Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.
An atrophic and sclerotic condition of the head of the PENIS, glans penis. Sometimes it leads to stenosis and occasionally obliteration of the external meatal orifice.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Sexual activities of humans.
An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Pediatric urinary tract infection and reflux. (1/423)

Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training should be evaluated for the presence of reflux. Children who may be lost to follow-up and those who have recurrent urinary tract infections should also be evaluated. The preferred method for evaluation of urinary reflux is a voiding cystourethrogram. Documented reflux is initially treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Patients who have breakthrough infections on prophylaxis, develop new renal scarring, have high-grade reflux or cannot comply with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for surgical correction. The preferred method of surgery is ureteral reimplantation. A newer method involves injection of the bladder trigone with collagen.  (+info)

Adult circumcision. (2/423)

Adult circumcision can be performed under local or regional anesthesia. Medical indications for this procedure include phimosis, paraphimosis, recurrent balanitis and posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce). Nonmedical reasons may be social, cultural, personal or religious. The procedure is commonly performed using either the dorsal slit or the sleeve technique. The dorsal slit is especially useful in patients who have phimosis. The sleeve technique may provide better control of bleeding in patients with large subcutaneous veins. A dorsal penile nerve block, with or without a circumferential penile block, provides adequate anesthesia. Informed consent must be obtained. Possible complications of adult circumcision include infection, bleeding, poor cosmetic results and a change in sensation during intercourse.  (+info)

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. (3/423)

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes as "benchmarks", and updated them by searching the Medline database for more recent information. RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. We could find little scientific evidence of adverse effects on sexual, psychological, or emotional health. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided with the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks.  (+info)

Circumcision and neonatal tetanus: disclosure of risk and its reduction by topical antibiotics. (4/423)

BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have paradoxically suggested that circumcisions protect against neonatal tetanus (NNT), but these observations have not been adjusted for differences in the length of survival of cases and controls. METHODS: Boy cases (n = 133) and their sex-matched controls (n = 399) were extracted from a population-based study of NNT undertaken in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In the resulting file, circumcisions were censored such that analysis was restricted to only those that occurred before onset in cases or before age of onset in the matched case for controls. The effect of topical antibiotics in circumcision wounds was then evaluated. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, circumcision before onset posed a significant risk for NNT (matched odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0). The risk of NNT in those circumcised before onset and treated with topical antibiotics did not differ significantly from the referent group who had not been circumcised before onset (matched OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.2-6.8), whereas the lack of topical use was associated with significant risk (matched OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6). This suggests that topical antibiotics are likely to be highly effective in preventing NNT from circumcision wounds. We estimated an overall risk of about 16 fatal NNT cases per 1000 live boy births with circumcision wounds that were not protected by topical antibiotics, and that circumcision and umbilical wounds each accounted for about half of this overall risk in these boys. CONCLUSIONS: Topical antibiotics should be routinely applied to all wounds created by traditional circumcisions, to prevent NNT and sepsis from these frequently unsterile procedures.  (+info)

Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. (5/423)

To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.  (+info)

Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner. (6/423)

OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV.  (+info)

Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. (7/423)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and one was initially HIV-1-negative and followed them prospectively for up to 30 months. The incidence of HIV-1 infection per 100 person-years among the initially seronegative partners was examined in relation to behavioral and biologic variables. RESULTS: The male partner was HIV-1-positive in 228 couples, and the female partner was HIV-1-positive in 187 couples. Ninety of the 415 initially HIV-1-negative partners seroconverted (incidence, 11.8 per 100 person-years). The rate of male-to-female transmission was not significantly different from the rate of female-to-male transmission (12.0 per 100 person-years vs. 11.6 per 100 person-years). The incidence of seroconversion was highest among the partners who were 15 to 19 years of age (15.3 per 100 person-years). The incidence was 16.7 per 100 person-years among 137 uncircumcised male partners, whereas there were no seroconversions among the 50 circumcised male partners (P<0.001). The mean serum HIV-1 RNA level was significantly higher among HIV-1-positive subjects whose partners seroconverted than among those whose partners did not seroconvert (90,254 copies per milliliter vs. 38,029 copies per milliliter, P=0.01). There were no instances of transmission among the 51 subjects with serum HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 1500 copies per milliliter; there was a significant dose-response relation of increased transmission with increasing viral load. In multivariate analyses of log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels, each log increment in the viral load was associated with a rate ratio of 2.45 for seroconversion (95 percent confidence interval, 1.85 to 3.26). CONCLUSIONS: The viral load is the chief predictor of the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, and transmission is rare among persons with levels of less than 1500 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter.  (+info)

Circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors: a simple, safe and acceptable new technique. (8/423)

BACKGROUND: Circumcision may be performed by a variety of techniques. Postoperative haemorrhage is a recognised complication of the procedure. METHOD: A method of circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors is described. Foreskin vessels are coagulated as the foreskin is cut away. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent this procedure without complication. CONCLUSION: Circumcision using bipolar scissors can be a safe and simple operation.  (+info)

There has been an expansion of circumcision services in Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. However, the effect of infant male circumcision on morbidity and mortality still remains unclear. Acute morbidities associated with circumcision include pain, bleeding, swelling, infection, tetanus or inadequate skin removal. Scale-up of circumcision services could lead to a rise in these associated morbidities that could have significant impact on health service delivery and the safety of infants. Multidisciplinary training programmes have been developed to improve skills of health service providers, but very little is known about the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. The review will include studies comparing health
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and …
Introduction Definition of the Prevention Area Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is the complete removal of the foreskin of the penis by surgical means. Though VMMC may be conducted for a number of reasons, evidence from three clinical trials has shown that medical male circumcision can significantly reduce (but not eliminate) mens risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual vaginal sex. The U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports provision of VMMC by qualified, well-equipped professionals, and with the clients informed consent. To ensure that VMMC is provided as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a minimum package of services should be available in all facilities providing male circumcision. This package includes HIV testing and counseling, screening and syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) where required; provision and promotion of male and female condoms; and counseling on
The Collection comprises four reviews and five research articles, and highlights how scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa can help prevent HIV, not only at the individual level but also at the community and population level, as well as leading to substantial cost savings for countries due to averted treatment and care costs. Two of the research articles are published in PLoS ONE; the remaining seven articles are published in PLoS Medicine on 29th November 2011. They can be accessed from the PLoS Medicine VMMC Collection page; the table of contents is also included below.. The first article by Catherine Hankins of UNAIDS, Steven Forsythe of The Futures Institute, and Emmanuel Njeuhmeli of PEPFAR/USAID, offers an introduction to the cost, impact and challenges of accelerated scaling up and lays out the rationale for the Collection. The remaining eight papers focus on the various factors that have important roles in effective ...
BACKGROUND: follow-up visits are recommended to all voluntary medical male circumcision clients (VMMC), however, adherence is variable. High lost-to-follow-up cases limit knowledge about clinical status of clients and adverse events. This study sought to establish Motivators and Barriers to the Uptake of VMMC post-operative follow-up services in Siaya County, Kenya. METHODS: 277 clients from five VMMC sites in Yala were recruited immediately post-operation to participate in a telephone interview between the 21st and 31st day post-surgery during which a semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse quantitative information using SPSS while responses from open ended questions were grouped into themes, sieved out, coded and analyzed. RESULTS: 137(49.5%) of the 277 participants utilized the follow-up services. Health education (31.4%) and emergency reviews/adverse events (24.1%) were the main motivation for returning for follow-up while
Published in the journal PLoS One, this article reports on the frequency, type, and severity of adverse events after voluntary medical male circumcision in Botswana.. ...
Health, ...New York 13 December 2010A new report from the Womens HIV Prevention...Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr...The report highlights community-level support as well as concerns and ... Women are excited for medical male circumcision because theyre despe...,New,report,provides,womens,perspectives,on,medical,male,circumcision,for,HIV,prevention,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Emmanuel Njeuhmeli and colleagues estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult medical male circumcision in 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, finding that reaching 80% coverage and maintaining it until 2025 would avert 3.36 million new HIV infections.
Asiphile was created to encourage increased uptake of male circumcision in the catchment area and its mission is two-pronged: to train and mentor clinic staff in male circumcision and to create a high-volume, high quality male circumcision facility to serve KwaZulu-Natal consistent with WHO guidelines and recommendations [17]. Experts from Operation Abraham Consortium and St Marys Hospital initiated a clinical training program called SHESHA (is Quick, Be Fast in isiZulu). The training model was endorsed by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical Faculty for continuing medical education for physicians. The international team was composed of surgeons who have conducted thousands of adult circumcisions and who provided on the spot training and mentoring.. Surgeons, nurses and health clinic staff from St. Marys Hospital were recruited, trained, and utilized at the Asiphile facility. The new staff were trained to manage daily program operations, perform forceps-guided male circumcisions, educate ...
Blog posts from Dr. Reed of the Reed Centre in Miami Beach Florida about adult male circumcision and other urological procedures.
Care guide for Adult Male Circumcision (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
This study is a randomized controlled intervention trial. This multi-centre study will take place in 3 centers located around Johannesburg, in the areas of Orange Farm, Sebokeng and Evaton. The intervention group patients (circumcised at the beginning of the trial) and the control group (uncircumcised men) will be followed during 21 months (from M.0 to M. 21). Randomization and medicalized circumcision will be performed at M.0 in the intervention group and might be optional in the control group at end of study. The medicalized circumcision effectiveness will be evaluated on and after M.3 (3 months after medicalized circumcision). Incidences (of HIV, HSV-2 infections and genital ulcer disease) will be compared from M.3 to M.21 between the intervention group and the control group. An intermediate analysis will take place at M. 12 ...
South Africa has one of the most severe and fast-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. This study will assess the efficacy of circumcision in HIV uninfected men in preventing HIV and STI acquisition.. This study will have two stages. In the first stage, 200 men will be enrolled into a study of the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of circumcision. Frequent postoperative follow-up will occur to determine rates of healing and complications. After assessment of those enrolled in Stage 1, Stage 2 enrollment will begin. Stage 2 will determine the efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. In both stages, HIV uninfected men will be randomly assigned to have either immediate circumcision or possible circumcision 2 years following Stage 2 study entry. The participants not receiving immediate circumcision will be offered circumcision after completion of 2 years of follow-up study, ...
Mukono District Health authorities, in collaboration with the Makerere University Walter Reed Project (MUWRP), officially launched a Safe Male Circumcision Program at the Mukono Health Center IV on August 8. MUWRP recently completed renovations of the minor surgical theatre at the Health Center, which will serve as the long-standing circumcision clinic for Mukono Town.
Routine infant circumcision has been practiced on infant males and females in America for many years. The reasons for circumcision, also called amputation and genital reduction, have varied over the years and include eliminating masturbation, training women, curing epilepsy and recently, even preventing HIV. In 1996, a federal law upheld the illegality of all female circumcision for all reasons, including for religious practice. Infant male circumcision is still widely practiced in America, with rates reaching as high as 50% in some regions. Based on the current laws and constitution, it appears that infant male circumcision is already illegal, despite being widely accepted culturally. The ban enacted in 1996 should be amended to be a law of equality by including both females and males ...
BackgroundRecent experimental evidence has demonstrated the benefits of male circumcision for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies have also shown that male circumcision is cost-effective and reduces the risk for certain ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The epidemiology of male circumcision in the United States is poorly studied and most prior reports were limited by self-reported measures. The study objective was to describe male circumcision trends among men attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic, and to correlate the findings with HIV, syphilis and sexual orientation.Methods and FindingsA cross sectional study was performed by reviewing all electronic records of males attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic between 1996 and 2005. The prevalence of circumcision over time and by subpopulation such as race/ethnicity and sexual orientation were measured. The findings were further correlated with the presence of syphilis and HIV
ISSUES IN PUBLIC HEALTH. Key facts on male circumcision. Bertran Auvert; Pascale Lissouba; Dirk Taljaard; Nathan Geffen; Agnes Fiamma; Mark Heywood. In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS convened an international consultation of experts who represent a wide range of stakeholders, including government representatives, researchers, civil society representatives, gender experts, human rights and womenâ s health advocates, young people, funding agencies and implementing partners, to investigate the potential role of male circumcision in the prevention of HIV transmission. As a result, male circumcision is now recognised and recommended by WHO/UNAIDS as an additional and important strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in countries with a high prevalence of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and low levels of male circumcision.1. Following the results of rigorous scientific research and the WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, sub-Saharan countries ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
Male circumcision is by far the most prevalent surgical procedure worldwide, with about 10 million performed each year, mostly in non-medical settings. Although circumcision is considered to be a minor and safe procedure, the incidence of postoperative complications can be high.1-3 Traditional circumcisions throughout sub-Saharan Africa are usually performed with cutting tools that are used without intermediate cleaning on several patients in turn, leading to complications and, in particular, infections.4-8 Complication rates associated with ritual circumcision performed in non-medical settings have not been widely reported, but most authors agree that such unsafe practices should be discouraged.6,9,10. A comprehensive safety assessment of current male circumcision procedures is necessary to identify appropriate methods for each setting and to issue proper clinical guidelines, as positive results on the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV transmission are likely to boost ...
Umhlobo Wenene FM. . Brothers for Life promote positive male norms and encourage the uptake of Medical Male Circumcision, Men taking up HIV Testing, Consistent condom use by Men and reduction of sexual partners. The campaign mobilises men to actively engage in activities to address Gender-Based Violence in their communities.
Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy consent for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision ...
December 1 is World AIDS Day, providing an opportunity for people and organizations worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV/AIDS. URC has been supporting many Governments efforts to combat the epidemic for over 30 years. Most recently, through the USAID Strengthening Ugandas Systems for Treating AIDS Nationally (SUSTAIN) and USAID Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems (ASSIST) projects, we have been working in Uganda to expand coverage and uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), also known as safe male circumcision (SMC).
As is clear, section 12(8)(b) allows for circumcisions to be conducted on male children below the age of 16 if such circumcision is performed for medical reasons on the recommendation of a medical practitioner.. Neither the Childrens Act nor the General Regulations Regarding Children6 (General Regulations) under the Childrens Act provide a definition of medical reasons. In the absence of a definition, and based on the evidence that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection by up to 64%,7 reduces the risk of HSV-2 and HPV infection,8 and that neo-natal circumcision carries a lower risk of complications than childhood or adult circumcisions, any reasonable interpretation of medical reasons will be sufficiently broad for a medical practitioner to recommend elective neo-natal medical male circumcision to the parents of infant boys and remain within the ambit of the Childrens Act. In addition - while not inherently necessary for obtaining the protective benefits of medical male ...
With all the posturing in the recently released Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (2012) about mass male circumcision, whether performed in completely unsterile conditions found in traditional settings or the (hopefully) more sterile settings of health facilities, nothing was mentioned about hepatitis B or C. But an article in the East African describes a piece of…
In an editorial to be published in the Journal of the American Medical Association online Oct. 5, Johns Hopkins health epidemiologist and pathologist Aaron Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., and health epidemiologist Ronald Gray, M.D., highlight the most recent medical research showing the considerable life-long health benefits of circumcision performed during infancy and the potential disadvantages associated with waiting until adulthood before undergoing the procedure. The experts point out that there are medical benefits during childhood, as many young men are already sexually active before age 18, and at greater risk of infection from sexually transmitted infections. Circumcision at older ages is also associated with more complications and cost than having the minimal surgery in infancy ...
26 July 2005 , Rio de Janeiro - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS).. Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
Adult male circumcision in our practice is performed under local anesthesia. General anesthesia is available but seldom given. Typical scenario: Dr. Reed will meet with the patient, examine the patient and review circumcision styles. The patient then is transferred to the operating suite. Local anesthesia cream is applied for about 15 minutes. Afterwards a local anesthetic is injected mostly at the base of the penis (a ring block). After another 15 minutes elapses, effective penile anesthesia is confirmed. The patient is cleansed with an antiseptic solution and draped. Surgery takes about 40 minutes or so.. The patient is given a handheld mirror to observe and approval is sought before steri-strips and a 2 layered dressing is applied. Please visit adult-male-circumcision.com/photographic-examples for before and after pictures of adult circumcision.. Harold M. Reed, M.D ...
In the first installment, John Donnelly interviews Caroline A. Ryan, MD, MPH, director of technical leadership. at the Office of U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator. She has been a long-time key architect of the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Reliefs (PEPFAR) implementation. Could you give an overview on PEPFARs activities to date regarding the scale up of male circumcision?. We have 14 countries now receiving PEPFAR funding for male circumcision. They are mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Some money is in Guyana, but not a lot. We are beginning to see that countries are embracing this as part of a prevention portfolio, and they are investing a higher percentage each year into male circumcision, which is good.. We also see a change from countries at first integrating it into existing services to what would be a larger service delivery model that also takes advantage of mobile sites for particular campaigns. Weve seen a number of countries, such as Kenya, Zambia and Swaziland, use campaigns during ...
Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness. We performed an as-treated analysis of plasma samples collected under a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision for HIV prevention, comparing men based on
There are many other pros and cons when it comes to the circumcision argument which I dont have room to address here, however, I urge you to speak with your pediatrician at length before making this choice for your own child. However, as a sex therapist, I will say that if you do feel traumatized by your circumcision, you are not alone. There is a group called Intact America which is working to end routine circumcision, and you can go to their web site to find resources and like-minded support from other men (and women) who are against circumcision. Last, before I end, I want to address the issue of consent around circumcision. One man on my Facebook post compared circumcision to rape, and while I appreciate his right to anger about his circumcision, we must be very, very careful when we use the word rape to describe anything other than rape. Words matter. They are powerful. They shape our beliefs and they inform the way we live in this world. So when we use the word rape to talk about a ...
A proposed bill to ban non-medically required male circumcision on babies and children in Iceland is receiving backlash from religious communities.
Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention if carried out by medical professionals under safe conditions. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that circumcision reduces the risk that a man will acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from an infected female partner. A meta-analysis of data from fifteen observational studies of men who have sex with men found insufficient evidence that male circumcision protects against HIV infection or other STIs. The CDC concludes There are as yet no convincing data to help determine whether male circumcision will have any effect on HIV risk for men who engage in anal sex with either a female or male partner, as either the insertive or receptive partner. In 2007, the WHO reviewed the ...
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact among young men of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) status on the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV acquisition. METHODS: We used data collected during a male circumcision trial conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa. We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for HIV acquisition, using survival analysis and background characteristics, HSV-2 status, male circumcision status, and sexual behavior as covariates. RESULTS: Compared with subjects who remained HSV-2 negative throughout the study, subjects who were HSV-2 positive at enrollment had an adjusted IRR of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.4; P=.004), and those who became HSV-2 positive during follow-up had an adjusted IRR of 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-12.4; P|.001). The population fraction of incident HIV infection attributable to HSV-2 was 27.8% (95% CI, 17.7%-37.2%). Intention-to-treat analysis of
The majority of men who are HIV positive have been infected through the penis. There is conclusive epidemiological evidence to show that uncircumcised men are at a much greater risk of becoming infected with HIV than circumcised men. The inner surface of the foreskin contains Langerhans cells with HIV receptors; these cells are likely to be the primary point of viral entry into the penis of an uncircumcised man. Male circumcision should be seriously considered as an additional means of preventing HIV in all countries with a high prevalence of infection. The development of HIV receptor blockers, which could be applied to the penis or vagina before intercourse, might provide a new form of HIV prevention. In his otherwise excellent review of the AIDS epidemic in the 21st century, Fauci presented no new strategies for preventing the spread of the disease. He made no mention of male circumcision, yet there is now compelling epidemiological evidence from over 40 studies which shows that male ...
In males who have been circumcised, the circumcision scar refers to the scar after a circumcision has healed. In some cases, the scar can be darker-colored, and, in all cases, it will encircle the shaft of the penis. The scar, which completely encircles the shaft of the penis, is located at the boundary of the shaft skin and the inner foreskin remnant, which is the portion of the foreskin that was not removed during circumcision. This foreskin remnant is mucosa that lies between the glans and the circumcision scar, which results in dissimilar tissue healing together. In adult circumcision part of the frenulum may remain intact. The foreskin remnant is dried mucosa and can often have a different color and texture than the rest of the penile skin. It can be pinkish or light-colored, and it typically becomes covered with keratin to protect it from a dry environment. Some circumcision scars result in a marked color difference on the shaft. The characteristics of the circumcision scar depend on the ...
Mathematical modelling was used to compare the impact of combined interventions-extended antiretroviral therapy coverage, voluntary medical male circumcision, and pre-exposure prophylaxis among women-on HIV incidence in South Africa. The results are published in this article in BMC Infectious Diseases.. ...
A novel, hybrid segmentation technique reveals human heterogeneity in barriers towards a behavior, and is applied to characterize distinct segments in voluntary medical male circumcision.
It is simple to present male circumcision as the scientific and sensible thing to do. Indeed, the foreskin is one of those parts of the body, like wisdom teeth and the appendix, that seem to be ripe for the plucking. However, those who argue both for and against circumcision are likely to overstate their case. Guy Cox pointed out that some people have religious and philosophical objections to circumcision. However, characterising this opposition as anti-Semitic or anti-Islamic makes as much sense as calling someone who opposes slavery as anti-Christian, anti-Islamic and anti- Semitic because the Bible and the Koran allow it. The human foreskin is a natural part of a mans penis. It is therefore not surprising that many people question the idea of removing it. Far from being as simple as an inoculation, circumcision is far from risk-free. Unless the operator is competent, and can control or eliminate infection and bleeding, the procedure is dangerous and even life-threatening. The basic ...
Of the 264 studies identified through the database search, 15 were determined to be eligible, and of these five were included.(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) All included studies were published between 2006 and 2009 and were conducted in Uganda, South Africa, Mozambique, and Botswana. One study analyzed data from 16 countires within sub-Saharan Africa (those already included as well as Burundi, Central African Republic, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. All studies were cost-effectiveness analyses, and the primary outcomes were cost per case of HIV infection averted and compared adult male circumcision to no circumcision. The studies were epidemiologic, stochiastic, and costing models. Four studies included a 3% discount rate and one study did not report discounting. The time frames ranged from 10 to 20 years. ...
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, (London) Vol. 312 no 7033 (March 23, 1996): pp. 779-780 NEONATAL CIRCUMCISION DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST CANCER Editor, - Although Morten Frisch and colleagues have made a valuable contribution to the study of penile cancer, they mistakenly repeat the myth that neonatal circumcision renders the subject immune to penile cancer.[1] The reference given for this statement is not an epidemiological study but an opinion article by the American circumcisionist Abraham L. Wolbarst in 1932.[2] Wolbarst invented this myth and was directly responsible for its proliferation; he based it on unverifiable anecdotes, ethnocentric stereotypes, a faulty understanding of human anatomy and physiology, a misunderstanding of the distinction between association and cause, and a unbridled missionary zeal. It was not based on valid scientific and epidemiological research. All subsequent repetions of this myth are traceable to Wolbarsts article, though Wolbarst himself advocated universal neonatal ...
Circumcision Removes the Most Sensitive Parts of the PenisA sensitivity study of the adult penis in circumcised and uncircumcised men shows that the uncircumcised penis is significantly more sensitive. The most sensitive location on the circumcised penis is the circumcision scar on the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are routinely removed at circumcision are significantly more sensitive than the most sensitive location on the circumcised penis.In addition, the glans (head) of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine touch than the glans of the uncircumcised penis. The tip of the foreskin is the most sensitive region of the uncircumcised penis, and it is significantly more sensitive than the most sensitive area of the circumcised penis. Circumcision removes the most sensitive parts of the penis. This study presents the first extensive testing of fine touch pressure thresholds of the adult penis. The monofiliment testing instruments are calibrated and have ...
Looking for online definition of Partial circumcision in the Medical Dictionary? Partial circumcision explanation free. What is Partial circumcision? Meaning of Partial circumcision medical term. What does Partial circumcision mean?
wow joshua, think whatever u want to, but calling someone else a disgusting human being for not believing the same thing as you is fd up. i am highly opposed to FMG, i think it is unnecessary and not done in a surgically correct manner. however, Joshua, there is a reason for removing the foreskin in males. you have no right to call people who disprove of FMG but not male circumcision an uneducated hypocrite. Im sorry Joshua, but i think your the one who speaks without knowing. before you point fingers, make sure your hands are clean. If you want HIV, go ahead and tell people your mad that doctors removed your foreskin when you were a baby, something you dont even remember.If you believe male circumcision has no purpose, maybe you should do some research on the subject before you start mouthing off to people when u really dont know what your talking about. Also, male circumcision does not mutilate male genitals. it removes an unnecessary part of the body. you dont get all butt hurt when ...
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In the following article, a skeptic lays down the controversy. We begin the fair-use article before the jump ... Circumcision Fight: Profit, Pleasure, or Population Control? If the experiment fails, Africans are likely to feel abused and exploited by scientists who recommended the circumcision policy
OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of male circumcision in the spread of HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection. HIV prevalence among adults was relatively low in Cotonou (Benin) and in Yaoundé (Cameroon), and exceeded 25% in Kisumu (Kenya) and in Ndola (Zambia). In each city, a random sample was taken of men and women aged 15-49 years from the general population. Consenting study participants were interviewed about their sociodemographic characteristics and their sexual behaviour, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection. Men underwent a genital examination. RESULTS: In Cotonou and in Yaoundé, the two low HIV prevalence cities, 99% of men were circumcised. In Kisumu 27.5% of men were circumcised, and in Ndola this proportion was 9%. In Kisumu, the prevalence of HIV ...
Circumcision performed for health reasons in phimosis has obvious benefits - it significantly improves the quality of sexual life and prevents the occurrence of dangerous paraphimosis. In addition, it improves local hygiene and lower incidence of penile cancer is reported in circumcised men. It is also assumed that circumcised men have increased sexual stamina, but this it is rather individual.. The question of circumcision without any medical reason is controversial. It is certainly advantageous for better hygiene, but on the other hand, every surgery has its complications, including the circumcision. Personally, I would consider any circumcision without medical indications as rather unnecessary surgery.. ...
Because Tikkun has always sought to create a community in which issues that are taboo elsewhere can be explored with intellectual honesty and tolerance, particularly when those positions differ from our own or from the accepted worldviews of our readers, we are printing in this issue an article that fiercely critiques the Jewish practice of circumcision. I have invited others to write a response to it, which I hope to print in addition to your letters to the editor on this topic.. Circumcision does not have a higher status in Torah law than other commandments that have been ignored or transformed in the course of the evolution of Judaism. The entire system of animal sacrifice has been abandoned. The author of the article on circumcision in this Summer 2011 issue of Tikkun contends that it has been a key element in patriarchal practice. Perhaps. But even the most cursory look at other societies that did not practice circumcision, e.g., feudal Europe, Chinese dynasties, Nazi Germany, or Soviet ...
Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Dr Mulindi Mwanahamuntu says long term protection from cervical cancer for women whose husbands are circumcised exceeds 30%, reports Zambian Eyes Limbikani Msamba. Dr. Mwanahamuntu revealed that there was a move within the HIV strategic plan to offer circumcision services to new born babies.. Speaking when he featured on Zambian Eyes interactive live interview dubbed Hot Seat, Dr. Mwanahamuntu, who has worked in the UTH Obstetrics and Gynaecology department for 23 years, also outlined the various reasons for conducting the procedure and addressed the controversies regarding the quality of life after.. Circumcision is simply the removal of excess foreskin, all of it or part of it. This is done for a variety of reasons. It could be done to treat conditions that create problems with the penis, such as failure of the foreskin to retract or failure of the retracted foreskin to return, respectively called phimosis and para phimosis, He said. Other reasons include ...
Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Dr Mulindi Mwanahamuntu says long term protection from cervical cancer for women whose husbands are circumcised exceeds 30%, reports Zambian Eyes Limbikani Msamba. Dr. Mwanahamuntu revealed that there was a move within the HIV strategic plan to offer circumcision services to new born babies.. Speaking when he featured on Zambian Eyes interactive live interview dubbed Hot Seat, Dr. Mwanahamuntu, who has worked in the UTH Obstetrics and Gynaecology department for 23 years, also outlined the various reasons for conducting the procedure and addressed the controversies regarding the quality of life after.. Circumcision is simply the removal of excess foreskin, all of it or part of it. This is done for a variety of reasons. It could be done to treat conditions that create problems with the penis, such as failure of the foreskin to retract or failure of the retracted foreskin to return, respectively called phimosis and para phimosis, He said. Other reasons include ...
Faster healing after circumcision (circumcision) through the phimosis surgery. The pants protection against external influences such as pushing, bedspread, textiles. The adhesion of the wound at the dressing is omitted. The Protector basket is perforated with small holes, so that a natural air circulation is ensured. This phimosis pants is suitable for adults with size 7
Anyone else notice how the younger a man is, or the more recent his circumcision was done, the more skin is being removed past the penis head and cut off way down his penis shaft ? I notice circumcisions in the USA seem to be cutting off the penis skin way beyond just exposing the glans head of the penis. Now more circumcisions are cutting off skin far below the rim of the penis head and up to half way down the penis shaft toward the scrotum. That s a lot more skin now being taken off
You have the choice to accept or decline surgery to remove the foreskin from your sons penis (known as circumcision).. Male infants are born with foreskin fused to the head of their penis. By the time intact (uncircumcised) males reach an early adolescent age, the foreskin will naturally detach itself from the head of the penis, and the foreskin can then be retracted to expose the head of the penis (parents and caretakers of intact babies/children should be advised that retraction of the foreskin should not be done before this natural separation happens on an intact penis because it can be very painful and can cause bleeding, infection, scarring, and other complications). In circumcised infants, the foreskin is pulled away from the head of the penis and surgically removed.. Below are links and information on the various reasons for keeping infants intact or circumcising, statements of position on circumcision from various agencies, and ethical considerations. There also links for information on ...
Praise be to Allah.. It is better for circumcision to be done when the child is small, because that is kinder to the child, and so that the child may grow up in a perfect form. Al-Nawawi said: It is mustahabb for the childs guardian to have him circumcised when he is small, because that is kinder to him. Al-Majmoo, 1/351. Al-Bayhaqi (8/324) narrated that Jaabir said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did aqeeqah for al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and he circumcised them when they were seven days old. The isnaad of this hadeeth is daeef (weak). See Irwa al-Ghaleel, 4/383 Hence Imam Ahmad was asked about the time of circumcision, and he said, We have not heard anything about that. Ibn al-Mundhir said: There is no report that may be referred to concerning the time of circumcision, and no Sunnah to be followed. With regard to the time when it becomes obligatory: Some of the scholars were of the view that it is not obligatory until after puberty, because the duties of ...
9.^ Fetus and Newborn Committee (March 1996). Neonatal circumcision revisited. Canadian Medical Association Journal 154 (6): 769-780. PMID 8634956. PMC 1487803. http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/FN/fn96-01.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02. We undertook this literature review to consider whether the CPS should change its position on routine neonatal circumcision from that stated in 1982. The review led us to conclude the following. There is evidence that circumcision results in an approximately 12-fold reduction in the incidence of UTI during infancy. The overall incidence of UTI in male infants appears to be 1% to 2%. The incidence rate of the complications of circumcision reported in published articles varies, but it is generally in the order of 0.2% to 2%. Most complications are minor, but occasionally serious complications occur. There is a need for good epidemiological data on the incidence of the surgical complications of circumcision, of the later complications of circumcision and of ...
An article in The Conversation (UK) claims that there may be a correlation between neonatal circumcision (i.e. within the first month) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS or cot death is a poorly understood problem in which an apparently healthy baby suddenly stops breathing and dies in his sleep; it has been the subject of several awareness campaigns in Australia, notably the famous Red Noses. Surveying statistics in 15 countries, the author found that SIDS was more common in boys than girls, and less common among Hispanics (with a lower circumcision incidence) in the United States than in the general population. In previous research author suggested that the cause could be chronic stress, leading to increased blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. The author, Eran Elhaik, a lecturer in medical genomics at the University of Sheffield (UK), emphasises that at this stage the evidence is inconclusive and that no firm link has been shown; nonetheless, he suggests that there is sufficient ...
To those of us in the sex-education field, there is not a whole lot of mystery about the relationship between circumcision and sexual pleasure. The foreskin has thousands of nerve endings and is an important part of the male sexual system. Removal of the foreskin also leaves the head of the penis - the most sensitive part of the male genitals - constantly exposed. Constant rubbing on clothing and exposure to temperature changes reduces the sensitivity and responsiveness of the nerve endings, creating the demand for more stimulation to trigger a pleasure response.. The head of the penis is the anatomical homologue (match) to the head of the clitoris. So for all the ladies reading this, imagine the very tip of your clitoris constantly exposed and rubbing against your clothes, and you can begin to imagine the desensitization that would occur over time. The clitoris is protected not only by the clitoral hood (the match to the foreskin), but also the fleshy labia. The foreskin is natures protective ...
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Plank, Rebeca M; Wirth, Kathleen E; Ndubuka, Nnamdi O et al. (2014) Single-arm evaluation of the AccuCirc device for early infant male circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 66:1-6 ...
This makes sense to me, but what I had heard before also made sense, so Im not sure which is correct, or if it even matters.. Anyways, when I was in elementary school, we had sex-ed classes that said that basically circumcision = more sensitivity because the most sensitive area are the glands on the underside of the head, and removing the extra tissue covering this area directly exposes it to stimulus.. Like I said, not sure if it matters, but we were actually taught that in school when we were young. Then again, with all the other garbage weve been taught, who really knows... ...
CHALLENGE. Producing technical parts in ultra restrictive environments. Plastibell, which was created in 1986, is a plastic parts injection molding specialist that belongs to the Healthcare & Industry business unit of PSB Industries Group.. Every year, Plastibell produces 160 to 600 million parts for products such as medical devices, diagnostic devices and dialysis bag connectors.. These parts are manufactured by injection molding using granules of polypropylene, polycarbonate and polystyrene.. Plastibell operates in stringently regulated and quality-controlled environments for its customers in the healthcare sector, a key strategic growth market for the company.. SOLUTION. Guaranteeing hygiene, traceability and safety throughout the production process. Plastibell turned to robots for its industrial process. When material arrives at the molding machine, it is heated and injected into molds to form the parts. And thats where the robots come in. They extract the parts from the mold and transfer ...
MODEL RELEASED. Penis circumcision to treat phimosis. Close-up of the foreskin being surgically removed (circumcised) to treat phimosis. The patient has diabetes, a condition that can lead to inflammation and swelling of the foreskin if blood sugar levels are too high. This can lead to, or worsen, phimosis, an overly tight foreskin that is difficult to retract. In chronic cases, the foreskin can be removed to avoid a recurrence of these symptoms. - Stock Image C004/4299
Fewer boys are being circumcised these days, and that could add to health costs down the road. Over the past two decades, circumcision rates in the U.S.
The arguments on both sides go something like this. If female circumcision is worse than male circumcision, then male circumcision must be OK. If baby girls are
I went to see my pediatricglans is sticking out, only a very small circle around the urethra. And I am unable to pull it back over. The doc said it is phimosis and should resolve around when he hits ...
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Fowler on what are the benefits of circumcision: In the middle east and africa where it is actively practiced it is seen by many as important. It increases social status, makes a female marriageable, ensures virginity & fidelity & removes what is often viewed as filthy & ugly - female genitalia. It is also practices in a number of other countries. There are absolutely no medical benefits to female circumcision - it can lead to death, recurrent.
This circumcision of Christ is not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God (1 Peter 3:21). This public declaration (not a private ceremony for Jewish families) demonstrates that there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus (Galatians 3:28). The sign of the new relationship is for all who believe in the completed work of the Messiah. This circumcision dramatizes the creation of the new man (Romans 6:4) and tells the story of salvation in a way that anyone can both participate in and remember. HMM III ...
Professor of Immunology & Chair and Head, Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town; Director, Laboratory of Tissue Immunology, National Health Laboratory Services and Groote Schuur Hospital; Adjunct Professor, Department of Immunology, Duke University, North Carolina, USA; Secretary-General, Federation of African Immunology Societies; Vice-Chair, Education Committee of the IUIS.. Clive Gray currently has six active grants from the NIH; one from the National Institute of Health Research, UK; one from the EDCTP, and a competitive rated NRF grant. His research interests revolve around investigating immune regulation and dysregulation and biological risk for HIV infection in two scenarios: a) HIV exposed uninfected pre-term and term newborn children (born to HIV infected mothers) and b) epithelial immune regulation in foreskin tissue of adolescent and young males who elect to undergo medical male circumcision ...
Thanks for writing a great blog. I look forward to reading your reply.. Sincerely,. J.F.. Dear J.F.. Thanks for writing! Before I launched into my personal opinion, I decided to do some quick research on the internet about circumcision.. Circumcision removes a substantial part of the penis, which is not just a piece of skin. The foreskin is a specialized, retractable sleeve of erogenous tissue that protects the head of the penis, can be manipulated during sex and masturbation, and amounts to about 50 square centimeters in the adult male.. To read the entire Huffington Post article by a Danish doctor in favor of leaving penises intact, click here.. …circumcision rate in newborns has declined from 83 percent in the 1960s to 77 percent in 2010. (The overall rate among U.S. males age 14 to 59 is 81 percent, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.). Additionally, the data suggests there is a racial disparity driven primarily by access to procedure and cultural and ...
Nothing I have said has been with the intention to hurt you or make you feel bad. I didnt even know about Braydens tragic last days until he had already passed. Even so, when a baby boy is circumcised, I assure you that I never hope for his death. I sit on the sideline and wait and hope for good news. Generally, no news is good news. I feel relieved and move on. The reason you may think of us as vultures is because the deaths go viral, but this happens because people, like myself, are furious when babies die from this. Had it been an organ transplant or something else required to live a long, healthy life, people would understand fully that it was a necessity. Coming from two intact countries, I know that routine infant circumcision is not medically necessary. I believe it is as popular as it is in America because parents arent being told that it can (and does sometimes) result in death. The medical establishment needs to be held accountable for ignoring the deaths. These arent just ...
A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.. The study, published Nov. 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the first to track a large group of people before, during and after the start of an HIV prevention program and show that the program is likely working on a large scale. The researchers found that as the program began and matured from the early 2000s until 2016, there was a 42 percent decline in the rate of new HIV infections.. The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Ugandas rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, ...
[Ask InSite is a feature of the University of California San Franciscos HIV InSite. The site touts itself as providing Comprehensive, up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and policy from the University of California San Francisco. And in nearly every sense, it does just that. I have a lot of respect for HIV InSites tireless work…
Treatment of phimosis in children with circumcision (costs for program #38811) ✔ University Hospital Giessen UKGM ✔ Department of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology ✔ BookingHealth.com
With intravaginal containment of the normal penis, the males mobile sheath is placed within the womans vaginal sheath. It is impossible to imagine a better mechanical arrangement for non-abrasive stimulation of the male and female genitalia than this slick sheath within a sheath. Circumcision destroys this one sheath within a sheath . . . I would hazard a guess, that dyspareunia [painful intercourse] is more common in the women whose husband is circumcised . . . one would be foolish to discount the circumcised males immobile penile skin sheath as an ancillary item contributing to vaginal, abrasive discomfort . . . The male with a penis already moderately obtunded by circumcision may be less apt to use a condom, which he feels may further decrease his genital sensitivity . . . because most American males lack a facile prepuce, the period of foreplay and dalliance may be abbreviated in the rush to the intra-vaginal method of penile stimulation. Both these factors conceivably could be of ...
Health department issues alert after ultra-Orthodox parents did not sign required city consent form for oral suction practice. City says 13 cases have been reported, including two deaths, since 2000.
National Aids Council (Nac) public health officer, Dr. Blessing Mutede, said authorities were concerned about the high rate of infection among the circumcised. He said it was largely a result of risk compensation behaviors. Most men, after circumcision, harbour the false impression that they have been equipped with an invisible condom, he added. It is a worrying development that at a time when we are promoting male circumcision as a preventive measure to combat HIV, we are recording a high prevalence rate amongst the group that has been circumcised largely due to uninformed risky compensation behaviors. He continued, Most people forget that being circumcised will only safeguard a person from contracting HIV up to a certain percentage and they are still at a 40 percent risk of contracting the virus. What we encourage everyone, circumcised or [intact], is to practise safe sex all the time ...
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. Circumcision is a religious or cultural ritual for many Jewish and Islamic families. Circumcision can also be a matter of family tradition, personal hygiene and preventive health care. Review Date: Thursday, October 30, 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research ...
This will be my first biological son and I am considering circumcision for him (due August). My step son is not circumcised and neither is my partner. However, my partner is suffering from adult phimosis, which is part of where my decision
Is male foreskin circumcision required to enter heaven or the fullness of the kingdom of God Christians Jews uncircumcised gentiles Paul Moses new covenant
Jennifer Medina reports in the New York Times: When a group of activists proposed banning circumcision in San Francisco last fall, many people simply brushed them aside. Even in that liberal seaside city, it seemed implausible that thousands of people would support an effort to outlaw an ancient ritual that Jews and Muslims believe fulfills a commandment issued by God.. But last month, the group collected the more than 7,100 signatures needed to get a measure on the fall ballot that would make it illegal to snip the foreskin of a minor within city limits. Now a similar effort is under way in Santa Monica to get such a measure on the ballot for November 2012.. If the anticircumcision activists (they prefer the term intactivists) have their way, cities across the country may be voting on whether to criminalize a practice that is common in many American hospitals. Activists say the measures would protect children from an unnecessary medical procedure, calling it male genital mutilation.. This ...
The most common surgical procedure in America, circumcision, is unnecessary, yet millions of newborn boys are still circumcised each year.
http://i.imgur.com/HwGFC.jpg?1http://i.imgur.com/AFXmB.jpg?1http://i.imgur.com/RB71l.jpg?1 Pictured: Despite religious opposition, courts in various countries around the world have found circumcision to be an infringement upon an individuals right to self determination. A key issue relating to mens rights currently being discussed is the genital mutilation young boys undergo without their consent. Before a child is able to give consent, their foreskin is removed. Many mens rights
The first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of male circumcision on female to male HIV transmission was ... The trial estimated that male circumcision provided protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%) for female to male HIV transmission. ... "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: An Introduction to the Cost, Impact, and Challenges of Accelerated Scaling Up". www. ... "New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention: Policy and programme implications". WHO.. ...
Male circumcision is required in Judaism, optional in Islam, and not required in Christianity. Globally, male circumcision is ... Male circumcision is a painful process and can lead to bleeding and in some cases severe side effects including penile ... "Religions and Circumcision". BBC. "Circumcision (male)". Mayo Clinic. https://www.who.int/hiv/pub/malecircumcision/chapter_10. ... Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hope of reward after death. "The Barna ...
Newborn male circumcision; 2015 [Retrieved 20 October 2017]. Koenig JF. EMedicine. Meatal stenosis; 22 September 2016 [ ... of males (up to 35% of diabetic males). Edwards reported that it is generally more common in males who have poor hygiene habits ... Males of Racey's pipistrelle bat have a narrow, egg-shaped glans penis. The glans penis of a male cape ground squirrel is large ... Penile spines also occur on the glans of male and female spotted hyenas. In male dogs, the glans penis consists of two parts ...
"men") by circumcision. This practice is commonly found among Basotho men in the Free State Province of South Africa as well as ... The prevalence of traditional male circumcision among the Sotho people, who mostly reside in the Free State, is at 57.3%. ... It is considered taboo for newly initiated men to share details of lebollo with females and males who have not been to ... Many government-based organizations provide clinical circumcision, but many Basotho still opt for circumcision at traditional ...
... evaluating the effect of male circumcision among HIV in young men. She is an HIV specialist. A Fulbright scholar, she earned ... Agot's research focuses on HIV, HIV transmission, and male circumcision. She is the Project Coordinator of a joint research ... Nguyen, Katie (21 July 2014). "What's male circumcision worth? In Kenya, it's food vouchers". Thomson Reuters Foundation. ...
M Tractenberg (1999). Male and Female Circumcision. George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos ( ... Bettelheim, Bruno (1962) Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. New York: Collier. Farb, Peter (1968) Man's Rise ... while a few subincised men carry a tube with which they can aim.[citation needed] Subincision (like circumcision) is well ... The young men who endured this custom were the only ones to learn a simple ceremonial language, Damin. In later ceremonies, ...
Safe Male Circumcision Policy. In: Ministry of Health, editor. Kampala 2010 Population Reference Bureau. 2014 World Population ... Implicit in this is the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable ...
They practice male circumcision; according to Junod's work in 1927, surrounding tribes regarded the Lemba as the masters and ... Lemba men who marry non-Lemba women are expelled from the community unless the females agree to live according to Lemba ... A Y-DNA genetic study in 1996 of 49 Lemba males suggested that more than 50% of the Lemba Y-chromosomes are Semitic in origin, ... The restrictions on intermarriage with non-Lemba make it nearly impossible for a male non-Lemba to become a member of the Lemba ...
They practiced male circumcision. The Yandruwandha Yawarrawarrka filed a petition to have their land rights recognized in 1988 ... While Burke and Will died, the only man to survive, John King, did so because he found sanctuary with the Yandruwandha, among ...
khumur (خُمُر) or ʾakhmirah (أخْمِرة)) headcovering (Q. 24:31). Khitān (ختان) Male circumcision. Khuluq (خُلُق) pl. ʾakhlāq ( ... In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ʿAbd (عبد) (for male) ʾAmah (أمة) (for female) Servant or ... body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(Non-related men means those she can marry lawfully). ʾĀyah (آية ...
... male circumcision is often performed by non-medical personnel under non-sterile conditions. After hospital circumcision, the ... state that evidence indicates male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition by men during penile-vaginal ... "Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention: Is There Really Enough of the Right Kind of Evidence?". Reproductive Health Matters. ... "New Data on Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention: Policy and Programme Implications" (PDF). World Health Organization. March 28 ...
The Bukusu practice male circumcision. It is thought that they adopted the practice from contact with the Kalenjin at Mount ... Young, newly married men formed the community's warriors, while middle-aged men did little. Older men formed the village's ... Male and female names were different: male names frequently began with 'W', while female names usually began with 'N'. Thus, ... If a young man came from a well-to-do family, he would ask his sisters to find a girl for him to marry. The ability of a girl ...
"Male circumcision reduces HIV transmission. The risk of transmission from woman to man is halved". Lakartidningen. 107 (46): ... ". "Nu kan hepatit C botas - men många får vänta". DN.SE. "Hans Rosling är död - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 7 February 2017. ...
See also: Circumcision and HIV. A body of scientific evidence has shown that men who are circumcised are less likely to ... In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin Patient", was given a stem cell ... Brown attained the title of the "Berlin Patient" in the HIV research field and is the first man to have been cured of the virus ... contract HIV than men who are uncircumcised.[1] Research published in 2014, concludes that the sex hormones estrogen and ...
As a preventative HIV/AIDS strategy, Lewis has made a somewhat controversial call for male circumcision when African boys ... Lewis, Stephen (2010-01-06). "Male Circumcision Part 1" (online video). AIDS Free World. YouTube. Retrieved 2014-04-03. ... Many studies have been conducted into the role circumcision can play in reducing the spread of HIV. Stephen Lewis is the son of ...
Male circumcision usually takes place after birth; in some families, it may be delayed until after the onset of puberty. ... The teachings of such men as Basava and Kabir may have been influenced by Muslim observances and social customs. A still ... Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-56023-181- ... Sikhism strongly rejects the beliefs of fasting (vrata), superstitions, idol worship, and circumcision. The Sikhs believe in ...
Discussing New Testament mention of male circumcision, Boteach noted that when Jesus is criticized for healing a crippled man ... He said that to compare the excising of a male foreskin with the removal of a female clitoris is a lie, as "female circumcision ... Boteach has argued in favor of infant male circumcision, defending the practice on religious grounds and health grounds, while ... The issue of the appropriateness of male circumcision remains a hotly debated topic. Boteach has been critical of pornography. ...
Forbid female and male genital mutilation/circumcision. Remove the Swedish church's near-monopoly on funeral services. Improve ...
The latest intervention that could improve men's sexual health is male circumcision. The 2015 maternal mortality rate per ... Prevention now includes voluntary male circumcision, although sexual behaviors among circumcised men need more understanding. ... WHO (17 October 2016). "HIV/AIDS: Male circumcision for HIV prevention". Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 17 ... WHO (July 2012). "Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention". Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved ...
In some men, foreskin restoration may alleviate certain problems they attribute to their circumcision. Such problems include ... Boyle, G.J.; Goldman, R.; Svoboda, J.S.; Fernandez, E. (2002). "Male Circumcision: Pain, Trauma and Psychosexual Sequelae". ... In 1989, the National Organization of Restoring Men (NORM) was founded as a non-profit support group for men undertaking ... Euringer, Amanda (2006-07-25). "BC Health Pays to Restore Man's Foreskin". The Tyee. Laliberté J. BC man's foreskin op a ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Edyegu, Daniel (4 April 2013). "Bugisu: Beyond Mount Elgon and male circumcision". New ...
Pang, M.G.; Kim, D.S. (January 2002). "Extraordinarily high rates of male circumcision in South Korea: history and underlying ... Only the women of the ruling class could enjoy the same privileges of the men in the same class. Although men were allowed to ... the circumcision rate for males 14-29 is 75.8%, with the aforementioned group rate down to 74.4%. It has been conjectured that ... "Decline in male circumcision in South Korea". BMC Public Health. 12: 1067. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1067. PMC 3526493. PMID ...
pancakes' (plural); AHD). Bris: The circumcision of a male child. (ברית‎, bris, from Hebrew: ברית‎, romanized: brith, lit. ' ... covenant'; OED, MW) Boychik: Boy, young man. (English boy + Eastern Yiddish: טשיק‎, -chik, diminutive suffix (from Slavic); AHD ... German: glitschen, 'slither'; AHD) Golem: A man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (גלם‎, goylem, from Hebrew: ... in Orthodox Judaism ten adult males are required, while in Conservative and Reform Judaism ten adults of either sex are ...
Circumcision is common among male adherents of Islam.) Saaliq, Sheikh; Schmall, Emily (28 February 2020), "Prayers at fire- ... A Muslim man was shot and burnt to death by a mob in Shiv Vihar, with cries of "Jai Shri Ram" being heard. People wielding ... In Jaffrabad, a man, allegedly linked with the anti-CAA side, opened fire at the police, before being arrested days later in ... 23 - as Hindu men gathered to forcibly eject a peaceful Muslim protest near their neighborhood - much of it became two-sided. ...
"ZIM embarks on pilot Male Circumcision exercise" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 4 June ... Beenie Man) which was produced by Nicky. All in all the Launch made history as the most attended Launch and most expensive ... Beenie Man) Amai Chandelier Sekai Chitekete Siya So Ijipita Njema njema Ndidye Mari ft Buffalo Soljah Naye Bhatiri Murombo Area ... Guspy Warrior) Ngoma Futi Idya Mari Woshora Copyrights Gafa Life Happiest Man 25 'Twenty Five' produced in association with V. ...
Both Islam and Judaism practice circumcision of males. Islam and Judaism both consider the Christian doctrine of the trinity ... They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free, adult non-Muslim males) to the Muslim government but were exempted ... A series of eminent men-such as the Tibbons, Narboni, and Gersonides-joined in translating the Arabic philosophical works into ... as to how man revived in the world to come, "From Luz, in the back-bone". The Islamic Hadith and Jewish Talmud have also often ...
Male initiation rites involved circumcision, but excluded subincision. Pidlatapa Piladapa, Pilladapa, Pillitapa Billidapa ...
Tulì is a Filipino rite of male circumcision. It has a long historical tradition and is considered an obligatory rite of ... Schumpelick u. a., S. 434 ff.) Weiss, H (2008). Male circumcision - Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and ... Circumcision in the Philippines, as practiced today, is not a religious rite. Circumcision is also not practiced by a majority ... circumcision] has not fallen into disuse among the Filipinos, even among the Catholics." In a 1903 article "Circumcision and ...
"Male Infant Circumcision: A Brief Overview of The Issues" (PDF). Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Seattle. Retrieved 4 January ... In North America, the genital integrity movement primarily focuses on non-therapeutic circumcision of male infants and children ... Nunn, Gary (20 July 2019). "Foreskin reclaimers: the 'intactivists' fighting infant male circumcision". The Guardian. London. ... Boyle, Gregory J.; Svoboda, J. Steven; Price, Christopher P.; Turner, J. Neville (2000). "Circumcision of Healthy Boys: ...
... a state court in the German city of Cologne claimed that circumcision of male children for religious purposes was an "act of ... which is against circumcision of male children. 2006: Mercator-Professur of the Universität Duisburg-Essen 2006: Corine ... Alone among men. In Anatolia.) In: Ulrike Ackermann (Publ.): Welche Freiheit. Plädoyers für eine offene Gesellschaft. (Which ... In an article in Die Welt, she wrote: "The circumcision of Muslim boys is an equally repulsive archaic custom as female genital ...
... of the young men's ears I made a heap; of the old men's heads I made a minaret. . . . The male children and female children I ... The Mongols in fact spent most of their time oppressing Muslims and Jews, outlawing the practice of circumcision and halal ... All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. A legal code ... Men were permitted to divorce their wives with no compensation paid to the latter. If a woman committed adultery, she could be ...
The man was dying and lacked time; his movements were confined and he lacked opportunity. In his case, faith alone was ... As a seal, also, or confirming sign, baptism answers to circumcision. Methodists recognize three modes of baptism as being ... This day ought to be kept holy unto the Lord, and men and women ought so to order their affairs, and prepare their hearts, that ... But it is the covenant of grace, which God, through Christ, hath established with men in all ages". The covenant of grace was ...
There is also a bearded black African man dressed in a green outfit with white collar and lace trimming. The face appears to be ... Circumcision' and the 'Resurrection'. These works were sent on 10 May 1614 to Philip II, Duke of Stettin and Pomerania, who had ... They could be court entertainers, but the expression of the African man seems to be too serious for this. The painting of the ... Apart from three female portraits and one male portrait given to the artist, the best known works of the artist are a miniature ...
As are all covenants between God and man described in the Bible, it is "a bond in blood sovereignly administered by God." New ... Circumcision controversy in early Christianity - Jesus and Paul and presumably the Jewish Christians were circumcised according ... Justitia civilis or "things external" is defined by Christian theologians as the class of acts in which fallen man retains his ... Sin Original sin Eternal sin Son of God Son of man Son of perdition Sons of God Spirit of God Star of Bethlehem Suffering ...
Frenulum remnant and scar from a Gomco clamp circumcision of a 34 year old male Healing of Frenuloplasty Before and after ... Repeated stimulation of this structure will cause orgasm and ejaculation in men. In men with spinal cord injury preventing ... The frenulum may be cut when a male is circumcised. This may also reduce the size of the frenular delta. The frenulum was ... Preiser, Gary (2000). "Circumcision-The Debates Goes On" (PDF). Pediatrics. 105 (3): 681-684. doi:10.1542/peds.105.3.681. PMID ...
Ray realizes that Gozer made a critical mistake of taking the form of a marshmallow man; it is forever trapped in this form ... Slimer originally was a priest that led the circumcisions in the Anglican Methodist church when killed by one of his patients ... He serves as the male counterpart to Janine Melnitz from the first two films. In the film, he applies for job in office ... Their goal: possess a mortal male and female, perform a sexual rite combining their powers and open a gateway to allow The ...
Upon the death of his brother, who left no male heirs, on 4 June 1950, he was proclaimed the next Sultan on 6 June 1950. Omar ... circumcision) ceremony of the Sultan's sons, Prince Hassanal Bolkiah and Prince Mohamed Bolkiah. The Sultan received the visit ... I also highly respect him because to me he was a brilliant man - Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang, in an interview with Utusan ...
... strongly criticizing the tradition of both male circumcision and female genital mutilation. In accordance with his antitheism, ... Of Trump, Hitchens said, "Because the man with many monikers in many ways embodies his country and because this election cycle ... and a man who managed to establish a dictatorship over his own people before they even had a state (here one simply refuses to ... He continued to regard Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin as great men, and the October Revolution as a necessary event in the ...
Walker, Linda Robinson (2013). "Jane Austen, the Second Anglo-Mysore War, and Colonel Brandon's Forcible Circumcision: A ... although only the male survived the difficult sea voyage. Noted artist George Stubbs subsequently painted the animal's portrait ... but limited his power by making the Governor-General one member of a five-man Supreme Council of Bengal, so confusedly ...
July 2017 Temple Mount shooting: Three men from the Israeli-Arab city of Umm al-Fahm opened fire on two Israeli Druze policemen ... In addition to this, Hadrian issued a decree prohibiting the practice of circumcision. These three factors, the graven images, ... the circumcision of Jesus was conventionally depicted as taking place at the Temple, even though European artists until ... with access usually restricted to men over 35 and women of any age eligible for permits to enter the city. Palestinian ...
9,032). Medicaid super-utilizers were more likely than other Medicaid patients to be male and to be aged 45-64 years. Common ... Adler PW (December 2011). "Is it lawful to use Medicaid to pay for circumcision?" (PDF). Journal of Law and Medicine. 19 (2): ...
This technique may also be used by some circumcised men who have sufficient excess skin remaining from their circumcision. For ... Men may also rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta. Some men place both hands directly on ... 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women ... Male masturbation techniques may differ between males who have been circumcised and those who have not. Some techniques which ...
As the Torah describes two levels of Jewish covenant, physical "covenant of circumcision" and spiritual "circumcision of the ... But according to Elijah's answer, ibid., the explanation of a "righteous man who suffers" is as stated in Raaya Mehemna on ... In the bodily form of man and woman, Yesod corresponds to the organ of procreation, analogously where the Tiferet body descends ... In the Bible, Abraham began the Yesod covenant of circumcision, though his sefirah is Chesed love-kindness, the first emotional ...
Malouf is still performed in public, especially at weddings and circumcision ceremonies, though recordings are relatively rare ... Bendir Man, Si Lemhaf, Artmasta. The most famous electronic and trip hop singers are Emel Mathlouthi, Ghalia Benali. The most ...
... maintaining that the Lemba are descended through their male line from the creators of the original Zimbabwean civilisation, and ... citing evidence including burial and circumcision practices. He suggested that the Shona artefacts which were found at Great ...
ISBN 0-691-09375-X. The registers give counts of tax-paying households, bachelors, religious men, and disabled men. These ... outlaws Sabbath and circumcision, sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it. 164 BCE ... Man, Nadav (9 January 2010). "Behind the lens of Hannah and Efraim Degani - part 7". Ynet. Rhett, Maryanne A. (19 November 2015 ... According to Josephus, the populations of adult male scholarly sects were as follows: over 6,000 Pharisees, more than 4,000 ...
For as there is a justice and a justice besides, an adoption and another adoption, a circumcision and another circumcision; so ... Amongst the events of time the highest grace is the uniting of man to God in One Person; in the eternal world the highest truth ...
A Defense by Ruth Gavison The Way of the World by Ofir Haivry Judaism and the Modern State by Yoram Hazony Circumcision as ... George Steiner's Jewish Problem by Assaf Sagiv Redemption and the Power of Man by Meir Soleveichik Israel and the Palestinians ...
Ahmed al-Ghazzal, Al-Nur al-Khamil Abu Abdallah ibn Askar : Dawhat Al-nachir li mhassin man kana bi Al-maghrib min machaykh al- ... circumcision, or exorcism, the search for a cure for illness or to make contact with the divine through the extase. Rituals ...
Hamas has imposed analogous restrictions on men as well as women. For example, men are no longer allowed to be shirtless in ... circumcision (sunatan) ceremonies or weddings. However, wearing Islamic attire to Christian relatives' funerals and weddings ... The Veil and the British Male Elite The Veil and the British Male Elite Afghan Hijab. ... Most men covered their heads with either a headscarf (similar to a wrapped keffiyeh, "a form of turban") or a fez. Turbans have ...
A young man is very uncomfortable with his legs swollen and knobbly because of Kaposi's sarcoma. He does not know he has AIDS. ... This mainly affects traditionalists who are exposed to such objects especially during circumcision. There is a general belief ... In the evening, an old man arrives from a place 100 kilometres (62 mi) away because of a painful hard swelling in his upper ...
Teitelbaum encouraged all married Hasidic men to wear ceremonial fur hats. Although these were not worn by most Hasidic men in ... Teitelbaum was very opposed to the use of a tube for metzitza during circumcision of a baby boy, and felt that this change in ... He argued with Rabbi Moshe Feinstein over the proper height of a mechitza (divider between men and women in the synagogue). ...
Each compound has a head male and a compound may have several separate huts, each hut with the different wives of the head male ... Excision and circumcision are common throughout the departments of Tollabery (Say, Ayerou, Torodi, Kollo), Marady and Diffa and ... According to UNICEF and the World Health Organization studies, in Zarma culture the female circumcision is called Haabize. It ...
At the same time, a corollary to this policy allowed for male Algerian workers to be joined by their families-a process known ... Examples of this light-hearted tone are woven throughout Shantytown Kid: in writing of his circumcision, Azouz muses, "in ... Begag hints at this conception of the male Algerian youth as a stereotyped ne'er-do-well through the reaction of Monsieur Grand ... An overwhelming majority of male Algerian immigrants were employed as construction workers, such as Azouz Begag's father, ...
"Gotti and his goons, how the man became a myth and a legend", New York Daily News, August 4, 2019. Accessed March 26, 2020. " ... "Henry Hill, Goodfellas Gangster, on Art, the Witness Protection Program, and His Adult Circumcision", The Village Voice, June ... "10 Things We Learned From Showtime's 'Wu-Tang Clan: Of Mics And Men'", Vibe, July 4, 2019. Accessed March 26, 2020. "Of all of ...
... law requires males born without a foreskin or who lost their foreskin through means other than a formal circumcision ceremony ( ... If a regular circumcision is delayed, there is no disagreement that this may not be performed on Shabbat. However, in the case ... ISBN 978-3-319-43310-3. E. S. Talbot, "Inheritance of circumcision effects", Medicine 1898, 4:473-475. Darwin, Charles (1868 ...
I believe that he rose again on the third day, that he freed sinful man, that he ascended to heaven, that he sits on the right ... An Antichrist will first propose circumcision, asserting that he is Christ; next he will place his statue in the temple at ... Book 3, AD 511-548, follows the four male inheritors of King Clovis who equally divide his realms at his death in AD 511. These ... and call men to witness that they are separated from the church. I believe that the word of the Father by which all things were ...
That man is a Mechutan to me - his grandson is married to my grand-daughter. "Rebbe Avroham Yosef Yuska Gottesman". .. is a ... Some families also kept a separate "Register of Circumcisions". For various reasons, Last names/family names were changed, and ...
Ingenuity is not a monopoly for men. It is not in vain that the Holy Quran tells us the story of a woman who led men wisely and ... He calls on ending and banned to Female Circumcision in some parts of the Muslim world, especially in rural Africa where most ... This has come about as a result of men's unrelenting attempts to control women's movement, as men have never allowed women a ... The man was calm and kept his cool. He refused to be blindfolded, and insisted upon facing death with open eyes.. and said the ...
This article is about religious male circumcision. For the history of male circumcision, see History of male circumcision. For ... "Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ... Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Male infant circumcision: A brief overview of the issues; February 2016 [Retrieved 8 October ...
Governor Jerry Brown announced on Sunday that he signed a bill preventing local authorities from banning the practice of male ... The bill, which takes effect immediately, comes in the wake of an effort by a San Francisco group opposed to male circumcision ... Circumcision is a ritual obligation for infant Jewish boys and also a common rite among Muslims, who account for the largest ... In June, the Anti-Defamation League condemned a comic book created by supporters of the anti-circumcision movement that it said ...
Male Circumcision. TASK FORCE ON CIRCUMCISION. Pediatrics September 2012, 130 (3) e756-e785; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds. ... Incidence of in-hospital newborn male circumcision, according to data source; United States, 1999-2010.2,3 ... Prevalence of male circumcision, according to self-report; United States, 1999-2004.5 ... Circumcision of Privately Insured Males Aged 0 to 18 Years in the United States ...
Lloyd Schofield is a man on a mission to ban circumcision from his community. He and other organizers have created an ... Circumcision is an important ritual in the Jewish faith, where it is performed on 8-day-old males. Marc Stern, associate ... AAP and Circumcision According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rate of circumcision among baby boys in ... Diekema added that there are scientifically demonstrated health benefits to male circumcision, but not for any kind of female ...
CDC has developed Information for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention ... This is a companion document to Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision ... CDC has developed Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the ... Information for Providers to Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV ...
... at BellaOnline ... Male Circumcision in Kenya Guest Author - Jeanne Egbosiuba ... During the circumcision the boys are encouraged not to cry out or flinch to show that they are truly men. Some tribes would ... What does that have to do with circumcision? Kenyans wondered what would happen if an uncircumcised male won the election. ... Boys and adult men view other males who are not circumcised as boys. This means they feel that the uncircumcised are not able ...
Male Circumcision Part 1: How It Can Get Us Closer to an "AIDS-Free Generation" Posted May 6, 2014 by Victoria Costello in ... Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency,. ...
NDPP and some other men expressed that this was a sensitive topic. As long as there is no equating male circumcision with FGM, ... But when a thread on male circumcision is started one day after one on FGM, and is titled, "Male Genital Mutilation," the ... Who made the accusation that the problem of FGM is being cast in a lesser light to the problem of male circumcision? Who ... Im not saying this to complain about my own circumcision, nor to in any way compare the outcomes of male versus female (shall ...
Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD007496. 7. ... Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus -associated penile lesions among Kenyan men. ... 1. Task Force on Circumcision. Male Circumcision. Pediatrics 2012;130;e756.. 2. Boyle GJ, Hill G (2011) Sub-Saharan African ... We congratulate the AAP Task Force on Circumcision for concluding that "the health benefits of newborn male circumcision ...
While it is not practical to pass laws against infant male circumcision it is both practical and possible for medical ... While it is not practical to pass laws against infant male circumcision it is both practical and possible for medical ... Reduce medical participation in Infant Male Circumcision. This petition is awaiting approval by the Avaaz Community ...
... a cultural movement against circumcision has taken root in the United States, but now doctors and public health advocates are ... What Is a Partial Circumcision? A partial circumcision may be an alternative to full circumcision. Your doctor may recommend ... Male circumcision is one strategy that may help reduce the continued spread of HIV in the U.S.," the agency said in an official ... However, circumcision on post-pubescent men is a much more serious procedure with greater risk of complications, such as ...
Transcript of Male Circumcision. Male Circumcision Circumcision is the procedure of cutting off the foreskin from the head of ... What is Male Circumcision? Medical Research AAP-no medical indication for male circumcision Circumcision numbers higher in ... Is circumcision in some ways abuse? Male Circumcision is a Problem... Essentially circumcision is a cosmetic surgery Structural ... The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. Journal Compilation, 619-621.. MacDonald, N., MD MSc. (2011). Male circumcision: ...
... infected persons and uncircumcised males, HIV prevalence in uncircumcised males and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) ... of males in Kenya are circumcised, nearly half of all uncircumcised men live in Nyanza Province, where circumcision prevalence ... circumcision coverage by July 2013. Later phases target males aged ,15 years and male infants for future VMMC programming. This ... TABLE 2. Number and percentage of voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) reported annually, by age group, provider, human ...
Circumcision among men who have sex with men in Scotland: limited potential for HIV prevention ... How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? BMJ 2000; 320 :1592 ... Incremental role of male circumcision on a generalised HIV epidemic through its protective effect against other sexually ... Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
... a study in Ugandan adolescent boys and men shows. ... Male circumcision prevents some genital herpes and human ... Male circumcision fends off the most common STDs. Male circumcision fends off the most common STDs. Operation offers partial ...
Male circumcision should be seriously considered as an additional means of preventing HIV in all countries with a high ... Thus, male circumcision further reduces the risk of infection by reducing the synergy that normally exists between HIV and ... Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Infect 1998; 74: 368-373. ... How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? BMJ 2000; 320 :1592 ...
Male circumcision and HIV infection. Euro Surveill. 2000;4(24):pii=1586. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.04.24.01586-en ...
... of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia statement on the ethics of unnecessary non-therapeutic child circumcision. ... infant male circumcision is acknowledged to be an important ritual and an integral part of Jewish and Islamic religions. Male ... Richards D. Male Circumcision: Medical or Ritual? Journal of Law and Medicine 1996. 3:371-376. Somerville M. Altering Baby Boys ... INFANT MALE CIRCUMCISION. Until recently, only public health and religious views were taken into consideration in the debate ...
"Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... The Catholic Encyclopedia: Circumcision *^ Jones, David Albert. "Infant Male Circumcision". National Center for Biotechnology ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ... Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Male infant circumcision: A brief overview of the issues; February 2016 [Retrieved 8 October ...
Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV.. Seed J1, Allen S, Mertens T, Hudes E, Serufilira A, Carael M ... Circumcision may be an appropriate risk reduction approach for men with known exposures to the virus when there are constraints ... Our objective was to describe associations among male circumcision, behavioral and demographic variables, ulcerative and ... Our subjects were 837 married men who volunteered for HIV testing and counselling. Uncircumcised men had a relatively low-risk ...
A proposed bill to ban non-medically required male circumcision on babies and children in Iceland is receiving backlash from ... A proposed bill to ban non-medically required male circumcision on babies and children in Iceland is receiving backlash from ... Circumcision also lowers the risk of penile cancer over a lifetime; reduces the risk of cervical cancer in sexual partners, and ... One in three men globally are estimated to be circumcised, with the majority for religious and cultural reasons. ...
Rwandas government is studying a new nonsurgical method to circumcise males as part of its fight against HIV. The experimental ... "Theres absolutely no doubt that if one can perform male circumcision without anesthesia, you save time, money and it requires ... All the men healed excellently, said researchers.. Participants took two ibuprofens to cope with an initial three-hour period ... Gay Men: Its Time to Stop Calling the Police on One Another for HIV Non-Disclosure. ...
If male circumcision is confirmed to be an effective intervention to reduce risk of acquiring HIV, this will not mean that men ... Nor does male circumcision provide protection for sexual partners against HIV infection. It will therefore be essential that it ... Fact sheet on male circumcision and HIV, by UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA and WHO July 2005 - pdf 121kb ... UNAIDS statement on South African trial findings regarding male circumcision and HIV. Statement developed by the World Health ...
... was associated with male circumcision (MC), but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. ... Increase in Circumcision Rate in the US. The rate of circumcision in men in the United States has increased to 81% over the ... After the Age of 35, Circumcision Could Prevent Prostate Cancer. Men circumcised after the age of 35 were 45% less at risk of ... Bottom Line: During the first year of life, a low rate of adverse events (AEs) was associated with male circumcision (MC), but ...
Sexual Health - Men. 3. 01-04-2011 08:50 AM. Adult Circumcision 4 days ago -- A few questions LLOD. Sexual Health - Men. 9. 10- ... Sexual Health - Men. 5. 12-04-2005 05:15 AM. Post-circumcision worries dave_says_no. Sexual Health - Men. 4. 11-10-2005 06:13 ... Sexual Health - Men. 39. 06-19-2002 01:28 PM. Circumcision Question! goodman_2001. Sexual Health - Men. 3. 08-27-2001 03:53 PM ... Sexual Health - Men. 4. 06-26-2009 04:38 AM. Waiting for circumcision to cure phimosis Ororiv. Sexual Health - Men. 1. 03-08- ...
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of the most powerful and cost-effective HIV prevention tools at hand. Studies ... The goal: achieve 80 percent coverage among men in these countries in order to avert 3.4 million new HIV infections and save US ... out for HIV prevention in 14 sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence and low levels of adult male circumcision. ... Newly available non-surgical circumcision devices could also play a role, offering an alternative to sutures and surgery that ...
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate male circumcision scale- up ... Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A randomised trial.. Millard PS1, Wilson HR, Veldkamp PJ, Sitoe N. ... We conducted a non-blinded randomised controlled trial comprising 200 male volunteers ,18 years of age, seen at the outpatient ... We compared two interventions - open surgical circumcision with suturing v. Gomco instrument plus tissue adhesive. Our primary ...
... circumcision, is unnecessary, yet millions of newborn boys are still circumcised each year. ... Stop Male Genital Mutilation: Circumcision is Unnecessary, Painful, and Costly. tweet email ... Myth - Male circumcision helps prevent HIV. Fact - Only abstinence or the use of condoms can prevent the spread of sexually ... Newborn male circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in the U.S. - yet this painful and unnecessary surgery carries ...
Care guide for Adult Male Circumcision (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment ... What you need to know about a circumcision:. Circumcision is a procedure to remove the foreskin from your penis. The foreskin ... Prepare for a circumcision:. *Your healthcare provider will tell you how to prepare for the procedure. He or she will tell you ... Risks of a circumcision:. You may bleed more than expected or get an infection. An injury to your penis, urethra, or nerves may ...
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the rate of circumcision among baby boys in the United States seems to be declining. (go.com)
  • CDC has developed Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV infection, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and other Health Outcomes In addition, CDC developed documents to describe the evidence that serves as the basis for this information, and to provide CDC responses to peer and public review. (cdc.gov)
  • This document is intended to assist health care providers in the United States who share information with men and parents of male infants during decision making about male circumcision conducted by health care providers (i.e. medically performed) as it relates to the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other health outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Appendix 2 includes a list of key statements in Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV infection, STIs, and other Health Outcomes and the consensus grade applied to the citation supporting that statement. (cdc.gov)
  • For the first time, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has weighed in on the hot-button issue of circumcision, or removal of the foreskin. (healthline.com)
  • Based on the results of three randomized controlled trials in 2007 showing that medical male circumcision is effective in reducing HIV acquisition among men by approximately 60%, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS issued recommendations urging countries to offer male circumcision as an additional HIV prevention intervention ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The benefits of infant male circumcision that have been promoted over time include the prevention of urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, and the reduction in risk of penile and cervical cancer. (cirp.org)
  • Although UNAIDS believes that it is premature to recommend male circumcision services as part of HIV prevention programmes, there is heightened interest from governments and the general public in male circumcision in a number of African countries. (who.int)
  • UNAIDS and other international agencies are working together to review available research results and their implications for HIV prevention and male reproductive health strategies in order to provide coordinated, consistent and up-to-date guidance and support to governments and other development partners. (who.int)
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of the most powerful and cost-effective HIV prevention tools at hand. (avac.org)
  • VMMC is being rolled out for HIV prevention in 14 sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence and low levels of adult male circumcision. (avac.org)
  • This document provides implementing partners supported by PEPFAR with a collection of the best resources available for sites providing voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention. (avac.org)
  • A wide range of materials and updates on global activities can be found at the Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision on HIV Prevention , a collaborative effort of AVAC, WHO/UNAIDS and FHI 360 to generate and share informational resources with the international public health community, civil society groups, health policy makers and program managers. (avac.org)
  • When preliminary results of this study were presented at the Third Annual AIDS Society Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in July, UNAIDS published a statement saying that it was premature to recommend circumcision as part of HIV prevention programs. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study enrolled 3257 gay men in six US cities from 1995 to 1997. (aidsmap.com)
  • Circumcision as a prevention of these uncommon and otherwise preventable/treatable conditions is overkill : There is virtually no condition that infant circumcision has ever been purported to potentially prevent or cure that cannot be prevented or resolved by other means, respectful of the body and genital integrity. (menweb.org)
  • We have decided to take up male circumcision as another measure to use in HIV prevention," she said. (voanews.com)
  • Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. (hindawi.com)
  • Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some STIs, and penile cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • But, as the health officials in the report emphasize, rather than an isolated measure adult male circumcision is part of a HIV prevention package (including, of course, the promotion of condom use). (plos.org)
  • The study was conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa, the site of the first of three major randomized controlled trials that in the mid-2000s provided proof that male circumcision could be levied as an effective HIV prevention tool. (poz.com)
  • To read a POZ feature article about circumcision as an HIV prevention tool and about the vocal minority of skeptics who question the validity of the research supporting such measures, click here . (poz.com)
  • CHAPS, the Center for HIV and AIDS Prevention Studies, which manages the clinics, continues to study the impact of circumcisions. (voanews.com)
  • Male Circumcision (MC) is one of the few biomedical methods to demonstrate consistent effectiveness as an HIV prevention intervention in randomized controlled trials: three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa reported a protective effect up to 60% of circumcision against HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For the first time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - the CDC - is weighing in on circumcision. (kuow.org)
  • In national surveys examining providers' practices and attitudes regarding the use of male circumcision for HIV prevention, many South African and Zimbabwean clinicians who provided STI or contraceptive services reported that they also performed male circumcisions (17%) or offered referrals (49%), and one in five (18%) said they usually or always counseled male patients about circumcision. (guttmacher.org)
  • In multivariate analysis, professional training and practice-related characteristics were not associated with the frequency of patient counseling about circumcision for HIV prevention. (guttmacher.org)
  • RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. --- The Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention -- www.malecircumcision.org -- was launched today. (opposingviews.com)
  • According to a release issued by participating groups, the Web site is designed to generate and share authoritative information about the role of male circumcision in HIV prevention. (opposingviews.com)
  • for the most recent news, research, and resources on the use of male circumcision to prevent HIV,' says Dr. Kim Eva Dickson, Medical Officer, HIV Prevention in the Health Sector at WHO in Geneva. (opposingviews.com)
  • This site will fulfill the needs of the international public health community involved in male circumcision for HIV prevention -- including scientists, civil society groups, policy-makers, health providers, and programme managers. (opposingviews.com)
  • The Clearinghouse will provide evidence-based guidance to support the delivery of safe male circumcision services as one component in a comprehensive approach to HIV-prevention services. (opposingviews.com)
  • Providing access to tools and guidance, the Clearinghouse is an essential Web site aid for all those working on male circumcision for HIV prevention. (opposingviews.com)
  • In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS convened an international consultation of experts who represent a wide range of stakeholders, including government representatives, researchers, civil society representatives, gender experts, human rights and womenâ s health advocates, young people, funding agencies and implementing partners, to investigate the potential role of male circumcision in the prevention of HIV transmission. (scielo.org.za)
  • As a result, male circumcision is now recognised and recommended by WHO/UNAIDS as an additional and important strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in countries with a high prevalence of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and low levels of male circumcision. (scielo.org.za)
  • Wherever possible, male circumcision should be offered in conjunction with HIV counselling services, condoms, and education on HIV prevention for men and women, to improve the health and safety of circumcised patients and their partners. (natap.org)
  • Condom use after male circumcision is essential for HIV prevention. (natap.org)
  • Three trials of male circumcision in HIV-negative men, including one undertaken in Rakai, Uganda, showed that circumcision reduced male acquisition of HIV by 50-60%;1-3 as a result, male circumcision is now a recommended strategy for HIV prevention in men.4 As these prevention programmes are scaled up, it is inevitable that men who are infected with HIV will also request to be circumcised, partly to avoid stigmatisation. (natap.org)
  • Trial objectives were to assess the safety of circumcision in HIV-infected men and the efficicacy of male circumcision for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV-infected men (reported elsewhere),5, 6 and to test whether male circumcision would reduce transmission of HIV and STIs from HIV-infected men to their uninfected female sexual partners. (natap.org)
  • Nearly 18.6 million cumulative male circumcisions for HIV prevention were performed between 2008 and 2017 in the 14 priority countries of East and Southern Africa (Fig. 1). (who.int)
  • WHO and UNAIDS based their 2007 recommendation for male circumcision as an additional HIV prevention intervention on consistent and compelling evidence from African studies. (who.int)
  • The Clearinghouse's Resource Library contains hundreds of resources on voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what, when? (ucsf.edu)
  • He said that since the device was piloted as an HIV prevention intervention, a number of barriers to accessing the service such as disruption of work schedules, economic activity, pain and cosmetic outcome of male circumcision have been observed. (china.org.cn)
  • Bertran Auvert and his co-authors have called for the promotion of male circumcision as part of AIDS prevention efforts in Orange Farm and in other parts of Africa. (health.am)
  • A panel of economists commissioned by the Copenhagen Consensus Centre who "conducted a first-ever cost-benefit analysis of the top AIDS-fighting approaches by comparing the costs of prevention and treatment options per lives saved … said Wednesday that adult male circumcision, a global priority for preventing HIV infection, is not nearly as cost-effective as other methods of prevention," USA Today reports. (kff.org)
  • However, "Marelize Gorgens, HIV prevention coordinator at the World Bank, disagreed with the economists, saying male circumcision is like a vaccine because it reduces the risk of infection by 60 percent," according to the newspaper (Dorell, 9/28). (kff.org)
  • The Ugandan government will begin a nationwide male circumcision programme in July as part of its HIV prevention strategy, a senior government official has said," IRIN/PlusNews reports. (kff.org)
  • The authors of the initial paper plainly envisage the possibility of HIV-infected males demanding circumcision in contexts where this intervention is being promoted as a means of HIV prevention. (bmj.com)
  • These are clearly pressing issues in the context of government-backed HIV prevention through circumcision in Uganda and beyond. (bmj.com)
  • Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in High HIV Prevalence Settings: What Can Mathematical Modelling Contribute to Informed Decision Making? (plos.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Circumcision for HIV prevention" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Van Howe, R.S. (2015) A CDC-Requested, Evidence-Based Critique of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2014 Draft on Male Circumcision: How Ideology and Selective Science Lead to Superficial, Culturally-Biased Recommendations by the CDC. (scirp.org)
  • BAPU also questioned whether the evidence in relation to the prevention of urinary tract infection justified the routine use of circumcision for that indication. (bmj.com)
  • Circumcision is now a proven, effective prevention strategy to reduce HIV infections in men," said Robert Bailey, professor of epidemiology in the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) School of Public Health and principal investigator of the study. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • With these findings, the evidence is now available for donor and normative agencies, like WHO and UNAIDS, to actively promote circumcision in a safe context and along with other HIV prevention strategies," Bailey said. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • In March 2007, the WHO and United Nations UNAIDS group recommended male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention. (usafricaonline.com)
  • Though HIV prevention may be achieved through continued scale-up of MC in adolescents and adults, long-term sustainability will likely be better achieved through early infant male circumcision (EIMC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • New York, 13 December 2010A new report from the Women's HIV Prevention Tracking Project (WHiPT), a collaborative initiative of AVAC and the ATHENA Network, features an unprecedented collection of voices from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Uganda reflecting on what male circumcision for HIV prevention means for women. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report from WHiPT, which was launched in 2009 to bring community perspectives, particularly women's voices, to the forefront of biomedical prevention research and the broader response to HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Women are excited for medical male circumcision because they're desperate for new prevention options, but they lack detailed factual knowledge of its benefits and risks," says Cebile Dlamini of Swaziland for Positive Living. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The majority of teams conducted their research in settings where male circumcision for HIV prevention had not yet been introduced as part of a national HIV strategy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The report also highlights perceptions of male circumcision for HIV prevention in the context of traditional practices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Two new studies suggest that male circumcision may assist in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly infection with the high-risk subtypes associated with cervical, penile, and other cancers. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The article by Boyle & Hill cited has been thoroughly demolished by an extensive, detailed article in the same journal by experts who have repudiated its spurious claims (Wamai RG, Morris BJ, Waskett JH, Green EC, Banerjee J, Bailey RC, Klausner JD, Sokal DC, Hankins CA. Criticisms of African trials fail to withstand scrutiny: Male circumcision DOES prevent HIV infection. (aappublications.org)
  • How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? (bmj.com)
  • Szabo Robert , Short Roger V . How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? (bmj.com)
  • 2 Furthermore, circumcision also protects against other sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis and gonorrhoea, 3 4 and since people who have a sexually transmitted infection are two to five times more likely to become infected with HIV, 5 circumcision may be even more protective. (bmj.com)
  • Both groups had been given free access to HIV testing, intensive instruction about preventing infection, and free condoms (which were continuously available), but 89% of the men never used condoms, and condom use did not seem to influence the rate of transmission of HIV. (bmj.com)
  • 9 Infected Langerhans' cells have also been detected in the penile mucosa of male rhesus macaques that have chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Circumcision is painful, and puts the patient at risk for complications ranging from minor, as in mild local infections, to more serious such as injury to the penis, meatal stenosis, urinary retention, urinary tract infection and, rarely, even haemorrhage leading to death. (cirp.org)
  • Our objective was to describe associations among male circumcision, behavioral and demographic variables, ulcerative and nonulcerative sexually transmitted disease (STD), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via a cross-sectional study in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the low-risk profile, uncircumcised men had a higher prevalence of HIV infection than circumcised men (29% versus 21% HIV positive, p = 0.02), which was most marked in men reporting five or more lifetime sex partners (36% versus 23% HIV positive, p = 0.005) or contact with prostitutes (35% versus 23% HIV positive, p = 0.009). (nih.gov)
  • Circumcision remained a predictor of HIV infection in multivariate analyses (multivariate odds ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.47). (nih.gov)
  • Lack of circumcision is associated with a higher risk of HIV infection in Rwandan men. (nih.gov)
  • Nor does male circumcision provide protection for sexual partners against HIV infection. (who.int)
  • Circumcisions reduced the odds of HIV infection by 23 percent for men who have sex with men, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in the Lancet Global Health . (avac.org)
  • We found evidence that circumcision is likely to protect MSM from HIV infection, particularly in countries of low and middle income. (avac.org)
  • Circumcision might also protect MSM from HSV and penile HPV infection. (avac.org)
  • Circumcision-related risks include infection, hemorrhage, scarring, loss of part or all of the penis, and even death. (care2.com)
  • Newborn male circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in the U.S. - yet this painful and unnecessary surgery carries serious risks, including hemorrhage, infection, surgical mishap and death. (care2.com)
  • Advise patients that this study is the first experimental evidence to show that male circumcision protects against HIV infection, but that confirmation is needed before such a strategy is widely adopted. (medpagetoday.com)
  • JOHANNESBURG, South Africa, Oct. 24 - Male circumcision protects as well against HIV infection as does a high-efficacy vaccine and could become a key strategy for reducing the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, according to researchers here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Circumcision reduced the rate of HIV infection in sexually active heterosexual African men by 60%, according to Adrian Puren, M.D., of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases here and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They said that male circumcision "provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Male circumcision, which has been shown to protect men from infection with the Aids virus, appears to protect women, too, US and Ugandan researchers have reported. (aljazeera.com)
  • Circumcision also reduced the risk of infection with other sexually-transmitted diseases such as trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis, but not syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia, the researchers told an Aids meeting in Denver. (aljazeera.com)
  • They re-analysed previous studies and found that circumcision reduced the risk of HIV infection in men by 50% - and by 70% in the highest-risk men. (aljazeera.com)
  • If borne out, for every 15 to 60 circumcisions, one case of HIV infection could be prevented, he said. (aljazeera.com)
  • Between 1993 and 1999, 74 gay men were interviewed soon after being diagnosed with recent infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • The researchers found no association between circumcision status and infection by insertive unprotected anal intercourse. (aidsmap.com)
  • There was no difference in the incidence of HIV infection between circumcised and uncircumcised men. (aidsmap.com)
  • Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Skeptics, however, have worried that men will engage in behaviors that increase their risk of HIV infection following a circumcision-a phenomenon known as risk compensation. (poz.com)
  • The recommendation was prompted by randomized trials (the first of which was published by Bertran Auvert and colleagues in PLoS Medicine in 2005) that show that adult male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually-acquired HIV infection in men. (plos.org)
  • According to the paper, one HIV infection can be averted for every five to 15 adult male circumcisions performed. (plos.org)
  • Both contributors agreed that adult male circumcision was cost-effective (according to the modelling paper the costs to avert one HIV infection ranged from US$150 to US$900 using a 10-y time horizon). (plos.org)
  • Some studies estimate that, in South Africa, for every four circumcisions, one HIV infection is avoided. (voanews.com)
  • He cites only two publications dealing with the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV infection, and makes no mention of the important recent meta-analysis of Weiss, Quigley, and Hayes 2 which shows conclusively from a large number of studies that male circumcision at least halves the relative risk of HIV infection throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Faced with such dismal future prospects, is it ethical to dismiss a simple prophylactic surgical procedure that can halve male rates of infection? (bmj.com)
  • The case for male circumcision has been further strengthened by a recent multinational case controlled study in developed and developing countries in Europe, Asia, and South America, which has shown that circumcised men are two thirds less likely to have human papilloma virus infection of the penis, and their female partners less than half as likely to develop cervical cancer, when compared with uncircumcised men and their partners. (bmj.com)
  • Islamic nations such as Egypt, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia have spectacularly low rates of HIV infection compared with their neighbours, due at least in part to male circumcision. (bmj.com)
  • Circumcised men have accumulated larger numbers of STI in their lifetime, have higher rates of previous diagnosis of warts, and were more likely to have HIV infection. (yahoo.com)
  • Circumcision helps prevent HIV infection and other sexual transmiti diseases. (lusakatimes.com)
  • Multiple factors are associated with HIV infection, and biomedical studies may yield discordant results as a function of the scientific methodology used, such as study design, male circumcision status ascertainment and reporting of sexual behaviour. (scielo.org.za)
  • 5,6 An analysis of the ecological and individual risk factors for HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa shows that this geographical correlation was not affected by variations in sexual behaviour: although high-risk sexual behaviour is more common in Cameroon, a country with high levels of male circumcision, HIV prevalence remains relatively low. (scielo.org.za)
  • It concluded that male circumcision was associated with significantly lower levels of HIV infection among men in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among those at high risk of HIV. (scielo.org.za)
  • Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. (natap.org)
  • In 2005, a randomised controlled trial in Orange Farm (a large township 45km from Johannesburg) was the first to report that male circumcision gives men partial protection against HIV infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis (the retractable fold of tissue that covers the head of the penis) to reduce the risk of HIV infection in men. (aidsmap.com)
  • 7 , 9 Finally, circumcision has been widely debated as a preventive measure for sexually transmitted infection, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), penile cancer, and urinary tract infection. (annfammed.org)
  • The peer-reviewed results of the first trial of the effect of male circumcision on HIV infection , which some experts call "a landmark trial," will be published in PLoS Medicine on October 25. (health.am)
  • Because HIV infection rates are generally lower among African groups where circumcision is a traditional practice, compared with largely non-circumcised populations, researchers had suspected that circumcision might offer some protection against HIV transmission . (health.am)
  • However, because the lower infection rates in the circumcised groups might be due to some other difference between circumcised and uncircumcised populations, the only way to test whether circumcision has a protective effect is a randomized intervention study. (health.am)
  • The researchers offered young sexually active uncircumcised heterosexual men the chance to be circumcised and then monitored for HIV infection . (health.am)
  • RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. (bmj.com)
  • Against whatever limited benefit - if any - circumcision may actually confer in such cases, there evidently needs to be balanced the possible impact on the sexual behaviour of HIV-infected males who believe that their circumcision will minimise the risk of their transmitting the infection. (bmj.com)
  • Dr. Parent noted that circumcision may reduce the risk of contracting and maintaining a sexually transmitted infection, which has been postulated to be a risk factor for prostate cancer. (science20.com)
  • This may explain the reduced risk of prostate cancer observed in males circumcised at a younger age prior to any potential exposure to infection. (science20.com)
  • Another study related to circumcision published in BJU International addresses the issue of HIV infection and circumcision. (science20.com)
  • The primary outcome measure was incidence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection in men confirmed by laboratory tests. (who.int)
  • Previous research focused mostly on HIV, the single most costly disease whose risk of infection is decreased by male circumcision, a procedure that removes foreskin at the tip of the penis, hindering the buildup of bacteria and viruses in the penis' skin folds. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The evidence that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV infection in heterosexual men is clear. (tac.org.za)
  • Two new studies sought to discover if HPV infection is more likely to occur in uncircumcised compared with circumcised men. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The most important implication, according to researchers, was that "reducing the frequency of HPV infection among men will reduce the risk of exposure in their female sexual partners. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • For prevalence of circumcision, see Prevalence of circumcision . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although an estimated 85.0% of males in Kenya are circumcised, nearly half of all uncircumcised men live in Nyanza Province, where circumcision prevalence is only 48.2% ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Kenya's Ministry of Health (MOH) prioritized the implementation of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services by targeting areas with low prevalence of male circumcision and high HIV prevalence ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The highest HIV prevalence rates among uncircumcised males aged 15-64 years are in Nyanza (17.3%), Rift Valley (7.0%), Nairobi (20.2%), and Western (6.8%) provinces ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Uncircumcised men had a relatively low-risk profile in that they reported fewer lifetime sexual partners and prostitute contacts than circumcised men and were more likely to live in rural areas with lower HIV prevalence rates. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalence, however, and the likelihood of continuance of this operation is such that the BAPS believes recommendations on standards of care which apply to all operative procedures on children, also pertain to religious circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • As shown by our study, male circumcision is useful and feasible even among sexually experienced men living in an area with high HIV prevalence. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. (hindawi.com)
  • The WHO recommends that countries with high a HIV prevalence and a low prevalence of male circumcision (like Botswana) consider male circumcision as one of a number of strategies to prevent HIV. (plos.org)
  • A study published in September 2013 found that the three-year increase in local circumcision rates between 2008 and 2011 was responsible for a 19 percent reduction in HIV prevalence among men when compared to what the prevalence was projected to be had there been no increase in cicrumcision rates. (poz.com)
  • The HIV prevalence was 22.4 percent among these women, compared with 36.6 percent among women who had sex with some or all uncircumcised men. (poz.com)
  • The HIV prevalence rate among circumcised males between the ages of 15 and 49 in Zimbabwe is higher than that of the uncircumcised male' after a Bill Gates funded circumcision drive. (yahoo.com)
  • Earlier studies show that in areas where male circumcision was practised, HIV prevalence was lower than where it was not practised. (scielo.org.za)
  • HIV prevalence among these men was similar to that of uncircumcised men, but it was significantly lower among medically circumcised participants. (scielo.org.za)
  • Among men aged 15 to 49 who are circumcised, HIV prevalence is 55% lower. (aidsmap.com)
  • Research shows that acceptability of MC among uncircumcised men is high, and suggests that free and safe circumcision may be taken up in places with high HIV prevalence. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. (asm.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable. (asm.org)
  • For the study, Kong and her colleagues used data collected from surveys between 1999 and 2013 in 45 communities in rural Rakai District in south-central Uganda, which included data on community-level ART coverage, male circumcision coverage, sociodemographics, sexual behaviors, HIV prevalence and rates of new HIV infections. (jhsph.edu)
  • Among uncircumcised men in Kenya, compensation in the form of food vouchers worth approximately $9 or $15, compared with lesser or no compensation, resulted in a modest increase in the prevalence of circumcision after two months, according to a study published by JAMA. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This increased uptake was in a population with an estimated circumcision prevalence of 35.6 percent. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Finally, in comparing HIV incidence and prevalence in men that were circumcised versus men that were uncircumcised, the researchers concluded that HIV prevalence would have been 25% higher and incidence 58% higher if VMMC was not available in Orange Farm. (tac.org.za)
  • Providing VMMC services to males aged ≥25 years remains a key challenge to reaching Kenya's national target of 80% VMMC coverage among uncircumcised males aged 15-49 years by the end of 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • These areas were selected as priority regions for implementation of VMMC to achieve 80% coverage (860,000 circumcisions) by July 2013 to reduce HIV transmission in Kenya ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 15 years and male infants for future VMMC programming. (cdc.gov)
  • Kenya's 4-year VMMC target is to circumcise 860,000 (80%) of uncircumcised males aged 15-49 years by 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, the most widely used VMMC technique in South Africa is open surgical circumcision. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since 2008, when a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) center was established in Orange Farm, the proportion of circumcised local men has jumped from 15 percent to 53 percent. (poz.com)
  • The Centre for Disease Control have assisted government in creating a demand for voluntary medical male circumcision also known as VMMC which has been scientifically proven to be an intervention method for reducing HIV transmission in amongst sexually active partners. (economist.com.na)
  • Prepared for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programmes, this guide is designed to provide guidance on safe and appropriate management of any complications associated. (malecircumcision.org)
  • From 2010 through 2016, routine voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programme data were collected from public health service delivery sites supported by the US Centers for. (malecircumcision.org)
  • This spreadsheet presents routine voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programme data collected from 2010 to 2016 at public health service delivery sites supported. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Following randomized trials that demonstrated that medical male circumcision reduces men's risk of HIV acquisition by 50 percent to 60 percent, UNAIDS and the World Health Organization recommended the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 14 countries in eastern and southern Africa. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • TAC supports voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) because of the clear evidence that it reduces a heterosexual man's risk of contracting HIV. (tac.org.za)
  • After the closure of the randomised control trial in Orange Farm that demonstrated a 60% reduction in risk of contracting HIV for circumcised heterosexual men [3] , a follow up trial was carried out to research the uptake of VMMC and the effect of VMMC on sexual behaviour and HIV incidence. (tac.org.za)
  • The follow up study also found high take-up of VMMC by adolescent and adult men. (tac.org.za)
  • All men who participated in the control arm of the trial were offered VMMC. (tac.org.za)
  • While the procedure is usually performed for religious or cultural reasons, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that, while there is some scientific evidence that demonstrates potential medical benefits of male circumcision, the data are not sufficient to recommend routine circumcision in newborns. (go.com)
  • In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its circumcision guidelines to offer stronger support for the practice than it had in the past. (healthline.com)
  • A 2012 review by the American academy of pediatrics found the health benefits of circumcision to outweigh the risks, though not great enough to recommend the procedure become routine. (newschannel5.com)
  • At no time in its 75 years has the American Academy of Pediatrics ever recommended infant circumcision. (care2.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics, 1999, Task Force on Circumcision concluded that "evidence regarding the relationship of circumcision to STD in general is complex and conflicting. (hindawi.com)
  • The compiling of the different data sources may really be sufficient for someone who is a heterosexual male to consider the benefit of circumcision," Dr. Susan Blank, a pediatrician and chairwoman of the American Academy of Pediatrics' circumcision task force, told Shots. (kuow.org)
  • In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics said for the first time that the benefits of circumcision outweigh the risks, and that insurers should pay for the procedure. (kuow.org)
  • The true incidence of complications, however, is not known' (Report of the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision. (noharmm.org)
  • Referring to a new edict from the American Academy of Pediatrics insisting that "the health benefits of circumcision" outweigh the negatives, Williams spoke for many parents in demurring with this conventional wisdom, expressing the many reasons for his unease. (theguardian.com)
  • 2 In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) radically changed their original 1999 circumcision policy. (bmj.com)
  • The problem in the United States is compounded, Tobian says, by the failure of the American Academy of Pediatrics to recognize the medical evidence in support of male circumcision. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has said that "there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene. (circumcision.org)
  • Circumcision, where the foreskin of the penis is surgically removed, has been a hot topic for some time. (go.com)
  • Arguments against circumcision include the risk of surgery, penile adhesions, reduced sexual pleasure and "the hidden penis. (go.com)
  • Male Circumcision Circumcision is the procedure of cutting off the foreskin from the head of the penis. (prezi.com)
  • Circumcision was used to help make the penis easier to clean and less likely to get bacteria. (prezi.com)
  • To compile the information for this review a Medline search was done using the terms circumcision, HIV, Langerhans' cells, penis, foreskin, and prepuce, and extensive email correspondence with other researchers was also undertaken. (bmj.com)
  • Circumcision removes the prepuce that covers and protects the head or the glans of the penis. (cirp.org)
  • Then the doctor casually began the process by fitting the circumcision guide over the tiny newborn penis, making small talk with me while my son wailed in protest at being strapped down to a cold plastic table. (care2.com)
  • Even if circumcision were effective for preventing disease, removing part of a baby boy's penis at birth to prevent the potential for disease in the future makes no more sense than "routinely" removing healthy gall bladders at birth to prevent the potential for gall stones in later life, or removing healthy teeth to prevent dental caries. (care2.com)
  • Circumcision is a procedure to remove the foreskin from your penis. (drugs.com)
  • the doctor told me that my penis will have more deaden sensation as nerves are severed in any circumcision process. (healthboards.com)
  • Although the study did not explore factors underlying the protective effect of circumcision, they may include reducing the life expectancy of HIV on the penis after sexual contact, reducing the total surface area of the penis, and reducing available target cells, which are numerous on the foreskin, the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The comic, which stars "Foreskin Man" as a penis-protecting hero and "Monster Mohel," an Orthodox Jew, as an evil villain, has been called anti-Semitic by religious groups. (go.com)
  • NEIGHMOND: During circumcision, the foreskin of the penis is removed. (kuow.org)
  • The American PlastiBell device has one of the lowest complication rates, providing a "no scalpel" circumcision by means of a ligature tied around the base of the foreskin when it is stretched over a protective plastic cap which covers the glans penis. (bmj.com)
  • There are no real world studies that show cutting off penis parts helps prevent HIV, HPV and other sexually transmitted infections in men! (yahoo.com)
  • There is clear evidence that baby boy penis parts removal does not shield the man the baby becomes from STDs in developed nations. (yahoo.com)
  • In truth, the complication rate from circumcision is 100% because, shorn of its normal, functioning foreskin, the circumcised penis is necessarily denuded, desensitized, and deprived of the physiological functions of the foreskin, regardless of other 'complications' that may accompany the amputation. (noharmm.org)
  • Circumcision was found to protect men, and their sexual partners, from several common sexually transmitted infections, as well as cancers of the penis and cervix. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Male circumcision is the complete or partial surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, and is one of the oldest known surgical interventions carried out for religious, societal or medical reasons (2). (who.int)
  • Taylor, J.R., Lockwood, A.P. and Taylor, A.J. (1996) The Prepuce: Specialized Mucosa of the Penis and Its Loss to Circumcision. (scirp.org)
  • See Circumcision Removes the Most Sensitive Parts of the Penis and Circumcision Affects Female Sexual Pleasure . (circumcision.org)
  • Circumcision' came back to my mind when I was looking at my penis while bathing. (experienceproject.com)
  • People against circumcision talk about how cruel it is, but I believe circumcision is a lot less painful than an infected penis, which is very common in uncircumcised boys. (circinfo.net)
  • Circumcision is an incision under the head of the penis, left untreated it heals quickly on its own and is only sensitive for a few days. (circinfo.net)
  • The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS). (who.int)
  • Rwanda announced plans to urge male circumcision after seeing encouraging results in medical studies conducted in South Africa and Uganda. (voanews.com)
  • The United Nations World Health Organization says studies conducted in South Africa , Uganda and Kenya indicate male circumcision can slash rates of transmission of HIV/AIDS by up to 60 percent. (voanews.com)
  • The Bophelo Pele clinic in Orange Farm was the first circumcision center to open in South Africa in 2007. (voanews.com)
  • Circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission, but relatively few men have been circumcised (10% of adult males are circumcised in Zimbabwe, and 35% in South Africa). (guttmacher.org)
  • While 49% of respondents (66% in South Africa and 37% in Zimbabwe) offered referrals for circumcision, only 17% (22% and 14%, respectively) said they performed the procedure. (guttmacher.org)
  • In general, clinicians' perceptions of patients' attitudes toward circumcision were more positive in South Africa than in Zimbabwe. (guttmacher.org)
  • Diverse advocacy groups such as Southern African HIV Clinicians Society and the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) recognise voluntary medical male circumcision as an efficacious measure that can potentially reduce the national HIV epidemic in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3 In a recent study conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa, 59% of the surveyed men to whom male circumcision was acceptable underwent the intervention. (scielo.org.za)
  • The ongoing roll-out of male circumcision in Orange Farm, South Africa, has succeeded in bringing the proportion of men who are circumcised from 16 to 49% in three years, delegates heard at the sixth International AIDS Society conference (IAS 2011) in Rome on Wednesday. (aidsmap.com)
  • The three new randomized controlled trials included in the updated review were conducted among men in the general population in South Africa (3274 men), Uganda (4996 men) and Kenya (2784 men). (who.int)
  • Circumcision is a ritual obligation for infant Jewish boys and also a common rite among Muslims, who account for the largest share of circumcised men worldwide. (ibtimes.com)
  • A mohel is a Jewish individual specifically trained to perform the ritual circumcision of infant boys. (ibtimes.com)
  • Magoo stated that the problem of infant male mutilation seemed to be on the wane in some societies. (rabble.ca)
  • You're being a silly word nazi by saying the word mutilation can't be used in this context because it's covered by the FGM issue, and using it to describe male infant circumcision is inherently sexist because it somehow equates and compares the two unrelated issues and thus the male issue detracts from the female issue. (rabble.ca)
  • The claims in letter by opponents of infant male circumcision are highly misleading and overtly fallacious. (aappublications.org)
  • While it is not practical to pass laws against infant male circumcision it is both practical and possible for medical associations to enact sanctions against doctors who perform this operation on healthy baby boys. (avaaz.org)
  • Until recently, only public health and religious views were taken into consideration in the debate over infant male circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia is issuing this guide for physicians regarding routine infant male circumcision in light of evidence-based medicine and contemporary principles in ethics, law and human rights. (cirp.org)
  • Infant male circumcision was once considered a preventive health measure and was therefore adopted extensively in Western countries. (cirp.org)
  • Routine infant male circumcision performed on a healthy infant is now considered a non-therapeutic and medically unnecessary intervention. (cirp.org)
  • From a religious standpoint, infant male circumcision is acknowledged to be an important ritual and an integral part of Jewish and Islamic religions. (cirp.org)
  • A wider societal discussion on infant male circumcision is warranted based on a current understanding of bioethics that takes into account the non-therapeutic nature of the procedure as well as the high importance it plays in religious and traditional customs. (cirp.org)
  • That is, routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. (cirp.org)
  • To date, the legality of infant male circumcision has not been tested in the Courts. (cirp.org)
  • The matter of infant male circumcision is particularly difficult in regards to human rights, as it involves consideration of the rights of the infant as well as the rights of the parents. (cirp.org)
  • Routine infant male circumcision is an unnecessary and irreversible procedure. (cirp.org)
  • Many adult men are increasingly concerned about whether their parents had the right to give consent for infant male circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • Ethical considerations regarding infant male circumcision centre on the welfare (or "best interests") of the infant and the potential benefit and harm associated with the procedure. (cirp.org)
  • Critics of infant male circumcision, including activists who recently failed in their attempts to let voters decide if the procedure should be banned in San Francisco, liken it to female genital mutilation. (thebody.com)
  • 100% of infant circumcisions are done without the consent of the individual concerned. (menweb.org)
  • The current medical rationales/rationalizations for infant circumcision developed after the operation was in wide practice. (menweb.org)
  • With a clearer understanding of normal male genital anatomy, and the creation of the British National Health Service in 1948, infant circumcision in Britain quickly declined and now stands at less than one-half of one percent. (menweb.org)
  • 12 ] Within the body of the statement, the committee admitted that they were unable to precisely measure the benefits of infant circumcision and unable to quantify the risks. (hindawi.com)
  • But the pediatricians' focus was on parents considering infant circumcision. (kuow.org)
  • Penile cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis and kidney inflammation are among a number of medical conditions whose risk can be lowered by the practice of infant male circumcision, says a study led by the University of Sydney. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The review of current international evidence for the benefits and risks of infant male circumcision is published today in the Open Journal of Preventive Medicine . (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is the world's first evidence-based policy on infant circumcision and its authors include five Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians," lead author, Professor Brian Morris, from Sydney Medical School at the University, said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It is now up to state governments to ensure that bans on elective infant male circumcision in public hospitals are lifted without delay. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Is infant male circumcision an abuse of the rights of the child? (medicalxpress.com)
  • One reason that I think many humanists are so opposed to circumcision is that the reason many circumcise their infant boys is a religious one. (centerforinquiry.net)
  • The World Bank and the U.S. State Department support a major push for adult male circumcision," however the panel said that "more cost-effective ways to prevent the spread of the disease are an HIV vaccine, infant male circumcision, preventing mother-to-child transmission of the disease and making blood transfusions safe," the newspaper writes. (kff.org)
  • Bensley, G.A. and Boyle, G.J. (2001) Physical, Sexual, and Psychological Impact of Male Infant Circumcision: An Exploratory Survey. (scirp.org)
  • The study will evaluate the safety and acceptability of the topical anesthesia-based, no-flip ShangRing technique vs. Mogen clamp for Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) in neonates and infants up to 60 days of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Penile microbiome study: In the pilot trial, the subpreputial microbiome of the infants undergoing circumcision will be assessed to better understand the spectrum of bacteria that may exist and play a role in infant circumcision. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A team of disease experts and health economists at Johns Hopkins warns that steadily declining rates of U.S. infant male circumcision could add more than $4.4 billion in avoidable health care costs if rates over the next decade drop to levels now seen in Europe. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Rates in Europe average only 10 percent, and in Denmark, only 1.6 percent of infant males undergo the procedure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There are health benefits to infant male circumcision in guarding against illness and disease, and declining male circumcision rates come at a severe price, not just in human suffering, but in billions of health care dollars as well. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • and a 211 percent jump in the number of infant male urinary tract infections (26,876). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Tobian says state funding cuts in Medicaid, the government medical assistance program for the poor, have substantially reduced numbers of U.S. infant male circumcisions, noting that 18 states have stopped paying for the procedure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • State governments need to start recognizing the medical benefits as well as the cost savings from providing insurance coverage for infant male circumcision. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • See Infant Responses to Circumcision . (circumcision.org)
  • Various studies have found that short-term effects of circumcision include changed sleep patterns, activity level, and mother-infant interaction, more irritability, and disruptions in feeding and bonding. (circumcision.org)
  • Routine infant circumcision started in the U.S. in the 1870s when it was promoted as a preventive cure for masturbation. (circumcision.org)
  • A brief bulleted summary of the health benefits and risks of elective medically performed male circumcision is provided at the end of the document. (cdc.gov)
  • The health benefits of circumcision include lower risks of acquiring HIV, genital herpes, human papilloma virus and syphilis. (newschannel5.com)
  • Right now, a move is being made by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to recommend circumcision for all newborn boys based on flawed studies that ignore the risks and ethics of circumcision. (care2.com)
  • Doctors unfamiliar with the practice and who receive a request for circumcision may find it helpful to seek advice about the physical risks of the procedure from doctors experienced in conducting circumcisions. (nocirc.org)
  • Researchers recruited 2,333 men between the ages of 15 and 29 in the southern African country for a prospective, population-based cohort study in which the men were interviewed every two years about their sexual risks. (poz.com)
  • Those health benefits prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's proposed recommendation that doctors counsel parents of baby boys and teenagers, as well as men, on the benefits and risks of circumcision . (kuow.org)
  • Male circumcision is not without its risks. (bmj.com)
  • Since the duration of the study was limited and not all female partners completed 24 months of follow-up, we could not assess the long-term benefits or risks of male circumcision for HIV transmission to women. (natap.org)
  • Furthermore, adult circumcision carries risks, especially if performed by medical personnel or traditional healers without proper training. (health.am)
  • Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. (bmj.com)
  • We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. (bmj.com)
  • The studies upon which the pediatricians rely, he noted, often have to do with highly specific data: the risks in Africa of Aids transmission in uncircumcised men, for instance. (theguardian.com)
  • 3 The AAP now asserts that the preventive health benefits of newborn circumcision outweigh the risks of the procedure, which is well tolerated when performed by trained professionals under sterile conditions with appropriate pain management. (bmj.com)
  • For a complete list see Circumcision: Over 100 Known Complications and Risks . (circumcision.org)
  • The risks of newborn circumcision are an underreported and ignored factor in this argument. (circumcision.org)
  • The World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and other global reproductive health organizations have recognized the protective effect of male circumcision in HIV acquisition. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Analyses from the extended follow-up of participants in a male circumcision randomised controlled trial conducted in Kisumu, Kenya, indicate that the protective effect of male circumcision was sustained, and possibly strengthened, for at least 42 months. (scielo.org.za)
  • The large protective effect of male circumcision observed has surprised many HIV experts, and it will be important to see whether the related studies under way confirm the results of this trial. (health.am)
  • The committee monitoring this study considered that the protective effect of male circumcision was so large that it would be unethical to continue the study. (health.am)
  • Following the publication of three large randomized controlled trials since 2005, the review (6) was updated to assess the effect of male circumcision for preventing the acquisition of HIV-1 and HIV-2 by men through heterosexual intercourse. (who.int)
  • The authors present in the review a stratified analysis of the effect of male circumcision by study quality for each study design. (who.int)
  • Yesterday, the agency published draft guidelines that say doctors should educate boys and men who were not circumcised as newborns, as well as parents of newborn boys, about the health benefits of circumcision. (healthline.com)
  • Both the CDC and AAP guidelines suggest doctors educate parents and adult men on the health benefits of circumcision, but leave the final decision up to them. (healthline.com)
  • Draft federal recommendations don't usually raise eyebrows, but this one certainly will - that males of all ages, including teenage boys, should be counseled on the health benefits of circumcision. (kuow.org)
  • Groups opposed to circumcision, such as Intact America , say the health benefits of circumcision in the U.S. remain unproven, and that the CDC is relying too heavily on studies done in Africa that may not be relevant here. (kuow.org)
  • While the Catholic Church has condemned religious circumcision for its members, and currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision, [4] Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Eritrean Orthodoxy still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates (as in Europe and South America), while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in some predominantly Christian countries such as the United States, and the Philippines, and in North Africa and West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Roman Catholic Church has condemned religious circumcision for its members, and currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision, it is customary in Coptic Christianity, Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Eritrean Orthodox Church, which keep it as a rite of passage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about religious circumcision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Religious circumcision generally occurs shortly after birth, during childhood or around puberty as part of a rite of passage . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012 , a judge in Cologne, Germany made a similar ruling that religious circumcision amounted to bodily harm against a child who has no say in the matter. (newschannel5.com)
  • As identified in the above paper, most agencies with a professional or statutory responsibility for the surgical care of male children have exempted themselves from comment on religious circumcision. (cirp.org)
  • Any person performing religious circumcision is strongly advised to comply with the GMC guidelines outlining the need for both parents to provide consent for surgery. (cirp.org)
  • There is no evidence that ritual or religious circumcision first arose as a hygiene measure. (circinfo.org)
  • Circumcision associated with lower chance of penile cancer. (prezi.com)
  • Removing the foreskin of 100,000 males would prevent 1 case of penile cancer. (prezi.com)
  • Histological observations were carried out on samples of penile tissue obtained from 13 perfusion fixed cadavers of men aged 60-96 years, seven of whom had been circumcised. (bmj.com)
  • The lead researcher on the use of the device, June Odoyo, said that the procedure was capable of preventing new HIV infections and penile cancer in men. (china.org.cn)
  • The role of adult nontherapeutic male circumcision in preventing sexually transmitted infections, urinary tract infections, and penile cancer remains unclear. (annfammed.org)
  • They say the study is believed to be the first cost analysis to account for increased rates of multiple infectious diseases associated with lower rates of male circumcision, including HIV/AIDS, herpes and genital warts, as well as cervical and penile cancers. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The claim of reduction of the risk of STIs to justify neonatal circumcision continues today, often supported by selective bibliographies [ 2 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this issue, John Hutson has reiterated the conventional Western medical view that "the surgical argument for circumcision of all neonatal males at present is very weak" and he criticises many of the circumcisions performed in later childhood, without anaesthesia, as "physically cruel and potentially dangerous" [see page 238 ] . (bmj.com)
  • Even American circumcision advocate, Thomas E. Wiswell, M.D., suggests that the post-neonatal complication rate from medicalized, non-ritual circumcision is 1.7% (Circumcision in Children Beyond the Neonatal Period. (noharmm.org)
  • Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is a type of MC performed within 1 month after birth. (intechopen.com)
  • Whether to promote neonatal male circumcision (NMC) as a preventive health measure has long been a contentious subject among health professionals and the general public. (intechopen.com)
  • Every so often the practice of neonatal male circumcision becomes a news item, typically when some medical association issues a statement on the practice. (centerforinquiry.net)
  • Current evidence fails to recommend widespread neonatal circumcision for these purposes. (annfammed.org)
  • Critics of circumcision say the American scientific community overlooks drawbacks of the procedure, performed with local anesthetic and a clamp, including pain and reduced sexual pleasure. (healthline.com)
  • However, circumcision on post-pubescent men is a much more serious procedure with greater risk of complications, such as bleeding and loss of sensation. (healthline.com)
  • As a sign of just how toxic the circumcision debate has become, the AAP's response accused the European doctors of having their own "cultural biases" against the procedure. (healthline.com)
  • Circumcision in ancient times was a very bloody procedure. (prezi.com)
  • The new bill in Iceland - where female circumcision was banned by law in 2005 - was put forward by representatives from four of Iceland's political parties arguing that while many children do not have any complications, some do and "one is too many if the procedure is unnecessary," said Gunnarsdottir. (newschannel5.com)
  • The most common surgical procedure in America, circumcision, is unnecessary, yet millions of newborn boys are still circumcised each year. (care2.com)
  • Fact - No professional medical association in the United States or anywhere else in the world recommends routine circumcision as a medically necessary procedure. (care2.com)
  • However, they cited a study showing that circumcision rates were 24 percent higher in states whose Medicaid plan covers the procedure compared to those whose plan does not. (thebody.com)
  • furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. (hindawi.com)
  • It is through cultural brainwashing they are pushing this most unnecessary and damaging procedure on males. (yahoo.com)
  • 1 Physicians were more likely than nurses to offer the procedure, and circumcision services were more common in urban than in rural areas, and at hospitals than at clinics. (guttmacher.org)
  • When asked about patients' attitudes toward circumcision, 31% of clinicians agreed that patients would be upset about having the procedure because of cultural beliefs, 44% believed they would worry about what their partner thinks and 35% said that men would not undergo the operation. (guttmacher.org)
  • He dispelled the myth that circumcision reduces a man's sexual appetite adding that, the procedure does not affect the male libido in any way. (lusakatimes.com)
  • He said his office has been encouraging males to get circumcised and mothers to bring their male children for the procedure through radio programmes. (lusakatimes.com)
  • Led by Lloyd Schofield who is part of a Bay Area "intactivist" group, the advocates call the after-birth procedure 'male genital mutilation' and liken it to cutting female genitals. (cnn.com)
  • Martin Sirengo, the head of National AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Health Ministry, said PrePex procedure, a non-surgical, bloodless, fast and easier medical circumcision device, had been piloted in the country since 2015. (china.org.cn)
  • According to Julius Achia, an administrator in West Pokot, North Western Kenya, who underwent the procedure, the process of circumcision under the process was fast and smooth unlike the conventional way. (china.org.cn)
  • Male circumcision is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. (annfammed.org)
  • 1 The procedure may be performed to treat an underlying pathological process (therapeutic circumcision) or for prophylactic, religious, cultural, or social reasons (nontherapeutic circumcision). (annfammed.org)
  • It is now referred to as female genital mutilation (rather than female circumcision) to make it clear that this is an unnecessary procedure that results in actual physical and psychological harm . (medium.com)
  • It was only in the late nineteenth century, when mass circumcision was being introduced for "health" reasons, that doctors sought legitimacy for the new procedure by claiming continuity with the distant past and attempting to explain the origins of circumcision in terms of their own hygienic agenda (12). (circinfo.org)
  • A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. (bmj.com)
  • it finds rhat the procedure may help prevent prostate cancer in some men. (science20.com)
  • Previous studies have found that circumcision reduces a man's risk of becoming infected with HIV by 50% to 60%, and the procedure has the potential to reduce the HIV epidemic in areas of Eastern and Southern Africa where circumcision is uncommon and the epidemic most severe. (science20.com)
  • As circumcision is promoted in these regions, HIV-positive men will likely seek the procedure either because they do not know their HIV status or to avoid being stigmatized. (science20.com)
  • The findings also showed the quality of the procedure was not compromised and there were no increases in the percentage of men reporting bad side effects afterwards. (usafricaonline.com)
  • The Johns Hopkins team's analysis showed that, on average, each male circumcision passed over and not performed leads to $313 more in illness-related expenses, costs which Tobian says would not have been incurred if these men had undergone the procedure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • there are now serious concerns this routine procedure may actually deprive adult men of a vital part of their sexual sensitivity. (circumcision.org)
  • The guidelines point to research, much of it done in sub-Saharan Africa, showing that circumcision reduces the transmission of STDs, including HIV and the human papillomavirus, which can cause cancer. (healthline.com)
  • [15] [16] Further, circumcision is rare for Christians in the countries of Europe, East Asia , parts of Africa, as well as in India and until recently in Southern Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, there has been a massive push in recent years to circumcise men in Africa, where the vast HIV epidemic is predominantly heterosexual. (poz.com)
  • The three trial sites in Africa examining male circumcision and condom use, Catherine Hankins added, involve community-based assessments, examining behaviour and perceptions. (plos.org)
  • The protective effect of circumcision was confirmed through clinical trials about 10 years ago, prompting the World Health Organization and local governments to launch massive circumcision programs in 14 priority countries in Africa, which represent 50 percent of all AIDS cases. (voanews.com)
  • In the past 15 years, studies in Africa have found that circumcision lowers men's risk of being infected with HIV during heterosexual intercourse by 50 to 60 percent. (kuow.org)
  • He says studies in Africa show men who are circumcised decrease their risk of becoming infected with HIV by as much as 60 percent. (kuow.org)
  • In addition, mathematical and medical economics modelling studies have shown that the roll-out of male circumcision has a reasonable cost, is cost effective and can prevent millions of HIV infections in southern Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Nearly 18.6 million men and boys were circumcised from 2008 to 2017 in the 14 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, the World Health Organization reports in its. (malecircumcision.org)
  • The findings raise interesting issues for the circumcision programs now under way in Uganda (as from 2010) and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. (bmj.com)
  • By Kate Kelland in Vienna (Reuters) - More than 4 million new HIV infections could be prevented in eastern and southern Africa by 2025 if male circumcision rates were increased to 80 percent, researchers said on Tuesday. (usafricaonline.com)
  • Bill Gates, whose Gates Foundation spends much of its $34 billion fund on fighting HIV, told the AIDS conference on Monday he had been surprised by the number of men in Africa who wanted to be circumcised to reduce their risk of contracting HIV. (usafricaonline.com)
  • But Gates said while more than 41 million men in sub-Saharan Africa could benefit from it, only 150,000 have been circumcised in the past few years. (usafricaonline.com)
  • The World Health Organization's target is for 80 percent of men in sub-Saharan Africa to be circumcised. (jhsph.edu)
  • 4 This shows substantial bias with self-reported circumcision status in this population, and proves that the effectiveness of male circumcision stems from the removal of the foreskin, rather than cultural initiation practices. (scielo.org.za)
  • No medical association promotes circumcision," said Schofield. (go.com)
  • HIV is not caused by foreskin," said Dr. Adrienne Carmack, a urologist in Austin, Texas, who is a medical adviser for Intact America, an anti-circumcision group. (healthline.com)
  • There has been much debate on the ethics of circumcising baby boys, and this guideline outlines the position of the BMA, with regard to circumcision for medical purposes, and the issues doctors should take into account when asked to perform circumcision for religious or cultural reasons. (nocirc.org)
  • To shed some light on this contentious issue and whether the conclusion reached by the committee reflects the information available in the medical literature, this paper will provide a systematic review of the association between male circumcision status and the risk for individual types of STIs (other than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) and the overall risk for any STI. (hindawi.com)
  • PLoS Medicine author, Catherine Hankins, took part in a discussion on the BBC World Service earlier this week asking what role adult male medical circumcision can play in tackling HIV. (plos.org)
  • Yet the clinic's medical staff counsels these men to also use condoms. (voanews.com)
  • The CDC's proposal opens the door to circumcision becoming a topic of conversation any time an uncircumcised male goes to a medical appointment. (kuow.org)
  • No credible medical organization in the world supports circumcision. (yahoo.com)
  • The costs saved will be enormous, as this policy statement shows that half of uncircumcised males will suffer an adverse medical condition over their lifetime, and many will die as a result of diseases preventable by circumcision," Professor Morris said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Illustration: Although the Ovaherero tribe has been practising male circumcision traditionally , the Ministry of Health and the Centre for Disease Control known as the Voluntary Medical Male programme seeks to move away from the traditional manner and encourage modernised medical procedures which seem to be a safer and healthier way to eradicate HIV/AIDS and other infections. (economist.com.na)
  • The Ministry Of Information and Communication Technology in partnership with the Ministry of Health and the centre for Disease Control in America are collaborating on a National Strategic framework known as the Voluntary Medical Male programme which is a joint government effort to eradicate the long struggle of HIV/AIDS infections. (economist.com.na)
  • The Centre for Disease Control and the Ministry of health have had three randomised controlled trial runs of the voluntary medical male circumcision programme prior to it's launch in 2009. (economist.com.na)
  • With the success of the programme around 20,000 sexual active males have been circumcised to date thus raising 80% awareness to men to encourage more males in considering medical circumcision,"said programme specialist Mr Dan Rutz of CDC. (economist.com.na)
  • Though it can be argued that that male circumcision has long been a traditional method that has been practised for years amongst the Ovaherero tribe as it is compulsory for all infants to be circumcised as a result it was never considered to be a medical means of eradicating HIV/AIDS infections," Rutz said. (economist.com.na)
  • However, the sole authority Hitchens cited regarding the effects of circumcision was Maimonides- not someone who, to my knowledge, is up on the latest medical studies regarding circumcision. (centerforinquiry.net)
  • The strong opposition to circumcision among some humanists troubles me not because I'm a big proponent of circumcision-do it, don't do it, it doesn't matter that much-but because humanists are supposed to proportion their beliefs to the evidence, and, as the previously cited CDC guidelines indicate, the medical evidence simply doesn't justify a ban on circumcision. (centerforinquiry.net)
  • Beginning in 2008, a programme to make medical male circumcision widely available has been rolled out. (aidsmap.com)
  • Studies reporting on circumcision in an operative setting in males of any age with no contraindications to or medical indications for circumcision were eligible for inclusion. (annfammed.org)
  • Female Genital Mutilation is bad, so why is Male Circumcision for non-medical reasons OK? (medium.com)
  • The Elephant in the Room - why is non-medical male circumcision OK? (medium.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. (bmj.com)
  • An anti-circumcision protester outside a medical clinic in San Francisco, July 2011. (theguardian.com)
  • And he argued, quite fairly (though he wisely does not equate them), that the pediatricians' odd invocation of parental "religious" and cultural motivations for circumcision, and their assertion that these views should be respected quite apart from medical considerations, is a position that would be resisted if invoked by those who wanted to cut off bits of newborn girls' genitals. (theguardian.com)
  • Two neuroscientists I interviewed about potential harm from male circumcision came to very different conclusions: one, Professor Jim Pfaus, who is doing cutting-edge research on sexual neuroscience at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, notes that the data do not show any lasting harm from circumcision that is physical, and he agrees with the AAP that the medical benefits of the practice do outweigh the negatives. (theguardian.com)
  • But the other neuroscientist, based in Midwestern university, who asked not to be named when he spoke to me (because his view is not medical orthodoxy) does indeed see harm in male circumcision that is less obvious than its potential medical consequences. (theguardian.com)
  • Tetanus and voluntary medical male circumcision: risk according to circumcision method and risk mitigation. (who.int)
  • 5 , 6 It is clear that there remains considerable controversy about the medical indications for circumcision, particularly when it is used as a preventive measure. (bmj.com)
  • both authors have published work in the field of medical or legal aspects of circumcision. (bmj.com)
  • All men enrolled in the study received free HIV testing and counselling, medical care, tests and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condoms and behavioural risk counselling for 24 months. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • No national medical organization in the world recommends routine circumcision of male infants. (circumcision.org)
  • The medical need for circumcision in adults is as low as 6 in 100,000. (circumcision.org)
  • Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Women are excited for medical male circumcision because they're despe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Almost 40 focus groups provided additional information about women's attitudes about medical male circumcision. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The report documents women's concerns that medical male circumcision might lead to an increase in heightened stigma for women living with HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Specifically, it underscores the need for communications campaigns that directly address the distinctions between medical male circumcision, traditional circumcision and female genital mutilation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The myths and misunderstandings identified by WHiPT teams such as the perception that medical male circumcision is directly protective for women underscore the urgent need for adequate education campaigns directed at women. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further, for women to access and act on information related to medical male circumcision and HIV, the information needs to be specifically tailored to women, and the socio-cultural context and realities of women's lived experience need to be taken into account. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Medical textbooks used to be very specific about the effectiveness of male and female circumcision in preventing masturbation. (circumcision.org)
  • Traditional circumcision that is funded through the national HIV budget must be safe and provide the same level of protection as medical circumcision. (tac.org.za)
  • Circumcision may be an appropriate risk reduction approach for men with known exposures to the virus when there are constraints to alternatives, such as condom use. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, condom usage protects women as well as men. (care2.com)
  • Asiimwe says that the push for male circumcision is intended to bolster, not replace, other measures, including campaigns aimed at urging abstinence and condom use. (voanews.com)
  • This opens up the possibility of talking about gender relations, violence, communication and negotiation of condom-use with participants, and provides an opportunity to reinforce the message that male circumcision is only one measure to prevent HIV and that safe sex is essential. (plos.org)
  • Addressing a major concern of skeptics, the study also found that circumcision did not affect rates of extramarital condom use. (poz.com)
  • Male circumcision vs condom use?Should circumcision be adopted asa preventive or reduction measureonly? (yahoo.com)
  • The findings suggest that strict adherence to sexual abstinence during wound healing and consistent condom use thereafter must be strongly promoted when HIV-infected men receive circumcision. (natap.org)
  • When services were offered, men accepted and acted to benefit from a package of male circumcision services that also includes safer sex education, condom promotion and HIV testing. (who.int)
  • However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the exodus from Egypt apparently did not carry out the practice of circumcision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not because I could do anything to comfort him or bond with him, but because my eyes were opened to the trauma inflicted on me and on him (and all other cut men) by the barbaric practice of circumcision. (care2.com)
  • The practice of circumcision has previously been considered to be morally neutral, that is, no harm was caused to the child and therefore with appropriate consent from both parents or a person lawfully exercising parental responsibility, it could be carried out. (nocirc.org)
  • This rationale originated in Victorian England, and gradually spread, along with the practice of circumcision, to the rest of the English-speaking world. (menweb.org)
  • A growing movement of men has arisen to decry the practice of circumcision as a mutilation they feel they have undergone, which they say is barbaric, traumatic and sexually desensitizing. (theguardian.com)
  • 001). The evidence suggests that adult circumcision does not affect sexual satisfaction and function. (annfammed.org)
  • Glans amputations are rare but severe adverse events (AEs) related to forceps-guided male circumcision of clients with immature genitalia (predominately 10- to 14-year-olds). (malecircumcision.org)
  • Circumcision was done using common surgical techniques (the Forceps-Guided technique and the Sleeve Resection method) under local anaesthesia. (who.int)
  • Evidence that circumcision protects against sexually transmitted diseases is "questionable, weak, and likely to have little public health relevance in a Western context," the doctors wrote, pointing out that in Western countries where circumcision is less common, HIV rates are no higher than they are in the United States. (healthline.com)
  • Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV. (nih.gov)
  • The role of circumcision in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other health claims has been investigated by public health researchers and remains highly debatable. (care2.com)
  • The authors referenced "three recent studies showing that circumcision of adult, African heterosexual men reduces their risk of acquiring [HIV] and other sexually transmitted infections. (thebody.com)
  • The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. (hindawi.com)
  • In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. (hindawi.com)
  • The earliest report of circumcision status as potential risk factor for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was published in 1855 by Hutchinson, who noted that in men who were treated for STIs (primarily gonorrhea and syphilis), Jews were less likely to have syphilis [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hankins said that it was "early days" in terms of showing the full benefit to women, but referred to the modelling study that suggested women benefit indirectly - a reduced chance of encountering a male partner infected with HIV and possible benefits in terms of reducing other sexually transmitted diseases that assist HIV transmission. (plos.org)
  • In other words, sexually active men still need to use condoms or other methods if they want to avoid exposure to HIV and other STDs. (kuow.org)
  • PATTI NEIGHMOND: Federal health officials say the benefits of circumcision really occur later in life when males become sexually active. (kuow.org)
  • Materials and Methods: Participants were healthy, sexually active, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative males aged 18-24 years. (rti.org)
  • In a report to be published in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine online Aug. 20, the Johns Hopkins experts say the added expense stems from new cases and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and related cancers among uncircumcised men and their female partners. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • According to the AAP, "Evidence regarding the relationship of circumcision to sexually transmitted diseases in general is complex and conflicting. (circumcision.org)
  • Does Male Circumcision Reduce Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer, and Associated Conditions? (frontiersin.org)
  • Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce men's risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The government agency found that the incidence of circumcision declined from 56 percent in 2006 to 32.5 percent in 2009. (go.com)
  • Incidence of newborn male circumcision declined from 62.5 percent in 1999 to 56.9 percent in 2008, according to CDC's National Hospital Discharge Survey. (thebody.com)
  • A longitudinal Australian study of 1427 initially HIV-negative gay men suggests that circumcision does not alter HIV incidence in gay men. (aidsmap.com)
  • There were 49 seroconversions among cohort participants within the following five years: 29 (69%) in circumcised men and 13 in uncircumcised men, representing an incidence of 0.80 per 100 patient-years. (aidsmap.com)
  • At 12 months, the incidence risk ratio (IRR) of acquiring HIV in circumcised heterosexual men in all the three trials combined was 0.50, with the 95% confidence interval (CI) being 0.34-0.72. (who.int)
  • Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce HIV incidence in men by 50-60% in three randomized trials, and observational studies of men circumcised in infancy or childhood have shown long-term protection from HIV acquisition in adulthood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. (who.int)
  • But before any surgery, all patients attend a counseling session to be briefed on the protective impact of circumcision. (voanews.com)
  • In a statement published shortly after Auvert and colleagues' trial was presented at the July conference, UNAIDS emphasized that "although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in HIV acquisition, more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings and of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. (health.am)
  • In addition, it will be important to determine the mechanism by which circumcision exerts its apparent protective effect. (health.am)
  • The strongest protective effect of circumcision was recorded in Black men, who had a 60% reduced risk if they were circumcised, but no association was found with other ancestral groups. (science20.com)
  • We do not know why a protective effect was observed for men circumcised after the age of 35. (science20.com)
  • In the previous version, the authors had observed a protective effect of between 38% and 66% for male circumcision with regard to the acquisition of HIV by heterosexual men, although the results were deemed inconclusive owing to heterogeneity between the studies (6). (who.int)
  • In June, the Anti-Defamation League condemned a comic book created by supporters of the anti-circumcision movement that it said contained grotesque anti-Semitic imagery. (ibtimes.com)
  • The revised government rules come at a time when anti-circumcision activists have grown more vocal. (healthline.com)
  • Foreskin Man ," a controversial comic book by one of San Francisco's anti-circumcision proponents, has driven away would-be supporters of a proposed ban on the practice of removing the foreskin of boys under 18. (go.com)
  • But the anti-circumcision movement, which has been rooted in "respectful, logical and rational discussion," according to leader Lloyd Schofield, might suffer at the hands of the very super hero fighting for foreskins everywhere. (go.com)
  • Anti-Circumcision Comic: Anti-Semitic? (go.com)
  • The full study, " Trends in In-Hospital Newborn Male Circumcision -- United States, 1999-2010 ," was published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (2011;60(34):1167-1168). (thebody.com)
  • Before the 'white men' came to Kenya there was no Christmas. (bellaonline.com)
  • In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male circumcision and HIV in differing social and cultural contexts. (who.int)
  • Two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, will help clarify the relationship between male circumcision and HIV in differing social and cultural contexts, UNAIDS officials noted. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Following the results of rigorous scientific research and the WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, sub-Saharan countries including Kenya, Swaziland, Botswana and Uganda are implementing national male circumcision programmes to help prevent the spread of HIV. (scielo.org.za)
  • Kenya is set to introduce a new non-surgical male circumcision device to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, an official said on Tuesday. (china.org.cn)
  • The study has shown that PrePex male device meets the safety standards used internationally for such devices to pave way for its use in Kenya," he said during the release of a report on the PrePex Male Circumcision Device in the country. (china.org.cn)
  • Achia said that amongst his Pokot communities of northwest Kenya, circumcision was several decades but with the advent of HIV, they now see the need to be circumcised. (china.org.cn)
  • The clinical trial enrolled 2,784 HIV negative, uncircumcised men between 18 and 24 years old in Kisumu, Kenya. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • The Kenya study suggests that circumcision did not increase risky behaviour among circumcised or uncircumcised men, according to Bailey. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • In the pilot phase, male infants of up to 60 days of life will be enrolled in three sub-Saharan countries, specifically Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Harsha Thirumurthy, PhD, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and colleagues studied 1,504 uncircumcised men (25 to 49 years of age) in Nyanza region, Kenya, who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or a control group. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The results of these trials will need to be considered by governments and other key stakeholders in order to determine whether male circumcision should be promoted as an additional public health intervention to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. (who.int)
  • If male circumcision is confirmed to be an effective intervention to reduce risk of acquiring HIV, this will not mean that men will be prevented from becoming infected with HIV during sexual intercourse through circumcision alone. (who.int)
  • They added that "male circumcision should be regarded as an important public health intervention for preventing the spread of HIV. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Male circumcision (MC) is an effective preventive health intervention. (intechopen.com)
  • We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls ( n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group ( n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. (asm.org)
  • Circumcision cannot be a stand-alone intervention. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Evaluation of scaled-up implementation of the intervention is needed to determine whether it will help achieve higher circumcision coverage over longer periods of time. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Uncircumcised men aged 18-24 years were randomized into either an intervention group, to be circumcised, or a control group, to remain uncircumcised. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • There's absolutely no doubt that if one can perform male circumcision without anesthesia, you save time, money and it requires less expertise," said Kim Eva Dickson, senior advisor in WHO's HIV/AIDS department. (thebody.com)
  • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (who.int)
  • Rwanda's Ministry of Health has announced plans to endorse male circumcision as a measure to help stem the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country, a health official said on Tuesday. (voanews.com)
  • Dr. Anita Asiimwe, managing director of the Center for the Treatment and Research of AIDS at Rwanda 's Ministry of Health, tells VOA that circumcision will be promoted via a nationwide education campaign. (voanews.com)
  • The trial, conducted by a team of French and South African researchers and sponsored by ANRS (the French National Agency of Research on AIDS), took place in the Orange Farm area near Johannesburg, where male circumcision in adulthood is a common but not universal practice. (health.am)
  • The panel estimated the cost-benefit ratio for adult circumcisions to be 23:1, and "said increasing annual spending on an AIDS vaccine by $100 million would be a better investment because it could potentially eradicate the disease, even though the cost-benefit ratio, 12:1, is lower," USA Today writes. (kff.org)
  • With global resources spread thin, we must focus on expanding proven and cost-effective methods like male circumcision to prevent HIV transmission," Krishna Jafa, an HIV expert at health aid group Population Services International (PSI), said at an AIDS conference in Vienna. (usafricaonline.com)
  • A methodologically sound, systematic review of 27 observational studies on male circumcision and HIV revealed a reduced risk of HIV among circumcised men, namely about half that of uncircumcised men. (scielo.org.za)
  • This is an observational study, in which men chose themselves to get circumcised, so there are likely to be differences in the characteristics of those who were and were not circumcised. (aidsmap.com)
  • Marie-Élise Parent, PhD and Andrea Spence, PhD, of the University of Quebec's INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, led a team that designed an observational study to investigate the possible association between circumcision and prostate cancer risk. (science20.com)
  • But in 2007 the actual acceptability of circumcision and feasibility of scaling up were unknown. (who.int)
  • See Why Most Circumcised Men Seem Satisfied , Psychological Impact of Circumcision on Men , and Discovering Circumcision Feelings . (circumcision.org)
  • According to Halakha (Jewish law), ritual circumcision of male children is a commandment from God that Jews are obligated to follow, and is only postponed or abrogated in the case of threat to the life or health of the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision is an important ritual in the Jewish faith, where it is performed on 8-day-old males. (go.com)
  • Greek and Roman attempts to abolish ritual circumcision were prompted mostly by humanitarian concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Torah and Halakha (Jewish religious law), ritual circumcision of all male Jews and their slaves (Genesis 17:10-13) is a commandment from God that Jews are obligated to perform on the eighth day of birth, and is only postponed or abrogated in the case of threat to the life or health of the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • By creating historical and social linkage through sacrificial ritual, circumcision functions to supersede and transcend our most primary maternal and biological system of relationship making patrilineal and patriarchal hierarchy appear "natural and inevitable"" (Pollack, 2011, p. 3). (prezi.com)
  • This guideline only addresses the position of doctors performing ritual circumcisions, and not religious or cultural leaders. (nocirc.org)
  • Ritual circumcision, tattooing, ear-piercing and violent sports including boxing are lawful activities. (nocirc.org)
  • A circumcision is usually performed during the first 10 days of a boy's life, either in the hospital or at home, if the circumcision is being performed as as part of a religious ritual. (kidzworld.com)
  • It has always been a form of tradition that separates boys from the men especially in African countries and one can also argue that it was never done in a safe hygienic way until government started to raise awareness campaigns for circumcisers to practice this ritual in a save manner,".he added. (economist.com.na)
  • None of the ancient cultures which practised circumcision have traditionally claimed that the ritual was introduced as a hygiene measure: African tribes, Arabs, Jews, Moslems and Australian Aboriginals explain it different ways, but divine command, tribal identification, social role, family obligation, respect for ancestors and promotion of chastity figure prominently (10, 11). (circinfo.org)
  • They feel that the strongly-held religious conviction in the rite of circumcision - whatever the science finally concludes - definitely sends a powerful message to a lactating mother still recovering from childbirth that she cannot protect her baby boy from the most rapacious demands of patriarchal ritual. (theguardian.com)
  • Competing interests Both authors perform therapeutic circumcisions, but neither do ritual circumcisions. (bmj.com)
  • Follow up at 54 months found that circumcised men reduced their risk of contracting HIV by 63%, demonstrating that the benefit of circumcision is durable. (tac.org.za)
  • Male circumcision could be incorporated rapidly into the national plans of countries where most males are not circumcised and where the spread of HIV is mainly heterosexual. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Male circumcision offers significant protection to men against the acquisition of HIV during heterosexual sex. (who.int)
  • The conclusions of this review would be applicable to all under-resourced settings, especially where circumcision is already practised and where the heterosexual HIV transmission is predominant. (who.int)
  • Research has found that circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission by about 60 percent. (poz.com)
  • Studies show that male circumcision reduces the risk of contracting HIV. (voanews.com)
  • In parallel to the trial of male circumcision in HIV-uninfected men in Rakai,3 we undertook a randomised controlled trial of male circumcision in HIV-infected men and enrolled their female partners. (natap.org)
  • The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. (asm.org)
  • By selectively citing Morris' own non-peer-reviewed letters and opinion pieces purporting to show flaws in studies reporting evidence of negative effects of circumcision, and by failing adequately to account for replies to these letters by the authors of the original research (and others), Morris and Krieger give an incomplete and misleading account of the available literature. (scirp.org)
  • Male circumcision (MC) can prevent female-to-male HIV transmission and has the potential to significantly alter HIV epidemics. (springer.com)
  • Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. (asm.org)
  • A proposed bill to ban non-medically required male circumcision on babies and children in Iceland is receiving backlash from religious communities. (newschannel5.com)
  • Medically rationalised circumcision has been controversial from the outset, and in its place of origin (Britain) never affected more than a third of boys. (circinfo.org)
  • Circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of several infections," said Diekema. (go.com)
  • During the first year of life, a low rate of adverse events (AEs) was associated with male circumcision (MC), but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. (medindia.net)
  • Men circumcised after the age of 35 were 45% less at risk of later developing prostate cancer than uncircumcised men, researchers have shown. (medindia.net)
  • Circumcised males have reduced risk of herpes, human papillomavirus , and genital ulcer disease. (thebody.com)
  • This corresponded to a relative risk for circumcision of 0.40 (95% confidence interval=0.24-0.68). (medpagetoday.com)
  • The first and obvious consequence of this study is that male circumcision should be recognized as an important means to reduce the risk of males becoming infected by HIV," the authors wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This report is still referenced by circumcision proponents as a validation of their claim that circumcision prevents STIs, but the converse of Hutchinson's finding, namely that when compared to Gentiles, Jews were at greater risk for gonorrhea, is typically ignored. (hindawi.com)
  • Zamibian men who get circumcised as a part of a public health effort to reduce HIV risk do not seem to engage in riskier sexual behaviors as a result, aidsmap reports. (poz.com)
  • Men who elected to be circumcised may have been more intrinsically inclined toward risky behaviors, or perhaps they were less inclined, thus over- or underestimating, respectively, any evident risk compensation. (poz.com)
  • On some counts, the men's behavior swayed toward risk compensation, but on others the men engaged in less risk of acquiring HIV. (poz.com)
  • So the researchers concluded that, on the whole, circumcision has not led to risk compensation among these men. (poz.com)
  • After controlling for various factors, the researchers found that male circumcision conferred a 15 percent reduction in the risk of women acquiring HIV. (poz.com)
  • In the US cut and natural men have HIV and HPV in the same % and example of this comes from the US Navy: Although known HIV risk factors were found to be associated with HIV in this military population, there was no significant association with male circumcision. (yahoo.com)
  • Three recent randomised controlled trials, each conducted over a period of about 24 months, 9-11 demonstrated a reduced HIV acquisition risk of about 60% among circumcised men. (scielo.org.za)
  • Thus, circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce transmission of HIV to female partners, and the possibility of higher risk of transmission in couples who resumed sexual intercourse before complete wound healing cannot be excluded. (natap.org)
  • At the same time, a number of studies have shown that circumcision has not led to increases in sexual risk-taking. (aidsmap.com)
  • Moreover, immediately after circumcision, men may be at a higher risk of acquiring infections (which is why the participants were asked to not to have sex for six weeks after the operation). (health.am)
  • Circumcised men had a slightly lower risk, albeit not statistically significant, of developing prostate cancer than uncircumcised men. (science20.com)
  • IMPORTANCE The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. (asm.org)
  • Opponents of circumcision have speculated that circumcised men may feel they are not at risk of contracting HIV and may be more likely to engage in risky behaviour. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Research cited by the World Health Organisation has shown that male circumcision can reduce a man's risk of getting HIV by up to 60 percent. (usafricaonline.com)
  • Male partner MC did not reduce risk of gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium , dysuria or vaginal discharge in women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reports from women reached by the Kenyan WHiPT team underscore women's fears that male circumcision may lead to changes in men's behaviors and perception of risk. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus sex and or safer sex would be less negotiable than before circumcision, putting women at greater risk for gender-based violence and HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The interventions also significantly increased the likelihood of circumcision uptake among participants at higher risk of acquiring HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In all male circumcision randomised controlled trials, sexual behaviour was naturally taken into account as a factor associated with HIV acquisition. (scielo.org.za)
  • control, n=70) and followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months, to assess HIV acquisition by male treatment assignment (primary outcome). (natap.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Strong evidence suggests circumcision can prevent human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome acquisition in sub-Saharan African men. (annfammed.org)
  • Studies have shown that male circumcision provides direct protection against male HIV acquisition by removing the foreskin, which is rich in HIV target cells. (jhsph.edu)
  • All the men healed excellently, said researchers. (thebody.com)
  • Circumcising men reduced infections in their female partners by 30%, the researchers found. (aljazeera.com)
  • In the study of more than 300 Ugandan couples in which the man infected the woman, the researchers found that 299 women caught HIV from uncircumcised partners and only 44 were infected by circumcised men. (aljazeera.com)
  • Researchers used ordered and multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify associations between characteristics and the provision of circumcision counseling, services or referrals, as well as the desire for training. (guttmacher.org)
  • The researchers found that 20.0% of men who remained uncircumcised had HIV, whereas in those men who were circumcised, 6.2% had HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • The researchers observed that men who were circumcised tended to be younger, better educated and more likely to know their HIV status. (aidsmap.com)
  • of findings from one of the two randomized control studies undertaken 2004-9 by the Rakkai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), Uganda, on the health impacts of circumcision to reduce HIV/STI transmission, has generated further comment in the Lancet from researchers engaged in the South African context (A R Giuliano, A G Nyitray et al. (bmj.com)
  • PSI presented results of a study from Zimbabwe, where researchers designed and tried out an efficiency model called MOVE, aimed at increasing the numbers of male circumcisions by using better techniques, training, equipment and staff. (usafricaonline.com)
  • The researchers found that in communities where more than 40 percent of men had been circumcised, the rate of new infections among men was reduced by 39 percent as compared to those communities where 10 percent or fewer men had been circumcised. (jhsph.edu)
  • In the study, researchers constructed a novel economic model to predict the cost implications of not circumcising a male newborn. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They also presented more evidence that circumcision protects men. (aljazeera.com)
  • The Health Check programme reported from Botswana, where a recently launched national media campaign is encouraging young men to get circumcised by a trained provider as part of the country's attempt to reduce HIV transmission. (plos.org)
  • To see the reach the programme has had in the township, two cross-sectional household surveys were carried out amongst random samples of men aged 15 to 49. (aidsmap.com)
  • There has been "criticism of the delay in launching the circumcision programme," which the government began drafting in 2008. (kff.org)
  • it will compare PrePex with conventional, surgical circumcision. (thebody.com)
  • Newly available non-surgical circumcision devices could also play a role, offering an alternative to sutures and surgery that some men may prefer. (avac.org)
  • To compare conventional open surgical circumcision with suturing with a minimally invasive technique using the Gomco circumcision clamp plus tissue adhesive. (nih.gov)
  • We compared two interventions - open surgical circumcision with suturing v. Gomco instrument plus tissue adhesive. (nih.gov)
  • This study will evaluate a new, minimally-invasive surgical circumcision technique for men, which is easy to learn and perform, is safe, and is associated with high patient satisfaction and excellent cosmetic results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. (bmj.com)
  • Community leaders gathered in Mali on Thursday to publicly renounce the practice of female genital mutilation to mark an international day of campaigning against female circumcision. (medindia.net)
  • Over 80% of the world s male population is genitally intact, with 20% being subjected to some form of childhood genital mutilation. (menweb.org)
  • But I think it's also brought a lot more people in by getting more people to talk about it and look into it," said Hess, president of MGMBill.org , a group against male genital mutilation, which, in its view, includes circumcision. (go.com)
  • No comprehensive world records are kept regarding the exact number of men and women now alive who were subjected as children to genital mutilation customs, or the number of boys and girls today who are customarily mutilated. (noharmm.org)
  • So it is reasonable to wonder if the injury of male circumcision (though hardly comparable to female genital mutilation) could, as many claim, have some lasting emotional or psychological effect on men and the male brain - apart from, or in addition to, any physical harm from the incision. (theguardian.com)
  • In each country, research took place in different locales, selected to reflect a diversity of circumcision practices, including communities that practice traditional male circumcision and those that do not circumcise, as well as those practicing female genital mutilation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some women report the concern that the promotion of circumcision for men would increase the promotion of female genital mutilation," says Allen Kuteesa from Health Rights Action Group in Uganda. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Last year, they reported that circumcised men were less likely to become infected with HIV. (aljazeera.com)