half of this overall risk in these boys. CONCLUSIONS: Topical antibiotics should be routinely applied to all wounds created by traditional circumcisions, to prevent NNT and sepsis from these frequently unsterile procedures.  (+info)

Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. (5/423)

To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.  (+info)

Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner. (6/423)

OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV.  (+info)

Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. (7/423)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and one was initially HIV-1-negative and followed them prospectively for up to 30 months. The incidence of HIV-1 infection per 100 person-years among the initially seronegative partners was examined in relation to behavioral and biologic variables. RESULTS: The male partner was HIV-1-positive in 228 couples, and the female partner was HIV-1-positive in 187 couples. Ninety of the 415 initially HIV-1-negative partners seroconverted (incidence, 11.8 per 100 person-years). The rate of male-to-female transmission was not significantly different from the rate of female-to-male transmission (12.0 per 100 person-years vs. 11.6 per 100 person-years). The incidence of seroconversion was highest among the partners who were 15 to 19 years of age (15.3 per 100 person-years). The incidence was 16.7 per 100 person-years among 137 uncircumcised male partners, whereas there were no seroconversions among the 50 circumcised male partners (P<0.001). The mean serum HIV-1 RNA level was significantly higher among HIV-1-positive subjects whose partners seroconverted than among those whose partners did not seroconvert (90,254 copies per milliliter vs. 38,029 copies per milliliter, P=0.01). There were no instances of transmission among the 51 subjects with serum HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 1500 copies per milliliter; there was a significant dose-response relation of increased transmission with increasing viral load. In multivariate analyses of log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels, each log increment in the viral load was associated with a rate ratio of 2.45 for seroconversion (95 percent confidence interval, 1.85 to 3.26). CONCLUSIONS: The viral load is the chief predictor of the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, and transmission is rare among persons with levels of less than 1500 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter.  (+info)

Circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors: a simple, safe and acceptable new technique. (8/423)

BACKGROUND: Circumcision may be performed by a variety of techniques. Postoperative haemorrhage is a recognised complication of the procedure. METHOD: A method of circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors is described. Foreskin vessels are coagulated as the foreskin is cut away. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent this procedure without complication. CONCLUSION: Circumcision using bipolar scissors can be a safe and simple operation.  (+info)

Male circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the head (glans) of the penis. In some cultures and religions, male circumcision is performed as a religious rite or cultural tradition. In other cases, it may be recommended for medical reasons, such as to treat phimosis (a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the glans) or to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections and other conditions. The procedure is typically performed on infants or young boys, but it can also be done on older males.

Phimosis is a medical condition where the foreskin of the penis, which is the retractable sheath of skin that covers the head or glans of the penis, cannot be pulled back (retracted) over the glans. This condition is normal in uncircumcised infant boys and toddlers, but most boys can retract their foreskins by the time they reach puberty.

In some cases, phimosis may cause no symptoms or problems, while in others it may lead to issues such as discomfort, pain, especially during sexual activity, infection, inflammation, and difficulty urinating. Phimosis can be caused by various factors, including infections, skin conditions, scarring from previous injuries or surgeries, or forceful attempts to retract the foreskin.

Treatment for phimosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, gentle manual stretching exercises may be recommended to gradually increase the foreskin's ability to retract. In other cases, topical creams or medications may be prescribed to reduce inflammation or fight infections. If these treatments are not effective, or if phimosis is causing significant discomfort or complications, circumcision (surgical removal of the foreskin) may be considered as a last resort.

Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), refers to the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure can cause serious physical and psychological harm, and it is widely recognized by medical organizations as a violation of human rights.

There are several types of FGM, classified into four categories by the World Health Organization:

* Type I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy)
* Type II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision)
* Type III: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, which is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris (infibulation)
* Type IV: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterizing the genital area

FGM is practiced in many parts of the world, including Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is usually carried out on young girls, often before the age of 15, and it is often motivated by cultural, religious, or social reasons. The practice is illegal in many countries, including the United States, and international organizations have called for its elimination.

Penile diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the penis, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and structural abnormalities. Some common penile diseases include:

1. Balanitis: an infection or inflammation of the foreskin and/or head of the penis.
2. Balanoposthitis: an infection or inflammation of both the foreskin and the head of the penis.
3. Phimosis: a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis.
4. Paraphimosis: a medical emergency in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be returned to its normal position.
5. Peyronie's disease: a condition characterized by the development of scar tissue inside the penis, leading to curvature during erections.
6. Erectile dysfunction: the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
7. Penile cancer: a rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis.

These conditions can have various causes, including bacterial or fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), skin conditions, trauma, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment for penile diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "ceremonial behavior." However, in general, ceremonial behaviors are actions or rituals that are performed in a formal, ritualistic manner, often as part of a cultural, religious, or social tradition. These behaviors can serve various purposes, such as marking important life events, expressing shared values and beliefs, or reinforcing social bonds.

In some cases, ceremonial behaviors may have health implications. For example, participation in cultural or religious rituals can provide a sense of community and support, which can have positive effects on mental health. Additionally, certain ceremonial practices, such as meditation or prayer, may have direct physiological effects that contribute to stress reduction and relaxation.

However, it's important to note that the term "ceremonial behavior" is not a medical diagnosis or clinical concept, and its meaning can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

The foreskin is a double-layered fold of skin that covers and protects the head (glans) of the penis. It is a normal part of male anatomy and varies in length and coverage from person to person. The inner layer of the foreskin is highly sensitive and contains a high concentration of nerve endings, which can contribute to sexual pleasure.

In some cases, the foreskin may become tight or difficult to retract (a condition known as phimosis), which can cause discomfort or pain during sexual activity or other activities that stretch the foreskin. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to alleviate the problem. Some people choose to undergo circumcision, a surgical procedure in which the foreskin is removed, for cultural, religious, or personal reasons. However, circumcision is not medically necessary for most people and carries some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and scarring.

"Southern Africa" is a geographical region that includes several countries located in the southernmost part of the African continent. The specific countries that are included in this region can vary depending on the source, but it generally consists of Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In medical terms, "Southern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this specific region. For example, a study might examine the burden of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, which has been disproportionately affected by this epidemic compared to other parts of the world. Similarly, researchers might investigate the prevalence of malaria or tuberculosis in Southern Africa, as these diseases are also significant public health challenges in this region.

It's worth noting that while "Southern Africa" is a useful geographical and medical designation, it does not encompass all of the countries on the African continent, and there can be significant variation in disease patterns and health outcomes within this region as well.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis, which is the rounded tip of the penis. It's a common condition in uncircumcised males and can affect men of all ages. The symptoms of balanitis include redness, swelling, pain, itching, and soreness on the glans penis. In some cases, there may be a discharge with an unpleasant odor.

Balanitis can have various causes, including poor hygiene, irritants (such as soaps or spermicides), infections (bacterial, fungal, or viral), and skin conditions (like psoriasis or eczema). In rare cases, balanitis can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes.

Treatment for balanitis depends on the cause. For mild cases, good hygiene and avoiding irritants may be enough. More severe cases might require medication, such as antibiotics, antifungals, or corticosteroids. If an underlying condition is causing the balanitis, that will need to be treated as well.

Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic, inflammatory condition that affects the foreskin and glans penis in uncircumcised males. It is also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus when it occurs in these areas.

The medical definition of Balanitis xerotica obliterans is a progressive inflammatory dermatosis characterized by white, shiny patches on the foreskin and glans penis. These patches can become thickened, scarred, and adhere to the underlying tissue, causing the foreskin to become difficult or impossible to retract (phimosis). BXO can also cause narrowing of the urethral meatus (the opening where urine exits), which can lead to problems with urination.

The exact cause of BXO is not known, but it is thought to be related to an autoimmune response or a localized reaction to irritants or trauma. Treatment typically involves topical corticosteroids, circumcision, or both. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct urethral narrowing.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

African traditional medicine (ATM) refers to the practices and beliefs regarding both physical and spiritual health and well-being that are indigenous to Africa. It includes various forms of healing, such as herbalism, spiritualism, and ancestral veneration, which may be practiced by traditional healers, including herbalists, diviners, and traditional birth attendants. These practices are often closely intertwined with the cultural, religious, and social beliefs of the community. It's important to note that the specific practices and beliefs can vary widely among different African cultures and communities.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

"Eastern Africa" is a geographical term used to describe the eastern portion of the African continent. The United Nations defines Eastern Africa as consisting of the following countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In a medical context, "Eastern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this region. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in health outcomes and healthcare systems within Eastern Africa due to factors such as socioeconomic status, infrastructure, and cultural practices. Therefore, any medical definition of "Eastern Africa" should be used with caution and may require further qualification or specification depending on the context.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Botswana" is the name of a country located in Southern Africa, and it's not a medical term or concept. Botswana is known for its wildlife and nature, with places like the Chobe National Park and the Okavango Delta attracting tourists from around the world. The country has a population of approximately 2.3 million people and is a member of organizations such as the United Nations and the African Union.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is not a medical term or organization, but rather an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. USAID's programs are designed to advance U.S. national security and economic prosperity, as well as to promote democratic values and human rights around the world.

While USAID does not provide medical care or treatment directly, it does support a wide range of global health programs aimed at improving health outcomes in developing countries. These programs focus on areas such as infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria), maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, nutrition, and water and sanitation. USAID also supports research and development of new vaccines, drugs, and other technologies to combat global health threats.

Herpes genitalis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), specifically HSV-2, and occasionally HSV-1. It primarily affects the genital area, but can also involve the anal region, thighs, and buttocks. The infection presents as painful fluid-filled blisters or lesions that may be accompanied by symptoms such as itching, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area. After the initial outbreak, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent episodes of genital herpes. It's important to note that while there is no cure for herpes genitalis, antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce transmission risks.

Prilocaine is an amide local anesthetic that is often used in topical, injectable, and regional anesthesia. It is commonly combined with lidocaine to reduce the risk of methhemoglobinemia, a rare but potentially serious side effect that can occur with prilocaine use.

Prilocaine works by blocking sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, which prevents the transmission of nerve impulses and results in local anesthesia. It has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

In addition to its use as a local anesthetic, prilocaine is also used in some dental procedures and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. As with any medication, prilocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness, tingling, and pain at the injection site. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, liver or kidney dysfunction, and in pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Paraphimosis is a urological emergency that occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male gets retracted behind the glans penis and cannot be returned to its normal position, leading to constriction and swelling of the glans. If left untreated, it can result in severe pain, discomfort, infection, and even gangrene, potentially requiring surgical intervention.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Swaziland" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Africa, known for its wildlife and culture. It was officially renamed as "Eswatini" in 2018, although the name "Swaziland" is still commonly used. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lesotho" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southern Africa. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Public health nursing is a specialty practice area of nursing that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues in communities and populations. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions aimed at promoting health, preventing disease, and addressing environmental factors that impact the health of populations. Public health nurses often work in community-based settings such as public health departments, schools, and non-profit organizations to provide care and education to individuals and families, promote health equity, and advocate for policies that improve the overall health of communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Somalia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Horn of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Religion and medicine are two distinct fields that can intersect in various ways. While religion can be defined as a set of beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the divine or supernatural, medicine is concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of disease, illness, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

A medical definition of "Religion and Medicine" might refer to the study of the relationship between religious beliefs, practices, and experiences, and health outcomes, healthcare delivery, and medical decision-making. This can include exploring how religious beliefs and practices influence health behaviors, coping mechanisms, social support networks, and access to care, as well as how they shape attitudes towards medical interventions, end-of-life decisions, and bioethical issues.

Religion can also play a role in the provision of healthcare services, such as through faith-based organizations that operate hospitals, clinics, and other health facilities. Additionally, religious leaders and communities may provide spiritual care and support to patients and their families, complementing the medical care provided by healthcare professionals.

Overall, the intersection of religion and medicine is a complex and multifaceted area of study that requires an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, and public health.

Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation where an individual is primarily attracted to, or forms romantic or sexual relationships with, people of the opposite sex or gender. This term is often used in contrast to homosexuality (attraction to the same sex) and bisexuality (attraction to both sexes). It's important to note that all sexual orientations are normal and healthy expressions of human sexuality.

The Dominican Republic is not a medical term or concept. It's the name of a country located in the Caribbean region, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti. The Dominican Republic is known for its beautiful beaches, tropical climate, and diverse culture. If you have any questions about travel medicine or health-related issues related to the Dominican Republic, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zimbabwe" is not a medical term. It's a country located in the southern part of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

In the context of medical science, culture refers to the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, under controlled conditions in a laboratory setting. This process is used to identify and study the characteristics of these microorganisms, including their growth patterns, metabolic activities, and sensitivity to various antibiotics or other treatments.

The culture medium, which provides nutrients for the microorganisms to grow, can be modified to mimic the environment in which the organism is typically found. This helps researchers to better understand how the organism behaves in its natural habitat.

In addition to its use in diagnosis and research, culture is also an important tool in monitoring the effectiveness of treatments and tracking the spread of infectious diseases.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Trichomonas infection, also known as trichomoniasis, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It primarily affects the urogenital tract and is more common in women than men. The symptoms in women can include vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during sexual intercourse or urination. Many men with trichomoniasis do not develop any symptoms, although some may experience discomfort, burning after urination, or a slight discharge from the penis. If left untreated, trichomoniasis can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of a sample of vaginal or urethral discharge, and treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole.

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder characterized by an uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it. This can cause distress, frustration, and avoidance of sexual intimacy. The exact cause of PE is not fully understood, but it can be associated with psychological factors like anxiety, depression, relationship issues, as well as biological factors such as abnormal hormone levels, genetics, or nerve damage. Treatment options may include behavioral techniques, medications, and counseling.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

Petrolatum is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. In the medical field, it's often used as an ointment base or protective dressing because of its impermeability to water and bacteria. It's also known as petroleum jelly or soft paraffin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Infectious disease transmission refers to the spread of an infectious agent or pathogen from an infected person, animal, or contaminated object to another susceptible host. This can occur through various routes, including:

1. Contact transmission: Direct contact with an infected person or animal, such as through touching, kissing, or sexual contact.
2. Droplet transmission: Inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the pathogen, which are generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes heavily.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhalation of smaller particles called aerosols that can remain suspended in the air for longer periods and travel farther distances than droplets.
4. Fecal-oral transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with fecal matter containing the pathogen, often through poor hygiene practices.
5. Vector-borne transmission: Transmission via an intermediate vector, such as a mosquito or tick, that becomes infected after feeding on an infected host and then transmits the pathogen to another host during a subsequent blood meal.
6. Vehicle-borne transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with the pathogen through vehicles like soil, water, or fomites (inanimate objects).

Preventing infectious disease transmission is crucial in controlling outbreaks and epidemics. Measures include good personal hygiene, vaccination, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), safe food handling practices, and environmental disinfection.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Dyspareunia is a medical term that describes painful sexual intercourse. This condition can affect both men and women, but it is more commonly reported by women. The pain can occur in various locations, such as the vaginal opening, deep inside the vagina, or in the pelvic region. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical conditions like vulvodynia, endometriosis, or vaginal infections, as well as psychological factors like anxiety, depression, or relationship issues. Treatment for dyspareunia depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Update: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision. UNAIDS. 2016. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: manual for male circumcision ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention : WHO technical advisory group on innovations in male circumcision : evaluation of two ... "Male circumcision". Pediatrics. 130 (3): e756-85. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1990. PMID 22926175. "Manual for male circumcision ... "Circumcision in men". nhs.uk. October 18, 2017. Krill AJ, Palmer LS, Palmer JS (2011). "Complications of circumcision". ...
Islamic male circumcision is analogous but not identical to Jewish male circumcision. Muslims are currently the largest single ... to refer to both male circumcision and FGM/C. In reality, however, the word only describes male circumcision; FGM/C is actually ... both male and female circumcision were carried out by Pagan Arabian tribes, and male circumcision by the Jewish tribes of ... and the Islamic term for the practice of religious male circumcision in Islamic culture. Male circumcision is widespread in the ...
Circumcision status was more common with males over 30 than males under 30, and more common with males who were born in ... "Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort: Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity". ... Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Male Circumcision Among Adolescent Males in The Bahamas". American Journal of Men's Health. 13 ( ... Circumcision, Circumcision debate, Gender-related violence, Men's health, Men's rights, Misandry). ...
"Male circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (2011), Albero et al. "Male ... A study on male circumcision prevalence in 118 developing countries found that 69% of circumcised men were Muslim. Circumcision ... Male circumcision is standard practice, by tradition, among the Druze. "Neonatal and child male circumcision: a global review ... The WHO does not recommend circumcision for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men; effectiveness of using circumcision to ...
Bantu circumcisions have been declining. The male circumcision rate in Angola is estimated to be 57.5%. The male circumcision ... The male circumcision rate in Libya is estimated to be 96.6%. The male circumcision rate in Morocco is estimated to be 99.9%. ... The male circumcision rate in Sudan is estimated to be 39.4%. The male child circumcision rate in Tunisia is around 99.8%. The ... The male circumcision rate in Mali is estimated to be 86%. The male circumcision rate in Mauritania is estimated to be 99.2%. ...
These circumcisions take place at any point between birth and puberty. "Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of ... and require that their male members undergo circumcision. Circumcision is near-universal among Coptic Christians, Ethiopian ... Weiss, H (2008). Male circumcision - Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability (PDF). Geneva: ... According to the Mandaean doctrine a circumcised man cannot serve as a Mandaean priest. Circumcision is part of initiation ...
... routine circumcision of a male infant could be regarded as a criminal act," and that doctors who perform circumcision on male ... Circumcision as Child Abuse: The Legal and Constitutional Issues. 23 J Fam Law 337 (1985). Rich Winkel. Male Circumcision in ... However, he forbade the circumcision of non-Jewish males who were either foreign-born slaves of Jews and the circumcision of ... Over 25% of male respondents were themselves circumcised; 96% of Muslim men and 89% of Jewish men in the survey said they were ...
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin (prepuce) from the human penis. The ethics of circumcision in ... "Male circumcision does not result in inferior perceived male sexual function - a systematic review". Ugeskriftet.dk. Archived ... He concludes that there can be no debate about male circumcision, arguing that "it can bring major improvements to both male ... They have expressed opposition to both male circumcision and all forms of female circumcision; they do not advocate a ...
"Man forced into circumcision" New Vision, 13 September 2006. "New Vision Online : Man forced into circumcision". Archived from ... Circumcision debate, Men's rights, Violence against men, Mutilation, Men's health, Human rights abuses). ... "A review on male circumcision procedures"; Crowly and Kesner, "Ritual Circumcision." Funani, Circumcision among the Ama-Xhosa, ... Forced circumcision is the circumcision of men and boys against their will. In a biblical context, the term is used especially ...
By 300 CE, male initiation and male circumcision had ceased among matrilineal Bantu-speaking peoples in East Africa and Central ... male circumcision is still observed among Ethiopian and Coptic Christians, and circumcision rates are also high today in the ... Circumcision is not compulsory and has no religious significance. Marck J (1997). "Aspects of male circumcision in sub- ... Prior to 300 CE, male circumcision, which is a cultural practice that is part of male initiations, is estimated to have existed ...
"Newborn male circumcision , Canadian Paediatric Society". cps.ca. Retrieved 5 June 2023. "Newborn Male Circumcision". American ... male circumcision is an established practice, and require that their male members undergo circumcision shortly after birth as ... Circumcision debate, Circumcision, Medical controversies, Men's health, Religious controversies, Violence against men). ... male circumcision is still observed among Ethiopian and Coptic Christians, and circumcision rates are also high today in the ...
"Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ... male circumcision is still observed among Ethiopian and Coptic Christians, and circumcision rates are also high today in the ... "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Circumcision". www.newadvent.org. Jones, David Albert (2018). "Infant Male Circumcision". The Linacre ...
... of circumcision in settings with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision prevalence. The Group estimated male circumcision is ... Male circumcision reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV positive women to men in high ... The evidence regarding whether circumcision helps prevent HIV is not as clear among men who have sex with men (MSM). The ... The WHO does not recommend circumcision as protection against male to male HIV transmission, as evidence is lacking in regards ...
"Circumcision (male)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 10 May 2020. "WHO agrees HIV circumcision plan". BBC World News. BBC. 3 March 2007 ... "Circumcision and HIV - the Randomised Controlled Trials". www.circumstitions.com. "Circumcision and AIDS". Archived from the ... February 2008). "Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men is associated with anal enema use and high- ... "Reviewing PrEP's Effect on STI Incidence Among Men Who Have sex with Men-Balancing Increased STI Screening and Potential ...
Male circumcision is required in Judaism, optional in Islam, and not required in Christianity. Globally, male circumcision is ... "Religions and Circumcision". BBC. "Circumcision (male)". Mayo Clinic. "Chapter 10: Postoperative management and care of adverse ... Manual for male circumcision under local anaesthesia and HIV prevention services for adolescent boys and men (PDF). World ... Male circumcision is a painful process and can lead to bleeding and in some cases severe side effects including penile ...
Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya. AIDS ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ... male circumcision is still observed among Ethiopian and Coptic Christians, and circumcision rates are also high today in the ... Jewish Encyclopedia: Circumcision Catholic Encyclopedia: Circumcision Gentiles and Circumcision (CS1 French-language sources ( ...
"Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability" (PDF). World Health Organization. ... In some cases, for cultural, medical, or prophylactic reasons some men undergo circumcision, a procedure where the foreskin is ... Bleustein, Clifford B.; Eckholdt, Haftan; Arezzo, Joseph C.; Melman, Arnold (2003). "Effects of Circumcision on Male Penile ... Sorokan SK, Finlay JC, Jefferies AL (2015). "Newborn male circumcision". Paediatrics & Child Health. 20 (6): 311-320. doi: ...
"men") by circumcision. This practice is commonly found among Basotho men in the Free State Province of South Africa as well as ... The prevalence of traditional male circumcision among the Sotho people, who mostly reside in the Free State, is at 57.3%. ... It is considered taboo for newly initiated men to share details of lebollo with females and males who have not been to ... Many government-based organizations provide clinical circumcision, but many Basotho still opt for circumcision at traditional ...
"The Impact of Male Circumcision on HIV Transmission" (2010) addresses adult circumcision and sexual function. Perera et al. " ... "Newborn male circumcision , Canadian Paediatric Society". cps.ca. Retrieved 2023-02-01. In the male newborn, the mucosal ... "Circumcision of baby boys: Information for parents". caringforkids.cps.ca. Retrieved 2023-02-01. "Newborn male circumcision , ... It was interesting to note that the young males in this study had misconceptions about sexual pleasure post male circumcision ...
... evaluating the effect of male circumcision among HIV in young men. She is an HIV specialist. A Fulbright scholar, she earned ... Agot's research focuses on HIV, HIV transmission, and male circumcision. She is the Project Coordinator of a joint research ... Nguyen, Katie (21 July 2014). "What's male circumcision worth? In Kenya, it's food vouchers". Thomson Reuters Foundation. ...
M Tractenberg (1999). Male and Female Circumcision. George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos ( ... Bettelheim, Bruno (1962) Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. New York: Collier. Farb, Peter (1968) Man's Rise ... while a few subincised men carry a tube with which they can aim.[citation needed] Subincision (like circumcision) is well ... Male genital modification, Hawaii culture, Human male reproductive system, Indigenous Australian culture, Kenyan culture, ...
After giving this advice Beaugé noted not once did he have to recommend circumcision. Phimosis in older boys and adult males ... "Circumcision and phimosis in eighteenth century France". History of Circumcision. Retrieved 16 December 2016. Hodges FM (1999 ... Male and Female Circumcision. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. pp. 37-62. doi:10.1007/978-0-585-39937-9_5. ISBN 978 ... and the multiple additional influences on post-neonatal circumcision rates in cultures where most newborn males are circumcised ...
Safe Male Circumcision Policy. In: Ministry of Health, editor. Kampala 2010 Population Reference Bureau. 2014 World Population ... Implicit in this is the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable ... As of 2017, females had a life expectancy higher than their male counterparts of 69.2 versus 62.3. It is projected that by 2100 ... The mean decayed, missed, filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 1.5 (±0.8SD) with females having a higher DMFT than males of 1.6 (± ...
They practice male circumcision; according to Junod's work in 1927, surrounding tribes regarded the Lemba as the masters and ... Lemba men who marry non-Lemba women are expelled from the community unless the women agree to live in accordance with Lemba ... The woman may not bring any cooking utensils from her previous home into the Lemba man's home. Initially, the woman may have to ... They found that significant similarities exist between the markers of the Lemba and the markers of the men of the Ḥaḍramawt in ...
They practised male circumcision. The Yandruwandha Yawarrawarrka filed a petition to have their land rights recognised in 1988 ... While Burke and Wills died, the only man to survive, John King, did so because he found sanctuary with the Yandruwandha, among ...
khumur (خُمُر) or ʾakhmirah (أخْمِرة)) headcovering (Q. 24:31). Khitān (ختان) Male circumcision. Khuluq (خُلُق) pl. ʾakhlāq ( ... In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ʿAbd (عبد) (for male) ʾAmah (أمة) (for female) Servant or ... body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(Non-related men means those she can marry lawfully). ʾĀyah (آية ...
The Bukusu practice male circumcision. It is thought that they adopted the practice from contact with the Kalenjin at Mount ... Young, newly married men formed the community's warriors, while middle-aged men did little. Older men formed the village's ... Male and female names were different: male names frequently began with 'W', while female names usually began with 'N'. Thus, ... Circumcision Bukusu circumcision is done to boys that are between 12-28 years. They play trading jingle bells "chinyimba" as ...
"Male circumcision reduces HIV transmission. The risk of transmission from woman to man is halved". Läkartidningen. 107 (46): ... Swedish male bloggers, Swedish expatriates in India, Swedish expatriates in Mozambique, Swedish public health doctors, Swedish ... ". "Nu kan hepatit C botas - men många får vänta". DN.SE. June 2014. "Hans Rosling är död - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 7 ...
As a preventative HIV/AIDS strategy, Lewis has made a somewhat controversial call for male circumcision when African boys ... Lewis, Stephen (2010-01-06). "Male Circumcision Part 1" (online video). AIDS Free World. YouTube. Retrieved 2014-04-03. ... Many studies have been conducted into the role circumcision can play in reducing the spread of HIV. Stephen Lewis is the son of ...
Male circumcision usually takes place after birth; in some families, it may be delayed until after the onset of puberty. ... Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-56023-181- ... Sikhism strongly rejects the beliefs of fasting (vrata), superstitions, idol worship, and circumcision. The Sikhs believe in ... Glausiusz, Josie (14 March 2004). "miscellaneous". Circumcision. Retrieved 7 September 2015. Yisrael, Muzeon (1995). The Jews ...
CDC has developed Information for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention ... This is a companion document to Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision ... CDC has developed Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the ... Information for Providers to Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV ...
... 10th February 2019 Africa, News ... A female MP in Tanzania has called for checks to determine whether or not her male colleagues have undergone circumcision - a ... The World Health Organization (WHO) says circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual men contracting HIV by around 60%. ... In neighbouring Kenya, some top politicians voluntarily submitted to the procedure in 2008 as a way of encouraging men from ...
Preventing HIV Through Safe Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Adolescent Boys and Men in Generalized Epidemics. ... Safety of ShangRing Male Circumcision in Namibia and Tanzania. Presenters from Namibia and Tanzania summarised findings on the ... Acceptability of ShangRing Male Circumcision in Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia. Presenters from Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia reported ... Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Adolescents and Device-based VMMC ‒ Webinar. Key considerations on offering voluntary ...
Struggling to meet demand for male circumcision Slow progress. The Bophelo Pele Male Circumcision Project at Orange Farm, ... countries can calculate the cost of a national male circumcision programme, and how many men they would need to reach to ... Much of the work on male circumcision is still taking place at the three sites where the clinical trials took place: South ... UNAIDS calculated that one HIV infection is averted for every five to 15 male circumcisions, and designed a tool to help ...
Prequalification Procedures and Fees: Male Circumcision Devices This Prequalification Procedures and Fees section is dedicated ... About In Vitro Diagnostic & Male Circumcision Device Prequalification * Overview - History & Mission * In Vitro Diagnostics Key ... If a product meets prequalification requirements it is added to the WHO List of Prequalified Male Circumcision Devices and ... Overview of the WHO prequalification of male circumcision devices assessment (PQMC_007 v2, 15 April 2019) ...
Update: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision. UNAIDS. 2016. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: manual for male circumcision ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention : WHO technical advisory group on innovations in male circumcision : evaluation of two ... "Male circumcision". Pediatrics. 130 (3): e756-85. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1990. PMID 22926175. "Manual for male circumcision ... "Circumcision in men". nhs.uk. October 18, 2017. Krill AJ, Palmer LS, Palmer JS (2011). "Complications of circumcision". ...
Male Circumcision. ​For this assignment, we were placed in a group and had to perform research on an ethical topic in the ... As a group, we chose to research male circumcision, because of the controversy that it poses. New parents to baby boys in the ... I did not have any bias towards choosing to have circumcision performed; however, this helped shape my view on this topic and I ... This paper helped shape my prior beliefs on circumcision because prior to this, I did not fully understand why it was performed ...
EURO CIRC is a voluntary organization that provides information about the theme circumcision of the male foreskin. ... Sebastians Circumcision. A few years ago I contracted my foreskin with a little laceration in an accident. The injury was sewed ... When I masturbated for the first time after the circumcision it was unusually new to me that the skin on the penis was even and ... But I knew that I really wanted the circumcision. The team was very kind; so I wouldnt be afraid anymore. The anesthezitation ...
Male circumcision : situation analysis toolkit. By: World Health OrganizationContributor(s): Material type: TextPublication ... details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 2009. Description: 100 pISBN: 9789241597500Subject(s): Circumcision, Male -- ...
Phimosis ... phimotic ring, frenulum-breve and foreskin conditions, inhibit sexual activity ... research on early prevention and individual treatment ...
Thousands of boys are being supported by MRF with male circumcision in Malawi. ...
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) Is a key component of combination HIV prevention in countries with a high HIV ... www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-programming/prevention/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision ...
... ... Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020 ... Title : Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention, Sub-Saharan Africa, ... "Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020" 28 ( ...
The man says he plans to get his new body part tattooed to match the rest of him. ... Black Man Gets White Penis After Botched Circumcision. By WGY News. May 24, 2017. ... The man says he plans to get his new body part tattooed to match the rest of him. ... A black man now has a white penis after a successful transplant in South Africa. ...
HIV and male circumcision-a systematic review with assessment of the quality of studies ... HIV and male circumcision-a systematic review with assessment of the quality of studies ...
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: (1) Studies involving young men, young male adults, male adults and mixed male and female participants; ( ... in contrast to medical male circumcision, traditional male circumcision (TMC) practices may contribute to HIV transmission and ... Traditional male circumcision and the risk for HIV transmission among men: A systematic review. Abstract. OBJECTIVES: To ... Existing evidence suggests that little attention has been paid to men and their families experiencing the impacts of TMC and ...
Task Force on Circumcision. Male circumcision. Pediatrics 2012;130:e756-e785. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-1990 ... Infant male circumcision. College Quarterly 2002;Fall:2. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Manitoba (CPSM) issued a ... The AAPs position on male circumcision is markedly different from the positions of other medical societies. The two papers ... Caution Regarding Routine Circumcision of Newborn Male Infants (December 2002). The College of Physicians and Surgeons of ...
The case against infant circumcision and for genital integrity ... For infant male circumcision, the issue is whether the risk/ ... ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF NEONATAL CIRCUMCISION Circumcision of infant males is a medical procedure. The ethics of this medical ... This example is strained indeed, when the life and health of the sibling are at stake.] Thus infant male circumcision is not ... And the rest of this policy indicates that circumcision does not meet this standard.] Parental reasons for wanting infant male ...
Sexuality , Male circumcision prevalence: Percentage of males who are circumcised. * Sexuality , Population with multiple ... Sexuality > Male circumcision prevalence 66.8% 2008. 3rd out of 5 Sexuality > Population with multiple sexual partners > ... Sexuality , Population with multiple sexual partners , Males aged 15-24: Percentage of males aged 15-24 with two or more sexual ... Sexuality > Female circumcision prevalence 18% 2014. 22nd out of 27 Sexuality > Homosexuality > Legality of homosexual acts ...
Men taking up HIV Testing, Consistent condom use by Men and reduction of sexual partners. The campaign mobilises men to ... Brothers for Life promote positive male norms and encourage the uptake of Medical Male Circumcision, ... 2024 Brothers For Life , Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) , Gender-Based Violence (GBV) , Yenza Kahle - Do The Right Thing • ... Brothers For Life , Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) , Gender-Based Violence (GBV) , Yenza Kahle - Do The Right Thing ...
Brendon Marotta, director of the new award-winning film American Circumcision, will be present at a screening of the film ... Im a mens human rights advocate, writer, and publisher. My primary focus is leading the political party I launched in 2013, ... American Circumcision is his first feature-length documentary as director.. Details on the film here, Brendons Facebook page ... Brendon Marotta, director of "American Circumcision", will be present at the screening during the conference. Posted on March ...
of safe male circumcision (SMC) as a human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) prevention. strategy among male adolescent learners. ... Home / Citations / Factors influencing the uptake of male circumcision as HIV prevention ... ... Factors influencing the uptake of male circumcision as HIV prevention strategy among adolescent boys in Nanogang Community ... Factors influencing the uptake of male circumcision as HIV prevention strategy among adolescent boys in Nanogang Community ...
The Prepex Circumcision Device is a medical device which facilitates non-surgical adult male circumcision without the use of ... Safety Profile of PrePex Male Circumcision Device and Client Satisfaction With Adolescent Males Aged 13-17 Years in Zimbabwe. ... Male Circumcision Comparison Between a Nonsurgical Device to a Surgical Technique. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency ... The PrePex device was safe and effective as a means of performing bloodless adult male circumcision that can be carried out by ...
Circumcision of Boys: A Serious Male Health Problem. J. Steven Svoboda, Gregory J. Boyle, and ARC Board Member Christopher P. ... Circumcision: A Violent Ritual in Search of a Rationale. The Mens Center, published April 2002. Birthing, Winter 2001, pp. 36- ... Below the Belt: Doctors, Debate, and the Ongoing American Discussion of Routine Neonatal Male Circumcision. This article ... Circumcision of Healthy Boys: Criminal Assault?. Gregory J. Boyle, J. Steven Svoboda ARC Board Member Christopher Price and J. ...
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is considered safe and the vast majority of men heal without complication. However, ... Employing modern medical male circumcision within traditional settings may increase patient safety and further male ... Post categories: Clinical Mentoring Demand Creation HIV and STI Prevention Male Circumcision Matthew Golden Monitoring & ... Expanding Two-Way Texting for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients in South Africa. I-TECH, in close partnership with ...
Circumcision. * Male Circumcision - नेपाली (Nepali) Bilingual PDF *Health Information Translations. Colonic Diseases. * Barium ...
Men are key decision makers for their sons circumcision, so understanding their beliefs is important for the uptake of early ... infant male circumcision in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have high HIV prevalence. We analyzed mens preferences for ... Prevalence and Predictors of Uncircumcised, Kenyan Mens Desire for Circumcision for Their Infant Sons.. Hudson, F Parker; ... Most men (59%) reported they would "definitely" want their son circumcised if a son was born to them within the next year. ...
Report shows progress in voluntary medical male circumcisions in Eastern and Southern Africa, reducing risk of HIV infections. ... Report shows progress in voluntary medical male circumcisions in Eastern and Southern Africa, reducing risk of HIV infections. ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention. WHO technical advisory group on innovations in male circumcision, 30 September-2 October ... Increasing voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among adult men in Tanzania. AIDS 2017;31:1025-34. CrossRefexternal icon ...
  • Guidelines from the World Health Organization update earlier recommendations to maximize the HIV prevention impact of safe voluntary medical male circumcision services and to. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Cape Town, 23 July 2009 (PlusNews) - The World Health Organization endorsed male circumcision (MC) as an HIV-prevention measure two years ago, but implementation of large-scale male circumcision programmes has been relatively slow. (plusnews.org)
  • The forceps-guided method, the dorsal slit method, and the sleeve resection method are well described by the World Health Organization in their Manual for Male Circumcision under Local Anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recognized by the World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS as an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention intervention in settings with a generalized HIV epidemic and low male circumcision prevalence. (cdc.gov)
  • Substantial progress toward achieving VMMC targets has been made in the 10 years since the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommended scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in 14 Southern and Eastern African countries with generalized HIV epidemics and low male circumcision prevalence ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • All of our resources have been transferred to the GPC site, where additional VMMC resources will continue to be posted as part of the Adolescent Boys and Men pillar. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Key considerations on offering voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to adolescents ages 10 through 14 were discussed during Part 1 of the second webinar of a three-part. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Presenters from Kenya and Namibia reported on the introduction of the ShangRing device for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) at a 9 September 2019. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) Is a key component of combination HIV prevention in countries with a high HIV prevalence and low levels of male circumcision. (who.int)
  • This will require redoubling current efforts and introducing novel strategies that increase demand among subgroups of males who have historically been reluctant to undergo VMMC. (cdc.gov)
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Almost a decade after the formal introduction of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important technology for HIV prevention, its implementation is still fraught with acceptability challenges. (bvsalud.org)
  • After punching in surveillance data on HIV prevalence and sexual behaviours, and expenditure on performing male circumcisions, including the cost of facilities, drugs, surgical supplies and staff salaries, countries can calculate the cost of a national male circumcision programme, and how many men they would need to reach to achieve the desired results within a chosen time-frame. (plusnews.org)
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Uncircumcised, Kenyan Men's Desire for Circumcision for Their Infant Sons. (bvsalud.org)
  • Men are key decision makers for their son 's circumcision, so understanding their beliefs is important for the uptake of early infant male circumcision in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have high HIV prevalence . (bvsalud.org)
  • In multivariable Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios, key predictors of the desire to circumcise their sons included knowledge that circumcision reduces HIV acquisition, having a supportive partner, discussing circumcision with the partner, altruism , and intention to be circumcised himself. (bvsalud.org)
  • This guideline provides an evidence-based recommendation on the use of adult male circumcision devices for HIV prevention in public health programmes in high HIV prevalence, resource-limited settings. (bvsalud.org)
  • Much of the work on male circumcision is still taking place at the three sites where the clinical trials took place: South Africa, Kenya and Uganda . (plusnews.org)
  • He noted that one surgeon assisted by five nurses can perform between six and 10 circumcisions every hour at a cost of about R350 (U$45) per procedure, and training nurses to carry out the surgery would mean more men could be circumcised, but South Africa does not allow nurses to perform the operation. (plusnews.org)
  • A black man now has a white penis after a successful transplant in South Africa. (iheart.com)
  • The Circumcision Trainers have been developed with the assistance from one of the top medical schools in Wisconsin, as well as medical professionals in South Africa and Indonesia. (buyamag.com)
  • Male Circumcision is being used in Africa to combat HIV. (swpictures.co.uk)
  • Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • This article examines the medical pros and cons of neonatal male circumcision in a historical perspective and suggests that the circumstances that led to its establishment as a routine practice are largely absent today. (arclaw.org)
  • The medical societies of non-English speaking nations do not issue circumcision policy statements because neonatal male circumcision is not a practice of those countries. (cirp.org)
  • This document is intended to assist health care providers in the United States who share information with men and parents of male infants during decision making about male circumcision conducted by health care providers (i.e. medically performed) as it relates to the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other health outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • A brief bulleted summary of the health benefits and risks of elective medically performed male circumcision is provided at the end of the document. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike psychologists some urologists didn't take a circumcision for medically necessary without diagnosing a phimosis. (beschneidung.com)
  • Although millions of males have been medically circumcised in CDC-supported programs, many more VMMCs need to be performed to reach global targets. (cdc.gov)
  • Together, we can raise awareness and advocate for informed consent, bodily autonomy, and an end to routine, medically unnecessary infant circumcision. (intactamerica.org)
  • After reviewing the currently available evidence, the RACP believes that the frequency of diseases modifiable by circumcision, the level of protection offered by circumcision and the complication rates of circumcision do not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand. (cirp.org)
  • Infant circumcision is a surgical procedure performed to remove the loose tissue, known as the foreskin, covering the glans of the penis. (buyamag.com)
  • Infant Circumcision Training Kit is a complete kit for all circumcision training needs. (buyamag.com)
  • The Clearinghouse's Resource Library contains hundreds of resources on voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention. (malecircumcision.org)
  • A significant additional benefit of the programme has been the large numbers of young men it has reached with voluntary HIV counselling and testing. (plusnews.org)
  • The Clearninghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention is moving to the new Global HIV Prevention Coalition's Resource Hub. (malecircumcision.org)
  • CDC has developed Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV infection, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and other Health Outcomes In addition, CDC developed documents to describe the evidence that serves as the basis for this information, and to provide CDC responses to peer and public review. (cdc.gov)
  • Appendix 2 includes a list of key statements in Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV infection, STIs, and other Health Outcomes and the consensus grade applied to the citation supporting that statement. (cdc.gov)
  • The Bophelo Pele Male Circumcision Project at Orange Farm, outside Johannesburg, the site of the South African trial, is still the only facility in the country that offers free male circumcision for HIV prevention. (plusnews.org)
  • The SWHP is the highest performing, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (PEPFAR-CDC) partner in MMC service delivery, with nearly 200,000 circumcisions performed since 2010. (cdc.gov)
  • The act of circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin of the male genitalia. (thewitness.org)
  • Indeed, in its removal of the foreskin , which is the most sensitive part of the penis , male circumcision also removes 30-50 per cent of the penile skin . (intactiwiki.org)
  • Several African countries that are fighting HIV epidemics have launched campaigns to encourage men to undergo the procedure, which involves surgically removing the foreskin from the penis. (newzimbabwe.com)
  • When I masturbated for the first time after the circumcision it was unusually new to me that the skin on the penis was even and tight. (beschneidung.com)
  • Circumcision devices remain on the penis for 4 to 7 days and either spontaneously detach or are removed surgically at a subsequent visit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 40-year-old lost his own penis nearly two decades ago during a circumcision gone wrong. (iheart.com)
  • Testosterone, the main male sex hormone, is responsible for the growth and development of your penis, testicles, and scrotum, as well as your prostate gland and your seminal vesicles, both of which help make semen. (webmd.com)
  • Circumcision, the ongoing practice of surgically removing the foreskin from the male penis, has a history rooted in religious rituals, cultural traditions, and medical misinformation. (intactamerica.org)
  • Circumcision is an operation that involves the removal from the penis of the foreskin. (lookoff.co)
  • In a review by WHO personnel, 0.4% men required rapid intervention with surgical circumcision as the excision had occurred but the foreskin slipped from the device and required suturing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the authors' experience, the Plastibell technique can be used safely for office circumcisions in children up to 10 kg under local anesthesia because this technique induces tissue necrosis by means of suture compression of the foreskin over a plastic ring that protects the glans. (medscape.com)
  • No statement recommends the practice of non-therapeutic child circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • The AAPS does not support or condone the practice of child circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • Firstly, male circumcision is an effective--partially effective--way of preventing men becoming infected in heterosexual epidemics. (cdc.gov)
  • Local Anesthesia for Neonatal Circumcision: Effects on Distress and Cortisol Response. (intactamerica.org)
  • The Rakai Health Sciences Programme in Kalisizo, Rakai District, Uganda, is carrying out post-trial research on the long-term effects of male circumcision on HIV incidence and behaviour. (plusnews.org)
  • The Gomco clamp is a surgical instrument used to perform circumcision in all age groups, but is mainly used in newborn circumcision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there are different methods of circumcision, the Circumcision Trainers have been designed for Mogen clamp method, Guillotine clamp method, Gomco clamp method, Plastibell method, dorsal slit method, forceps guided method, and sleeve circumcision. (buyamag.com)
  • A female MP in Tanzania has called for checks to determine whether or not her male colleagues have undergone circumcision - a procedure known to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. (newzimbabwe.com)
  • In neighbouring Kenya, some top politicians voluntarily submitted to the procedure in 2008 as a way of encouraging men from their communities to do the same. (newzimbabwe.com)
  • Circumcision surgical procedure in males involves either a conventional "cut and stitch" surgical procedure or use of a circumcision instrument or device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision instruments are used at the time of surgery, and the circumcision is complete at the end of the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this statement the ACP disclosed the traumatic nature of circumcision, recommending that parents should be given more complete facts about the procedure. (cirp.org)
  • This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision . (webmd.com)
  • The Royal Australasian College of Physicians published a new position statement, prepared under the supervision of Professor David A. Forbes of the University of Western Australia, regarding the non-therapeutic circumcision of male infants in September 2010. (cirp.org)
  • Circumcision can inflict acute pain on infants. (intactamerica.org)
  • studied 50 healthy male infants in the 1980s who were circumcised without anesthesia. (intactamerica.org)
  • Infants Feel Circumcision Pain, Study Says. (intactamerica.org)
  • In the newborn period (less than 2 months of age), almost all circumcisions are done by generalist physicians using one of three surgical instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the newborn period, circumcision has a higher risk of complications, especially bleeding and anesthetic complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the leading instrument for newborn circumcision in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • All six medical societies (the RACP , Australian Association of Paediatric Surgeons , New Zealand Society of Paediatric Surgeons , Urological Society of Australasia , Royal Australasian College of Surgeons , and Paediatric Society of New Zealand ) have now corroborated the Canadian Paediatric Society , declaring that circumcision of newborn males should not be routinely performed. (cirp.org)
  • Generally, the alleged prophylactic benefits of male circumcision are overstated while the risks, complications, certain injury, and other drawbacks are understated. (cirp.org)
  • however, this helped shape my view on this topic and I feel like I can provide better education to parents in the future about the risks and benefits of circumcision. (weebly.com)
  • It is important to shed light on the life-altering risks, suffering, and alarming realities associated with circumcision, also known as male genital mutilation. (intactamerica.org)
  • Hypogonadism and Urologic Surgeries: A Narrative Review A new study examines the potential impacts of male hypogonadism on urologic surgery outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Urologic myths: M. Circumcision is cleaner and prevents cancer hence all men should undergo. (healthtap.com)
  • This directory contains official policy statements of various medical organizations regarding non-therapeutic male circumcision, along with discussions of these positions. (cirp.org)
  • Medical organizations are political associations of doctors that have a duty to represent the interests of their doctor members, of whom some may profit by performing circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • In September 2002, under the lead of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP), Paediatrics and Child Health Division , six major medical societies of Australasia developed a unified position statement on male circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • The new statement firmly declares: "There are no medical indications for routine male circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • The 1971 statement affirmed that there is no medical indication for neonatal circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • It was after this article appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association that anesthesia began to be used for circumcision. (intactamerica.org)
  • This intraoperative view, depicted a male patient in the process of undergoing what is referred to, as a medical male circumcision (MMC). (cdc.gov)
  • Women across the African "excision belt" have broken away from the male discourses of anthropology and psychoanalysis and have fled from "the cult of culture" and from religious and patriarchal surveillance. (sup.org)
  • The body itself thoroughly documents the literature-fiction by men as well as women and the African woman's experiential text-to arrive at the agency that had long been absent in any discussion of excision. (sup.org)
  • After Ayaan Hirsi Ali asked if male circumcision could be made illegal, the Dutch Justice Minister Piet Hein Donner claimed that circumcision was not traumatic and he saw no reason to make it illegal. (intactiwiki.org)
  • UNAIDS calculated that one HIV infection is averted for every five to 15 male circumcisions, and designed a tool to help countries plan large-scale male circumcision programmes. (plusnews.org)
  • This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. (webmd.com)
  • Major items in this section include age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, circumcision status (males), and history of sexually transmitted diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Outreach activities to educate households in Orange Farm about male circumcision include door-to-door campaigns, talks at schools and churches, radio spots, and referrals from clinics that treat patients for sexually transmitted infections. (plusnews.org)
  • Can Circumcision Be Avoided in Adult Male With Phimosis? (medscape.com)
  • Circumcision is a religious ritual that has been practiced for centuries in many cultures and religions. (thewitness.org)
  • Men in normative (rabbinic) Judaism have far more access to the sacred through personal and communal ritual than do women, in terms of sacralization of the body, family and public ritual, marriage and divorce, and much more. (jwa.org)
  • halakhah ), requires males to don ritual garments ( Fringes attached to each of the four corners of a special garment worn to fulfill a Biblical precept. (jwa.org)
  • Presenters from Namibia and Tanzania summarised findings on the safety of ShangRing;male circumcision at a 9 September 2019. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Findings suggest that male circumcision among VaRemba is not only the removal of prepuce but comprises a secretive and rich curriculum rooted in their culture and identity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Australasian Association of Paediatric Surgeons (AAPS) issued its first statement on circumcision in 1996. (cirp.org)
  • Bailey RC, Neema S, Othieno R. Sexual behaviors and other HIV risk factors in circumcised and uncircumcised men in Uganda. (medscape.com)
  • The benefits of circumcision of the heart are numerous. (thewitness.org)
  • Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits. (medscape.com)
  • The South African and Ugandan governments are both drafting policies on male circumcision, while other countries, including Kenya, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia and Swaziland, are at various stages of implementation. (plusnews.org)
  • We analyzed men 's preferences for circumcising their sons using data from a population -representative survey of 1501 uncircumcised men aged 25-49 years in western Kenya . (bvsalud.org)
  • Approximately 14.5 million VMMCs were performed globally during 2008-2016, which represented 70% of the original target of 20.8 million VMMCs in males aged 15-49 years through 2016 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • If a product meets prequalification requirements it is added to the WHO List of Prequalified Male Circumcision Devices and becomes eligible for UN procurement. (who.int)
  • Products submitted for prequalification assessment that meet, as determined by WHO, the WHO prequalification requirements are included in the WHO List of Prequalified Male Circumcision Devices. (who.int)
  • Circumcision surgical instruments should be distinguished from circumcision devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision via instrument results in healing by primary intention and healing via devices is by secondary intention, so healing is delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the organization went further, expressing concern that neonatal circumcision may violate human rights. (cirp.org)
  • The content of circumcision policy statements may also be influenced by religious and political considerations. (cirp.org)
  • Since the beginning of the epidemic in the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people have been disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike the female reproductive system , most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. (webmd.com)
  • We need plaintiffs to file a lawsuit against the SSS, male and female, who live in California, between the ages of 18 and 25. (ncfm.org)
  • Please see Appendix 1 (for male) and Appendix 2 (for female) for detailed information on variables included in the SXQ section in the latest seven release cycles. (cdc.gov)
  • Information was collected using two-part (number and unit) questions for both SXD630 (last performed oral sex on a new male partner) and SXD642 (last performed oral sex on a new female partner). (cdc.gov)
  • Prominent human rights advocates Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Soraya Mire (both survivors of female genital mutilation ) have acknowledged that male circumcision is worse than some forms of female genital mutilation. (intactiwiki.org)
  • They also make inhibin B (which plays a role in sperm production), insulin-like factor 3 (which helps with the development of the testes), Mullerian inhibiting substance hormone, or anti-Mullerian hormone (which helps with the growth of male sexual organs), and estradiol (which aids in sperm production). (webmd.com)
  • Later on, in the New Testament, circumcision was replaced by baptism as a sign of our faith in Jesus Christ. (thewitness.org)
  • The New Testament speaks of true circumcision of the heart in which the believer's heart is transformed by God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ. (thewitness.org)
  • This passage shows that the true circumcision happens through a spiritual rebirth in Christ, in which our old self is put off, and we are made new in Him. (thewitness.org)
  • then a man lives a life of faith on Christ, of holiness from him, communion with him, and has both an open right unto, and meetness for, eternal life. (biblestudytools.com)
  • Circumcision of the heart refers to a spiritual transformation that happens when an individual experiences a change of heart, turning away from sin and turning towards God. (thewitness.org)
  • The male reproductive system refers to the organs involved in sexual function and in the production of children in men or people assigned male at birth (AMAB). (webmd.com)
  • This duty to the members may in some instances prevent complete candor about the effects of non-therapeutic circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • Circumcision complete. (medscape.com)
  • Dirk Taljaard, the project manager, told delegates that the programme aimed to circumcise 50 percent of young men in the township over a five-year period. (plusnews.org)
  • As we can see in Genesis 17:10-14, God commanded Abraham to circumcise all of his male descendants as a symbol of their faith in God. (thewitness.org)
  • In a review published in the journal Translational Andrology and Urology, the authors summarize the results of studies of the use of the ShangRing device to perform adult male. (malecircumcision.org)
  • In the Old Testament, God commanded the Israelites to perform physical circumcision as a sign of the covenant between God and Abraham. (thewitness.org)