A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)
A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.

Concern mounts over female genital mutilation.(1/48)

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The long-term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community-based survey. (2/48)

This paper examines the association between traditional practices of female genital cutting (FGC) and adult women's reproductive morbidity in rural Gambia. In 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional community survey of 1348 women aged 15-54 years, to estimate the prevalence of reproductive morbidity on the basis of women's reports, a gynaecological examination and laboratory analysis of specimens. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare the prevalence of each morbidity between cut and uncut women adjusting for possible confounders. A total of 1157 women consented to gynaecological examination and 58% had signs of genital cutting. There was a high level of agreement between reported circumcision status and that found on examination (97% agreement). The majority of operations consisted of clitoridectomy and excision of the labia minora (WHO classification type II) and were performed between the ages of 4 and 7 years. The practice of genital cutting was highly associated with ethnic group for two of the three main ethnic groups, making the effects of ethnic group and cutting difficult to distinguish. Women who had undergone FGC had a significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.18] and a substantially higher prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) [adjusted OR=4.71; 95% CI 3.46-6.42]. The higher prevalence of HSV2 suggests that cut women may be at increased risk of HIV infection. Commonly cited negative consequences of FGC such as damage to the perineum or anus, vulval tumours (such as Bartholin's cysts and excessive keloid formation), painful sex, infertility, prolapse and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) were not significantly more common in cut women. The relationship between FGC and long-term reproductive morbidity remains unclear, especially in settings where type II cutting predominates. Efforts to eradicate the practice should incorporate a human rights approach rather than rely solely on the damaging health consequences.  (+info)

Female genital cutting in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: changing attitudes? (3/48)

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, type, social correlates and attitudes towards female genital cutting (FGC) among urban women in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; and to examine the association between FGC and gynaecological problems, reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. METHODS: In 1999, 379 women attending reproductive health care clinics were interviewed and underwent pelvic examination. Specimens for RTI/HIV diagnosis were taken. RESULTS: Seventeen per cent had undergone FGC, mostly clitoridectomy (97%). Female genital cutting prevalence was significantly lower among educated, Christian and Chagga women. Women aged >or=35 were twice as likely to be cut as those < 25 years. Seventy-six per cent of those who had undergone FGC intend not to perform the procedure on their daughters. Age < 25 years (P < 0.0001) and low parity (P < 0.01) were predictors of that intention. There was no association between RTIs, HIV or hepatitis B and FGC. CONCLUSION: FGC is still fairly common but there is evidence of a change of attitude towards the practice, especially among young women. The opportunity to educate women who attend reproductive health care facilities on FGC should be taken.  (+info)

Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri-urban Nigeria: self-reported validity, social determinants and secular decline. (4/48)

Despite growing public resistance to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC), documentation of its prevalence, social correlates or trends in practice are extremely limited, and most available data are based on self-reporting. In three antenatal and three family planning clinics in South-west Nigeria we studied the prevalence, social determinants, and validity of self-reporting for FGC among 1709 women. Women were interviewed on social and demographic history, and whether or not they had undergone FGC. Interviews were followed by clinical examination to affirm the occurrence and extent of circumcision. In total, 45.9% had undergone some form of cutting. Based on WHO classifications by type, 32.6% had Type I cuts, 11.5% Type II, and 1.9% Type III or IV. Self-reported FGC status was valid in 79% of women; 14% were unsure of their status, and 7% reported their status incorrectly. Women are more likely to be unsure of their status if they were not cut, or come from social groups with a lower prevalence of cutting. Ethnicity was the most significant social predictor of FGC, followed by age, religious affiliation and education. Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors. There is evidence of a steady and steep secular decline in the prevalence of FGC in this region over the past 25 years, with age-specific prevalence rates of 75.4% among women aged 45-49 years, 48.6% among 30-34-year olds, and 14.5% among girls aged 15-19. Despite wide disparities in FGC prevalence across ethnic, religious and educational groups, the secular decline is evident among all social subgroups.  (+info)

Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. (5/48)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in Mali and the second commonest cause of cancer mortality. METHODS: As part of an international effort to evaluate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the aetiology of cervical cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in three medical centres in Bamako during 1994-1995. A total of 82 cases (invasive cervical cancer patients) and 97 controls matched to the cases for age were included. Information on risk factors was collected through personal interview. Serum antibodies to HPV 16, 18 and 31 virus like particles (VLP) were detected using ELISA assays. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HPV DNA in frozen biopsies of cases. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus 6, 18, 31 VLP were detected in 60.4% of cases and 45.4% of controls (P = 0.03). Overall, HPV DNA was identified in 96.9% of the cervical cancer cases. Risk factors for cervical cancer were parity >10 versus <5 children ([odds ratio] OR = 4.8, 95% CI : 1.5-14.7), never having practised vaginal douching (OR = 17.6, 95% CI : 4.2-74.7), re-using home-made feminine napkins (OR = 45.9, 95% CI : 8.8-238.7) and having a husband with more than two wives (OR = 5.3, 95% CI : 1.3-21.3). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence on the role of HPV in cervical cancer and show that high parity and poor genital hygiene conditions were the main co-factors for cervical cancer in this population with prevalent HPV infection.  (+info)

Is there an association between female circumcision and perinatal death? (6/48)

OBJECTIVE: In Sweden, a country with high standards of obstetric care, the high rate of perinatal mortality among children of immigrant women from the Horn of Africa raises the question of whether there is an association between female circumcision and perinatal death. METHOD: To investigate this, we examined a cohort of 63 perinatal deaths of infants born in Sweden over the period 1990-96 to circumcised women. FINDINGS: We found no evidence that female circumcision was related to perinatal death. Obstructed or prolonged labour, caused by scar tissue from circumcision, was not found to have any impact on the number of perinatal deaths. CONCLUSION: The results do not support previous conclusions that genital circumcision is related to perinatal death, regardless of other circumstances, and suggest that other, suboptimal factors contribute to perinatal death among circumcised migrant women.  (+info)

Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students towards this practice. (7/48)

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision is the removal of variable amounts of tissue from the female external genitalia. It is practised all over the world on very young girls. This study was conducted in Sudan where FGM is a criminal offence and not a religious dictate. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of this practice among Khartoum university students and compared the differences between male and female student responses. METHODS: An anonymised detailed questionnaire was distributed among the university students. In addition to the participant's age, marital status, course studying, details regarding their attitude, knowledge of the practice of FGM, and their own experiences were collected. RESULTS: Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 414 (82.8%) were returned from 192 (46%) females and 222 (54%) males. 109 (56.8%) of the female respondents were themselves circumcised.18.8% of the male students and 9.4% of the female students thought FGM was recommended by their religion. Only 90 (46.9%) female students compared with 133 (59.9%) male students thought FGM was illegal. Though 16 (8.3%) female respondents thought FGM would increase their chances of marriage, the majority, 166 (74.8%), of the male students would prefer a non-circumcised female. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that 109 (56.8%) female university students who responded were circumcised. Confusing religious messages and ambiguous laws seem to be responsible for the continuation of this practice. The study highlights the partnership that needs to be established between religious leaders and educationalists to end this medieval practice.  (+info)

Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom--critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation. (8/48)

Despite global and local attempts to end genital mutilation, in their various forms, whether of males or females, the practice has persisted throughout human history in most parts of the world. Various medical, scientific, hygienic, aesthetic, religious, and cultural reasons have been used to justify it. In this symposium on circumcision, against the background of the other articles by Hutson, Short, and Viens, the practice is set by the author within a wider, global context by discussing a range of rationalisations used to support different types of genital mutilation throughout time and across the globe. It is argued that in most cases the rationalisations invented to provide support for continuing the practice of genital mutilation--whether male or female--within various cultural and religious settings have very little to do with finding a critical and reflective moral justification for these practices. In order to question the ethical acceptability of the practice in its non-therapeutic forms, we need to focus on child rights protection.  (+info)

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice. It is estimated that between 100 and 140 million girls and women have been subjected to the practice worldwide. Most of them live in Africa, but there is also a considerable number of women concerned among immigrant populations in Europe. Little attention has been given so far to the perceptions of African immigrants in relation to FGM/C. Campaigns and activities are mostly based on anecdotal evidence and are often carried out without the implication of main stakeholders of the African immigrant communities. The purpose of the current project was to listen to the opinions, perceptions and propositions of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa regarding the practice of FGM/C.. ...
A pre- and post-test comparison-group design was used to evaluate the effect of a community education program on community members willingness to abandon female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in rural areas of southern Senegal. Developed by TOSTAN (a Senegalese nongovernmental organization), the education program aimed to empower women through a broad range of educational and health-promoting activities. Our findings suggest that information from the program was diffused widely within the intervention villages, as indicated by improvements in knowledge about and critical attitudes toward FGM/C among women and men who had and had not participated in the program, without corresponding improvement in the comparison villages. The prevalence of FGM/C among daughters aged ten years and younger decreased significantly over time as reported by women who were directly and indirectly exposed to the program, but not among daughters in the comparison villages, suggesting that the program had an impact ...
The purpose of the project is to discuss the extent to which young girls are subjected to female genital cutting, and to provide suggestions as to which efforts are considered most fruitful in abandoning the practice. The project will a) provide a qualified discussion on the possible extent of female circumcision, b) provide knowledge on the manifestations of the laws on averting and the obligation to report in different professions and c) gather and discuss different professions and targets assessments of efficient strategies against female circumcision ...
A first systematic review of Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting (FGM/C), a traditional practice that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
Afr Popul Dev Bull. 1999 Jun-Jul:26-7. Female genital cutting. Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys. [No authors listed] PIP: This article reports on the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the Central African Republic (CAR), Cote dIvoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Mali, Tanzania and Yemen. Evidences from the Demographic and Health Surveys indicate that FGM…
There are an estimated ninety to a hundred million women and girls living today in African countries that have had some form of female circumcision (Lane and Rubinstein 1996). Recent articles in the media have reported the growing practice of female circumcision in the US and Europe, among immigrants from countries where it is part of the culture. Circumcision occurs for a number of cultural reasons, such as religion, tradition, preserving virginity, and cultural identification. However, the practice of severe forms of female circumcision is now proven to be a great health risk, and the women of the societies that still practice female circumcision risk severe health problems. This paper reviews the practice of female circumcision and proposes a plan to reduce the use of harmful forms of circumcision, and consequently, the health problems associated with it
July 28, 2009 Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results: Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%), 42.4% of 288 [less than or equal to]12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7-8 and 11-12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81%) and birth attendants (18%). Clitoral cutting (64%) and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36%) were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. ...
Despite growing public resistance to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC), documentation of its prevalence, social correlates or trends in practice are extremely limited, and most available data are based on self-reporting. In three antenatal and three family planning clinics in South-west N …
FORWARDs work with affected communities safeguards girls at risk of FGM and supports women living with the consequences - in Africa and practicing migrant communities in the UK and Europe. We engage directly with women and men in communities to raise awareness of the risks of FGM. We support them through training and confidence building - which enable them to advocate for change in their communities.. Female genital mutilation is sometimes referred to with other terms like female circumcision and female genital cutting. We use female genital mutilation, because we believe it most accurately describes the experience and effects of FGM on women and girls. Mutilation emphasises the severity of the practice and abuse of women and girls human rights.. ...
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC), female circumcision, or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other surgery of the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons.[20] It is not the same as the procedures used in gender reassignment surgery or the genital modification of intersex persons. It is practised in several parts of the world, but the practice is concentrated more heavily in Africa, parts of the Middle East, and some other parts of Asia. Over 125 million women and girls have experienced FGM in the 29 countries in which it is concentrated.[21]. Over eight million have been infibulated, a practice found largely in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan.[22] Infibulation, the most extreme form of FGM (known as Type III), consists of the removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva, while a ...
This long-awaited book by well-known intactivist and Swiss Institute of Comparative Law Professor Sami Aldeeb is a fitting counterpoint to Lisa Bisques You Call This Love? Aldeebs work presents readers with an awe-inspiring wealth of information on many pertinent aspects of circumcision. Even the most dedicated advocate of genital integrity is likely to find much that is new here. It is delightful to read a book, possibly the first ever published, that comprehensively treats male and female genital cutting on an equal footing, in keeping with Aldeebs own personal enthusiasm for halting both practices. I found the authors synthesis of the various different positions regarding male and female genital cutting to be highly intriguing and thought-provoking. The section on genital mutilations and human rights (pages 316-336) is particularly strong.. The downside is that the book is littered with regrettable typographical errors as well as many nonfelicitous translations from the Arabic in which ...
By Brian D. Earp (@briandavidearp). * Please note: this piece was originally published in Quillette Magazine.. Four members of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Islam living in Detroit, Michigan have recently been indicted on charges of female genital mutilation (FGM). This is the first time the US government has prosecuted an FGM case since a federal law was passed in 1996. The world is watching to see how the case turns out.. A lot is at stake here. Multiculturalism, religious freedom, the limits of tolerance; the scope of childrens-and minority group-rights; the credibility of scientific research; even the very concept of harm.. To see how these pieces fit together, I need to describe the alleged crime.. * * *. The term FGM is likely to bring to mind the most severe forms of female genital cutting, such as clitoridectomy or infibulation (partial sewing up of the vaginal opening). But the World Health Organization (WHO) actually recognizes four main categories of FGM, covering dozens of ...
Female genital mutilation (FGM) seriously affects a womans sex life reveals a new study that explored the sexual quality of life in women who have undergone female genital mutilation.
The United Nations has declared Feb. 6 International Zero Tolerance Day for Female Genital Mutilation. Contrary to popular perception, female genital mutilation, or FGM, is relatively widespread in the United States as well. Indeed, according to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 500,000 women and girls have either undergone, or are at risk of undergoing the procedure. Most, but not all, are immigrants to the U.S.
A Colorado doctor is quietly trying to help bring new life to women who have been victims of female genital mutilation. Dr. Marci Bowers is one of only a few U.S. doctors who perform the restorative surgery.
Author: Thato Motaung Researcher, Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation: 6 February 2015 February 6 - the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation - is dedicated annually to making the world aware of the harmful effects of female genital…
This systematic review provides clear evidence that FGM/C entails harms to womens physical health throughout their life, from the moment of cutting as an infant or child, to sexuality and childbirth in adulthood. Predictably, the most common direct, procedure-related complication includes haemorrhage, most likely resulting from laceration of the internal pudendal artery or the clitoral artery. It is difficult to determine the number of females who die from procedure-related complications. Only a few studies reported death, but highly publicised fatalities from FGM/C heighten the awareness of the possible harms posed by the procedure, such as three recent cases in Egypt and Kenya.88-90. We found several long-term consequences of FGM/C, including increased risks of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, dyspareunia and obstetric complications. Studies have been published since we conducted our search, and they corroborate our findings.91-98 The identified risks from FGM/C are also ...
Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Jan 7;170(1):59. [Epithelial inclusion cyst of the clitoris as a late complication of childhood female circumcision]. [Article in Danish] Kristensen IB. Baagøes Allé 8A, 2. th, DK-5700 Svendborg. [email protected] ABSTRACT Two cases of epithelial inclusion cyst as a late complication of childhood female circumcision in patients aged 39 and 27 years are…
Our hypothesis was that living in Sweden facilitates attitude change regarding FGC, and our aim was to speed up this process through an intervention. However, there was already a high opposition towards all forms of FGC among Somali men and women, including newly arrived, suggesting that negative attitudes toward FGC are more widespread than we anticipated. Furthermore, among proponents of FGC, the support for practices causing anatomical change was low. This is reflected in the mean values of the VAS for newly arrived being 5.2 mm and 8.8 mm for outcomes 1 and 2, respectively. We had calculated the sample size to be able to detect a change of 15 mm on the VAS. Thus, with this baseline, it would have been difficult to detect a change in attitudes before and after an intervention without increasing the sample size significantly, which would have required resources we did not have. As a consequence, it would also not have been possible to evaluate the actual effectiveness of the intervention, ...
Female Genital Mutilation is also called FGM, female circumcision, cutting or sunna is when a girls external genitals (private parts) are cut away. This is abuse, and it is illegal in the UK.
The governments commitment to tackling female genital mutilation has been questioned after it abolished the role of FGM co-ordinator.. The post, currently held by Alan Webster, ensures multi-agency efforts are in place to tackle the issue which campaigners estimate affects about 24,000 girls living in the UK. FGM involves cutting part or all of the genitalia, often without anaesthetic.. A Home Office spokesman said the work of the co-ordinator would not be lost, but would be carried forward by individual departments where it will be better integrated. But FGM campaigners say the move - which follows government guidelines issued only last month to help practitioners identify and prevent FGM - fear it will lead to a marginalisation of the issue.. Diana Nammi, director of the Iranian and Kurdish Womens Rights Organisation, told a national newspaper that while the guidelines had been an important step forward there was no dedicated person now to ensure all organisations were acting on it. The ...
The above dashboard shows FGM prevalence in the 17 countries where the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation operates.
This is the page for discussing the topic issues concerning the demography and epidemiology of FGM not addressed elsewhere in the first chapter, on Demography and Epidemiology, of Eradicating Female Genital Mutilation (obtainable from the publishers). The full list of topics considered in the first chapter can be seen here. Please ensure your contributions concern the specific…
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization, (WHO), as the removal or cutting of the external female genitalia. WHO estimates between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide currently live with the consequences of FGM. The study finds that through corrective surgery, pre/post therapy, counseling, and sexual education victims to FGM can regain sexual pleasure providing them a chance to be
Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C) is increasing in Indonesia, with the issuance in June 2011 of official guidelines from the Ministry of Health for its infliction - even though the Indonesian authorities banned the practice in 2006. Indonesian
The definition provided by the CEDAW Committee was later codified, albeit in the form of a declaration, in more or less a similar formulation in article 1 of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (DEVAW). The Declaration goes further than prohibiting violence against women. It, under article 2, includes a list of prohibited acts regarded as violence against women. This includes [p]hysical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family. More importantly, it explicitly declares FGM as a form of violence against women.. As alluded to earlier, FGM is a traumatising and painful surgical procedure, performed on young girls, without the aid of anaesthesia to temporarily dull the pain, or proper hygiene to prevent potential infection.59 This exposes women to severe pain and suffering, which has both physical and psychological effects. The practice inflicts physical, sexual and mental harm to women. Moreover, the violence does not end at the completion of the ...
This is the page for discussing the topic UK locations with a high incidence of FGM in the first chapter, on Demography and Epidemiology, of Eradicating Female Genital Mutilation (obtainable from the publishers). The full list of topics considered in the first chapter can be seen here. Please ensure your contributions concern the specific topic here under…
Nigerian women who have undergone female genital cutting are as likely as those who have not to achieve orgasm during sexual intercourse, but are significantly more likely to have recurrent symptoms of reproductive tract infection.
Reconstructive surgery for women who suffer sexual consequences from FGM is feasible, with a high degree of client acceptance and satisfaction. It restores some of womens natural genital anatomy, and offers the potential for improved female sexuality. Fazari ABE, Berg RC, Mohammed WA, Gailii EB, and Elmusharaf K. Reconstructive surgery for female genital mutilation starts sexual functioning in Sudanese woman: A case report. J Sex Med 2013;10:2861-2865. ...
As the first doctor charged with performing female genital mutilation under federal law was released on bond Tuesday, questions remained about the extent to which religious freedom can be used to defend a practice many human rights groups say is a barbaric
WHO fact sheet on female genital mutilation provides key facts and information on procedures, who is at risk, cultural, religious and social causes, international response and WHO response.
LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Nigeria is failing to enforce a much heralded ban on female genital mutilation, activists said on Friday, as they urged the country to sort out a
Weʼre raising money to change practice of Female Genital Mutilation & promote Optimal Cord Clamping with the Maasai Tribe in Kenya. Support this JustGiving Crowdfunding Page.
Female genital mutilation (cutting) is an inherently difficult subject. The clash of social mores, clamours of righteousness from all quarters, the vast contradictions evident in legal and child protection practice and the sheer sensitivities of the topic, contrasting personal vulnerability and grotesque practice, all make intervention perilous. And beyond that there are the demands for clarity…
SHOCKING statistics have revealed 5,700 girls aged as young as five suffering female genital mutilation in the UK - with Sheffield and Leeds in the top 10 for new cases.
Female genital mutilation essay - Quality College Essay Writing Assistance - Get Help With Secure Paper Assignments for an Affordable Price Cheap Essay And Research Paper Writing Company - We Help Students To Get Custom Essays, Research Papers and up to Dissertations Of The Best Quality Best Student Writing and Editing Service - We Provide High-Quality Essays, Term Papers, Reports and Theses for an Affordable Price
Video training for caregivers in accurate diagnosis of female genital mutilation. See the related article by Abdulcadir et al (November 2016 issue). The authors thank Svetlin Kolev for his help in making the video. Video created by Jasmine Abdulcadir. Used with permission. (Illustration at 00:37 modified from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clitoris_anatomy_labeled-en.svg. Illustrations from 00:56 through 02:26 and 02:35 through 02:49 reprinted from World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutiliation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2016. Photo of neuroma of the clitoris at 03:07 is reproduced from Abdulcadir J, Pusztaszeri M, Vilarino R, Dubuisson JB, Vlastos AT. Clitoral neuroma after female genital mutilation/cutting: a rare but possible event. J Sex Med. 2012 Apr;9(4):1220-5. Copyright 2012, with permission from Elsevier.) ...
Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddins recent waaz (sermon) in Mumbai has come as a disappointment. For almost three months now, Dawoodi Bohras who wish to see an end to female circumcision (khatna) had been hopeful. Starting with Sydney in February, many Bohra jamaats in different cities around the world have issued letters to their members, asking them to…
Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddins recent waaz (sermon) in Mumbai has come as a disappointment. For almost three months now, Dawoodi Bohras who wish to see an end to female circumcision (khatna) had been hopeful. Starting with Sydney in February, many Bohra jamaats in different cities around the world have issued letters to their members, asking them to…
Sexual pleasure after FGM. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.[1] The WHO offers four classifications of FGM.[7] Type I usually refers to removal of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and clitoral hood.[8] Type II (excision) is removal of the clitoris and inner labia.[9] Type III (infibulation) involves the removal of all or part of the inner and outer labia, and usually the clitoris, and the fusion of the wound; a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, and the wound is opened for intercourse and childbirth.[. Around 85 percent of women who undergo FGM experience Types I and II.. Type III is the most common procedure in Djibouti, Somalia and Sudan, and in parts of Eritrea, Ethiopia and Mali. in 2012 the United Nations General Assembly unanimously passed a resolution ...
This paper reflects on some of the lessons learnt from UNV interventions of using volunteerism to mobilize local communities to combat female genital mutilation/cutting in Sudan.
Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance. It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons. In its broadest definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement. Body piercing - permanent placement of jewelry through an artificial fistula; sometimes further modified by stretching Ear piercing - the most common type of body modification Pearling - also known as genital beading Neck ring- multiple neck rings or spiral are worn to stretch the neck (in reality lowering of the shoulders) Scrotal implants Tattooing - injection of a pigment under the skin Teeth blackening Eyeball ...
When the Kenyan and Ugandan studies were announced linking lower HIV infection risk with male circumcision, many sober voices immediately called for safe and consensual procedures by trained clinicians instead of those provided in the wild by folk doctors, if a given country decided to implement a mass circumcision campaign. It was rather shocking then…
Founded in 1998, V-Day is a global movement to stop violence against women and girls. V-Day is a catalyst that promotes creative events to increase awareness, raise money and revitalize the spirit of existing anti-violence organizations. V-Day generates broader attention for the fight to stop violence against women and girls, including rape, battery, incest, female genital mutilation (FGM) and sexual slavery. Through V-Day campaigns, local volunteers and college students produce annual benefit performances of The Vagina Monologues to raise awareness and funds for anti-violence groups within their own communities. In addition V-Day stages large-scale benefits and produces innovative gatherings, films and campaigns to educate and change social attitudes towards violence against women. ...
Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and founder of the AHA Foundation. She served as a member of the Dutch Parliament from 2003 to 2006.. She was born in Mogadishu, Somalia in 1969. As a young child, she was subjected to female genital mutilation. As she grew up... ...
Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and founder of the AHA Foundation. She served as a member of the Dutch Parliament from 2003 to 2006.. She was born in Mogadishu, Somalia in 1969. As a young child, she was subjected to female genital mutilation. As she grew up... ...
While Sen. Bob Menendez, D-N.J., is fighting for his political life following revelations that he and a wealthy donor are under FBI investigation for Dominican Republic trips the senator took on the eye doctors private plane as well as accusations he engaged in sex with under-age prostitutes while there, one prominent supporter has been conspicuously silent - his media-star daughter Alicia Menendez, a Democratic Party adviser.. Alicia Menendez is the former co-director of The Vagina Monologues, an episodic feminist play comprised of soliloquies read by women dealing with matters including sex, love, rape, menstruation, female genital mutilation, masturbation, birth, orgasm, the various common names for the vagina, or simply as a physical aspect of the body. She is a former Harvard gender studies major who is a host on Huffpost Live and a frequent guest on CNN, Fox News and MSNBC.. Known for her outspokenness, even on matters involving her own prominent family, she once wrote that her ...
That comment and many like it were sent to me in response to a video I did about the horrors of female genital mutilation, which, by the way, is a cultural practice and not relegated to Muslim women. Ive spoken about the topic a lot, and the worst of my hate mail from atheists is about that.. So to have my concerns - and more so the concerns of other women who have survived rape and sexual assault - dismissed thanks to a rich white man comparing them to the plight of women who are mutilated, is insulting to all of us. Feminists in the west have been staunch allies of the women being brutalized elsewhere, and theyve done a hell of a lot more than Richard Dawkins when it comes to making a difference in their lives.. That wasnt the end, of course. Dawkins went on to compare my experience with his frustration at riding in an elevator with a person chewing gum (presumably he was once accosted by such a person who rubbed Bubble Yum into his silky white hair). You can read all his comments to date ...
id:4420017061958,title:Research Today Health Tomorrow Liberian Hospital Block of 4 Stamps MNH,handle:research-today-health-tomorrow-liberian-hospital-block-of-4-stamps-mnh,description:\u003cp\u003eResearch Today Health Tomorrow Liberian Hospital Block of 4 Stamps MNH\u003c\/p\u003e\r\n\u003cp\u003eLiberia is one of the poorest countries in the world. Civil wars have killed around 250,000 people and displaced many more. The wars ended in 2003 but destroyed most of the countrys healthcare facilities. Recovery proceeds but the majority of the population still live below the international poverty line. Life expectancy in Liberia is much lower than the world average. Communicable diseases are widespread, including tuberculosis, diarrhea, malaria, HIV, and Dengue. Female genital mutilation is widely practiced. Nearly a quarter of children under the age of five are malnourished and few people have access to adequate sanitation facilities. In 2009, government expenditure on health care ...
Pakistan Senate Body Rejects Bill to Set Minimum Age for Marriage At 18 - In Afghanistan, Dubious and Violative Virginity Tests Persist Southeast Asias Hidden Female Genital Mutilation Challenge The Nike Ambassador Who Started A Sportswear Brand, Islam, Women and Feminism, New Age Islam News Bureau, New Age Islam
IGM as Torture or CIDT: 2015 UN-CAT Briefing 1. Personal Testimony - A Survivors Perspective 2. IGM Practices as Torture or CIDT 3. Recommendations ||| Download
I am for legal non-forced consensual prostitution (for adults with adults). First for me as in all things: people own themselves, thus have all rights to their body to use as they wish. Also if prostitution were legalized, then it can also be regulated and made more safe. Applicable and newly created laws would make it safer and more healthy for both workers and clients. Prostitution is never going to go away, but we can make it safer for everyone involved.. In 1949, the United Nations adopted a resolution in favor of the decriminalization of prostitution, which has been ratified by fifty countries. The National Task Force on Prostitution suggests that over one million people in the US have worked as prostitutes. Estimates in some larger cities found that 20-30% of prostitutes are male. One report cites 60% of the abuse against street prostitutes perpetrated by clients, 20% by police, and 20% in domestic relationships.. In a study in London, 50% of clients were married or cohabiting. 70% of ...
Routine infant circumcision has been practiced on infant males and females in America for many years. The reasons for circumcision, also called amputation and genital reduction, have varied over the years and include eliminating masturbation, training women, curing epilepsy and recently, even preventing HIV. In 1996, a federal law upheld the illegality of all female circumcision for all reasons, including for religious practice. Infant male circumcision is still widely practiced in America, with rates reaching as high as 50% in some regions. Based on the current laws and constitution, it appears that infant male circumcision is already illegal, despite being widely accepted culturally. The ban enacted in 1996 should be amended to be a law of equality by including both females and males ...
A grass-roots movement against female circumcision in Egypt (where 96% of married women are circumcised) is gaining momentum with mothers considering circumcision for their daughters. • Male contraceptive options will "perpetually remain five to 10 years away." Why? Pharmaceutical companies believe they aren't marketable, although many men disagree. • Nazmunnahar Beauty had to struggle through orphanhood and poverty to make it to Olympics, much like the rest of her Bangladeshi teammates. • Keren Dunaway, a Honduran tween who was born with HIV, is one of the most prominent AIDS activists in Latin America, where she edits an educational children's magazine about the virus and speaks at major conferences.Filipino teachers are becoming more popular hires as school officials in Prince George County, MD see a shortage in staff. • Presented without comment: "A herpes virus is killing young oysters in France because they have spent too much energy developing their sexual organs
Cutting off foreskin does not stop a man from functioning sexually or fathering children. You might not like it and you can certainly argue that it is unnecessary (the majority of circumcisions done in the US were and are not done not for religious reasons but because of American zealousness about personal hygiene and aesthetics), but it is not equivalent to female circumcision. As for those that are done for religious reasons, do you wish to stop Jews from performing a ritual they have done for 4000 years? Even secular Jews get their sons circumcised - and of course, theres the Muslims. Good luck with that. ...
http://www.earthfiles.com). Due to Linda Moulton Howes many reports about cattle mutilation events since the late 1970s, those of us who have never personally witnessed a mutilated cow or other large mammal can well know what these look like. In my opinion this phenomenon, which Ms. Howe and the media refer to as cattle mutilations, would more accurately be described as rather sophisticated surgical dissections. These procedures respect fascial planes and repeatedly involve nearly identical excisions of specific animal organs and tissues. These procedures are bloodless, stereotyped procedures carried out with surgical precision. As far as I am aware, the surgical instrument which is evidently used to carry out these large animal dissections, leaving the cut edges of the animals hide cauterized and with an obvious and well defined serrated edge appearance (as seen in many of Ms. Howes detailed photographs) are not used in hospital operating rooms anywhere in this country. The commonly used ...
Christmas Valley Cattle Mutilations:. June 17, 2002 Christmas Valley, Oregon - Christmas Valley, Oregon is about six hours northeast by car from Applegate Valley where the doe was found dead and mutilated by Dwain Wright. On Monday, June 10th, Lake County Deputy Sheriff Keith Bumpass showed field investigator and writer, Jean Bilodeaux, another mutilation about six miles from where the large 2400 pound bull was found dead and mutilated on May 5. (See Earthfiles 05/15/02) The name of the mutilated cows owner is withheld at his request. In the interviews below, first Deputy Bumpass describes the mutilated cow discovered two weeks after the bulls unusual death, but thought to have been killed around May 11 based on ranchers experiences with deterioration in other dead animals.. ...
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2007). Circumcision: Information for parents. Retrieved July 30, 2008 from www.aap.org/publiced/BR_Circumcision.htm American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics, 103, 686-693. Anand, K. J. S. (2008). Analgesia for skin-breaking procedures in newborns and children: What works best? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179, 11-12. Birth News (2000). Birth. 27, 220. deMeo, J. (1989). The geography of genital mutilations. The Truth Seeker, July/August, 9-13. Also in Sexual mutilations: A human tragedy, Edited by George C. Denniston and Marilyn Fayre Milos, Plenum Press, 1996, 1-15. Dunsmuir, W. D. & Gordon, E. M. (1999).The history of circumcision. British Journal of Urology, 83, 1-12. Gardner, S. L. (1994). Pain and pain relief in the neonate. The American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing, 19, 85-90. Glick, L.B. (2005). Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America. New York and Oxford: Oxford ...
Self MutilationDefinitionDescriptionDemographicsMotivationRisk factorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionResources Source for information on Self Mutilation: The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health dictionary.
Read or print original Cattle Mutilation lyrics 2020 updated! Deep in the forrest where few men have been / Stands a house black as sin
In the 21st Century, thankfully, most male babies leave Australasian hospitals with their genitals intact (uncircumcised). They are, however, still not assured of reaching adulthood (the age of consent) without being subjected to genital cutting practices. The most common reason cited for the circumcision of post-infant boys is a diagnosis of phimosis. The predominant (traditional)…
If he manages to successfully approach the female, the male will insert one of his pedipalps into the female, release his sperm and then-die. (See Male Spiders Give Back Rubs to Seduce Their Mates.). While the males heart is technically still beating-which it will continue to do for up to two hours-he lies immobile and helpless. This give the female ample opportunity to liquidize her mate, squirting out digestive enzymes onto the male for easier eating. This creates a sloshy milkshake, and thats what gets sucked in, Schwartz said.. Not only does it satiate the female, it may prevent her from mating with another male and possibly birthing the rival spiders offspring.. Genital Mutilation. During copulation, the male spider can also lose parts of his genitalia. When the bulb carrying a male spiders sperm expands, it often gets broken off inside the female. This creates a plug that prevents the female from mating again, and ensures that the males sperm will fertilize as many eggs as ...
Im so sorry you had to experience a rape. But Im glad you survived it and very glad you feel able to ask for help and support.. The vagina cant really be broken. A woman can sustain injuries to her genitals -- via rape, consensual sex, intentional genital mutilation, childbirth or some other scenarios -- and those injuries vary in severity. While there is not likely anything wrong with your vagina (youll see why I italicized that in a bit) due to your rape, if you did sustain an injury and it has not healed by itself by now, you can get some care to address that injury. You can also get some help and care for the way that youre feeling emotionally, too.. Lets start with possible physical injuries. When were talking about what impact rape can directly have on the genitals or reproductive system, what were most often talking about are sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy. For all of the obvious reasons, even without feeling as you are, if you havent checked in with a sexual ...
Im so sorry you had to experience a rape. But Im glad you survived it and very glad you feel able to ask for help and support.. The vagina cant really be broken. A woman can sustain injuries to her genitals -- via rape, consensual sex, intentional genital mutilation, childbirth or some other scenarios -- and those injuries vary in severity. While there is not likely anything wrong with your vagina (youll see why I italicized that in a bit) due to your rape, if you did sustain an injury and it has not healed by itself by now, you can get some care to address that injury. You can also get some help and care for the way that youre feeling emotionally, too.. Lets start with possible physical injuries. When were talking about what impact rape can directly have on the genitals or reproductive system, what were most often talking about are sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy. For all of the obvious reasons, even without feeling as you are, if you havent checked in with a sexual ...
Orgasm, Inc. wanders into a Colgate University workshop on sex education, then visits the Good Vibrations Antique Vibrator Museum of Joani Blank. At the Berman Center run by Chicago-based sex therapist Dr. Laura Berman, the camera sees clients fork out $1,500 for treatment.. More disturbing are the surgical interventions intended to improve female sexual response. Marketed as giving women choices, these include vaginoplasty, labia reduction, and other forms of surgery that begin to sound ominously like voluntary forms of genital mutilation.. Finally, the director turns a spotlight on Procter & Gambles attempts to get approval for a testosterone patch for FSD and the alarming side effects that use of such hormone treatments can cause. Luckily, the FDA did not approve Procter & Gambles Intrinsa product, but the drug company marketed it in Europe instead.. Like good sex, Orgasm, Inc. leaves you longing for more. For instance, if female sex enhancement drugs are medically questionable, what ...
Thursday, January 25, 7:00 pm, Founders Auditorium in Ovalwood Hall. Auditions are open to women only. The play delves into consensual and nonconsensual sexual experiences, body image, genital mutilation, direct and indirect encounters with reproductions, sex work, and other topics through the eyes of women of various ages, races, sexualities, and other differences. Rehearsals will being in early March. Performance dates are April 5-7,. ...
01. Intro (Prophecy of gore). 02. Screaming with shit in mouth. 03. Dexterous mutilation of pneumothorax. 04. Asphyxized with entrails on his neck. 05. Black pus. 06. Intro (Hymn of bizzare atrocities). 07. Postmortem human offal. 08. Vomit yourself. 09. Self disembowelment. 10. Liquid puke from the nose. 11. Remove the organs through your mouth. 12. Genitals on my face. 13. Obey to get indepedence (Filthy Christians cover). 14. Intro (Septicemia of deformed remains). 15. Cut my throat. 16. Mayhemic abortion of a pregnant carrion. 17. Pyuria. 18. Laryngas aimorrhagia. 19. Congenital tympanum catastrophe. 20. Purulent pollution of eczema. 21. Miasma cadaver. 22. Intestinal massaker from the rectum. 23. Asepsiophago thanatosis. 24. Anal psoriasis. 25. Third world genocide (Extreme Noise Terror cover). 26. Intro (Macabre noise holocaust). 27. Spastic gore grind. ,autophagia_screaming_with_shit_in_mouth.mp3,. ,autophagia_dexterous_mutilation_of_pneumothorax.mp3,. ...
This website prides itself by releasing information to the public so they can discuss, debate and decide for themselves about its content. Take for instance this reported cow death. A picture or two not only can cause a lot of questions to be asked, but can answer a lot of questions too! Further interview with the eye witness also answered a couple of my curious questions. At first glance this animal appears to have been dropped showing evidence of broken limbs with the body laying contorted on the dirt. One explanation could be it was struck broad side while crossing the highway by a large vehicle. But, if it was struck by a vehicle, launched into the air and landing stationary on the dirt, why are there no signs of impact marks or skidding on the dirt? If the animal survived the impact but died shortly there after, then there also should be animal struggling marks in the dirt. Remember, an animal weighing an excess of 500 pounds will leave deep gouging marks in the dirt as it struggles to ...
In this regard, she recalled that the discovery has been made in an area influenced by cases recorded earlier, such as the communities of Malabrigo and Reconquista, also in Santa Fe. Were focusing on high strangeness cases that meet the protocol and are associated with the sightings of lights reported by local residents, adding that this case is very important, since the animal was alive and everything occurred within a 20 hour period: it was fine on Sunday, and found dead on Monday morning ...
Golgatha: (3) [ORGANIC_CAGE] (7) 100blumen (3) 16Volt (1) 32Crash (1) 5F-X (5) A Challenge Of Honour (4) Abnocto (1) Across The Rubicon (6) Acylum (3) Ad Ombra (1) Ad·ver·sary: (6) Aethere (3) aggrotech (1) Ah Cama-Sotz (26) Ain Soph (3) Alfarmania (3) All Hail the Transcending Ghost (1) Allerseelen (1) Allseits (1) Alter Der Ruine (5) ambient (104) Ambre (1) Amethystium (6) AmGod (2) Analfabetism (1) Ancient Methods (1) And One (1) Anenzephalia (5) Antigen Shift (4) APE (10) Apoptose (4) Arcana (9) Arcana Obscura (1) Archon Satani (9) Arditi (2) Asbaar (2) Asche (1) Assemblage 23 (4) Atomine Elektrine (6) Atomtrakt (1) Atrium Carceri (8) Atrox (2) Aun (2) Aura Noctis (1) Aural Blasphemy (1) Auswalht (2) Autechre (1) Autopsia (1) Axiome (4) Bad Sector (3) Battlefield Abyss (1) Beat In Zen (1) Beyond Sensory Experience (3) Binary Park (1) Biosphere (1) Black Depths Grey Waves (1) Black Heaven (8) Black Lung (3) Black Seas Of Infinity (3) Blood Axis (2) Blutengel (1) Bocksholm (6) Boyd Rice (1) ...
Research by Cati Vaucelle at the MIT Media Laboratory on interaction design and ambient intelligence. Inspirations in product design, architecture, sustainability, art and technology.
all of the content linked here has been provided for evaluation purposes only. if you enjoy what you hear, buy the record and support the artist(s ...
Youll also find some listings for tours, occasional festivals or rare super duper awesome gigs within Canada and the U.$.A. Lastly, I do strongly encourage you to order any of these records you actually like, only if you plan on buying it from your local DIY distro and not some corporate ass-mart. Tapes, 7 inches and CD-Rs are all pretty cheap these days, and ordering them allows the poverty-stricken DIY grinders to continually press more records for you. Like it says on the Old Grindered Days Records page: Download all you want, but remember: BUY SHITS FROM THE BANDS, GO TO GIGS, DO TRADES WITH UNDERGROUND PEOPLE... YOU ARE THE SCENE! So, youll find some grinding resources below for that purpose. ...
If you are one of the persons that believe in aliens, then you have probably met a lot of people who have treated you with scepticism. The idea of extraterrestrials has been discussed for many years now by a lot of different individuals. There are a lot of researchers who explore the existence of ancient aliens. They
(The following statement was released by the rating agency)NEW YORK/SAO PAULO, December 22 (Fitch) Changes to Brazilsdeposit insuranceprogram (Fundo Garantidor de Credito - FGC) should not result inany immediatematerial change in banks business models, risk appetite andfunding costs orconcentrations, says Fitch Ratings. As such, banks creditprofiles shouldremain unaffected in the short term.The FGC previously provided a guarantee for deposits/investmentsof up toBRL250,000 per financial group for individualdepositors/investors without atotal coverage limit per investor. The FGC has changed thedeposit guarantee andnow limits total coverage to BRL1,000,000 per investor/depositorregardless ofthe number of accounts held in different financial groups. TheBrazilian centralbank defined the parameters for the measure, which was recentlyapproved by theBrazilian Monetary Council and is now in force. The measure willapply only tonew investments and not for previously helddeposits/investments.Limiting FGC
In Norway, it is a national goal to provide more patients with thrombolytic treatment. A referring hospital and a specialist hospital have implemented videoconferencing (VC) equipment to share knowledge and discuss stroke patients, regarding thrombolytic treatment. VC has only been used four times within the 19 months that the service has been available. The objective in this article is to increase the understanding of the contradiction between the need for knowledge-sharing through VC technology, as well as the reasons for low frequency of use when discussing stroke patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 professionals. The results illustrate how the technology per se is not the reason for the low frequency use. Health care is shaped by behavior, traditional rules, standards and division of labor. By using cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) as a framework, we illustrate the importance of understanding the historic way of performing an activity to be able to expand the
We set out to discover whether its possible to reduce the alarming rates of non-communicable diseases in Pacific nations while improving nutrition security and income.
I agree I think that circumcision is a mutilation. I know its hard for people to hear - especially men who have been circumcised or parents who have circumc…
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights last week called for an international probe into abuses in the Democratic Republic of Congos southern Kasai region, following murder, mutilation and rape and the death of a tribal chief and militia leader.
He is HIV positive and receives a disability check for being manic depressive. He also has a history of self mutilation. Thats how he became HIV positive. He injected a vial of blood from a friend who had AIDS because he was feeling bad about something he had done. She is manic depressive and has all the problems associated with obesity. The baby is wonderful - a charming, active child who adores me. He knows when the little white car pulls into the yard that hes going for a ride, that the woman who gets out of it will come onto the porch with arms open wide to pick him up and twirl round and round with him until he laughs out loud. And, he meets me with outstretched arms. If I stop to get something out of the car, he bumps down the steps on his bottom and trots across to the edge of the yard where theres a two foot drop to the driveway. If Im not reaching for him by then, he calls to me - in non-understandable syllables so far - then sits down and prepares to ease himself over the wall to ...
So I had my teeth out and my teeth cleaned, in that order which I found surprising. I just assumed it would be the opposite. I asked the doc and he said it can be done either way and makes no difference so i deffered. I felt good this morning even though i was up till 4:30 am last night maximizing my pre mutilation time. I was able to make it to yoga only a little late after I finished up with the social worker last night, our homestudy went well. I will miss yoga. I was able to take those concepts onto the dentists chair as i relaxed my body trying to find any part of my body that could be doing less. still felt fine after the procedure, chatty with doc, did some errands, then came home and the fact i had no breakfast caught up and the nausea and chill set in. So i went to bed and chose a movie, Narc, and watched 5 min till the pregnant lady started gushing blood and decided to change. yech. So far no pain meds, and it aint that bad. it will be nice if this does not compromise my enjoyment of ...
Dip. B. iii. 170, 2. On sceard hweogl (?), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 419, 11. Hrófas sind gehrorene . . . scearde scúrbeorge, Exon. Th. 476, 9; Ruin. 5. II. gashed, mutilated:--Gif eáre sceard weorðe, L. Eth. 42; Th. i. 14, 7: 48; Th. i. 14, 13. III. deprived:--Hé wæs his mæ-acute;ga sceard, freónda gefylled on folcstede, beslagen æt sæcce, and his sunu forlét on wælstówe, Chr. 937; Erl. 114, 6. (Cf. Icel. hafa, bera skarðan hlut to get worsted.) [O. Sax. skard: O. Frs. skerde cut, gashed: O. H. Ger. scart; lid-scart murcus; lid-scartí mutilation; scartsam scabrosus: M. H. Ger. schart: Ger. schartig: Icel. skarðr.] v. scirdan, and previous word. scearfian; p. ode To scrape, cut into shreds:--Genim ða ylcan wyrte, scearfa hý ðonne, and gníd swýðe smale tó duste, Lchdm. i. 70, 14: 80, 16: 344, 13 note. Scearfa smæle, ii. 322, 25. Scearfaþ succidite . . . gescearfa ðú succides, Lk. Skt. Lind. 13, 7, 9. Scearfige ealle ðás rinda tógædere, Lchdm. iii. 14, 4. [O. H. Ger. ...
... circumcision; idol or grave worship; and compulsory wearing of the veil for women. Observation of the five Ks, however, is not ...
"Female circumcision and episiotomy: both mutilation?". British Journal of Midwifery. 9 (3): 137-142. doi:10.12968/bjom.2001.9. ... Some midwives compare routine episiotomy to female genital mutilation.[14] One study found that women who underwent episiotomy ... "Total Health For Women Painful Intercourse". mothernature.com.. *^ American College of Obstetricians-Gynecologists (2006). " ... Its routine use is no longer recommended.[1] Despite this, it is one of the most common medical procedures performed on women. ...
Beasley, Ina (1976). "Female Circumcision". Women Speaking: 23. Beasley, Ina M. (1968). "Education Is the Key for Women". The ... Beasley's work in female education had a profound impact on the educational system for women in Sudan, she was also concerned ... she also recognised that it was an important part of cultural identity that affected both men and women. She supported female ... During her time in Burma she worked as a lecturer and as a tutor to women students at Rangoon University. By 1939, there had ...
She has researched female circumcision in Africa, in particular foregrounding the experience of indigenous women's voices. She ... "Female Circumcision , Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf". www.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-24. Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva ( ... ISBN 978-1-55587-995-2. Abusharaf, Rogia Mustafa (2001-02-01). "Virtuous Cuts: Female Genital Circumcision in an African ... 2000). Female "circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ...
Male circumcision is required in Judaism, optional in Islam, and not required in Christianity. Globally, male circumcision is ... She wrote that religion "promotes inequality between men and women", that Islam's message for a woman includes that "she will ... restrictions on the rights of women ranging from prohibiting women from certain behaviour and activities to requiring women to ... that women's sexuality should be modest and under the control of their menfolk, and that women should not use contraception or ...
... prohibited circumcision. Musaylimah considered men and women equal, and allowed premarital sex. Musaylimah ... In Medina, the deputation stayed with the daughter of al-Harith, a woman of the Ansar from the Banu Najjar. When the delegation ...
... presumably the chance is further increased when the woman is very tall among both women and men). Yet very tall women are not ... In some societies, such as the United States, circumcision is practiced on a majority of males, as well as sex reassignment on ... "Tall women more likely to have twins". livescience. "Taller Women Are More Likely To Have Twins, Obstetrician's Study Confirms ... A trait in women known to greatly increase the chance of multiple births is being a tall woman ( ...
Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women's Issue's in Halakhic Sources, Rachel Biale, Shocken Books, 1984 On Women and ... Like most Christian churches, Mormonism does not require circumcision as circumcision was done away when Jesus Christ fulfilled ... 1998 Women Who Would Be Rabbis Pamela S. Nadell, 1999 Beacon Press Women and Prayer: An Attempt to Dispel Some Fallacies, ... "Circumcision." LDS Bible Dictionary. Moses 6:64 The Doctrine and Covenants 22 The Many Paths to Greatness "I've heard polygamy ...
... as Female Circumcision Option". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-30.. ... Female genital cutting[edit]. In April 2010, the academy revised its policy statement on female genital cutting, with one part ... "Circumcision Policy Statement". Pediatrics. 130 (3): 585-586. 2012-08-27. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1989. PMID 22926180.. ... Elective infant circumcision[edit]. In a 2012 position statement, the academy stated that a systematic evaluation of the ...
M Tractenberg (1999). Male and Female Circumcision. George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos ( ... Morrison J. (21 January 1967). "The origins of the practices of circumcision and subincision among the Australian Aborigines". ... like circumcision) is well documented[citation needed] among the peoples of the central desert of Australia such as the ...
The Soninke people have long carried out female genital mutilation (FGM), also called female circumcision. The prevalence rate ... During the rainy season, men and women both cultivate. However, women usually stay at home to cook and take care of their ... the women meet to show the gifts that the couple received from their parents mostly from the woman's mother. Marriage across ... The Soninke practise circumcision and call it birou. Every afternoon, the boys who were circumcised the previous year organize ...
"Female Circumcision in Islam". Muslims in Calgary. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 29 ... "Female Circumcision - The Hidden Truth". Asiff Hussein. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. ... Daftari, Lisa (25 May 2016). "Following our report, Facebook removes 'Islamic Female Circumcision' page promoting FGM". The ... Blackwell, Tom (7 September 2017). "Calgary Muslim website defends female circumcision and critiques 'Jewish media'". National ...
Article 565 - Female Circumcision; Article 566 - Infibulation of the Female Genitalia "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the ... 2006). "Female circumcision trial may be first in U.S." Archived 2006-11-02 at the Wayback Machine CNN.com. Retrieved November ... who consider circumcision of males and females a part of their distinctive cultural heritage), was quoted by Reuters as saying ... "If a woman is not cut, she remains a baby forever and cannot perform social rites with other women … [Adem] was doing it ...
312 Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children: Female Circumcision, Childhood Marriage, Nutritional ... Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.) (2007). Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Somali Women's Democratic Organization, SWDO: Somali Women's Democratic Organization, ... 134 Women's International Network News, Volume 9, Women's International Network, 1983, p. 75 "The Democratic Republic of ...
"Eritrea bans female circumcision". BBC News. 4 April 2007. "Anseba Religious leaders condemn female circumcision". 31 August ... "Religious leaders of Northern Red Sea region condemn female circumcision". 9 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 ... Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 6 October 1999 ... Regional Assemblies and religious leaders also speak out continuously against the use of female cutting. They cite health ...
Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8122-3924-5. ... an influential female poet and theologian in 19th-century Persia who campaigned for women's rights. Layli Miller-Muro founded ... promoting access to asylum for women and girls fleeing gender-based persecution, ending the detention of refugee women and ... Bush as part of the reauthorized Violence Against Women Act. IMBRA enabled foreign women to receive critical information before ...
... the circumcision of John the Baptist; the Nativity of Jesus; the visit of the Magi; the circumcision of Jesus; the Census of ... The Bible indicates that Mary Magdalene (who is never actually said to be a prostitute) is the woman from whom seven demons ... Gospel accounts included in the movie also include the woman caught in adultery; the healing of Jairus' daughter; Jesus helping ... The prostitute and the woman who anoints Jesus' feet with ointment and her hair are combined into one person. ...
Pregnant women rarely visit clinics or doctors. Female genital circumcision is common. Facial scarring called Shoulokh, lips ... The women wear a dress called foustan, and cover their bodies with taubes such as Indian sari. Young men wear eye-catching ... Women represent an important workforce; they milk cows, prepare meals, raise kids, market dairy products, build houses, and ... Young women wear foustanff during festivals and dancing to show their ornate braided hairstyles. Baggara are mostly illiterate ...
"Female circumcision act in force". BBC News Online. March 3, 2004. Lakhani, Nina (20 December 2009). "UK fails to halt female ... Building upon (and replacing) the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985, the British Female Genital Mutilation Act of ... The goal of the AHA Foundation is to combat crimes against women and girls such as child marriage, forced marriages, female ... including murder cases of girls and women from honor-related cultures, such as Pakistani, Afghan, Kurdish women) for honor- ...
"Circumcision, Womb, and Spiritual Intimacy." In The Women's Torah Commentary: New Insights from Women Rabbis on the 54 Weekly ... "Haftarat Ekev: Isaiah 49:14-51:3." In The Women's Haftarah Commentary: New Insights from Women Rabbis on the 54 Weekly Haftarah ... reasoning that it would be better for the woman to be judged as an unmarried woman than as a wife. In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses ... The king sent the broker to secure a wife for the king, but while the broker was on the road, the woman corrupted herself with ...
Female circumcision was sometimes thought to get rid of the evil spirit, whereas finding the evil spirits' iyi-uwa, which they ... "NIGERIA: Female circumcision in Igboland". www.fgmnetwork.org. Nnam, Nkuzi Michael (2007). Colonial Mentality in Africa. ... Female ọgbanje die during pregnancies along with the baby, male ọgbanje die before the birth of a wife's baby or the baby dies ...
"Changing attitudes to female circumcision". BBC. April 8, 2002. Toubia, Nahid (1998). "Female Circumcision/Female Genital ... Women of the Arab World: The Coming Challenge (1988) Female Circumcision as a Public Health Issue (1994) Female Genital ... A Research and Evaluation Guidebook Using Female Circumcision as a Case Study (1999) Caring for Women with Circumcision: A ... Toubia, Nahid (2000). Caring for Women with Circumcision: A Technical Manual For Healthcare Providers. London: British Medical ...
The risk of transmission from woman to man is halved". Lakartidningen. 107 (46): 2881-2883. PMID 21197783. Hanson, S.; Thorson ... Thorson, A.; Ragnarsson, A.; Rosling, H.; Ekström, A. (2010). "Male circumcision reduces HIV transmission. ...
He also suggested female circumcision. He also told the workshop, "Women have got more moisture in their organs as compared to ... Nelson, Sara C (14 May 2012). "Curb HIV With Female Circumcision And Shaving Heads, Says Zimbabwe Politician Morgan Femai". The ... "HIV:Senator wants women to stop bathing". ZimEye. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012. ... Share, Felex (15 May 2012). "Women blast MDC-T's Femai". The Herald Online. Retrieved 15 May 2012.. ...
"Female circumcision 'on the rise'". 24 March 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2020. "Zubeida Malik - inews.co.uk". inews.co.uk. ... Malik has reported on the riots in Genoa, terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia and was the first female reporter for the BBC to ... 2002 Media Personality of the year at the Asian Women of Achievement Awards. 1997 BT Press Award for Radio News Broadcaster of ... She led an investigation into Female Genital Mutilation, which at the time was a subject rarely discussed. Malik has also ...
"The Social Construction of Female Circumcision: Gender, Equality, and Culture". femalecircumcision. Retrieved 2018-02-11.. ... transgender or transsexual women, and women who have had a vaginectomy after malignancy or trauma.[3][4] Vaginoplasty can ... "Female genital mutilation". World Health Organization. 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-07.. *^ Mirzabeigi MN, Moore JH, Mericli AF, et ... Female Pelvic Surgery. New York: Springer. pp. 267-. ISBN 978-1-4939-1504-0. OCLC 941369411. Retrieved 31 May 2018.. ...
Gregory Boyle (12 September 2003). "Effects of male circumcision on female arousal and orgasm" (PDF). Journal of the New ... While vaginal dryness is considered an indicator for sexual arousal disorder, male circumcision exacerbates female vaginal ... Some women (particularly Sub-Saharan women) practice dry sex, which involves the removal of vaginal lubrication in some way. ... When a woman is experiencing vaginal dryness before sexual activity, sexual intercourse may be uncomfortable or painful for her ...
Journalist Mae Azango received death threats from several Sande society women for reporting on Sande female circumcision ... It is a woman, the Majo (Mende), or head of a localized Bundu chapter, who usually performs this surgery. [A] Bundu woman told ... The Sande society initiates girls into adulthood by rituals including female circumcision. It is alleged by its supporters to ... Bonnie Allen (March 29, 2012). "Female Circumcision Temporarily Stopped in Liberia". The World. Archived from the original on 7 ...
"MPs attack Greer on female circumcision". BBC News. 25 November 1999. Greer 1999, p. 119. Greer 1999, p. 2. Greer 1999, pp. 369 ... The aim of women's liberation is to do as much for female people as has been done for colonized nations. Women's liberation did ... Women don't really like women either, and they too can usually be relied on to employ men in preference to women." Several ... She questioned the view that FGM is imposed by men on women, rather than by women on women, or even freely chosen. In The Whole ...
Rosenberg, Tina (July 17, 2013). "Talking Female Circumcision Out of Existence". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 October 2020 ... Kembatta Women Standing Together). The charity works to serve women in many areas, including preventing female genital ... opening community consultations village by village to protect the rights of women. Women in Ethiopia "Ethiopian Women Rights ... In 2010, The Independent characterized her as "the woman who began the rebellion of Ethiopian women." Along with her sister ...
The Ugandan parliament unanimously passed a bill banning female genital mutilation, a traditional rite that has sparked an ... The practice, which involves cutting off a girls clitoris, is also called female circumcision. In some communities in eastern ... About three million women and girls face female genital mutilation globally every year, and nearly 140 million have already ... The practice, which involves cutting off a girls clitoris, is also called female circumcision ...
Egyptian prosecutors are investigating the death of a teenage girl during a female circumcision operation at a private hospital ... Egyptian prosecutors are investigating the death of a teenage girl during a female circumcision operation at a private hospital ... While 200 million women and girls worldwide have been subjected to the practice, there have been major strides in Egypt, as ... Despite the ban in 2008, female genital mutilation (FGM) is still widespread in Egypt, especially in rural areas. It is ...
Researchers find that female circumcision could cause infertility Swedish researchers, say the practice of female circumcision ... New study reveals physicians not discouraging Egyptian women from practicing female circumcision Women in Egypt are seeking out ... Organizations working in Mali to stop female genital cutting -- a practice sometimes referred to as female circumcision or ... Female circumcision banned in Indonesia at physician level Doctors and nurses in Indonesia have been barred from performing ...
The traditional practice of female circumcision within the Pokot tribe is a rite of passage that marks the transition to ...
Representatives in Sengal and Mali villages have agreed to ban the practice of female genital mutilation, reported a local non- ... EU to Eradicate Female Circumcision. The European Union is committed to eradicating female genital mutilation. The foreign ... Approach Against Female Circumcision. The UN childrens agency on Thursday proposed a new approach for ending female genital ... which widely practice female circumcision, a practice that affects between two and three million girls and women every year in ...
... sexual and reproductive health of women and girls. ... has approved a resolution urging a global ban on female genital ... Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is commonplace in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, ... Many women who have undergone circumcision suffer anxiety and depression.. In most cases the procedure is carried out in ... UN calls for ban on female circumcision Published time: 27 Nov, 2012 17:44 Edited time: 27 Nov, 2012 21:44 ...
New rites of passage to replace the traditional practice of female genital mutilation offers hope of protecting woman from ... Female circumcision, also called female genital mutilation (FGM), is widely practiced in at least 29 countries in Africa and ... Safe alternative rites to female circumcision. Sorry, but your browser needs Javascript to use this site. If youre not sure ... The rite is called ntanira na mugambo ("circumcision through words").. Young women go through a weeklong program of counseling ...
... Aug 31st, 2006, in News, Society, by Patung. The Ulema Council, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), says female ... Female circumcision? Never heard one of those thing but quite funny though, why women always become a victim of mans ... my wife had a female circumcision. Pretty much all Muslim women in Sumatra have it done, or at least whee she comes from. ... This is not as extreme as other forms of female circumcision, because the clitoris itself is not touched. A few Western women ...
Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom First reading of Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act, Hansard, 2 March 1983 ... The Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 (c. 38) is a repealed Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It made ... Text of the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom ... The Act was replaced by the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the Prohibition of ...
Woman, why Do You Weep?: Circumcision and Its Consequences. Third world books. Women in the Third World series: Africa. ... asked bleeding bride Caesarean section child circum circumcise women circumcised girls circumcision of women circumcision scar ... sexual pleasure social sometimes stitched Sudanese women sunna circumcision sunna type survey Table tight circumcision tissue ... Woman, why Do You Weep?: Circumcision and Its Consequences. Asma El Dareer. No preview available - 1982. ...
I am not an advocate of female circumcision: I belong to the school of thought that says this injunction is optional. But I ... To begin with, the practice of female circumcision is encouraged, but not compulsory, according to three out of four main ... The Federation therefore, moved that this mutilation ritual, euphamistically termed female circumcision, be outlawed. ... The Mufti declared that the practice of female circumcision in Singapore involves cutting off a tiny part from the outer ...
... female circumcision, cutting or sunna is when a girls external genitals (private parts) are cut away. This is abuse, and it is ... Female circumcision, FGM, and cutting. Female Genital Mutilation - also called FGM, female circumcision, cutting or sunna - is ... You are here / Home / Info and advice / Bullying, abuse, safety and the law / Abuse and safety / Female circumcision, FGM, and ... FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision, is when a girls genitals (private parts) are altered or removed. It can ...
NOHARMM is a non-profit, direct-action mens network organized against circumcision of healthy male infants and children. Our ... This page contains a 1958 medical journal article describing alleged medical indications for female circumcision. ... Circumcision Exposed. Rethinking a Medical and. Cultural Tradition. FORESKIN RESTORATION with:. The P.U.D. new low pricing!. ... Female circumcision was done. Smegmaliths were cleansed away. Very thankful patients were the reward. For the first time in ...
... appears to protect women, too, US and Ugandan researchers have reported.,BR> ... Male circumcision, which has been shown to protect men from infection with the Aids virus, ... Male circumcision cuts female Aids risk. Male circumcision, which has been shown to protect men from infection with the Aids ... In the study of more than 300 Ugandan couples in which the man infected the woman, the researchers found that 299 women caught ...
... which reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by 60 percent, also reduces HIV rates in women, by a smaller margin of 15 percent ... Male circumcision, which has been found to reduce female-to-male transmission of HIV by 60 percent, also reduces womens ... Male Circumcision Lowers HIV Rates in Women as Well. March 25, 2014 ... The HIV prevalence was 22.4 percent among these women, compared with 36.6 percent among women who had sex with some or all ...
Many points to the show here for bringing in the issue of female circumcision, but it was a cruelty too far for me. ... This is a womans world after all.. But this episode belongs to Emily, the handmaid formerly known as Ofglen. No mercifully ... She marches for womens rights. She is there with Moira when the march turns violent. (Wheres Kendall when you need her, eh?) ... Its in the judgemental glare of the woman on the street at June and Moira going for a jog. It builds to the baristas name- ...
Male and Female Circumcision. Book Subtitle. Medical, Legal, and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice. Editors. * ... Male and Female Circumcision. Medical, Legal, and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice. Editors: Denniston, George C., ... altogether they present an excellent overview of the current debate on circumcision, especially for those who are not so ... familiar with the complexity of the scientific, legal, ethical and political aspects of circumcision.. Medicine, Health Care ...
However, the practice of severe forms of female circumcision is now proven to be a great health risk, and the women of the ... This paper reviews the practice of female circumcision and proposes a plan to reduce the use of harmful forms of circumcision, ... ninety to a hundred million women and girls living today in African countries that have had some form of female circumcision ( ... Lane and Rubinstein 1996). Recent articles in the media have reported the growing practice of female circumcision in the US and ...
The Organization aims to provide every child, woman and man with the best chance to lead a healthier, longer life. ... It is still deeply entrenched in the Nigerian society, where critical decision makers are grandmothers, mothers, women, opinion ... Elimination of Female Genital Circumcision in Nigeria. The practice of FGM is widespread covering practically every state of ... Nationwide among women who could identify the type of procedure the commonest type of FGM is type II. Types I, II and III are ...
"Thus, circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce transmission of HIV to female partners, and the possibility of higher ... Circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce HIV transmission to female partners over 24 months; longer-term effects could ... 17 (18%) women in the intervention group and eight (12%) women in the control group acquired HIV during follow-up (p=0·36). ... We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners.. Methods ...
Tanzanian Women Urging Partners To Undergo Circumcision To Reduce HIV, HPV Risk. Aug 11, 2014 ... Thomson Reuters Foundation: Tanzanian women lobby male partners to be circumcised. "…In [Efrazia Ngwabis] village, talking ... more women are actively encouraging their male partners to be circumcised, she said…" (Makoye, 8/8). ... candidly about circumcision would have once been unthinkable, but as peoples attitudes begin to change due to awareness ...
Re: Female Circumcision Hide this AdReport bad ads? One may call female circumcision haraam on the grounds of it being self ... Re: Female Circumcision I say that female circumcision is mubaah and you say that it is haraam. Correct me if Im wrong. Then ... Re: Female Circumcision May this message meet all in the best of health and eeman. In my point of view, female circumcision is ... Re: Female Circumcision I do not believe that female circumcision is in the department of those things classified as doubtful. ...
It is now referred to as female genital mutilation (rather than female circumcision) to make it clear that this is an ... Female Genital Mutilation is bad, so why is Male Circumcision for non-medical reasons OK?. ... I think we should change the name of male circumcision in line with the female version ... "Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical ...
... the procedure is becoming more popular among both women and physicians. ... Is a hooded clitoris to blame for many womens failure to reach orgasm with their sexual partners? Whether it is or not, ... Female Circumcision as Sexual Therapy: The Past and Future of Plastic Surgery?. Is a hooded clitoris to blame for many womens ... The use of female circumcision since the late 1800s to treat a womans lack of orgasm reveals a medical understanding of the ...
The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in women partners, and will reduce the womens ... Male circumcision. HIV+ males. HIV-negative males. Female partners. STDs such as the following:. HPV. HSV-2. HIV Seronegativity ... Circumcision safety in HIV+ and HIV-neg males. *Behaviors among males and females in couples where the male is randomized to ... Trial of Male Circumcision: HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Behavioral Effects in Men, Women and the Community. The ...
... the women partners are being followed annually to assess the acceptability and safety of male circumcision in female partners, ... Trial of Male Circumcision: HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Behavioral Effects in Men, Women and the Community. The ... The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in women partners, and will reduce the womens ... Male circumcision. HIV+ males. HIV-negative males. Female partners. STDs such as the following:. HPV. HSV-2. HIV Seronegativity ...
Bensinger on female circumcision womens health: The short answer is yes, and really the chinese medicine philosophy of ... Female Circumcision (Definition) Female genital mutilation effects 140 million females across the world. Done w or w/out ... Thus male circumcision is ok for religious, medical or even hygienic indications. Female circumcision is a crime. ...Read more ... Is female circumcision only performed in undeveloped countries? * Is it natural to have trouble urinating after female ...
... of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. ... of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. ... Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce mens risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We ... Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce mens risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We ...
Women are excited for medical male circumcision because theyre despe...,New,report,provides,womens,perspectives,on,medical, ... Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr...The report highlights community-level support as well ... male,circumcision,for,HIV,prevention,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news, ... New York 13 December 2010A new report from the Womens HIV Prevention... ...
... the campaign Stop FGM in Kurdistan has created the conditions for an effective struggle against female genital mutilation (FGM ... female] circumcision.. He describes female circumcision as a practice that results from ignorance or religious fervency. On ... female circumcision.. Muslims of various Islamic sects do not have a unified position on female circumcision, particularly ... Female circumcision does not eliminate sexual desire - which is a psychological desire - but rather prevents a woman from ...
  • While the procedure is usually performed for religious or cultural reasons, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that, while there is some scientific evidence that demonstrates potential medical benefits of male circumcision, the data are not sufficient to recommend routine circumcision in newborns. (go.com)
  • It is important to know that it is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics that all circumcisions be delayed until your newborn is more than 24 hours old and documented to be in a stable condition by a pediatrician. (obgyncapitalwomenscare.com)
  • In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which issued a task force report concluding that the health benefits of circumcision outweigh its risks and justify access to the procedure (3) . (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Today, the American Academy of Pediatrics released new guidelines that backed availability of circumcision for baby boys. (psmag.com)
  • Changing attitudes have resulted in a decline in female genital mutilation in Africa and the Middle East, where the practice is most prevalent, according to United Nations data released on" the International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation, observed February 6, TrustLaw reports. (news-medical.net)
  • The villages are largely home to the Mandingo and Soninke communities, which widely practice female circumcision, a practice that affects between two and three million girls and women every year in Africa, according to Tostan. (medindia.net)
  • Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is commonplace in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, where millions of girls and women suffer from this harmful practice annually. (rt.com)
  • Female circumcision, also called female genital mutilation (FGM), is widely practiced in at least 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • More than 125 million women have been subjected to different forms of genital mutilation across Africa and in areas of western and southern Asia, and 2 million women undergo the procedure annually. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The study was conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa, the site of the first of three major randomized controlled trials that in the mid-2000s provided proof that male circumcision could be levied as an effective HIV prevention tool. (poz.com)
  • The problem is that female circumcision is widely connoted to the practises foundin West Africa. (islamicboard.com)
  • New York, 13 December 2010A new report from the Women's HIV Prevention Tracking Project (WHiPT), a collaborative initiative of AVAC and the ATHENA Network, features an unprecedented collection of voices from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Uganda reflecting on what male circumcision for HIV prevention means for women. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Three randomized trials in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) significantly decreased HIV acquisition in men [ 2 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Evidence supports that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa . (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] [11] Therefore, the WHO recommends considering circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Outside the parts of Africa with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, the positions of the world's major medical organizations on non-therapeutic neonatal circumcision range from considering it as having a modest net health benefit that outweighs small risks to viewing it as having no benefit with significant risks for harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Better-educated young women are more likely to delay sexual debut, to use condoms more frequently, to delay marriage and childbearing and to have better earning potential, according to studies in a range of countries in southern and eastern Africa. (aidsmap.com)
  • But Hess criticized the accuracy of these studies, including one showing that in Africa, male circumcision reduces a man's chance of contracting HIV by 60 percent . (motherjones.com)
  • Female circumcision is surprisingly prevalent throughout the world, particularly in Africa, where in some communities it is performed on 98 percent of the female population, despite legal prohibition. (religionnewsblog.com)
  • Bowers flew to Paris last April (on her own dime) to train with Pierre Foldes, an Ob-Gyn in Paris who reportedly invented the technique of clitoris reconstruction after many years of treating women in Africa. (religionnewsblog.com)
  • Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa. (doctorsopposingcircumcision.org)
  • Traditional circumcision is most probably the cause of the HIV epidemic in Africa. (blogspot.com)
  • Girls in their teen ages are less likely now to have been cut than older women in more than half of the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where the practice is mostly concentrated. (naturallymoi.com)
  • One cultural practice common in parts Africa and a part of the Middle East is the practice of female genital circumcision (FGC). (aphaih.org)
  • According to UNICEF statistics, less than 200 million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries located mainly in Africa, Middle East and Asia, have undergone FGM. (livetimesng.com)
  • This is very exciting news," said Daniel Halperin, an H.I.V. specialist at the Harvard Center for Population and Development, who has argued that circumcision slows the spread of AIDS in the parts of Africa where it is common. (nytimes.com)
  • Medical male circumcision (MMC) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are proven HIV prevention interventions, but there are limited data on the population-level effect of scale-up of these interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. (popcouncil.org)
  • In parallel to the trial of male circumcision in HIV-uninfected men in Rakai,3 we undertook a randomised controlled trial of male circumcision in HIV-infected men and enrolled their female partners. (natap.org)
  • Women in Egypt are seeking out doctors' opinions on whether they should circumcise their daughters and, though it is illegal there, physicians are not discouraging the practice, giving legitimacy to a procedure that has serious medical risks, according to a new study led by a former Stanford University School of Medicine researcher. (news-medical.net)
  • The resolution calls on the 193 UN member states to condemn FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) and to enact legislation prohibiting the dangerous procedure. (rt.com)
  • FGM can provoke serious psychological and physically harm women who undergo the procedure. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Nationwide among women who could identify the type of procedure the commonest type of FGM is type II. (who.int)
  • It is now referred to as female genital mutilation (rather than female circumcision) to make it clear that this is an unnecessary procedure that results in actual physical and psychological harm . (medium.com)
  • It may not be as surgically extreme as the female version but it is still an unnecessary medical procedure, carried out without consent on children, who are usually too young to complain about it. (medium.com)
  • Whether it is or not, the procedure is becoming more popular among both women and physicians. (psmag.com)
  • This procedure continued to be used to treat women for their inability to orgasm throughout the 20th century. (psmag.com)
  • HIV-negative men, is designed to answer whether male circumcision is acceptable and safe in HIV-neg men, and whether the procedure reduces the acquisition of HIV and STDs. (knowcancer.com)
  • Will such programs need to screen out HIV+ men (if circumcision is shown to be unsafe in such men, potentially as a result of delayed healing) or should future programs include HIV+ men, if the procedure is safe in them, and has potential benefits such as reduced STD acquisition, improved genital hygiene and reduced rates of STD symptomatology? (knowcancer.com)
  • [4] For adults and children, general anesthesia is an option and the procedure may be performed without a specialized circumcision device. (wikipedia.org)
  • No major medical organization recommends either universal circumcision of all males or banning the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision , the surgical removal of the foreskin that normally covers the head of the penis, is a relatively simple procedure, but it's not one you want to see go badly -- especially if your son (or you) is the patient. (howstuffworks.com)
  • I went through circumcision, and I assure you that me, along with the bulk of Bruneian female population who have undergone the procedure/ritual, can very well testify that our clitoris(es) are safe and very well intact. (iammaurina.com)
  • The aged lady who conducted the procedure is a trained midwife and have done countless of circumcisions. (iammaurina.com)
  • Types of Female Circumcision The World Health Organization has classified types of female circumcision into four types that have been categorized according the procedure that takes place. (studentshare.org)
  • Circumcision is a surgical procedure that removes the foreskin-a sleeve of skin covering the head of the penis. (obgyncapitalwomenscare.com)
  • By contrast, some opponents, particularly of routine neonatal circumcision, question its utility and effectiveness in preventing such diseases, and object to subjecting newborn males, without their consent, to a procedure they consider to have dubious and nonessential benefits, significant risks, and a potentially negative impact on general health and later sexual enjoyment. (wikipedia.org)
  • He dispelled the myth that circumcision reduces a man's sexual appetite adding that, the procedure does not affect the male libido in any way. (lusakatimes.com)
  • Adult circumcision is a surgical option for men who did not get circumcised as infants, and there are sound medical reasons for the procedure. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The cost of adult circumcision varies, but it will be higher if you have general anesthesia instead of local anesthesia and if you have the procedure done in a hospital instead of an ambulatory care center. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Circumcision after the newborn period is possible, but at that time, it is a more complex procedure. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • In the USA, newborn male circumcision is the fourth most common surgical procedure - behind cataract removal, cesarean delivery, and joint replacement (1) . (womenshealthsection.com)
  • According to its statement "although health benefits are not great enough to recommend routine circumcision for all male newborns, the benefits of circumcision are sufficient to justify access to this procedure for families choosing it and to warrant third-party payment for circumcision of male newborns. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • No need for circumcision later in life, when the procedure is more involved and complicated. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Today, approximately 70 percent of all newborn boys in the United States undergo circumcision making it the most common procedure in this population. (foxnews.com)
  • For infant circumcision, different clamps can be used, but the same basic procedure is followed. (foxnews.com)
  • Circumcisions for religious reasons are sometimes done during ceremonies outside of the hospital, by a non-medical person trained in the procedure. (foxnews.com)
  • While the chance that something can go wrong is relatively low when a circumcision is performed by a trained medical professional, like any procedure, it does carry some risk. (foxnews.com)
  • but they determined that the data was not sufficient enough to recommend routine circumcision since the procedure "is not essential to the child's current well-being. (foxnews.com)
  • Having done hundreds of circumcisions in the past, I know first hand how painful (and sometimes dangerous) the procedure can be. (drnorthrup.com)
  • In the United States, medical authorities have just overturned 40 years of sound science-based policy by deciding that the health benefits of circumcision - while not great enough to recommend the procedure as a routine - are sufficient to allow parental choice in the matter and coverage by medical insurance plans. (theconversation.com)
  • An external genital examination will reveal whether a girl or woman has undergone this procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • Although this examination is required on the overseas medical evaluation, it may not have been performed, and the domestic medical screening evaluation presents an opportunity to identify women who have had the procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • The United Nations Children's Fund reports that in Egypt, where more women have been cut than in any other nation, 81% of 15 to 19-year-olds underwent the procedure, compared to 96 percent of women in their late forties. (naturallymoi.com)
  • Some people use religious justification for the procedure, but the heart of it is based on gender-violence and inequality that anchors women to future burdens, including forced marriage and domestic violence. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • Male circumcision is an elective surgical procedure that involves the full or partial removal of the foreskin (prepuce). (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • I was informed by a man from a country that performs this barbaric procedure, that women are the ones who perform it. (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • He said it as though I should be convinced that because women perform this procedure, they are in agreement with it! (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • Yes, female genital mutilation is a procedure with unfortunate consequences and it should be addressed by community workers, public health professionals, and humanitarians. (aphaih.org)
  • Given that adverse consequences of medical male circumcision, especially when performed in infancy, are rare, this simple prophylactic procedure should be promoted. (hindawi.com)
  • However, if circumcision is done, then a pediatric hematologist (a doctor who specializes in blood) should be consulted before the procedure to ensure that the child receives proper treatment to prevent excessive bleeding. (cdc.gov)
  • With assistance from the University of Wisconsin, the Life/form Infant Circumcision Trainer has been developed to offer realistic training of this delicate procedure. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Circumcision is a surgical procedure performed to remove the loose tissue, known as the foreskin, covering the glans of the penis. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Circumcision thousands of years ago was a vastly different procedure than the one practiced today. (avoiceformen.com)
  • Side note - isn't doing the same procedure to a female child illegal? (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • Male circumcision is a simple procedure but a complex and emotive health issue that continues to generate great debate in the community and the medical profession. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • Neonatal circumcision is usually elected by the parents for non-medical reasons, such as religious beliefs or personal preferences, possibly driven by societal norms. (wikipedia.org)
  • No major medical organization recommends universal neonatal circumcision, and no major medical organization calls for banning it either. (wikipedia.org)
  • I argue that the fact that the boy who grows up in such a household would most likely choose to become circumcised as an adult tilts the balance of interests decisively in favour of neonatal circumcision. (bmj.com)
  • Research suggests a benefit in delaying a neonatal circumcision until breast feeding is well established, typically between four and eight days of life. (obgyncapitalwomenscare.com)
  • Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision, where the foreskin of the penis is surgically removed, has been a hot topic for some time. (go.com)
  • Arguments against circumcision include the risk of surgery, penile adhesions, reduced sexual pleasure and "the hidden penis. (go.com)
  • Although some circumcised men do report an improvement in sexual functioning, most studies actually suggest a slight decrease in penis sensitivity after circumcision. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Male circumcision is surgical removal of skin covering the tip of penis. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Circumcision in the male refers to the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. (foxnews.com)
  • But out of the entire genitalia, there is one specific area in males and females, which is the most sensitive-the female clitoris and the male glans penis, or the tip of the penis. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • They make strident, aggressive and implausible claims for the necessity of circumcision as a tactic against a number of diseases which have defied normal control strategies, particularly HIV-AIDS, and as a means of preventing trivial penis problems in infancy. (circinfo.org)
  • Male circumcision protects against cancer of the penis, the invasive form of which is a devastating disease confined almost exclusively to uncircumcised men. (hindawi.com)
  • 11. Women do not like to pull down a man's pants to see a disgusting uncircumcised penis. (thoughtcatalog.com)
  • To read a POZ feature article about circumcision as an HIV prevention tool and about the vocal minority of skeptics who question the validity of the research supporting such measures, click here . (poz.com)
  • Wherever possible, male circumcision should be offered in conjunction with HIV counselling services, condoms, and education on HIV prevention for men and women, to improve the health and safety of circumcised patients and their partners. (natap.org)
  • Condom use after male circumcision is essential for HIV prevention. (natap.org)
  • Three trials of male circumcision in HIV-negative men, including one undertaken in Rakai, Uganda, showed that circumcision reduced male acquisition of HIV by 50-60%;1-3 as a result, male circumcision is now a recommended strategy for HIV prevention in men.4 As these prevention programmes are scaled up, it is inevitable that men who are infected with HIV will also request to be circumcised, partly to avoid stigmatisation. (natap.org)
  • Trial objectives were to assess the safety of circumcision in HIV-infected men and the efficicacy of male circumcision for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV-infected men (reported elsewhere),5, 6 and to test whether male circumcision would reduce transmission of HIV and STIs from HIV-infected men to their uninfected female sexual partners. (natap.org)
  • The study has enrolled 3,700 female partners of the men in groups 1 and 2 above, as well as of 5,000 HIV-negative men enrolled in a complementary NIH-funded study of male circumcision for HIV prevention (U1 AI51171 which is being separately registered). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report from WHiPT, which was launched in 2009 to bring community perspectives, particularly women's voices, to the forefront of biomedical prevention research and the broader response to HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Women are excited for medical male circumcision because they're desperate for new prevention options, but they lack detailed factual knowledge of its benefits and risks," says Cebile Dlamini of Swaziland for Positive Living. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The majority of teams conducted their research in settings where male circumcision for HIV prevention had not yet been introduced as part of a national HIV strategy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The report also highlights perceptions of male circumcision for HIV prevention in the context of traditional practices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [4] Prevention of those conditions is not a justification for routine circumcision of infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the rate of circumcision among baby boys in the United States seems to be declining. (go.com)
  • RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. --- The Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention -- www.malecircumcision.org -- was launched today. (opposingviews.com)
  • According to a release issued by participating groups, the Web site is designed to generate and share authoritative information about the role of male circumcision in HIV prevention. (opposingviews.com)
  • for the most recent news, research, and resources on the use of male circumcision to prevent HIV,' says Dr. Kim Eva Dickson, Medical Officer, HIV Prevention in the Health Sector at WHO in Geneva. (opposingviews.com)
  • This site will fulfill the needs of the international public health community involved in male circumcision for HIV prevention -- including scientists, civil society groups, policy-makers, health providers, and programme managers. (opposingviews.com)
  • The Clearinghouse will provide evidence-based guidance to support the delivery of safe male circumcision services as one component in a comprehensive approach to HIV-prevention services. (opposingviews.com)
  • Providing access to tools and guidance, the Clearinghouse is an essential Web site aid for all those working on male circumcision for HIV prevention. (opposingviews.com)
  • Based on studies showing circumcision lowers men's risk of urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is considering whether or not to recommend it as an HIV prevention method. (motherjones.com)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that men consider circumcision as an additional measure, along with safe sex, to prevent HIV. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Circumcision should be used with other prevention methods, he said, and it does nothing to prevent spread by anal sex or drug injection, ways in which the virus commonly spreads in the United States. (nytimes.com)
  • Organizations working in Mali to stop female genital cutting -- a practice sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital mutilation in which there is a partial or full removal of the labia, clitoris or both -- are beginning to make progress, Afrol News/Daily Nation reports. (news-medical.net)
  • The Mufti declared that the practice of female circumcision in Singapore 'involves cutting off a tiny part from the outer portion of the clitoris' - about 1mm to 3mm is snipped off the very top of the clitoris. (irfi.org)
  • When we were interns, 33 years ago, the staffroom conversation one day came around to the clitoris of the female infant. (noharmm.org)
  • A form of female circumcision called excision involves the removal of all or part of the clitoris, and in some cases other external genitalia. (heart-intl.net)
  • In the most extreme form of circumcision, called infibulation, the clitoris and both labia are removed and the two sides of the vulva are sewn together- except for a small opening for urine and menstrual blood to go through (Heise 1993). (heart-intl.net)
  • Another, less severe form of circumcision involves small incisions in the skin covering the clitoris. (heart-intl.net)
  • In fact, there is a long history of surgeries on female genitals-especially on the clitoris-as "sexual enhancement" for women, designed to help them achieve their "proper role" as sexual partners. (psmag.com)
  • The use of female circumcision since the late 1800s to treat a woman's lack of orgasm reveals a medical understanding of the function of the clitoris as sexual--an understanding held decades prior to the physiological evidence supplied by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. (psmag.com)
  • Understanding the sexual nature of the clitoris and its importance to female sexual pleasure, some physicians have, for well over a century, diagnosed a condition of the clitoris as the physiological cause for a woman's failure to have an orgasm with her husband. (psmag.com)
  • He circumcised the clitoris and the patient "became a different woman"-she was, the doctor wrote, "lively, contented," and "happy," and sex now brought her satisfaction. (psmag.com)
  • Upon examination, Stewart found the clitoris of the patient to be "buried" and preceded to circumcise the woman to reveal the organ. (psmag.com)
  • Charles Lane, a physician in Poughkeepsie, New York, believed the clitoris "a very important organ to the health and happiness of the female," and performed circumcision on women who were unable to reach orgasm. (psmag.com)
  • In females is pure & simple mutilation as clitoris is amputated to prevent any future erotic sensation from sex or masturbation . (healthtap.com)
  • Circumcision is always associated with mutilation of the vagina and has received a lot of bad publicity in the "Western world" because many think that it entails the total removal of the clitoris (or worse, sewing up of the vagina ). (iammaurina.com)
  • These four types of circumcision are carried out by different cultures and communities and include: Type 1 - This involves the removal of the clitoral hood, or the partial or sometimes total removal of the clitoris itself. (studentshare.org)
  • Bowers recalls that the woman had the most severe form of genital cutting, called infibulation, in which the clitoris and inner lips of the vulva are completely removed, and the outer lips are sewn partially shut to leave only a small hole. (religionnewsblog.com)
  • In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris [ YIKES! (mum.org)
  • The clitoris is a point of female sexual "stimulation. (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • From the presentation made by Dr. Comfort Momoh, a Nigerian medical practitioner based in the United Kingdom, who runs London's African Well Women's Clinic at St. Thomas' Hospital, I understood that my daughter went through the type 1 circumcision which is called clitoridectomy, a situation where the clitoris, which is the top part of the private part is either removed partially or completely. (livetimesng.com)
  • His remedy for females was, "…the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control. (avoiceformen.com)
  • (CNN) -- The Ugandan parliament unanimously passed a bill banning female genital mutilation, a traditional rite that has sparked an international outcry and is practiced in some African and Asian communities. (cnn.com)
  • Male circumcision, which has been shown to protect men from infection with the Aids virus, appears to protect women, too, US and Ugandan researchers have reported. (aljazeera.com)
  • Circumcision also reduced the risk of infection with other sexually-transmitted diseases such as trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis, but not syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia, the researchers told an Aids meeting in Denver. (aljazeera.com)
  • They re-analysed previous studies and found that circumcision reduced the risk of HIV infection in men by 50% - and by 70% in the highest-risk men. (aljazeera.com)
  • If borne out, for every 15 to 60 circumcisions, one case of HIV infection could be prevented, he said. (aljazeera.com)
  • Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. (natap.org)
  • The WHO emphasizes that STIs in women often have no symptoms, cause adverse birth outcomes, can increase susceptibility to HIV infection, can have long-term morbidity, exhibit drug resistance in the case of gonorrhea, and can cause infertility, risk mother-to-child transmission of STIs, and increase premature mortality ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We analyzed data from a prospective study on hormonal contraception and incident human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (STI) among women from Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. (ovid.com)
  • We assessed whether male circumcision reduces HSV-2 infection among female partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Ugandan trial also showed that female partners of circumcised men had decreased genital ulcer disease (GUD), Trichomonas vaginalis infection, bacterial vaginosis, and human papillomavirus infection [ 7 , 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Two observational studies suggested that MC is associated with lower HSV-2 infection in female partners [ 9 , 10 ], but these results may be due to confounding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We used data from a randomized controlled trial of MC in HIV-negative males in Rakai, Uganda, to assess the efficacy of MC for reducing the incidence of HSV-2 infection among female partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The primary objective of this analysis was to assess the efficacy of MC of HIV-negative males on the incidence of HSV-2 infection among female partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The finding confirms observations in several African countries which show that education has a protective effect against HIV infection both during the school years and afterwards for young women. (aidsmap.com)
  • Quite apart from the general economic and social benefits of education for young women, education has been associated with a range of outcomes that could reduce the risk of HIV infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • A study in Malawi found that providing cash transfers to the households of young women reduced HIV prevalence by 60% - but making the payments conditional on school attendance made no difference to the reduction in HIV infection observed. (aidsmap.com)
  • Circumcision helps prevent HIV infection and other sexual transmiti diseases. (lusakatimes.com)
  • Unless adult circumcision is being performed for specific medical reasons, such as infection or phimosis, it will probably not be covered by insurance, so it may be expensive. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Circumcision helps prevent HIV infection. (psmag.com)
  • The evidence to date in women treated after colposcopy shows approx 50% protection against re- infection. (aappublications.org)
  • The article by Boyle & Hill cited has been thoroughly demolished by an extensive, detailed article in the same journal by experts who have repudiated its spurious claims (Wamai RG, Morris BJ, Waskett JH, Green EC, Banerjee J, Bailey RC, Klausner JD, Sokal DC, Hankins CA. Criticisms of African trials fail to withstand scrutiny: Male circumcision DOES prevent HIV infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Cumulative probabilities of female HIV infection at 24 months were 21.7% (95% CI 12.7-33.4) in the intervention arm ( Circumcised Men ) and 13.4% (95% CI 6.7-25.8) in the control arm ( Intact men ) (adjusted hazard ratio= 1.49, 95% CI 0.62-3.57, p = 0.368). (blogspot.com)
  • Risk factors associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in Rwanda. (blogspot.com)
  • A study published in September 2013 found that the three-year increase in local circumcision rates between 2008 and 2011 was responsible for a 19 percent reduction in HIV prevalence among men when compared to what the prevalence was projected to be had there been no increase in cicrumcision rates. (poz.com)
  • The HIV prevalence was 22.4 percent among these women, compared with 36.6 percent among women who had sex with some or all uncircumcised men. (poz.com)
  • Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis C in rural pregnant Egyptian women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus a study was conducted to determine the prevalence, scope of the practice, health problems associated with female circumcision as well as the cultural beliefs supporting the practice. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to determine prevalence and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accurate facts and figures about the prevalence and incidence of circumcision in Australia - past, present, and future trends. (circinfo.org)
  • The 2013 National Demographic Health survey (NDHS) on National prevalence rate of FGM in Nigeria shows that 24% of women and girls in Nigeria aged 15-48 years have gone through FGM which has been described as a crime against the female folks in Nigeria, where most of the victims get circumcised between age zero and 15. (livetimesng.com)
  • For prevalence of circumcision, see Prevalence of circumcision . (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumcision is one of the commonest surgical procedures performed on males. (news-medical.net)
  • The rule of circumcision is a matter of disagreement .The most favored opinion is that it is obligatory for males and voluntary (sunnah) for females. (islamicboard.com)
  • HSV-2-negative, human immunodeficiency virus-negative female partners of 368 males who were and 372 males who were not randomized to receive male circumcision were enrolled. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Contrary to findings in males, male circumcision did not affect HSV-2 acquisition among female partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Circumcision is an important ritual in the Jewish faith, where it is performed on 8-day-old males. (go.com)
  • The ethics of circumcision of males are controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • A randomized trial of male circumcision (MC) was conducted among HIV-infected males to test the hypothesis that MC would reduce HIV transmission to female sexual partners. (blogspot.com)
  • All males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY) and all females have two X chromosomes (XX). (cdc.gov)
  • Median community MMC coverage increased from 19% to 39%, and median community ART coverage rose from 0% to 21% in males and from 0% to 26% in females. (popcouncil.org)
  • Median community HIV incidence declined from 1.25 to 0.84 per 100 person-years in males, and from 1.25 to 0.99 per 100 person-years in females. (popcouncil.org)
  • In Rakai, Uganda, increasing community MMC and female ART coverage was associated with lower community HIV incidence in males. (popcouncil.org)
  • In 1910 the Journal of the American Medical Association published an article by S.L. Kistler MD, of Los Angeles, on the need for circumcision in both males and females, along with a vigorous advocacy his own patent bloodless method. (historyofcircumcision.net)
  • Among many controversial practices, one of the most highly debated treatments recommended by Kellogg was circumcision of males. (avoiceformen.com)
  • There is no other healthy body part, on males or females, which is legally allowed to be amputated without immediate medical need. (avoiceformen.com)
  • While females are protected from even a prick of their foreskin, males continue to be subjected to ancient barbaric practices with no medical or legal basis. (avoiceformen.com)
  • Kawango Agot -- project coordinator of a collaborative research project among the University of Nairobi , University of Illinois and the University of Manitoba -- and colleagues conducted the study among 324 recently circumcised men and 324 uncircumcised men to determine the effect of circumcision on sexual behavior. (khn.org)
  • The protective effect of circumcision against female-to-male transmission of HIV has received a lot of attention, but also relevant is the effect on male-to-female transmission. (blogspot.com)
  • Over the past 20 years, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated real medical benefits of circumcision. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • For many years, the medical benefits of circumcision were scientifically ambiguous. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • But those numbers did not include procedures performed outside of hospitals, including Jewish rituals that are usually performed in the home, or circumcisions that were not reimbursed by insurance. (go.com)
  • If the ban is enacted, doctors, mohels (who circumcise Jewish boys) and any other person who performs circumcisions could face a $1,000 fine or one year in jail. (go.com)
  • But Hess insists he did not attack rabbis or the Jewish faith any more than he did doctors and medicalized circumcision. (go.com)
  • Jewish circumcision is just one part of an ongoing series. (go.com)
  • Some scholars look elsewhere for the origin of Jewish circumcision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jewish and Islamic traditions both see circumcision as a way to distinguish a group from its neighbours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bible records "uncircumcised" being used as a derogatory reference for opponents[1Sam 17:26] and Jewish victory in battle that culminated in mass post-mortem circumcision, to provide an account of the number of enemy casualties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiochus' decree also outlawed Jewish circumcision, and parents who violated his order were hanged along with their infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the rite of circumcision was especially execrable in Classical civilization, also because it was the custom to spend an hour a day or so exercising nude in the gymnasium and in Roman baths, therefore Jewish men did not want to be seen in public deprived of their foreskins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second issue of "Foreskin Man" was particularly controversial because it criticizes the Jewish circumcision tradition and features a villainous orthodox rabbi called Monster Mohel whom "nothing excites… more than cutting into the penile flesh of an eight-day-old infant boy. (motherjones.com)
  • There is such dripping anti-Semitism and anti-female rhetoric in this [comic]," Abby Porth, the associate director of the San Francisco Jewish Community Relations Council , said. (motherjones.com)
  • So in the next issue, [when] we dealt with Jewish circumcision… naturally the villain was also drawn evil, and it was done intentionally-to make a point. (motherjones.com)
  • Then when the time comes, ask the surgeon or the mohel (the man who performs circumcisions for Jewish families) to take off the least amount of foreskin possible. (drnorthrup.com)
  • Against this, a growing number of Jews believe that circumcision is inconsistent with Jewish ethics and has no place in contemporary religious practice. (theconversation.com)
  • Jewish critics of circumcision first emerged in Germany in the 1840s, igniting a debate within the religion that has flared on and off right up to the present. (theconversation.com)
  • Circumcision violates several Jewish laws and beliefs, including the law that the human body must no. (wddty.com)
  • According to Halakha (Jewish law), ritual circumcision of male children is a commandment from God that Jews are obligated to follow, and is only postponed or abrogated in the case of threat to the life or health of the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Hindu and Buddhist women living in regions of Nepal and Southern India, girls are kept in the dark for 12 days immediately following menarche, during which they are not allowed to see a man's face or to take a bath. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Never heard one of those thing but quite funny though, why women always become a victim of man's superiority? (indonesiamatters.com)
  • [4] Thus, when done properly, male circumcision does not affect a man's sexual function and health [5] , which is in contrast to FGM (see Female Genital Mutilation below). (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • Circumcision appears to reduce a man's risk of contracting AIDS from heterosexual sex by half, United States government health officials said yesterday, and the directors of the two largest funds for fighting the disease said they would consider paying for circumcisions in high-risk countries. (nytimes.com)
  • NOHARMM note: This 1959 medical journal article describes a female condition that is analogous to phimosis of the male foreskin and reveals how American medicine condoned genital interventions on females with arguments similar to those still used today to justify male circumcision. (noharmm.org)
  • A skin disease that affects the foreskin, glans and sometimes the urethra, balanitis xerotica obliterans , requires circumcision to prevent pain and worsening phimosis. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis [tight foreskin]. (mum.org)
  • The goals are to assess the safety and acceptability of male circumcision among HIV+ men, and to assess potential effects of male circumcision on the acquisition of STDs such as HSV-2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Following informed consent, the women partners are being followed annually to assess the acceptability and safety of male circumcision in female partners, and potential effects of male circumcision on HIV and STD acquisition. (knowcancer.com)
  • Hess wrote the San Francisco circumcision ban, and he's an outspoken member of the intactivist movement, a cleverly named group of activists seeking to end all medical and religious circumcisions of infants. (motherjones.com)
  • Renaud Becquet of the Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale Unite in France and colleagues conducted the study from 2001 through 2005 among 557 infants born to HIV-positive women in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. (khn.org)
  • After their infants were born, the women, who underwent prenatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, either received breastmilk substitutes or exclusively breast-fed for four months. (khn.org)
  • Adult circumcision is an option for men who were not circumcised as infants. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The stress may be due, in part, to the fact that infants are restrained prior to a circumcision. (foxnews.com)
  • Non-therapeutic circumcision of male infants and boys has always been a controversial issue - and never has opinion been more polarised. (theconversation.com)
  • The most recent statement (October 2010) from the Royal Australasian College of Physicians states clearly that routine circumcision of infants is not warranted in Australia or New Zealand. (circinfo.org)
  • Circumcision advocates attempt to exploit public fears of AIDS and cancer by demanding universal circumcision of male infants as a public health measure. (circinfo.org)
  • However, modern circumcisions are performed on infants as opposed to older children or teens. (avoiceformen.com)
  • Women and girls are not informed of these health risks. (heart-intl.net)
  • Since the duration of the study was limited and not all female partners completed 24 months of follow-up, we could not assess the long-term benefits or risks of male circumcision for HIV transmission to women. (natap.org)
  • Awareness for fgm/c female genital cutting===what are the health risks? (healthtap.com)
  • Determining potential circumcision risks in these men (such as, potentially delayed healing because of their higher risk behaviors) or benefits (such as potentially, reduced rates of HIV and STD acquisition) is thus very important for the design of any future large scale circumcision programs. (knowcancer.com)
  • The positions of the world's major medical organizations range from considering elective circumcision of babies and children as having no benefit and significant risks to having a modest health benefit that outweighs small risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern proponents say that circumcision reduces the risks of a range of infections and diseases, and confers sexual benefits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these health risks are low, they are higher than for infant circumcision. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If you are considering an adult circumcision, talk to your doctor and go over all the risks and benefits carefully. (everydayhealth.com)
  • It is important to note that clinicians routinely counsel parents of the health benefits and risks of male newborn circumcision in an unbiased and accurate manner. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Despite this, a few die-hard enthusiasts for circumcision keep popping up in the media, full of alarmist claims about the terrible risks of retaining the foreskin. (circinfo.org)
  • Pregnant women overestimate the risks of taking over-the-counter and prescribed medication, and need more information on what is safe to take in pregnancy. (mydr.com.au)
  • An alternative - and safe - rite to traditional female genital mutilation has been used for many years in some African countries. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • This new rite was initiated in the Tharaka district of Kenya in 1996, and grew out of the collaboration between a women's Kenyan group - the Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organization (MYWO) - and the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), a nonprofit, international organization whose aim is to improve the health of women and children in developing countries. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • What circumcision really, is a rite of passage. (iammaurina.com)
  • Most societies that practise circumcision of boys as a customary rite also practice circumcision of girls, also known as female genital mutilation. (circinfo.org)
  • Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage Or Violation of Rights? (guttmacher.org)
  • Religious male circumcision generally occurs shortly after birth , during childhood or around puberty as part of a rite of passage . (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Catholic Church has condemned religious circumcision for its members, and currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision, [4] Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Eritrean Orthodoxy still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage . (wikipedia.org)
  • Male circumcision practised as a religious rite is found in texts of the Hebrew Bible , as part of the Abrahamic covenant , such as in Genesis 17 , and is therefore practised by Jews, Muslims, and some Christians, who constitute the Abrahamic religions . (wikipedia.org)
  • They say it hurts a lot when a non-muslim converts, and they have to undergo circumcision. (iammaurina.com)
  • Non-Israelites had to undergo circumcision before they could be allowed to take part in the feast of Passover ( Exodus 12:48 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • About three million women and girls face female genital mutilation globally every year, and nearly 140 million have already undergone the practice, according to the United Nations. (cnn.com)
  • Many women who have undergone circumcision suffer anxiety and depression. (rt.com)
  • New York Times article saying 96% of Indonesian girls have undergone some type of circumcision. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • Complications Involving Female Circumcision There are a number of medical complications that women who have undergone female circumcision may experience as a result. (studentshare.org)
  • It is estimated that more than 125 million girls and women have undergone the practice and that 30 million girls are at risk of it. (naturallymoi.com)
  • Female genital mutilation has been banned in some African countries, but it is still practiced in some remote, close-knit communities. (cnn.com)
  • Despite the ban in 2008, female genital mutilation (FGM) is still widespread in Egypt, especially in rural areas. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on Thursday urging countries to ban female genital mutilation, calling it an 'irreparable, irreversible abuse' that threatens about three million girls annually," Reuters reports. (news-medical.net)
  • that there is no cultural justification for female genital cutting, a practice that is sometimes referred to as female circumcision," and that "governments and non-governmental organizations are making progress toward ending female genital mutilation, or FGM, by reaching out to those who still practice it," VOA News reports. (news-medical.net)
  • U.N. officials on Sunday called for countries to renew their commitment to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), a practice which endangers the lives of women and girls, Inter Press Service reports (Deen, 2/7). (news-medical.net)
  • Doctors and nurses in Indonesia have been barred from performing female genital cutting -- a practice sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital mutilation. (news-medical.net)
  • Representatives in Sengal and Mali villages have agreed to ban the practice of female genital mutilation, reported a local non-governmental organization. (medindia.net)
  • Tostan campaigns for an end to female genital mutilation. (medindia.net)
  • Senegal passed a law banning excision in 1999, but the practice persists in some communities, where girls are circumcised in secret or led to neighbouring countries where female genital mutilation is not illegal, the Tostan activists said. (medindia.net)
  • The European Union is committed to eradicating female genital mutilation. (medindia.net)
  • The UN children's agency on Thursday proposed a new approach for ending female genital mutilation, saying campaigns should work with communities instead of fighting local traditions. (medindia.net)
  • A two-day conference has been convened by lawmakers from 27 African countries in Dakar to push for a UN ban on female genital mutilation as a breach of human rights. (medindia.net)
  • The UN General Assembly's human rights committee has approved a resolution urging a global ban on female genital mutilation, calling it harmful practice and a serious threat to the psychological, sexual and reproductive health of women and girls. (rt.com)
  • In the UK some 6,500 girls are at risk of female genital mutilation every year. (rt.com)
  • The main cause of female genital mutilation is a mix of cultural, social and religious factors. (rt.com)
  • Egypt to revive female genital mutilation in the name of Islam? (rt.com)
  • Female genital mutilation is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Logic was then applied to justifying the practice, known often as female genital mutilation (FGM) or female genital cutting (FGC). (indonesiamatters.com)
  • Female Genital Mutilation is wrong and sick on so many levels it is astounding! (indonesiamatters.com)
  • The Federation therefore, moved that this mutilation ritual, euphamistically termed 'female circumcision', be outlawed. (irfi.org)
  • Female Genital Mutilation - also called FGM, female circumcision, cutting or sunna - is when a girl's external genitals (private parts) are cut away. (childline.org.uk)
  • Hadas experienced female genital mutilation (FGM) and wants this practice to stop. (childline.org.uk)
  • It made female genital mutilation a crime throughout the UK, allowing for sentences of up to five years' imprisonment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act was replaced by the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005 in Scotland, both of which extend the legislation to cover acts committed by UK nationals outside of the UK's borders, so that it became a crime to take a girl abroad to undergo FGM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom First reading of Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act, Hansard, 2 March 1983 S. 1(2) S. 4 Kerbaj, Richard (16 March 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Female Genital Mutilation was traditionally the specialization of traditional healers, traditional birth attendants or members of the community known for the trade. (who.int)
  • Female Genital Mutilation is bad, so why is Male Circumcision for non-medical reasons OK? (medium.com)
  • Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons and is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. (medium.com)
  • Female genital mutilation effects 140 million females across the world. (healthtap.com)
  • Are male circumcision and female genital mutilation equivalent? (healthtap.com)
  • In each country, research took place in different locales, selected to reflect a diversity of circumcision practices, including communities that practice traditional male circumcision and those that do not circumcise, as well as those practicing female genital mutilation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Specifically, it underscores the need for communications campaigns that directly address the distinctions between medical male circumcision, traditional circumcision and female genital mutilation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some women report the concern that the promotion of circumcision for men would increase the promotion of female genital mutilation," says Allen Kuteesa from Health Rights Action Group in Uganda. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the few years since it has been launched, the campaign Stop FGM in Kurdistan has created the conditions for an effective struggle against female genital mutilation (FGM) in Kurdish northern Iraq. (theapricity.com)
  • However there is another, covert threat facing Kurdish women, many of whom undergo female genital mutilation (FGM). (theapricity.com)
  • More than 200 students from Farafenni and Ngain Sanjal Senior Secondary schools and 100 Islamic scholars, Quranic teachers and Imams were sensitised on the health effects of Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting (FGM/C). (thepoint.gm)
  • A case-control study on the association between female genital mutilation and sexually transmitted infections in Sudan. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In fact, under no circumstances am I defending female genital mutilation. (dawoodi-bohras.com)
  • If all who today practice female genital mutilation can be persuaded to substitute the pinprick, as some groups have done, much good will be achieved. (dawoodi-bohras.com)
  • For female circumcision, see Female genital mutilation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Female Genital Mutilation and Male circumcision varies greatly in terms of why it is done and so on. (iammaurina.com)
  • While male circumcision is obligatory in most cases, female circumcision or female genital mutilation has no place in islam. (iammaurina.com)
  • There has not been any ayats in the quran or hadeeth that talks about female genital mutilation or circumcision. (iammaurina.com)
  • It has been originally made to discriminate women to the extent that they get sewed up (female genital mutilation type3) to make women not to enjoy sexual intercourse. (iammaurina.com)
  • Community leaders gathered in Mali on Thursday to publicly renounce the practice of female genital mutilation to mark an international day of campaigning against female circumcision. (medindia.net)
  • But I think it's also brought a lot more people in by getting more people to talk about it and look into it," said Hess, president of MGMBill.org , a group against male genital mutilation, which, in its view, includes circumcision. (go.com)
  • An important shared cultural factor among Somali women is the traditional practice of Female Genital Cutting (FGC), otherwise known as Female Circumcision (FC) or Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), which consists of varying degrees of excision of tissue involving the periclitoral region, labia minora, and/or majora. (hindawi.com)
  • Others have been deeply offended by the comic's equation of male circumcision to female genital mutilation and its vilification of those who perform circumcisions-including doctors (Issue No. 1), Jews (Issue No. 2), and African tribes (Issue No. 3). (motherjones.com)
  • Rape of Innocence: Female genital mutilation and circumcision in the USA. (doctorsopposingcircumcision.org)
  • Female genital mutilation : a call for global action / Nahid Toubia. (who.int)
  • Against the mutilation of women : the struggle to end unnecessary suffering / by Lilian Passmore Sanderson. (who.int)
  • Female genital mutilation is currently a public health problem which needs investigation and immediate action. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 26, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.43), being literate (AOR = 0.50, CI: 0.28-0.91) and living in urban area (AOR = 0.30, 95 % CI: 0.17-0.51) had a lower odds of female genital mutilation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) defines Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female organs for non-medical reasons [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies revealed that knowledge, attitudes and perception about female genital mutilation in the communities and those of health care providers are big challenges in eliminating its practice in developing countries [ 1 , 5 - 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, this study provides information on female genital mutilation and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women in the Hababo Guduru district, Western Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unicef, in its first major report on the practice since 2005, found that the greatest declines in the practice of female circumcision, also known as female g*nital mutilation, have occurred in Kenya, and in the Central African Republic. (naturallymoi.com)
  • The comparison between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and male circumcision on a medical basis is false and endangers women who are subjected to it. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • The April 2017 federal indictment of multiple Muslim physicians for the crime of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Michigan is spurring honest conversations in the United States about the nature, origins, and criminality of FGM. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • Does Circumcision Equate With Female Genital Mutilation? (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • They are trying to equate male circumcision with female genital mutilation to prove they are also oppressed! (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • Even after the pain stopped and she resumed her normal life, I continued to wonder if I made the right decision because I started to have interactions with anti-female genital mutilation campaigners. (livetimesng.com)
  • She said "there is a fourth type which refers to the unclassified forms of female genital mutilation, which may involve pricking, stretching, cauterisation, or inserting herbs into the vagina. (livetimesng.com)
  • I don't see it as being any different than female genital mutilation. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • To help explain the mystery of why circumcision persists, take the Circumcision Quiz developed by the organization Doctors Opposing Circumcision . (drnorthrup.com)
  • A modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, which included all concurrently enrolled couples in which the female partner had at least one follow-up visit over 24 months, assessed female HIV acquisition by use of survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. (natap.org)
  • The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in both groups and will reduce the rates of STD acquisition in both groups and of HIV acquisition in HIV- negative men. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There was an non-significantly higher rate of HIV acquisition in women partners of HIV + men in couples who had resumed sex prior to certified post-surgical wound healing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in women partners, and will reduce the women's acquisition of HIV and STDs such as herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in HIV+ men, will reduce the rate of acquisition of STDs, and will reduce the frequency of STD symptoms, such as genital ulceration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypotheses are that circumcision will be acceptable and safe in men who decline their HIV results, and will reduce the rate of acquisition of HIV and STDs, and the frequency of STD symptoms such as genital ulcers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Male circumcision (MC) decreases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in men. (ovid.com)
  • Using Cox proportional hazards models, we compared time to STI acquisition for women according to their partner's MC status. (ovid.com)
  • Is male circumcision acceptable to and safe in HIV-infected men, and will it reduce the rates of acquisition of STDs in these men? (knowcancer.com)
  • Is male circumcision acceptable and safe in men who decline their HIV results, and will it reduce rates of acquisition of HIV and STDS in these men? (knowcancer.com)
  • Male circumcision reduces acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in men. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The decrease in GUD among females may be due to decreased HSV-2 acquisition among female partners of circumcised men. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The researchers concluded that during the first year following circumcision, men did not report an increased number of risky sexual acts compared with uncircumcised men -- indicating that "any protective effect of male circumcision on HIV acquisition is unlikely to be offset by an adverse behavioral impact" (Kawango et al. (khn.org)
  • Concurrently enrolled HIV-negative female partners were followed up at 6, 12 and 24 months, to assess HIV acquisition by male MC assignment (primary outcome). (blogspot.com)
  • There seems to be a ludicrous and growing "debate" among some men that "male oppression" permeates this planet and is, in fact, just as horrible and prevalent as female oppression! (thefemaleimperative.com)
  • Circumcision is most prevalent in the religions of Judaism , Islam , Coptic Orthodox Church , Ethiopian Orthodox Church [1] and Eritrean Orthodox Church . (wikipedia.org)
  • FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision, is when a girl's genitals (private parts) are altered or removed. (childline.org.uk)
  • Eighty- five percent of worldwide female circumcision involves this less severe form or excision, and fifteen percent includes infibulation. (heart-intl.net)
  • This type is commonly referred to as pharaonic circumcision or infibulation. (studentshare.org)
  • I am surprised by your female contributor, Michelle Clare, writing one-and-a-half pages on circumcision without one word about female infibulation, which is much more serious, painful and ill. (wddty.com)
  • The claims in letter by opponents of infant male circumcision are highly misleading and overtly fallacious. (aappublications.org)
  • Since 2008, when a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) center was established in Orange Farm, the proportion of circumcised local men has jumped from 15 percent to 53 percent. (poz.com)
  • The Elephant in the Room - why is non-medical male circumcision OK? (medium.com)
  • Practitioners who removed clitoral hoods to enable female orgasm included Chicago gynecologist Denslow Lewis, who presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision at a meeting of the American Medical Association in 1899. (psmag.com)
  • Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Women are excited for medical male circumcision because they're despe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Almost 40 focus groups provided additional information about women's attitudes about medical male circumcision. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The report documents women's concerns that medical male circumcision might lead to an increase in heightened stigma for women living with HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The myths and misunderstandings identified by WHiPT teams such as the perception that medical male circumcision is directly protective for women underscore the urgent need for adequate education campaigns directed at women. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further, for women to access and act on information related to medical male circumcision and HIV, the information needs to be specifically tailored to women, and the socio-cultural context and realities of women's lived experience need to be taken into account. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A 2010 review found circumcisions performed by medical providers to have a typical complication rate of 1.5% for babies and 6% for older children, with few cases of severe complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the main medical determinant for circumcision. (howstuffworks.com)
  • i In addition to considerations regarding pain and the medical costs and benefits associated with circumcision, I consider two interests relevant to this analysis that have not received sufficient attention in the literature: the child's interest in avoiding a moderate decrease in future sexual pleasure and his interest in-as opposed to 'right to'-self-determination. (bmj.com)
  • No medical association promotes circumcision," said Schofield. (go.com)
  • There is some evidence in the medical literature that circumcision can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections such as HPV, HIV and Herpes. (obgyncapitalwomenscare.com)
  • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the primary justification for circumcision was to prevent masturbation and intentionally reduce male sexual pleasure, which was believed to cause a wide range of medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • With no clear answers, some thought that parents should base their decision for or against circumcision not on any potential medical benefit but rather on their family or religious traditions, or on a social standard, that is, what the majority of families in their community do. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Circumcision done in a medical setting is preferable to tradisional. (blogspot.com)
  • In the absence of certain medical conditions or anatomic abnormalities, circumcision during the newborn period is an option you may want to consider for your baby. (foxnews.com)
  • Circumcision has been associated with a number of medical benefits for the newborn and later in life. (foxnews.com)
  • In Europe and elsewhere, the question is no longer about whether there are any good "medical" justifications for routine circumcision - the consensus is that there are not. (theconversation.com)
  • To fully understand the medical differences between male circumcision and FGM, we first need to compare the anatomy of the male and female genitalia. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • [6] The bio-ethical and medical sanction of male circumcision is predicated by a valid, long established and tested medical tradition. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • As noted by the AAP Task Force, male circumcision may have medical benefits, [7] including better and easier hygiene, decreased risk of urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases and even penile cancer. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • Although circumcision was common from the 1920s to the 1960s, medical authorities have discouraged the practice since the 1970s, and it is now pretty much a thing of the past. (circinfo.org)
  • This propaganda is contrary to the advice issued by responsible medical bodies and the warnings of bioethics and human rights advocates and is intended to confuse and mislead parents, and scare them into demanding circumcision for their boys. (circinfo.org)
  • Most doctors are opposed to medically unnecessary circumcision of minors and will not perform the operation without genuine medical need (a rare situation). (circinfo.org)
  • All competent medical authorities that have issued statements or policies on routine circumcision of children are opposed to the practice. (circinfo.org)
  • Circumcision is more than a medical or health issue. (circinfo.org)
  • Routine or preventive circumcision was a Victorian medical fad which should have gone out with neck-to-knee bathing costumes, blood-letting, frontal lobotomies, and the idea that children should be seen and not heard. (circinfo.org)
  • The vast majority of the circumcisions had been done soon after birth for non-medical reasons. (wisewomanwayofbirth.com)
  • I agree that circumcision should be an informed choice for an adult to make, except in genuine medical cases where the child is not able to make an informed decision. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • Here is some information about circumcision from a medical-based website -- both pro and con. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • altogether they present an excellent overview of the current debate on circumcision, especially for those who are not so familiar with the complexity of the scientific, legal, ethical and political aspects of circumcision. (springer.com)
  • I conclude that male infant circumcision falls within the prerogative of parental decision-making in the secular case and even more clearly so in the religious case. (bmj.com)
  • The study, being conducted in Rakai District, Uganda, has enrolled 997 HIV+ and following a detailed informed consent process, randomizing them to receive either immediate (within several days or weeks) or delayed (two years) circumcision. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Among 5925 women (2180 from Uganda, 2228 from Zimbabwe, and 1517 from Thailand), 18.6% reported a circumcised primary partner at baseline, 70.8% reported an uncircumcised partner, and 9.7% did not know their partner's circumcision status. (ovid.com)
  • The announcement was made by officials of the National Institutes of Health as they halted two clinical trials, in Kenya and Uganda , on the ground that not offering circumcision to all the men taking part would be unethical. (nytimes.com)
  • A similar ritual in which the girl is declared a woman without being maimed for life is carried out in Ugandaamong the Sabiny tribe of farmers. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • For some families, circumcision is a religious ritual. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • Only a third of teenage girls surveyed thought the circumcision ritual should still continue, compared with almost two-thirds of older women. (naturallymoi.com)
  • According to a new book by Professor Aud Talle, most Somalis who live in Norway have changed their attitude towards female circumcision and are now against the practice. (news-medical.net)
  • A significant relationship was found between the attitude of the respondents towards female circumcision and their education, occupation, residence and social status. (who.int)
  • Opponents argue that infant circumcision can cause both physical and psychological harm, while recent evidence shows that circumcision is medically beneficial. (news-medical.net)
  • If more extensively used, it can contribute to putting an end to a practice that has caused considerable harm and suffering to millions of women worldwide. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The use of alternative and safer procedures can protect women from harm and help them lead healthier, more fulfilling lives. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Those who said that circumcision caused harm had to prove their case, he said. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • Female Circumcision: Where's the harm? (shiftingsands.org.uk)
  • Download file to see previous pages These cultures do not do so to harm the woman but believe that it is a main definition between a girl and a mature woman (Momoh 56). (studentshare.org)
  • In Germany, a court recently found that non-medically-indicated circumcision constitutes bodily harm and is thus unlawful. (theconversation.com)
  • Despite concerns that outlawing circumcision may harm efforts to limit the spread of AIDS, San Francisco's intactivists have gotten a proposed ban on the ballot. (psmag.com)
  • The Ulema Council, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), says female circumcision is necessary for Muslims. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • H. Amidhan of the MUI, speaking in Banjarmasin, said that his august organisation had no problems with female circumcision, because it was a duty for Muslims, was safe and did not cause any health problems for those who underwent it. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • Not done he went on to say that circumcision was beneficial to Muslims, both men and women, because it removed the filth from the genital area. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • He advised Muslims who work in the health field to be on their guard and not co-operate in the effort to stamp out female circumcision. (indonesiamatters.com)
  • 2. Circumcision is a distinguishing mark between Muslims and Christians. (islamicboard.com)
  • On the other extreme we have Knowlegable Muslims completely denying that female circumcision has anything to do with Islam at all and it is merely cultural. (muftisays.com)
  • Practice Of Female Circumcision Among Bohra Muslims. (dawoodi-bohras.com)
  • Since these procedures are ostensibly being performed under the sanction of physicians, we feel ethically obligated-as doctors, Muslims, and human rights advocates-to speak out and set the record straight about the realities of FGM, and how it is medically different any form of male circumcision. (uncommongroundmedia.com)
  • Circumcising men reduced infections in their female partners by 30%, the researchers found. (aljazeera.com)
  • Now, they told the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, it appears that among infected men, circumcision reduces the likelihood they will transmit the virus through sex. (aljazeera.com)
  • Male circumcision, which has been found to reduce female-to-male transmission of HIV by 60 percent, also reduces women's likelihood of acquiring the virus, although by a smaller 15 percent margin, according to a study reported by aidsmap and presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Boston. (poz.com)
  • Does Male Circumcision Reduce Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer, and Associated Conditions? (frontiersin.org)
  • Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce men's risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of several infections," said Diekema. (go.com)
  • The argument over circumcision came to a head, so to speak, last week when the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine published a paper that reported lower rates of circumcision would mean more infections and thus greater health costs for both men and women, an alarming finding given that the U.S. male circumcision rate has fallen from 79 percent to 55 percent since 1992. (psmag.com)
  • Male circumcision also provides indirect protection against various other infections in women, along with direct protection for men from a number of genital tract infections, including HIV. (hindawi.com)
  • Circumcision doesn't provide as much protection from urinary tract infections (UTIs) as previously t. (wddty.com)
  • Many may argue that modern circumcision is an effective way to prevent infections or diseases. (avoiceformen.com)
  • Why on earth, God who create vagina for women order such religion to mutilate that part? (indonesiamatters.com)
  • Instructor Date Female Vagina Circumcision Female circumcision has been a topic of concern among women especially in countries that still hold on to their cultural practices and beliefs which include this act. (studentshare.org)
  • Discussion about Female Vagina Circumcision Research Paper", n.d. https://studentshare.org/gender-sexual-studies/1468774-discussion-about-female-vagina-circumcision. (studentshare.org)
  • It includes the partial or total removal of the external female genital, near complete sewing-up the vagina with only a small opening for urination and menstruation, introduction of corrosive substances into the vagina, and other injury for non-therapeutic reasons (WHO, 1997). (aphaih.org)
  • The rate of circumcision in men in the United States has increased to 81% over the past decade. (medindia.net)
  • Mrs Obelawo stated further that another side effect of the Type 1 and indeed other types of circumcision, is painful sexual encounters which lead to lack of urge or interest in sex. (livetimesng.com)
  • Aldeeb's work presents readers with an awe-inspiring wealth of information on many pertinent aspects of circumcision. (arclaw.org)
  • Addressing a major concern of skeptics, the study also found that circumcision did not affect rates of extramarital condom use. (poz.com)
  • The government agency found that the incidence of circumcision declined from 56 percent in 2006 to 32.5 percent in 2009. (go.com)
  • I was made to believe that circumcision will stop the genital discomfort my daughter was suffering, and that it will also ensure that she does not become promiscuous in future. (livetimesng.com)
  • FGM is mostly carried out on young girls, between infancy and age 15 and occasionally on adult women. (rt.com)
  • During the first year of life, a low rate of adverse events (AEs) was associated with male circumcision (MC), but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. (medindia.net)
  • These findings have led to calls for promotion of male circumcision, especially in infancy, to help reduce the global burden of penile cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • He called on Islamic scholars to clarify the Islamic point of view on the practice as more women continue to encounter serious health complications due to religious misinterpretation. (thepoint.gm)
  • Serious complications related to circumcision are very rare," said Diekema. (go.com)
  • One would think that after 120 odd years of routine infant circumcision, there would be studies of a stratified random sample of adult male genitalia, including a clinical examination, with a view to finding any consequences and complications of infant circumcision. (wisewomanwayofbirth.com)
  • Williams was 3-weeks-old when he underwent the circumcision. (q13fox.com)
  • After controlling for various factors, the researchers found that male circumcision conferred a 15 percent reduction in the risk of women acquiring HIV. (poz.com)
  • However, the practice of severe forms of female circumcision is now proven to be a great health risk, and the women of the societies that still practice female circumcision risk severe health problems. (heart-intl.net)
  • Thus, circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce transmission of HIV to female partners, and the possibility of higher risk of transmission in couples who resumed sexual intercourse before complete wound healing cannot be excluded. (natap.org)
  • We conducted a detailed systematic review of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evaluation of the data from the studies retrieved showed that MC is associated with a reduced risk in women of being infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and of contracting cervical cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Male partner MC did not reduce risk of gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium , dysuria or vaginal discharge in women. (frontiersin.org)
  • MC reduces risk of oncogenic HPV genotypes, cervical cancer, T. vaginalis , bacterial vaginosis and possibly genital ulcer disease in women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reports from women reached by the Kenyan WHiPT team underscore women's fears that male circumcision may lead to changes in men's behaviors and perception of risk. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus sex and or safer sex would be less negotiable than before circumcision, putting women at greater risk for gender-based violence and HIV. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The hypothesis is that male circumcision will be acceptable in the community and will not result in behavioral disinhibition (increased rates of high risk behaviors). (knowcancer.com)
  • At each study visit (enrollment, year 1, and year 2), females were interviewed to ascertain sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and health status. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Does circumcision really lower the risk of being infected with a STD? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Several international studies show that circumcision lowers the risk of HIV transmission. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A good argument in support of adult circumcision can be made from the standpoint of reducing the risk of STDs and HIV. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A random-effects meta-analysis of data from the one randomised controlled trial and six longitudinal analyses showed little evidence that male circumcision directly reduces risk of HIV in women (summary relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.53-1.36). (blogspot.com)
  • Still, we must not forget the indirect benefit to women: reducing the risk of a male acquiring HIV in turn reduces the probability that he will pass it on to a partner. (blogspot.com)
  • The risk of transmission is 1 in 2000 for a man who has vaginal intercourse with a woman. (blogspot.com)
  • There are now 2 Research studies that show women who have sex with a circumcised man are at greater risk for contracting HIV! (blogspot.com)
  • male circumcision may be a risk factor for women? (blogspot.com)
  • Circumcision of HIV-infected men did not reduce HIV transmission to female partners over 24 months, and transmission risk may be increased with early post-surgical resumption of intercourse. (blogspot.com)
  • Why not state the truth and say that evidence exists that male circumcision increases the risk of HIV for females ) Longer-term effects could not be assessed. (blogspot.com)
  • They could'nt be assessed because you ended the trial early, male circumcison might be an important risk factor for females, dont women of the world need to know this? (blogspot.com)
  • Circumcision is not a simple snip without risk. (circinfo.org)
  • A second study, CAPRISA 007, showed that a conditional cash transfer to young women and men tied to HIV testing, participation in life skills training and academic attainment reduced the incidence of HSV-2 (herpes simplex virus-2) by 30% but did not have an impact on HIV incidence. (aidsmap.com)
  • A large percentage of circumcised women are of the Islamic faith, although circumcision is not mentioned in the Islamic holy book, the Koran. (heart-intl.net)
  • Oustass Khalifa Jammeh also of region 3 said FGM and early marriage is un-Islamic and a violation of women and child's rights. (thepoint.gm)
  • Finally, the study is also following ~3,000 men and women in the ~50 communities where the circumcision trials are taking place, in order to assess community attitudes towards and knowledge of male circumcision, and to assess whether other preventive behaviors (abstinence, monogamy, numbers of partners, condom use, etc...) change in the community once circumcision becomes available. (knowcancer.com)
  • Circumcision as a primary HIV preventive: extrapolating from the available data. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Male circumcision (MC) is an effective preventive health intervention. (intechopen.com)
  • Whether to promote neonatal male circumcision (NMC) as a preventive health measure has long been a contentious subject among health professionals and the general public. (intechopen.com)
  • Finally, I consider the child's interest in avoiding the future costs of adult circumcision. (bmj.com)
  • This is mainly because circumcision at this early age would eliminate the significant expected additional costs of adult circumcision that the young man would most likely come to face if infant circumcision were forbidden. (bmj.com)
  • The CDC supports this option, but cautions that adult circumcision is no substitute for other proven safe sex measures. (everydayhealth.com)