Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Phimosis: A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.Circumcision, Female: A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Balanitis: Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans: An atrophic and sclerotic condition of the head of the PENIS, glans penis. Sometimes it leads to stenosis and occasionally obliteration of the external meatal orifice.Penile Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.United States Agency for International Development: An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Paraphimosis: A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Premature Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Petrolatum: A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Pediatric urinary tract infection and reflux. (1/423)

Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training should be evaluated for the presence of reflux. Children who may be lost to follow-up and those who have recurrent urinary tract infections should also be evaluated. The preferred method for evaluation of urinary reflux is a voiding cystourethrogram. Documented reflux is initially treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Patients who have breakthrough infections on prophylaxis, develop new renal scarring, have high-grade reflux or cannot comply with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for surgical correction. The preferred method of surgery is ureteral reimplantation. A newer method involves injection of the bladder trigone with collagen.  (+info)

Adult circumcision. (2/423)

Adult circumcision can be performed under local or regional anesthesia. Medical indications for this procedure include phimosis, paraphimosis, recurrent balanitis and posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce). Nonmedical reasons may be social, cultural, personal or religious. The procedure is commonly performed using either the dorsal slit or the sleeve technique. The dorsal slit is especially useful in patients who have phimosis. The sleeve technique may provide better control of bleeding in patients with large subcutaneous veins. A dorsal penile nerve block, with or without a circumferential penile block, provides adequate anesthesia. Informed consent must be obtained. Possible complications of adult circumcision include infection, bleeding, poor cosmetic results and a change in sensation during intercourse.  (+info)

Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. (3/423)

OBJECTIVES: Globally approximately 25% of men are circumcised for religious, cultural, medical, or parental choice reasons. However, controversy surrounds the procedure, and its benefits and risks to health. We review current knowledge of the health benefits and risks associated with male circumcision. METHODS: We have used, where available, previously conducted reviews of the relation between male circumcision and specific outcomes as "benchmarks", and updated them by searching the Medline database for more recent information. RESULTS: There is substantial evidence that circumcision protects males from HIV infection, penile carcinoma, urinary tract infections, and ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. We could find little scientific evidence of adverse effects on sexual, psychological, or emotional health. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced with neonatal circumcision, are valid concerns that require appropriate responses. CONCLUSION: Further analyses of the utility and cost effectiveness of male circumcision as a preventive health measure should, in the light of this information, be research and policy priorities. A decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided with the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks.  (+info)

Circumcision and neonatal tetanus: disclosure of risk and its reduction by topical antibiotics. (4/423)

BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have paradoxically suggested that circumcisions protect against neonatal tetanus (NNT), but these observations have not been adjusted for differences in the length of survival of cases and controls. METHODS: Boy cases (n = 133) and their sex-matched controls (n = 399) were extracted from a population-based study of NNT undertaken in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In the resulting file, circumcisions were censored such that analysis was restricted to only those that occurred before onset in cases or before age of onset in the matched case for controls. The effect of topical antibiotics in circumcision wounds was then evaluated. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, circumcision before onset posed a significant risk for NNT (matched odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0). The risk of NNT in those circumcised before onset and treated with topical antibiotics did not differ significantly from the referent group who had not been circumcised before onset (matched OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.2-6.8), whereas the lack of topical use was associated with significant risk (matched OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6). This suggests that topical antibiotics are likely to be highly effective in preventing NNT from circumcision wounds. We estimated an overall risk of about 16 fatal NNT cases per 1000 live boy births with circumcision wounds that were not protected by topical antibiotics, and that circumcision and umbilical wounds each accounted for about half of this overall risk in these boys. CONCLUSIONS: Topical antibiotics should be routinely applied to all wounds created by traditional circumcisions, to prevent NNT and sepsis from these frequently unsterile procedures.  (+info)

Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. (5/423)

To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.  (+info)

Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner. (6/423)

OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV.  (+info)

Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. (7/423)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and one was initially HIV-1-negative and followed them prospectively for up to 30 months. The incidence of HIV-1 infection per 100 person-years among the initially seronegative partners was examined in relation to behavioral and biologic variables. RESULTS: The male partner was HIV-1-positive in 228 couples, and the female partner was HIV-1-positive in 187 couples. Ninety of the 415 initially HIV-1-negative partners seroconverted (incidence, 11.8 per 100 person-years). The rate of male-to-female transmission was not significantly different from the rate of female-to-male transmission (12.0 per 100 person-years vs. 11.6 per 100 person-years). The incidence of seroconversion was highest among the partners who were 15 to 19 years of age (15.3 per 100 person-years). The incidence was 16.7 per 100 person-years among 137 uncircumcised male partners, whereas there were no seroconversions among the 50 circumcised male partners (P<0.001). The mean serum HIV-1 RNA level was significantly higher among HIV-1-positive subjects whose partners seroconverted than among those whose partners did not seroconvert (90,254 copies per milliliter vs. 38,029 copies per milliliter, P=0.01). There were no instances of transmission among the 51 subjects with serum HIV-1 RNA levels of less than 1500 copies per milliliter; there was a significant dose-response relation of increased transmission with increasing viral load. In multivariate analyses of log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels, each log increment in the viral load was associated with a rate ratio of 2.45 for seroconversion (95 percent confidence interval, 1.85 to 3.26). CONCLUSIONS: The viral load is the chief predictor of the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, and transmission is rare among persons with levels of less than 1500 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter.  (+info)

Circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors: a simple, safe and acceptable new technique. (8/423)

BACKGROUND: Circumcision may be performed by a variety of techniques. Postoperative haemorrhage is a recognised complication of the procedure. METHOD: A method of circumcision using bipolar diathermy scissors is described. Foreskin vessels are coagulated as the foreskin is cut away. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent this procedure without complication. CONCLUSION: Circumcision using bipolar scissors can be a safe and simple operation.  (+info)

Introduction Definition of the Prevention Area Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is the complete removal of the foreskin of the penis by surgical means. Though VMMC may be conducted for a number of reasons, evidence from three clinical trials has shown that medical male circumcision can significantly reduce (but not eliminate) mens risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual vaginal sex. The U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports provision of VMMC by qualified, well-equipped professionals, and with the clients informed consent. To ensure that VMMC is provided as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a minimum package of services should be available in all facilities providing male circumcision. This package includes HIV testing and counseling, screening and syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) where required; provision and promotion of male and female condoms; and counseling on
The Collection comprises four reviews and five research articles, and highlights how scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa can help prevent HIV, not only at the individual level but also at the community and population level, as well as leading to substantial cost savings for countries due to averted treatment and care costs. Two of the research articles are published in PLoS ONE; the remaining seven articles are published in PLoS Medicine on 29th November 2011. They can be accessed from the PLoS Medicine VMMC Collection page; the table of contents is also included below.. The first article by Catherine Hankins of UNAIDS, Steven Forsythe of The Futures Institute, and Emmanuel Njeuhmeli of PEPFAR/USAID, offers an introduction to the cost, impact and challenges of accelerated scaling up and lays out the rationale for the Collection. The remaining eight papers focus on the various factors that have important roles in effective ...
BACKGROUND: follow-up visits are recommended to all voluntary medical male circumcision clients (VMMC), however, adherence is variable. High lost-to-follow-up cases limit knowledge about clinical status of clients and adverse events. This study sought to establish Motivators and Barriers to the Uptake of VMMC post-operative follow-up services in Siaya County, Kenya. METHODS: 277 clients from five VMMC sites in Yala were recruited immediately post-operation to participate in a telephone interview between the 21st and 31st day post-surgery during which a semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse quantitative information using SPSS while responses from open ended questions were grouped into themes, sieved out, coded and analyzed. RESULTS: 137(49.5%) of the 277 participants utilized the follow-up services. Health education (31.4%) and emergency reviews/adverse events (24.1%) were the main motivation for returning for follow-up while
Published in the journal PLoS One, this article reports on the frequency, type, and severity of adverse events after voluntary medical male circumcision in Botswana.. ...
Health, ...New York 13 December 2010A new report from the Womens HIV Prevention...Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr...The report highlights community-level support as well as concerns and ... Women are excited for medical male circumcision because theyre despe...,New,report,provides,womens,perspectives,on,medical,male,circumcision,for,HIV,prevention,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Emmanuel Njeuhmeli and colleagues estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult medical male circumcision in 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, finding that reaching 80% coverage and maintaining it until 2025 would avert 3.36 million new HIV infections.
Asiphile was created to encourage increased uptake of male circumcision in the catchment area and its mission is two-pronged: to train and mentor clinic staff in male circumcision and to create a high-volume, high quality male circumcision facility to serve KwaZulu-Natal consistent with WHO guidelines and recommendations [17]. Experts from Operation Abraham Consortium and St Marys Hospital initiated a clinical training program called SHESHA (is Quick, Be Fast in isiZulu). The training model was endorsed by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical Faculty for continuing medical education for physicians. The international team was composed of surgeons who have conducted thousands of adult circumcisions and who provided on the spot training and mentoring.. Surgeons, nurses and health clinic staff from St. Marys Hospital were recruited, trained, and utilized at the Asiphile facility. The new staff were trained to manage daily program operations, perform forceps-guided male circumcisions, educate ...
Blog posts from Dr. Reed of the Reed Centre in Miami Beach Florida about adult male circumcision and other urological procedures.
Care guide for Adult Male Circumcision (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
This study is a randomized controlled intervention trial. This multi-centre study will take place in 3 centers located around Johannesburg, in the areas of Orange Farm, Sebokeng and Evaton. The intervention group patients (circumcised at the beginning of the trial) and the control group (uncircumcised men) will be followed during 21 months (from M.0 to M. 21). Randomization and medicalized circumcision will be performed at M.0 in the intervention group and might be optional in the control group at end of study. The medicalized circumcision effectiveness will be evaluated on and after M.3 (3 months after medicalized circumcision). Incidences (of HIV, HSV-2 infections and genital ulcer disease) will be compared from M.3 to M.21 between the intervention group and the control group. An intermediate analysis will take place at M. 12 ...
South Africa has one of the most severe and fast-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. This study will assess the efficacy of circumcision in HIV uninfected men in preventing HIV and STI acquisition.. This study will have two stages. In the first stage, 200 men will be enrolled into a study of the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of circumcision. Frequent postoperative follow-up will occur to determine rates of healing and complications. After assessment of those enrolled in Stage 1, Stage 2 enrollment will begin. Stage 2 will determine the efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. In both stages, HIV uninfected men will be randomly assigned to have either immediate circumcision or possible circumcision 2 years following Stage 2 study entry. The participants not receiving immediate circumcision will be offered circumcision after completion of 2 years of follow-up study, ...
Mukono District Health authorities, in collaboration with the Makerere University Walter Reed Project (MUWRP), officially launched a Safe Male Circumcision Program at the Mukono Health Center IV on August 8. MUWRP recently completed renovations of the minor surgical theatre at the Health Center, which will serve as the long-standing circumcision clinic for Mukono Town.
Routine infant circumcision has been practiced on infant males and females in America for many years. The reasons for circumcision, also called amputation and genital reduction, have varied over the years and include eliminating masturbation, training women, curing epilepsy and recently, even preventing HIV. In 1996, a federal law upheld the illegality of all female circumcision for all reasons, including for religious practice. Infant male circumcision is still widely practiced in America, with rates reaching as high as 50% in some regions. Based on the current laws and constitution, it appears that infant male circumcision is already illegal, despite being widely accepted culturally. The ban enacted in 1996 should be amended to be a law of equality by including both females and males ...
ISSUES IN PUBLIC HEALTH. Key facts on male circumcision. Bertran Auvert; Pascale Lissouba; Dirk Taljaard; Nathan Geffen; Agnes Fiamma; Mark Heywood. In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS convened an international consultation of experts who represent a wide range of stakeholders, including government representatives, researchers, civil society representatives, gender experts, human rights and womenâ s health advocates, young people, funding agencies and implementing partners, to investigate the potential role of male circumcision in the prevention of HIV transmission. As a result, male circumcision is now recognised and recommended by WHO/UNAIDS as an additional and important strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in countries with a high prevalence of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and low levels of male circumcision.1. Following the results of rigorous scientific research and the WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, sub-Saharan countries ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
Male circumcision is by far the most prevalent surgical procedure worldwide, with about 10 million performed each year, mostly in non-medical settings. Although circumcision is considered to be a minor and safe procedure, the incidence of postoperative complications can be high.1-3 Traditional circumcisions throughout sub-Saharan Africa are usually performed with cutting tools that are used without intermediate cleaning on several patients in turn, leading to complications and, in particular, infections.4-8 Complication rates associated with ritual circumcision performed in non-medical settings have not been widely reported, but most authors agree that such unsafe practices should be discouraged.6,9,10. A comprehensive safety assessment of current male circumcision procedures is necessary to identify appropriate methods for each setting and to issue proper clinical guidelines, as positive results on the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV transmission are likely to boost ...
Umhlobo Wenene FM. . Brothers for Life promote positive male norms and encourage the uptake of Medical Male Circumcision, Men taking up HIV Testing, Consistent condom use by Men and reduction of sexual partners. The campaign mobilises men to actively engage in activities to address Gender-Based Violence in their communities.
Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy consent for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision ...
December 1 is World AIDS Day, providing an opportunity for people and organizations worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV/AIDS. URC has been supporting many Governments efforts to combat the epidemic for over 30 years. Most recently, through the USAID Strengthening Ugandas Systems for Treating AIDS Nationally (SUSTAIN) and USAID Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems (ASSIST) projects, we have been working in Uganda to expand coverage and uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), also known as safe male circumcision (SMC).
As is clear, section 12(8)(b) allows for circumcisions to be conducted on male children below the age of 16 if such circumcision is performed for medical reasons on the recommendation of a medical practitioner.. Neither the Childrens Act nor the General Regulations Regarding Children6 ("General Regulations") under the Childrens Act provide a definition of "medical reasons". In the absence of a definition, and based on the evidence that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection by up to 64%,7 reduces the risk of HSV-2 and HPV infection,8 and that neo-natal circumcision carries a lower risk of complications than childhood or adult circumcisions, any reasonable interpretation of "medical reasons" will be sufficiently broad for a medical practitioner to recommend elective neo-natal medical male circumcision to the parents of infant boys and remain within the ambit of the Childrens Act. In addition - while not inherently necessary for obtaining the protective benefits of medical male ...
With all the posturing in the recently released Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (2012) about mass male circumcision, whether performed in completely unsterile conditions found in traditional settings or the (hopefully) more sterile settings of health facilities, nothing was mentioned about hepatitis B or C. But an article in the East African describes a piece of…
In an editorial to be published in the Journal of the American Medical Association online Oct. 5, Johns Hopkins health epidemiologist and pathologist Aaron Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., and health epidemiologist Ronald Gray, M.D., highlight the most recent medical research showing the considerable life-long health benefits of circumcision performed during infancy and the potential disadvantages associated with waiting until adulthood before undergoing the procedure. The experts point out that there are medical benefits during childhood, as many young men are already sexually active before age 18, and at greater risk of infection from sexually transmitted infections. Circumcision at older ages is also associated with more complications and cost than having the minimal surgery in infancy ...
26 July 2005 , Rio de Janeiro - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS).. Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
Adult male circumcision in our practice is performed under local anesthesia. General anesthesia is available but seldom given. Typical scenario: Dr. Reed will meet with the patient, examine the patient and review circumcision styles. The patient then is transferred to the operating suite. Local anesthesia cream is applied for about 15 minutes. Afterwards a local anesthetic is injected mostly at the base of the penis (a ring block). After another 15 minutes elapses, effective penile anesthesia is confirmed. The patient is cleansed with an antiseptic solution and draped. Surgery takes about 40 minutes or so.. The patient is given a handheld mirror to observe and approval is sought before steri-strips and a 2 layered dressing is applied. Please visit adult-male-circumcision.com/photographic-examples for before and after pictures of adult circumcision.. Harold M. Reed, M.D ...
In the first installment, John Donnelly interviews Caroline A. Ryan, MD, MPH, director of technical leadership. at the Office of U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator. She has been a long-time key architect of the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Reliefs (PEPFAR) implementation. Could you give an overview on PEPFARs activities to date regarding the scale up of male circumcision?. We have 14 countries now receiving PEPFAR funding for male circumcision. They are mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Some money is in Guyana, but not a lot. We are beginning to see that countries are embracing this as part of a prevention portfolio, and they are investing a higher percentage each year into male circumcision, which is good.. We also see a change from countries at first integrating it into existing services to what would be a larger service delivery model that also takes advantage of mobile sites for particular campaigns. Weve seen a number of countries, such as Kenya, Zambia and Swaziland, use campaigns during ...
There are many other pros and cons when it comes to the circumcision argument which I dont have room to address here, however, I urge you to speak with your pediatrician at length before making this choice for your own child. However, as a sex therapist, I will say that if you do feel traumatized by your circumcision, you are not alone. There is a group called Intact America which is working to end routine circumcision, and you can go to their web site to find resources and like-minded support from other men (and women) who are against circumcision. Last, before I end, I want to address the issue of consent around circumcision. One man on my Facebook post compared circumcision to rape, and while I appreciate his right to anger about his circumcision, we must be very, very careful when we use the word rape to describe anything other than rape. Words matter. They are powerful. They shape our beliefs and they inform the way we live in this world. So when we use the word rape to talk about a ...
Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention if carried out by medical professionals under safe conditions. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that circumcision reduces the risk that a man will acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from an infected female partner. A meta-analysis of data from fifteen observational studies of men who have sex with men found "insufficient evidence that male circumcision protects against HIV infection or other STIs". The CDC concludes "There are as yet no convincing data to help determine whether male circumcision will have any effect on HIV risk for men who engage in anal sex with either a female or male partner, as either the insertive or receptive partner." In 2007, the WHO reviewed the ...
The majority of men who are HIV positive have been infected through the penis. There is conclusive epidemiological evidence to show that uncircumcised men are at a much greater risk of becoming infected with HIV than circumcised men. The inner surface of the foreskin contains Langerhans cells with HIV receptors; these cells are likely to be the primary point of viral entry into the penis of an uncircumcised man. Male circumcision should be seriously considered as an additional means of preventing HIV in all countries with a high prevalence of infection. The development of HIV receptor blockers, which could be applied to the penis or vagina before intercourse, might provide a new form of HIV prevention. In his otherwise excellent review of the AIDS epidemic in the 21st century, Fauci presented no new strategies for preventing the spread of the disease. He made no mention of male circumcision, yet there is now compelling epidemiological evidence from over 40 studies which shows that male ...
In males who have been circumcised, the circumcision scar refers to the scar after a circumcision has healed. In some cases, the scar can be darker-colored, and, in all cases, it will encircle the shaft of the penis. The scar, which completely encircles the shaft of the penis, is located at the boundary of the shaft skin and the inner foreskin remnant, which is the portion of the foreskin that was not removed during circumcision. This foreskin remnant is mucosa that lies between the glans and the circumcision scar, which results in dissimilar tissue healing together. In adult circumcision part of the frenulum may remain intact. The foreskin remnant is dried mucosa and can often have a different color and texture than the rest of the penile skin. It can be pinkish or light-colored, and it typically becomes covered with keratin to protect it from a dry environment. Some circumcision scars result in a marked color difference on the shaft. The characteristics of the circumcision scar depend on the ...
Mathematical modelling was used to compare the impact of combined interventions-extended antiretroviral therapy coverage, voluntary medical male circumcision, and pre-exposure prophylaxis among women-on HIV incidence in South Africa. The results are published in this article in BMC Infectious Diseases.. ...
A novel, hybrid segmentation technique reveals human heterogeneity in barriers towards a behavior, and is applied to characterize distinct segments in voluntary medical male circumcision.
It is simple to present male circumcision as the scientific and sensible thing to do. Indeed, the foreskin is one of those parts of the body, like wisdom teeth and the appendix, that seem to be ripe for the plucking. However, those who argue both for and against circumcision are likely to overstate their case. Guy Cox pointed out that some people have religious and philosophical objections to circumcision. However, characterising this opposition as "anti-Semitic or anti-Islamic" makes as much sense as calling someone who opposes slavery as anti-Christian, anti-Islamic and anti- Semitic because the Bible and the Koran allow it. The human foreskin is a natural part of a mans penis. It is therefore not surprising that many people question the idea of removing it. Far from being as simple as an inoculation, circumcision is far from risk-free. Unless the operator is competent, and can control or eliminate infection and bleeding, the procedure is dangerous and even life-threatening. The basic ...
Uncircumcised males take longer to eliminate the virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), of their bodies. In addition to causing cervical cancer, the virus can also trigger the onset of venereal disease and cancer in men.. Circumcision not only make conditions more healthy male gender but also her partner. "Our research suggests circumcision could be a protective effect of HPV infection," said Dr.. Brenda Y. Hernandez from the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, as quoted from the MSNBC website.. Because men are not circumcised at high risk of transmitting HPV causes cervical cancer in women, then it could endanger their partner. Women infected with HPV can cause cervical cancer through sexual intercourse with men.. To determine whether circumcision affects a persons risk of HPV infection and how circumcision can eliminate the virus from the body, researchers examined 357 men for 14 months. Every two months the men tested for HPV, 290 of whom were circumcised.. During the study, identified 536 ...
He cites only two publications dealing with the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV infection, and makes no mention of the important recent meta-analysis of Weiss, Quigley, and Hayes2 which shows conclusively from a large number of studies that male circumcision at least halves the relative risk of HIV infection throughout sub-Saharan Africa.3. Would that we could share Hutsons optimism that "we are not certain at present whether AIDS is going to be an even more widespread disease in the future or whether it will be abolished by some new treatment". At the 14th International AIDS Conference in Barcelona in July 2002 we were informed that currently 40 million people are infected with HIV, with five million new infections a year; the AIDS pandemic is only just beginning. There is no cure in sight, and vaccines still remain a distant hope.4 Faced with such dismal future prospects, is it ethical to dismiss a simple prophylactic surgical procedure that can halve male rates of ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) found both potential benefits and risks in infant circumcision, however, there was insufficient data to recommend routine neonatal circumcision. In situations involving potential benefits and risks, and no immediate urgency, they state that "parents should determine what is in the best interest of the child". They continue, "To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be given accurate and unbiased information and be provided the opportunity to discuss this decision." They said, "In the pluralistic society of the United States in which parents are afforded wide authority for determining what constitutes appropriate child-rearing and child welfare, it is legitimate for the parents to take into account cultural, religious, and ethnic traditions, in addition to medical factors, when making this choice." If a decision to circumcise is made, the AAP recommend using analgesia to reduce pain, and also said that circumcision on newborns should ...
Various combinations of microbicide and circumcision would produce a 20% reduction, but one combination cited by Cox was 53% circumcision coverage combined with 35% microbicide coverage - both higher than his initial assumptions. A 40% reduction in incidence would require probably unrealistic coverage rates of 81% for circumcision and 63% for microbicides, and a 30% reduction in incidence would require 68% coverage of circumcision and 46% coverage of microbicides use.. Inevitably, circumcision would benefit men more and microbicides would be of greater benefit to women. If circumcision was the only intervention used, 70% of the reduction in infections seen would be amongst men and if microbicides alone were used, 65% of the reduction would be in women, but if used together, the sexes would share the benefit equally.. Hiam Chemaitelly looked at the effect of circumcision in serodiscordant couples and weighed it up against the impact of treating the HIV-positive partner; treating the negative ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
by Physicians Weekly , Apr 3, 2012. CROI 2012, the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, took place from March 5-8 in Seattle. The features below highlight just some of the studies that emerged from the conference. Can Circumcision Decrease Herpes Risk? Deferred Vs Immediate ART in Children Reducing Risk in Partners of HIV-Positive Individuals Monthly HIV Prophylaxis Appears Promising Sustaining Virologic Responses in HIV-HCV Coinfection Can Circumcision Decrease Herpes Risk? The Particulars: Previous research has shown that males who undergo circumcision can help reduce their risk of contracting HIV infection. Less is known about additional long-term effects of circumcision with regard to the transmission of other infectious diseases. Data Breakdown: Investigators conducted a study of men in a South African town before and after a roll-out of a circumcision project. The prevalence of circumcision increased from 15.6% to 49.4% among those aged 15 to 49. The prevalence ...
Among uncircumcised men in Kenya, compensation in the form of food vouchers worth approximately U.S. $9 or $15, compared with lesser or no compensation, resulted in a modest increase in the prevalence of circumcision after ...
If you are unsure about circumcision, here are 5 benefits of circumcision to help you make an inform decision. Parents of a male infant often asked if there are any benefits of circumcision. It is difficult for them to make the decision to circumcise their newborn infant.. Circumcision is a procedure that has been around for a long time. The Jewish community practices this procedure extensively. Today the procedure is common in other cultures as well, but some parents have mixed feelings and often weighs the pros and cons of performing the procedure. When a male infant has a circumcision, the chance that he will have urinary tract infection (UTI) decreases tremendously. During the first three to six months of life, an uncircumcised male infant is ten times as likely to have a urinary tract infection than a circumcised male infant.. Studies show that uncircumcised infants have an increased rate of penile cancer in comparison to circumcised men. However, penile cancer rarely happens in either the ...
RESULTS. The parents of 1479 pupils answered the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.8%. In all, 10.7% of schoolboys had undergone circumcision, and 11.8% of the fathers were circumcised. Regarding non-circumcised boys, 28.9% of their parents believed that their sons had phimosis and 15.6% believed they would require circumcision later. Among these parents, 57.9% would consider circumcision for their boys in public hospitals, 96.9% thought that public institutions should provide such service, and 82.6% thought that doctors opinions were most important when deciding about circumcision. Most parents believed that circumcision could prevent balanitis (82.8%) and improve hygiene (81.8%). Significantly more parents from Mainland China and of lower social class believed that circumcision could improve cosmesis, growth of the penis, sexual potency and fertility, and prevent sexually transmitted diseases and penile cancer ...
The AAP policy statement might be revisited in the future since it has been heavily criticized. Some even suggested that AAP didnt quote all of the necessary researches and that some of the listed researches were misquoted: "The 1999 Task Force on Circumcision policy statement also has flaws and may likewise be culpable for failing to adhere to the generally accepted scientific and professional preference for valuing methodology in assessing the soundness of existing information. The responsible course of action for the AAP would be to admit that the evidence does not now support, and never has supported the continued routine performing of circumcision on infant males. … In the alternative, assuming that the AAP, ACOG (The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), and individual physicians can reasonably hypothesize beneficial utility that a century of research has failed to prove, circumcision should be reclassified as experimental and/or cosmetic surgery and thus be subject to ...
Abstract. The objective was to examine the association between circumcision status and self-reported HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Britain who predominantly or exclusively engaged in insertive anal intercourse. In 2007-2008, a convenience sample of MSM living in Britain was recruited through websites, in sexual health clinics, bars, clubs, and other venues. Men completed an online survey which included questions on circumcision status, HIV testing, HIV status, sexual risk behavior, and sexual role for anal sex. The analysis was restricted to 1,521 white British MSM who reported unprotected anal intercourse in the previous 3 months and who said they only or mostly took the insertive role during anal sex. Of these men, 254 (16.7 %) were circumcised. Among men who had had a previous HIV test (n = 1,097), self-reported HIV seropositivity was 8.6 % for circumcised men (17/197) and 8.9 % for uncircumcised men (80/900) (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95 % confidence interval ...
A group seeking to ban the circumcision of male children in San Francisco has succeeded in getting the measure on the November ballot.
Welcome to "Historical Medical Quotes On Circumcision". Many people ask me how this site got started and comment on how big it is. I started it in June, 1998, as a place to put some old medical quotes on circumcision Id found- hence the name. As I researched circumcisions history, I slowly added information to the site. It quickly grew too big to be one page, so I added the blue menu bar that you see on the right. Not only do I have quotes by medical professionals- doctors, nurses, etc.- but also by mothers and fathers. These are not only experiences with having observed their sons circumcisions, but with their experiences with having circumcised and non-circumcised sons.. In order to get an accurate picture of circumcision, one must not only look at what doctors and parents have to say today, but what theyve said in the past - especially WHY they said it, historically. Each section deals with a different issue concerning circumcision; to each of these Ive added many quotes to help ...
Circumcision is a dangerous distraction in the fight against AIDS. There are six African countries where men are *more* likely to be HIV+ if theyve been circumcised: Cameroon, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, and Swaziland. Eg in Malawi, the HIV rate is 13.2% among circumcised men, but only 9.5% among intact men. In Rwanda, the HIV rate is 3.5% among circumcised men, but only 2.1% among intact men. If circumcision really worked against AIDS, this just wouldnt happen. We now have people calling circumcision a vaccine or invisible condom, and viewing circumcision as an alternative to condoms. The South African National Communication Survey on HIV/AIDS, 2009 found that 15% of adults across age groups believe that circumcised men do not need to use condoms ...
Interest in the possible association between male circumcision (MC) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, began in earnest in 1980s with studies exploring the tripartite relationship of circumcision, genital ulcer disease and HIV. The interest gathered momentum in the 1990s with more studies exploring these associations beyond within and Africa. In 2002, the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) was initiated in Kisumu, Kenya, with two others following shortly after in Orange Farm, South Africa and Rakai, Uganda. Although the RCTs focused primarily on MC and HIV, they also explored associations of MC and different STIs. This presentation focuses on the association between MC and human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis reported by the three RCTs as well as in systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other studies that followed.. The protective effect of MC against HPV was ...
FUS has not yet received the funding it needs, even though the authors estimate that the cost of controlling the disease may be as little as 32 cents per woman. Compare this to the $60 to $120 per man for the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program that is running in the very places where schistosomiasis and various other diseases are endemic. For some reason, circumcision is very attractive, despite the fact that the association between lack of circumcision and HIV infection is not particularly large. (However, it is impossible to accurately evaluate circumcision as a risk factor for HIV because the randomized controlled trials used to argue for the VMMC program did not establish how many incident infections during the trial were a result of sexual behavior and how many were a result of some other kind of exposure ...
Male circumcision is a common surgical procedure, but few epidemiological studies have reported frequency of adverse events, most commonly bleeding and infection. Our review shows that serious adverse events are rare, but there is wide variation in reported frequencies of adverse events following circumcision. This is likely to be due to several factors directly associated with complications such as age at circumcision, training and expertise of the provider, the sterility of the conditions under which the procedure is undertaken and the indication (medical/cultural) for circumcision. In addition, there is variation due to methodological issues such as duration of follow-up, epidemiological study design, and definition of complications.. In general, complications (reported by parents) occur least frequently among neonates and infants than among older boys, with the majority of prospective studies in neonates and infants finding no serious complications, and relatively few other adverse events, ...
Originally published in Daily Maverick. In June this year, a court in the German city of Cologne heard a case involving a four-year-old child from a Muslim family who was admitted to hospital with bleeding following a circumcision. The doctor who performed the circumcision did so at the request of the boys parents, and was acquitted of the charge of grievous bodily harm for this reason.. While this particular doctor was acquitted, the court made the general observation that circumcision violated a childs "fundamental right to bodily integrity", and that this right outweighed the rights of parents. While leaving room for circumcision to be permissible on medical grounds, the court, in other words, ruled that ritual circumcision amounts to impermissible bodily harm and also constituted a violation of the rights of children.. Contrary to the predictable cries of anti-Semitism that have resulted (and how convenient it is for critics that a German court made the ruling), this is a victory for ...
The promotion of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among students has been intensified on campuses throughout the country to fulfil the ideal of an AIDS-free gene-ration.
Background: International donors support the partnership between the Government of Botswana and two international organisations: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership to implement Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision with the target of circumcising 80 % of HIV negative men in 5 years. Botswana Government had started integration of the program into its health system when international partners brought in the Models for Optimizing Volume and Efficiency to strengthen delivery of the service and push the target. The objective of this paper is to use a systems model to establish how the functioning of the partnership on Safe Male Circumcision in Botswana contributed to the outcome.. Methods: Data were collected using observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Thirty participants representing all three partners were observed in a 3-day meeting; followed by three rounds of in-depth interviews with five selected leading officers over 2 ...
In Response: We appreciate Drs. Van Howe and Colds interest in our article. They suggest that our conclusion that circumcision may lower the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistent infection is misleading and that the observed association in the literature is rendered meaningless by differential misclassification of HPV status. However, we consider their assessment of the validity of our conclusions to be inaccurate. For our study, we considered circumcision assessed by physical examination by male nurses to be unreliable and rather chose self-reported circumcision to assess the relation with HPV infection in Mexican military men. Even though physical examination has been shown to be more accurate than patients reports, misclassification of male circumcision by clinicians is common. A study on the reproducibility of clinicians report of patient circumcision status showed a 16% disagreement between baseline and follow-up reports and close to 14% of clinicians did not agree with their own ...
When the Kenyan and Ugandan studies were announced linking lower HIV infection risk with male circumcision, many sober voices immediately called for safe and consensual procedures by trained clinicians instead of those provided in the wild by folk doctors, if a given country decided to implement a mass circumcision campaign. It was rather shocking then…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2007). Circumcision: Information for parents. Retrieved July 30, 2008 from www.aap.org/publiced/BR_Circumcision.htm American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics, 103, 686-693. Anand, K. J. S. (2008). Analgesia for skin-breaking procedures in newborns and children: What works best? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179, 11-12. Birth News (2000). Birth. 27, 220. deMeo, J. (1989). The geography of genital mutilations. The Truth Seeker, July/August, 9-13. Also in Sexual mutilations: A human tragedy, Edited by George C. Denniston and Marilyn Fayre Milos, Plenum Press, 1996, 1-15. Dunsmuir, W. D. & Gordon, E. M. (1999).The history of circumcision. British Journal of Urology, 83, 1-12. Gardner, S. L. (1994). Pain and pain relief in the neonate. The American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing, 19, 85-90. Glick, L.B. (2005). Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America. New York and Oxford: Oxford ...
There is a strong connection between sexually-transmitted diseases and cancer of the cervix. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (as well as other less common HPV types) are causes of precancerous changes in the cervix and cervical cancer. The strongest predisposing factors in cervical cancer are a history of intercourse at an early age and multiple sexual partners. An HPV vaccine is now available and recommended for all teenaged girls, and when given before the first sexual encounter, it has been shown to be protective against the most common HPV types associated with malignancy. The vaccine presumably prevents cervical cancer associated with these specific infections but is unable to prevent cancers arising from infections with less common HPV types not contained in the vaccine. Therefore, routine screening for precancerous changes in the cervix is still recommended ...
Truth about M.G.M.(infant circumcision) and the actions of the medical industry, encouraging visitors to develop their own conclusions and opinions about M.G.M. - then to share those opinions with others regarding the pain of circumcision.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Posted by Dr. Taufiq on Mar 1, 2017 in Mens Health , 24 comments. Circumcision is the term used to describe the surgical removal of excess foreskin. When is it done? The circumcision procedure is usually indicated in patients with phimosis (tight foreskin opening), recurrent foreskin infections, such as balanitis, and for religious reasons. Around 1,900 cases are performed yearly in Singapore in both private and subsidised institutions and all of them are done as day surgery. This figure excludes cases done in the GP setting for religious purposes. In our clinic for circumcision we mostly deal with adult.... read more ...
A court in Germany has ruled that circumcision on religious grounds amounts to bodily harm, making it potentially punishable by law. Sociologist of religion Rolf Schieder says this is an unacceptable move that questions the right to religious freedom
Residents of the tiny former British colony of Belize are not sold on circumcision in the efforts against HIV infection. Belize is on the east coast of Central America. Dr. Marvin Manzanero was asked whether he thought circumcision would catch on in Belize.
The odds of UTI in circumcised boys are about 0.1 when compared with uncircumcised boys. This represents a reduction in odds of nearly 90%.. What is striking from these results is the level of homogeneity in the effect across a variety of settings and the three different study designs. An OR of 0.13 reflects a substantial reduction and makes residual confounding an unlikely source of the observed association.. The temporal and biological plausibility of circumcision (by modifying preputial colonisation28,30 and thus decreasing the potential source of bacteria causing UTI) adds weight to the association being a genuine effect of circumcision on UTI. However, colonisation may also increase the risk of contamination of bag urine collections, leading to false positive urine cultures in uncircumcised boys. The method of urine collection was poorly defined or included bag urine collections in a significant number of the studies in this systematic review,1,5,6,22,23,27 thus potentially overestimating ...
We specialise in male circumcision, so not only are you assured of the best possible care, but will also be treated by doctors with many years of experience.. All our Doctors are specially trained in best practice to circumcise men of all ages. They are either Urologists or G.P.s and are all registered with the GMC.. Circumcisions are performed in a private clinical environment, registered with the Care Quality Commission, ensuring the best of care.. ...
We are a London based circumcision clinic located in Leytonstone, East London. Our qualified surgeons carry out circumcisions on all age groups of males..
We are a London based circumcision clinic located in Leytonstone, East London. Our qualified surgeons carry out circumcisions on all age groups of males..
Male circumcision (MC) can prevent female-to-male HIV transmission and has the potential to significantly alter HIV epidemics. The ultimate impact of MC on HIV prevention will be determined, in part,
Male circumcision prevents some genital herpes and human papillomavirus infections, a study in Ugandan adolescent boys and men shows.
Male circumcision is said to be a preventive measure against the spread of the Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. This microbe is responsible for the highly risky and deadly disease: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.
HIV/AIDS. Society for Family Health (SFH) relaunched Maximum male condoms as Maximum Classic and Maximum Scented in 2004. Scented condoms play a critical role in providing choice and encouraging non-users and lapsed users to adopt the use of condoms, and they provide cost recovery. SFH is the key organization focusing on sales and marketing activities for female condoms in Zambia. The Maximum Diva womans condom is distributed through several channels, including pharmacies, drug stores, hair salons and barbershops.. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC). In 2007, SFH used unrestricted seed funding to demonstrate the feasibility of scaling-up the provision of VMMC services through public-private partnerships. Between 2009 and 2015, additional funding enabled the program to grow, supporting 185,477 males. This resulted in over 60% circumcised males countrywide. Currently, the focus has shifted to the most impactful age group, which is the 15 to 29 year age bracket. SFH has been using ...
Background: Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce mens risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a detailed systematic review of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women.Methods: Database searches by
Auvert, B., Taljaard, D., Lagarde, E., et al. (2005) Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Medicine, 2, 1112-1122. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020298
Bottom Line: During the first year of life, a low rate of adverse events (AEs) was associated with male circumcision (MC), but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy.
MacDonald, N. (2011) Male circumcision Get the timing right. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 183, 872. doi10.1503/cmaj.101425
The Jews adopted circumcision as a religious ritual and preserved this practice into modern times. The circumcision of Abraham removed only the very tip of the forskin that extended beyond the head of the penis. Moses prohibited circumcision for his 40 year walk through the desert and Joshua reinstated foreskin removal at Gilgal. Much of early biblical references of circumcision stated sacrifice of sinful human enjoyment for the sake of holiness in the afterlife ...
0000-0002-8715-2896This week the Public Health Perspectives blog team offers a total of five posts highlighting and interpreting findings in an important new PLOS research collection, Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency ...
Circumcision is a dangerous distraction in the fight against AIDS. There are six African countries where men are *more* likely to be HIV+ if theyve been circumcised: Cameroon, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, and Swaziland. Eg in Malawi, the HIV rate is 13.2% among circumcised men, but only 9.5% among intact men. In Rwanda, the HIV rate is 3.5% among circumcised men, but only 2.1% among intact men. If circumcision really worked against AIDS, this just wouldnt happen. We now have people calling circumcision a vaccine or invisible condom, and viewing circumcision as an alternative to condoms. The South African National Communication Survey on HIV/AIDS, 2009 found that 15% of adults across age groups believe that circumcised men do not need to use condoms ...
Recent advances in HIV prevention have many people optimistic about ending the AIDS epidemic. These advances include voluntary medical male circumcision ...
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Editors notes: By 2020, the Fast-Track strategy is aiming to reduce new HIV infections to 200 000 per year. There is increasing recognition that if we are to succeed, we will need to do much more than simply putting people onto HIV treatment. Despite the massive impact of ART on infectiousness, the decline in new infections at the community level is still not fast enough, even in countries like Botswana (see above) where 90-90-90 has almost been reached. Renewed enthusiasm for primary prevention has also followed key trials of biomedical prevention tools including voluntary medical male circumcision and ARV-based prevention. It is all too easy for us to forget the crucial role that condoms have played from the early days of the epidemic. More recently, with HIV seen as a less terrifying infection, many programmes suffer from "condom fatigue". So it is good to see papers on the key importance of condoms as well as perspectives on how they are perceived by young men.. The magic of ARVs does not ...
The past decade has seen changes in US HIV policy in sub-Saharan Africa in response to a new Administration and far-reaching technical, scientific and programmatic developments. These include: dramatically increased access to life-saving ART and related services; the roll-out of voluntary medical male circumcision; and growing sensitivity to gender-based violence, including child sexual abuse, and to its role in increasing vulnerability to HIV. The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is an intervention for parents and caregivers of 9-12 year-olds that promotes effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. FMP was adapted from a US evidence-based intervention in 2003-4 and is now implemented in eight African countries. In 2012-13, the FMP curriculum was updated and enhanced to respond to new US Government priorities ...
Dr Shannon L. Hader (58), a Public Health leader from CDC, Atlanta, inaugurated the Wednesday Plenary Session (PL-2) talking about HIV in youth: shifting demographic patterns, complexity to interrupting HIV transmission, complexity to preventing an epidemic development among youth. Growth projection between 2017 and 2050 testify an absolute increase especially in Africas young adult population aged 15-24. Yet even with more tools in fighting or preventing HIV than ever before (risk avoidance, voluntary medical male circumcision, condom distribution and use, PrEP, early diagnosis and ARV treatment, TASP) many structural factors may explain persistent HIV risk behaviors: urbanization (highest in the developing world), education, economic growth and employment, contexts of vulnerability including persistent violence. "PEPFAR DREAMS" initiative mobilizes communities to reduce infection among women. Preventing epidemic among youth implicates to act fast, work together, engage young people and foster ...
The Guide for Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health Products and Services for Men focuses on meaningfully engaging men and creating an enabling environment to increase mens use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) products and services. Drawing on lessons learned from the promotion of male condoms, vasectomy, voluntary medical male circumcision, HIV testing services and sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment, the guide provides guidance, resources and examples of approaches that have increased mens use of SRH products and services in a variety of settings.. The guide highlights key considerations for developing social and behavior change strategies and activities for increasing mens SRH.. Guide for Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health Products and Services for Men. En Français. ...
Beyaz, SG. "Comparison of postoperative analgesic efficacy of caudal block versus dorsal penile nerve block with levobupivacaine for circumcision in children.". Korean J Pain . vol. 24. 2011. pp. 31-5. Cyna, A, Middleton, P. "Caudal epidural block versus other methods of postoperative pain relief for circumcision in boys". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008. Holder, KJ, Peutrell, JM, Weir, PM. "Regional anaesthesia for circumcision: subcutaneous ring block of the penis and subpubic penile block compared.". Eur J Anaesthesiol . vol. 14. 1997. pp. 495-8. Sandeman, DJ, Reiner, D, Dilley, AV, Bennett, MH, Kelly, KJ. "A retrospective audit of three different regional anaesthetic techniques for circumcision in children". Anaesth Intensive Care . vol. 38. 2010. pp. 519-24. Weksler, N, Atias, I, Klevin, M, Rosenztsveig, V, Ovadia, L, Gurman, GM. "Is penile block better than caudal epidural block for postcircumcision analgesia?". J Anesth . vol. 19. 2005. pp. 36-9. (These articles all provide specific ...
We need to let science guide our efforts, she told the capacity crowd of scientists and research administrators. Success depends on deploying our tools based on the best available evidence.. Using a variety of methods in a combination prevention strategy is the most effective way to combat HIV/AIDS, Clinton asserted. The focus should be on three key interventions: ending mother to child transmission, expanding voluntary medical male circumcision and scaling up treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS. She noted recent NIH-funded research shows that early treatment with antiretrovirals can reduce transmission of the HIV virus by 96 percent.. None of the interventions can create an AIDS-free generation by itself, said Clinton. But used in combination with each other and with other powerful prevention methods, they present an extraordinary opportunity.. ...
Secretary Hilary Rodham Clinton announced significant funding towards preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, South Africas plan for voluntary medical male circumcision, and money for "implementation research," civil society, and country-led plans. Sec. Clinton also called on Ambassador Eric Goosby to provide a blueprint for achieving an AIDS-free generation during her plenary address. Numerous other stakeholders echoed her commitment. But, if we really want to achieve an AIDS-free generation, the $7 billion funding gap that stands between where we are now, and where we should be, will need to be erased ...
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The RCT-enrolled men who were sexually active in the past 12 months, HIV uninfected, uncircumcised, aged 18-24 years, and resident in Kisumu District. All men enrolled in the RCT between March 2004 and September 2005 were systematically recruited into this study. All men received HIV counseling and testing at one, three, six, and 12 months and were informed that although some evidence showed decreased HIV risk associated with circumcision, the evidence was not conclusive. Participants consented to have interviews at six and 12 months and access to data from the RCT.. The Timeline Follow-back approach was adapted and used to obtain sexual histories regarding every sexual relationship in the previous six months for up to 12 partners at baseline and at six- and 12-month follow-up. Information was collected for each partner separately. Concurrency was defined as having two or more partners with whom the start and stop dates of the relationship overlapped. Men were asked if they believed that ...
South Africa remains plagued by AIDS despite massive government and NGO efforts on prevention and life-sustaining Anti-Retro-Viral programs. The country has the highest number of new HIV infection worldwide and 15 to 20 percent of the adult population is HIV positive. But it has opened up another front to reduce new HIV infections: promoting circumcision. Each day, dozens of men pass through the doors of this circumcision clinic in southern Johannesburg.
The publication last August in the Lancet (Aaron A R Tobian, Ronald H Gray et al.) of findings from one of the two randomized control studies undertaken 2004-9 by the Rakkai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), Uganda, on the health impacts of circumcision to reduce HIV/STI transmission, has generated further comment in the Lancet from researchers engaged in the South African context (A R Giuliano, A G Nyitray et al.). The findings of the initial paper indicate the inefficacy of circumcision of HIV-infected males as means of preventing the transmission of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) to long-term partners. The issue of HPV transmission has its own importance, given high levels of oncogenic HPV in African countries (4 in 10,000). But their public health significance becomes fully apparent when taken in conjunction with the findings of a parallel study within RHSP indicating the same inefficacy in relation to the transmission of HIV (by infected males to partners) (M J Wawer, F Makumbi & G Kigozi). ...
Kevin Barney, Mormon blogger for By Common Consent A San Francisco ballot initiative later this year proposes to criminalize the performance of circumcisions on male minors, with fines up to $1,000 and jail terms of up to one year. Even...
My first son was born in the mid 1980s in Vermont. My wife had a female ob-gyn and we had female teachers for all the birthing classes we went to before my son was born. They were unanimous in their opinion that circumcision was cosmetic only and there was no medical reason to perform one. They were very strongly anti-circumcision. So we did not have our first son circumcised. While he was still an infant, he started developing some problems around the tip and our mail pediatrician said that his penis needed better cleaning at bath time and showed my wife how to do it. During a bath the foreskin apparently was retracted a little too far and became tight around the tip of the penis. I got a frantic phone call at work from my wife while my baby was screaming in the background. I met her at the pediatricians office where he thought it was a simple problem he could fix until he saw it. My infant sons penis was swollen and purple. The doctor and I both jumped back at the site of it. He sent us ...
A concern with the introduction of any new HIV prevention method - especially one that is only partially effective - is that people using it will use condoms or other prevention methods less than before, thus cancelling out any benefit. This is sometimes called behavioural disinhibition or risk compensation.. In Orange Farm, the researchers reported that there were no differences in sexual behaviour between those who were circumcised and those who were not. For example, the adjusted odds ratio for circumcised men to report consistent condom use (with non-circumcised men as a reference group) was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.1). This appears to be a little lower, but the difference is not statistically significant.. A survey of women in Orange Farm confirmed this finding - equal numbers of women with circumcised and uncircumcised partners reported consistent condom use. Women who expressed a preference preferred circumcised partners, but generally understood that circumcision ...
Declining rates of circumcision among infants will translate into billions of dollars worth of unnecessary medical costs in the United States as the boys grow up and become sexually active men, researchers at Johns Hopkins University said. In a study published Monday in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, a team of economists and epidemiologists estimated that every circumcision not performed would lead to significant increases in lifetime medical expenses to treat sexually transmitted diseases and related cancers - increases that far surpass the costs associated with the procedure. [...] in the past decade, studies have increasingly shown that removing the foreskin of the penis has significant health benefits, said Dr. Aaron Tobian, senior author of the new study.
Aaron Tobian, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Pathology, Medicine and Epidemiology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is also an Associate Director of Transfusion Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Investigator with the Rakai Heath Sciences Program in Uganda.. Dr. Tobian has an established global research program that studies male circumcision, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Over the past 15 years, Dr. Tobian has lived or worked in five developing countries. In collaboration with the Rakai Health Sciences Program, Dr. Tobian has demonstrated that male circumcision reduces the risk of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and proinflammatory anaerobes in the penile microbiome in heterosexual men, and has proven that male circumcision also has direct benefits for female partners. Dr. Tobian has authored more than 140 peer-reviewed articles in journals including The New England ...
Posted by Dr. Taufiq on Mar 1, 2017 in Mens Health , 24 comments. Circumcision is the term used to describe the surgical removal of excess foreskin. When is it done? The circumcision procedure is usually indicated in patients with phimosis (tight foreskin opening), recurrent foreskin infections, such as balanitis, and for religious reasons. Around 1,900 cases are performed yearly in Singapore in both private and subsidised institutions and all of them are done as day surgery. This figure excludes cases done in the GP setting for religious purposes. In our clinic for circumcision we mostly deal with adult.... read more ...
As a graduate student working in the Dept. of Epidemiology, I was approached by a group of nurses who were attempting to organize a protest against male infant circumcision in Kingston General Hospital. They said that their observations indicated that babies undergoing the procedure were subjected to significant and inhumane levels of pain that subsequently adversely affected their behaviors. They said that they needed some scientific support for their position. It was my idea to use fMRI and/or PET scanning to directly observe the effects of circumcision on the infant brain.. The operator of the MRI machine in the hospital was a friend of mine, and he agreed to allow us to use the machine for research after normal operational hours. We also found a nurse who was under intense pressure by her husband to have her newborn son circumcised, and she was willing to have her son to be the subject of the study. Her goal was to provide scientific information that would eventually be used to ban male ...
Circumcision is not mandatory and is totally optional. You have options pertaining to your male babys penis. The process of circumcision is so painful that they strap these little babys hands down so they cant move when the foreskin is being brutally and savagely cut.
The first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of male circumcision on female to male HIV transmission was ... The trial estimated that male circumcision provided protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%) for female to male HIV transmission. ... "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: An Introduction to the Cost, Impact, and Challenges of Accelerated Scaling Up". www. ... "New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention: Policy and programme implications". WHO.. ...
See also: Circumcision and HIV. A body of scientific evidence has shown that men who are circumcised are less likely to ... In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin Patient", was given a stem cell ... Brown attained the title of the "Berlin Patient" in the HIV research field and is the first man to have been cured of the virus ... contract HIV than men who are uncircumcised.[1] Research published in 2014, concludes that the sex hormones estrogen and ...
Meatal stenosis is a late complication of circumcision, which occurs in about 2 to 20 percent of circumcised boys. Male felids ... It occurs in 3-11% of males, and up to 35% of diabetic males. Edwards reported that it is generally more common in males who ... Males of Racey's pipistrelle bat have a narrow, egg-shaped glans penis. The glans penis of a male cape ground squirrel is large ... Newborn male circumcision; 2015 [Retrieved 20 October 2017]. Koenig JF. EMedicine. Meatal stenosis; 22 September 2016 [ ...
"Male circumcision 'cuts' HIV risk". BBC News. 2006-12-13. Archived from the original on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2009-05-18.. ... "Circumcision Reduces Risk of AIDS, Study Finds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2015-06-23. Retrieved 2009- ...
... evaluating the effect of male circumcision among HIV in young men.[citation needed] She is an HIV specialist. A Fulbright ... Nguyen, Katie (21 July 2014). "What's male circumcision worth? In Kenya, it's food vouchers". Thomson Reuters Foundation. ... and male circumcision. She is the Project Coordinator of a joint research project between her university and the universities ...
Meatotomy Modern primitive Body modification M Tractenberg (1999). Male and Female Circumcision. George C. Denniston, Frederick ... while a few subincised men carry a tube with which they can aim. Subincision (like circumcision) is widespread[citation needed ... The young men who chose to endure this custom were the only ones to learn a simple ceremonial language, Damin. In later ... Farb, Peter (1968) Man's Rise to Civilization New York: E. P. Dutton p98-101. Polynesia Firth, Raymond, (1963) We the Tikopia: ...
They practice male circumcision; according to Junod's work in 1927, surrounding tribes regarded the Lemba as the masters and ... The restrictions on intermarriage with non-Lemba make it nearly impossible for a male non-Lemba to become a member. Lemba men ... A Y-DNA genetic study in 1996 of 49 Lemba males suggested that more than 50% of the Lemba Y-chromosomes are West Asian in ... The genetic study found that 50% of the males in the Buba clan had the Cohen marker, a proportion higher than found in the ...
The practiced male circumcision. The Yandruwandha Yawarrawarrka filed a petition to have their land rights recognized in 1988. ... While Burke and Will died, the only man to survive, John King, did so because he found sanctuary with the Yandruwandha, among ...
khumur (خُمُر) or ʾakhmirah (أخْمِرة)) headcovering (Q. 24:31). Khitān (ختان) Male circumcision. Khuluq (خُلُق) pl. ʾakhlāq ( ... In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ʿAbd (عبد) (for male) ʾAmah (أمة) (for female) servant, ... body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(Non-related men means those she can marry lawfully). ʾĀyah (آية ...
The first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of male circumcision on female to male HIV transmission was ... The trial estimated that male circumcision provided protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%) for female to male HIV transmission. ... "New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention: Policy and programme implications". WHO.. ... Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk (2005)Edit. ...
... male circumcision is often performed by non-medical personnel under non-sterile conditions. After hospital circumcision, the ... state that evidence indicates male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition by men during penile-vaginal ... "Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission and Other Health Conditions: Implications for the United States". Centers for ... "Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention: Is There Really Enough of the Right Kind of Evidence?". Reproductive Health Matters. ...
The Bukusu practice male circumcision. It is thought that they adopted the practice from contact with the Kalenjin at Mount ... Young, newly married men formed the community's warriors, while middle-aged men did little. Older men formed the village's ... Male and female names were different: male names frequently began with 'W', while female names usually began with 'N'. Thus, ... If a young man came from a well-to-do family, he would ask his sisters to find a girl for him to marry. The ability of a girl ...
"Male circumcision reduces HIV transmission. The risk of transmission from woman to man is halved". Lakartidningen. 107 (46): ... ". "Nu kan hepatit C botas - men många får vänta". DN.SE. "Hans Rosling är död - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 7 February 2017. ...
As a preventative HIV/AIDS strategy, Lewis has made a somewhat controversial call for male circumcision when African boys ... Lewis, Stephen (2010-01-06). "Male Circumcision Part 1" (online video). AIDS Free World. YouTube. Retrieved 2014-04-03. ... Many studies have been conducted into the role circumcision can play in reducing the spread of HIV. Stephen Lewis is the son of ...
Male circumcision usually takes place after birth; in some families, it may be delayed until after the onset of puberty. ... Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-56023-181- ... Sikhism strongly rejects the beliefs of fasting (vrata), superstitions, idol worship and circumcision. Jews first arrived as ... Glausiusz, Josie (14 March 2004). "miscellaneous". Circumcision. Retrieved 7 September 2015. The Jews of India: A Story of ...
Doyle D (October 2005). "Ritual male circumcision: a brief history" (PDF). The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of ... The Egyptian (adolescent) style of circumcision was different from how circumcision is practiced in other parts of the world, ... "Ancient writings discuss (Egyptian) circumcision in religious terms" and a 6th Dynasty tomb shows circumcision being performed ... where dark-skinned peoples are known to have practised circumcision". Evidence suggests that circumcision was practiced in the ...
ISBN 9781441915856 "Male circumcision 'cuts' HIV risk". BBC News. 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2009-05-18. McNeil Jr, Donald G. (2006- ... 12-13). "Circumcision Reduces Risk of AIDS, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-18. "Skeptical Comment About ...
In some men, foreskin restoration may alleviate certain problems they attribute to their circumcisions. Such problems include ... Boyle, G.J.; Goldman, R.; Svoboda, J.S.; Fernandez, E. (2002). "Male Circumcision: Pain, Trauma and Psychosexual Sequelae". ... Some men who have undertaken foreskin restoration report a visibly smoother glans, which some of these men attribute to ... In 1989, the National Organization of Restoring Men (NORM) was founded as a non-profit support group for men undertaking ...
Tamil Muslims practice monogamy and male circumcision. As a mark of modesty Tamil Muslim women usually wear white thuppatti ( ...
Edyegu, Daniel (4 April 2013). "Bugisu: Beyond Mount Elgon and male circumcision". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 25 December ...
The circumcision of a male child. (from Hebrew ברית brith 'covenant') (OED, MW) Boychik: Boy, young man. (English boy + Eastern ... Mensch: An upright man; a decent human being (from Yiddish מענטש mentsh 'person'; cognate with German Mensch 'human') (OED, MW ... German glitschen 'slither') (AHD) Golem: A man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (from Hebrew גלם‬ gōlem, but ... in Orthodox Judaism ten adult males are required, while in Conservative and Reform Judaism ten adults of either sex are ...
"ZIM embarks on pilot Male Circumcision exercise" (PDF). "VaNyoni's phone call to Winky D, "Bigiman Pindai Norton!"". "Winky D ... Guspy Warrior) Ngoma Futi Idya Mari Woshora Copyrights Gafa Life Happiest Man 25 'Twenty Five' produced in association with V. ... In a bid to persuade the Zimbabwean male population to get circumcised, Population Services International and the Ministry of ... "The Big Man" (stylized as "Di Bigman"), and also known as Dancehall Igwe. He was born in Mpopoma, Bulawayo in South West ...
Both Islam and Judaism practice circumcision of males. Islam and Judaism both consider the Christian doctrine of the trinity ... They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free, adult non-Muslim males) to the Muslim government but were exempted ... A series of eminent men-such as the Tibbons, Narboni, and Gersonides-joined in translating the Arabic philosophical works into ... as to how man revived in the world to come, "From Luz, in the back-bone". The Islamic Hadith and Jewish Talmud have also often ...
Male initiation rites involved circumcision, but excluded subincision. Pidlatapa. Piladapa, Pilladapa, Pillitapa. Billidapa. ...
Potential converts must accept the laws and beliefs in Judaism in front of three witnesses; males must undergo circumcision ... These five men came to be known as Panj Pyares or the "Beloved Five". These five were initiated into the Khalsa by receiving ... Sikh men were then given the name "Singh", meaning "lion", and the women received the last name "Kaur", meaning "princess". ... At first, the people hesitated, and then one man stepped forward, and he was taken to a tent. After some time, Guru Gobind ...
9,032).[78] Medicaid super-utilizers were more likely than other Medicaid patients to be male and to be aged 45-64 years.[78] ... "Is it lawful to use Medicaid to pay for circumcision?" (PDF). Journal of Law and Medicine. 19 (2): 335-53. PMID 22320007. ...
Trends in Urology & Mens Health, 7(4), 17-21.. Earp, B. D. (2015). Female genital mutilation and male circumcision: toward an ... It is true that female circumcision is not mentioned in the Koran; but neither is male circumcision. And yet the latter is ... I promised I would tackle the male-female comparison, so lets look at male circumcision (some details are needed to spotlight ... The history of male circumcision shows how this could happen. Alongside female genital cutting, male genital cutting originated ...
This article is about religious male circumcision. For the history of male circumcision, see History of male circumcision. For ... "Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ... Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Male infant circumcision: A brief overview of the issues; February 2016 [Retrieved 8 October ...
Governor Jerry Brown announced on Sunday that he signed a bill preventing local authorities from banning the practice of male ... The bill, which takes effect immediately, comes in the wake of an effort by a San Francisco group opposed to male circumcision ... Circumcision is a ritual obligation for infant Jewish boys and also a common rite among Muslims, who account for the largest ... In June, the Anti-Defamation League condemned a comic book created by supporters of the anti-circumcision movement that it said ...
Male Circumcision. TASK FORCE ON CIRCUMCISION. Pediatrics September 2012, 130 (3) e756-e785; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds. ... Incidence of in-hospital newborn male circumcision, according to data source; United States, 1999-2010.2,3 ... Prevalence of male circumcision, according to self-report; United States, 1999-2004.5 ... Circumcision of Privately Insured Males Aged 0 to 18 Years in the United States ...
If youre a parent, talk to your health care provider about the potential risks and benefits of male circumcision to your ... from the penis is called male circumcision. This procedure is done for hygiene and health reasons or as part of religious or ... Male Circumcision ?. What is male circumcision?. Removing some or all of the foreskin (the fold of skin that covers the head, ...
Lloyd Schofield is a man on a mission to ban circumcision from his community. He and other organizers have created an ... Circumcision is an important ritual in the Jewish faith, where it is performed on 8-day-old males. Marc Stern, associate ... AAP and Circumcision According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rate of circumcision among baby boys in ... Diekema added that there are scientifically demonstrated health benefits to male circumcision, but not for any kind of female ...
CDC has developed Information for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention ... This is a companion document to Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision ... CDC has developed Information for Providers To Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the ... Information for Providers to Share with Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV ...
Circumcision rates for male neonates, based on NHDS data for 1999-2008, were reported and compared with those based on other ... NHDS is the only source of reliable, national, historical data on male newborn circumcision performed during the birth ... This analysis focused only on male newborn infants born during the sampled hospitalization. Circumcision was identified by the ... Figure 2. Rates of circumcision performed on male newborn infants discharged from short-stay hospitals, by region: United ...
Male Circumcision Part 1: How It Can Get Us Closer to an "AIDS-Free Generation" Posted May 6, 2014 by Victoria Costello in ... Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency,. ...
NDPP and some other men expressed that this was a sensitive topic. As long as there is no equating male circumcision with FGM, ... But when a thread on male circumcision is started one day after one on FGM, and is titled, "Male Genital Mutilation," the ... Who made the accusation that the problem of FGM is being cast in a lesser light to the problem of male circumcision? Who ... Im not saying this to complain about my own circumcision, nor to in any way compare the outcomes of male versus female (shall ...
Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD007496. 7. ... Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus -associated penile lesions among Kenyan men. ... 1. Task Force on Circumcision. Male Circumcision. Pediatrics 2012;130;e756.. 2. Boyle GJ, Hill G (2011) Sub-Saharan African ... We congratulate the AAP Task Force on Circumcision for concluding that "the health benefits of newborn male circumcision ...
While it is not practical to pass laws against infant male circumcision it is both practical and possible for medical ... While it is not practical to pass laws against infant male circumcision it is both practical and possible for medical ... Reduce medical participation in Infant Male Circumcision. This petition is awaiting approval by the Avaaz Community ...
... a cultural movement against circumcision has taken root in the United States, but now doctors and public health advocates are ... What Is a Partial Circumcision? A partial circumcision may be an alternative to full circumcision. Your doctor may recommend ... Male circumcision is one strategy that may help reduce the continued spread of HIV in the U.S.," the agency said in an official ... However, circumcision on post-pubescent men is a much more serious procedure with greater risk of complications, such as ...
Transcript of Male Circumcision. Male Circumcision Circumcision is the procedure of cutting off the foreskin from the head of ... What is Male Circumcision? Medical Research AAP-no medical indication for male circumcision Circumcision numbers higher in ... Is circumcision in some ways abuse? Male Circumcision is a Problem... Essentially circumcision is a cosmetic surgery Structural ... The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. Journal Compilation, 619-621.. MacDonald, N., MD MSc. (2011). Male circumcision: ...
... infected persons and uncircumcised males, HIV prevalence in uncircumcised males and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) ... of males in Kenya are circumcised, nearly half of all uncircumcised men live in Nyanza Province, where circumcision prevalence ... circumcision coverage by July 2013. Later phases target males aged ,15 years and male infants for future VMMC programming. This ... TABLE 2. Number and percentage of voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) reported annually, by age group, provider, human ...
Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;369:643--56. ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet 2007;369:657--66. ... hospitals in states in which Medicaid covers routine male circumcision had circumcision rates that were 24 percentage points ... Incidence of in-hospital newborn male circumcision, by data source --- United States, 1999--2010 ...
Circumcision among men who have sex with men in Scotland: limited potential for HIV prevention ... How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? BMJ 2000; 320 :1592 ... Incremental role of male circumcision on a generalised HIV epidemic through its protective effect against other sexually ... Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
... a study in Ugandan adolescent boys and men shows. ... Male circumcision prevents some genital herpes and human ... Male circumcision fends off the most common STDs. Male circumcision fends off the most common STDs. Operation offers partial ...
How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? BMJ 2000; 320 :1592 ... Why does its removal reduce a mans susceptibility to HIV infection?. Summary points. The majority of men who are HIV positive ... circumcised males are two to eight times less likely to become infected with HIV.2 Furthermore, circumcision also protects ... 1 He made no mention of male circumcision, yet there is now compelling epidemiological evidence from over 40 studies which ...
Certainly the warrior schools with male circumcision were a part of the ancestral societys cultural repertoire. Male ... The oldest documentary evidence of male circumcision comes from ancient Egypt.[original research?] Circumcision was common, ... Bioethics of neonatal circumcision Childrens rights Circumcision controversies Ethics of circumcision FGM Prevalence of ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ...
Male circumcision and HIV infection. Euro Surveill. 2000;4(24):pii=1586. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.04.24.01586-en ...
... of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia statement on the ethics of unnecessary non-therapeutic child circumcision. ... infant male circumcision is acknowledged to be an important ritual and an integral part of Jewish and Islamic religions. Male ... Richards D. Male Circumcision: Medical or Ritual? Journal of Law and Medicine 1996. 3:371-376. Somerville M. Altering Baby Boys ... INFANT MALE CIRCUMCISION. Until recently, only public health and religious views were taken into consideration in the debate ...
"Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... The Catholic Encyclopedia: Circumcision *^ Jones, David Albert. "Infant Male Circumcision". National Center for Biotechnology ... Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" ( ... Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Male infant circumcision: A brief overview of the issues; February 2016 [Retrieved 8 October ...
Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV.. Seed J1, Allen S, Mertens T, Hudes E, Serufilira A, Carael M ... Circumcision may be an appropriate risk reduction approach for men with known exposures to the virus when there are constraints ... Our objective was to describe associations among male circumcision, behavioral and demographic variables, ulcerative and ... Our subjects were 837 married men who volunteered for HIV testing and counselling. Uncircumcised men had a relatively low-risk ...
Rwandas government is studying a new nonsurgical method to circumcise males as part of its fight against HIV. The experimental ... "Theres absolutely no doubt that if one can perform male circumcision without anesthesia, you save time, money and it requires ... All the men healed excellently, said researchers.. Participants took two ibuprofens to cope with an initial three-hour period ... Gay Men: Its Time to Stop Calling the Police on One Another for HIV Non-Disclosure. ...
  • It is, after all, far less invasive than Jewish ritual male circumcision , which is legally allowed on minors in the US, no questions asked. (bmj.com)
  • Take the ritual nick, or male circumcision for that matter, and ask yourself what might be morally problematic about these customs, benefits and risks to one side. (bmj.com)
  • Some of the surgical procedures are breast augmentation and vaginoplasty (creation of a vagina) for trans women and mastectomy (breast removal), metoidioplasty (elongation of the clitoris), and phalloplasty (creation of a penis) for trans men . (wikipedia.org)
  • I will dig into the male-female comparison -and explore its legal implications -later on. (bmj.com)
  • Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. (who.int)
  • PLoS Medicine author, Catherine Hankins, took part in a discussion on the BBC World Service earlier this week asking what role adult male medical circumcision can play in tackling HIV. (plos.org)
  • Catherine Hankins is part of the expert group that published a Policy Forum in PLoS Medicine last week reviewing what mathematical modelling can do to aid decisions about adult male circumcision and HIV. (plos.org)
  • PrePex is a sterile device for adult male circumcision, consisting of an inner ring, elastic ring, placement ring, and verification thread. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 2008, WHO, UNAIDS and JHPIEGO released a draft document entitled Manual for Male Circumcision under Local Anesthesia, which includes step-by-step instructions for performing adult male circumcision using three different surgical procedures: the forceps-guided, dorsal slit, and sleeve resection methods. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conclusions: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing country settings. (rti.org)
  • The World Bank and the U.S. State Department support a major push for adult male circumcision," however the panel said that "more cost-effective ways to prevent the spread of the disease are an HIV vaccine, infant male circumcision, preventing mother-to-child transmission of the disease and making blood transfusions safe," the newspaper writes. (kff.org)
  • Although adult male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the heterosexual acquisition of HIV by men by about 60%, MC in infancy is optimal for its relative ease, lower cost and low rate of complications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diaspora Jews might circumcise their male slaves as well as adult male converts and Jewish male infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV. (nih.gov)
  • The role of circumcision in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other health claims has been investigated by public health researchers and remains highly debatable. (care2.com)
  • I wanted to give him the chance to live freely and not worry as much about diseases," the 22-year-old mother said, referring to the studies that have shown circumcision helps decrease the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in males. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors referenced "three recent studies showing that circumcision of adult, African heterosexual men reduces their risk of acquiring [HIV] and other sexually transmitted infections. (thebody.com)
  • As shown by our study, male circumcision is useful and feasible even among sexually experienced men living in an area with high HIV prevalence. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. (hindawi.com)
  • The earliest report of circumcision status as potential risk factor for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was published in 1855 by Hutchinson, who noted that in men who were treated for STIs (primarily gonorrhea and syphilis), Jews were less likely to have syphilis [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hankins said that it was "early days" in terms of showing the full benefit to women, but referred to the modelling study that suggested women benefit indirectly - a reduced chance of encountering a male partner infected with HIV and possible benefits in terms of reducing other sexually transmitted diseases that assist HIV transmission. (plos.org)
  • In other words, sexually active men still need to use condoms or other methods if they want to avoid exposure to HIV and other STDs. (kuow.org)
  • PATTI NEIGHMOND: Federal health officials say the benefits of circumcision really occur later in life when males become sexually active. (kuow.org)
  • Materials and Methods: Participants were healthy, sexually active, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative males aged 18-24 years. (rti.org)
  • Studies of other sexually transmitted infections are suggestive that circumcision is protective. (wikipedia.org)
  • There's absolutely no doubt that if one can perform male circumcision without anesthesia, you save time, money and it requires less expertise," said Kim Eva Dickson, senior advisor in WHO's HIV/AIDS department. (thebody.com)
  • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (who.int)
  • In this AIDS and Behavior article, researchers sought to better understand HIV transmission to and from female partners of men who have sex with men. (malecircumcision.org)
  • An article published in BMJ Open provides an overview of the performance of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief's (PEPFAR's) voluntary medical male circumcision. (malecircumcision.org)
  • The almost 3.5 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in fiscal year 2017 represent the. (malecircumcision.org)
  • An article published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society presents the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of male circumcision on the risk. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Kenya is set to introduce a new non-surgical male circumcision device to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, an official said on Tuesday. (china.org.cn)
  • The panel estimated the cost-benefit ratio for adult circumcisions to be 23:1, and "said increasing annual spending on an AIDS vaccine by $100 million would be a better investment because it could potentially eradicate the disease, even though the cost-benefit ratio, 12:1, is lower," USA Today writes. (kff.org)
  • UNAIDS' Fast-Track Plan for ending the AIDS Epidemic by 2030 calls for an additional 25 million circumcisions in these high-priority countries by 2020, which will require to 5 million procedures per year, nearly double the current rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right now, a move is being made by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to recommend circumcision for all newborn boys based on flawed studies that ignore the risks and ethics of circumcision. (care2.com)
  • 12 ] Within the body of the statement, the committee admitted that they were unable to precisely measure the benefits of infant circumcision and unable to quantify the risks. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers recruited 2,333 men between the ages of 15 and 29 in the southern African country for a prospective, population-based cohort study in which the men were interviewed every two years about their sexual risks. (poz.com)
  • Those health benefits prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's proposed recommendation that doctors counsel parents of baby boys and teenagers, as well as men, on the benefits and risks of circumcision . (kuow.org)
  • Male circumcision is not without its risks. (bmj.com)
  • Since the duration of the study was limited and not all female partners completed 24 months of follow-up, we could not assess the long-term benefits or risks of male circumcision for HIV transmission to women. (natap.org)
  • The positions of the world's major medical organizations range from considering elective circumcision of babies and children as having no benefit and significant risks to having a modest health benefit that outweighs small risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern proponents argue that circumcision reduces the risks of a range of infections and diseases as well as conferring sexual benefits. (wikipedia.org)
  • All that he aims to show is that if it is all too often tough being a woman, it is also sometimes tough being a man, and that any failure to recognise this risks distorting what should be everyone's goal, namely universal sympathy as well as social justice for all, regardless of gender. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Halakha (Jewish law), ritual circumcision of male children is a commandment from God that Jews are obligated to follow, and is only postponed or abrogated in the case of threat to the life or health of the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hodges argues that in Ancient Greece the foreskin was valued and that Greek and Roman attempts to abolish ritual circumcision were prompted by humanitarian concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • By creating historical and social linkage through sacrificial ritual, circumcision functions to supersede and transcend our most primary maternal and biological system of relationship making patrilineal and patriarchal hierarchy appear "natural and inevitable"" (Pollack, 2011, p. 3). (prezi.com)
  • Even American circumcision advocate, Thomas E. Wiswell, M.D., suggests that the post-neonatal complication rate from medicalized, non-ritual circumcision is 1.7% (Circumcision in Children Beyond the Neonatal Period. (noharmm.org)
  • A 2013 review of cases of neonatal HSV infections in Israel identified ritual circumcision as the source of HSV-1 transmission in 31.8% of the cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2012, it was reported that he had plans to submit a bill proposing the criminalisation of ritual circumcision involving males under the age of 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • In parallel, WHO developed a Framework for evaluating new, simpler circumcision techniques, which gave impetus to the development of two new devices (Prepex and Shang Ring) that are currently being scaled-up in the 14 high HIV prevalence countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • It will be continually updated with emerging information on country progress in expanding access to safe male circumcision services, including lessons learned in implementation,' says Dr. Catherine Hankins, Chief Scientific Adviser to UNAIDS. (opposingviews.com)
  • This is a prospective observational study of the PrePex male circumcision device, which will be conducted with the aims of ascertaining important adverse events or unexpected side effects that may not have been observed in other studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A methodologically sound, systematic review of 27 observational studies on male circumcision and HIV revealed a reduced risk of HIV among circumcised men, namely about half that of uncircumcised men. (scielo.org.za)
  • This is an observational study, in which men chose themselves to get circumcised, so there are likely to be differences in the characteristics of those who were and were not circumcised. (aidsmap.com)
  • Circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of several infections," said Diekema. (go.com)
  • Uncircumcised men had a relatively low-risk profile in that they reported fewer lifetime sexual partners and prostitute contacts than circumcised men and were more likely to live in rural areas with lower HIV prevalence rates. (nih.gov)
  • During the first year of life, a low rate of adverse events (AEs) was associated with male circumcision (MC), but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. (medindia.net)
  • Men circumcised after the age of 35 were 45% less at risk of later developing prostate cancer than uncircumcised men, researchers have shown. (medindia.net)
  • This corresponded to a relative risk for circumcision of 0.40 (95% confidence interval=0.24-0.68). (medpagetoday.com)
  • The first and obvious consequence of this study is that male circumcision should be recognized as an important means to reduce the risk of males becoming infected by HIV," the authors wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This report is still referenced by circumcision proponents as a validation of their claim that circumcision prevents STIs, but the converse of Hutchinson's finding, namely that when compared to Gentiles, Jews were at greater risk for gonorrhea, is typically ignored. (hindawi.com)
  • To shed some light on this contentious issue and whether the conclusion reached by the committee reflects the information available in the medical literature, this paper will provide a systematic review of the association between male circumcision status and the risk for individual types of STIs (other than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) and the overall risk for any STI. (hindawi.com)
  • Zamibian men who get circumcised as a part of a public health effort to reduce HIV risk do not seem to engage in riskier sexual behaviors as a result, aidsmap reports. (poz.com)
  • Men who elected to be circumcised may have been more intrinsically inclined toward risky behaviors, or perhaps they were less inclined, thus over- or underestimating, respectively, any evident risk compensation. (poz.com)
  • On some counts, the men's behavior swayed toward risk compensation, but on others the men engaged in less risk of acquiring HIV. (poz.com)
  • After controlling for various factors, the researchers found that male circumcision conferred a 15 percent reduction in the risk of women acquiring HIV. (poz.com)
  • Male circumcision to cut HIV risk in the general population. (nih.gov)
  • In the US cut and natural men have HIV and HPV in the same % and example of this comes from the US Navy: Although known HIV risk factors were found to be associated with HIV in this military population, there was no significant association with male circumcision. (yahoo.com)
  • There is a window of a few weeks after circumcision when the risk that an HIV-infected man could transmit the virus to a female partner actually increases," said the study's first author Aaron Tobian, associate professor of pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (medindia.net)
  • Thus, circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce transmission of HIV to female partners, and the possibility of higher risk of transmission in couples who resumed sexual intercourse before complete wound healing cannot be excluded. (natap.org)
  • Strategies to improve precircumcision screening and a bleeding adverse event, the median age was 16 years performance of circumcisions on clients at risk in settings where (range = 10-59 years). (cdc.gov)
  • Strategies to improve precircumcision screening and performance of circumcisions on clients at risk in settings where blood products are available are recommended to reduce the occurrence of these adverse events or mitigate their effects ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • At the same time, a number of studies have shown that circumcision has not led to increases in sexual risk-taking. (aidsmap.com)
  • Male circumcision increases risk for females. (nih.gov)
  • After the newborn period, circumcision has a higher risk of complications, especially bleeding and anesthetic complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a risk of HIV transmission if men engage in unprotected sex before the wound is healed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDC concludes "There are as yet no convincing data to help determine whether male circumcision will have any effect on HIV risk for men who engage in anal sex with either a female or male partner, as either the insertive or receptive partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Egypt, HIV is most prevalent in high risk groups including street children, female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), and injecting drug users (IDUs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ministry of Health also plans to roll out the PrePex male circumcision device following the completion last year of a six-month pilot study sponsored by PEPFAR. (cdc.gov)
  • CI = 57.8%--57.8%) of 21,359,690 newborn males circumcised in the United States from NHDS and NIS, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • As of 2007, fifty-five percent of newborn males were circumcised, a significant decline from years past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of newborn males being circumcised has slightly declined in the United States in the past decade, according to a new CDC analysis of three independent national databases. (thebody.com)
  • The U.S. is the only country in the world to circumcise the majority of its newborn males for non-religious reasons. (menweb.org)