Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.
An atrophic and sclerotic condition of the head of the PENIS, glans penis. Sometimes it leads to stenosis and occasionally obliteration of the external meatal orifice.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Sexual activities of humans.
An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Sexual activities of animals.

Concern mounts over female genital mutilation.(1/48)

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The long-term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community-based survey. (2/48)

This paper examines the association between traditional practices of female genital cutting (FGC) and adult women's reproductive morbidity in rural Gambia. In 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional community survey of 1348 women aged 15-54 years, to estimate the prevalence of reproductive morbidity on the basis of women's reports, a gynaecological examination and laboratory analysis of specimens. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare the prevalence of each morbidity between cut and uncut women adjusting for possible confounders. A total of 1157 women consented to gynaecological examination and 58% had signs of genital cutting. There was a high level of agreement between reported circumcision status and that found on examination (97% agreement). The majority of operations consisted of clitoridectomy and excision of the labia minora (WHO classification type II) and were performed between the ages of 4 and 7 years. The practice of genital cutting was highly associated with ethnic group for two of the three main ethnic groups, making the effects of ethnic group and cutting difficult to distinguish. Women who had undergone FGC had a significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.18] and a substantially higher prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) [adjusted OR=4.71; 95% CI 3.46-6.42]. The higher prevalence of HSV2 suggests that cut women may be at increased risk of HIV infection. Commonly cited negative consequences of FGC such as damage to the perineum or anus, vulval tumours (such as Bartholin's cysts and excessive keloid formation), painful sex, infertility, prolapse and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) were not significantly more common in cut women. The relationship between FGC and long-term reproductive morbidity remains unclear, especially in settings where type II cutting predominates. Efforts to eradicate the practice should incorporate a human rights approach rather than rely solely on the damaging health consequences.  (+info)

Female genital cutting in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: changing attitudes? (3/48)

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, type, social correlates and attitudes towards female genital cutting (FGC) among urban women in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; and to examine the association between FGC and gynaecological problems, reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. METHODS: In 1999, 379 women attending reproductive health care clinics were interviewed and underwent pelvic examination. Specimens for RTI/HIV diagnosis were taken. RESULTS: Seventeen per cent had undergone FGC, mostly clitoridectomy (97%). Female genital cutting prevalence was significantly lower among educated, Christian and Chagga women. Women aged >or=35 were twice as likely to be cut as those < 25 years. Seventy-six per cent of those who had undergone FGC intend not to perform the procedure on their daughters. Age < 25 years (P < 0.0001) and low parity (P < 0.01) were predictors of that intention. There was no association between RTIs, HIV or hepatitis B and FGC. CONCLUSION: FGC is still fairly common but there is evidence of a change of attitude towards the practice, especially among young women. The opportunity to educate women who attend reproductive health care facilities on FGC should be taken.  (+info)

Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri-urban Nigeria: self-reported validity, social determinants and secular decline. (4/48)

Despite growing public resistance to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC), documentation of its prevalence, social correlates or trends in practice are extremely limited, and most available data are based on self-reporting. In three antenatal and three family planning clinics in South-west Nigeria we studied the prevalence, social determinants, and validity of self-reporting for FGC among 1709 women. Women were interviewed on social and demographic history, and whether or not they had undergone FGC. Interviews were followed by clinical examination to affirm the occurrence and extent of circumcision. In total, 45.9% had undergone some form of cutting. Based on WHO classifications by type, 32.6% had Type I cuts, 11.5% Type II, and 1.9% Type III or IV. Self-reported FGC status was valid in 79% of women; 14% were unsure of their status, and 7% reported their status incorrectly. Women are more likely to be unsure of their status if they were not cut, or come from social groups with a lower prevalence of cutting. Ethnicity was the most significant social predictor of FGC, followed by age, religious affiliation and education. Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors. There is evidence of a steady and steep secular decline in the prevalence of FGC in this region over the past 25 years, with age-specific prevalence rates of 75.4% among women aged 45-49 years, 48.6% among 30-34-year olds, and 14.5% among girls aged 15-19. Despite wide disparities in FGC prevalence across ethnic, religious and educational groups, the secular decline is evident among all social subgroups.  (+info)

Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. (5/48)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in Mali and the second commonest cause of cancer mortality. METHODS: As part of an international effort to evaluate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the aetiology of cervical cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in three medical centres in Bamako during 1994-1995. A total of 82 cases (invasive cervical cancer patients) and 97 controls matched to the cases for age were included. Information on risk factors was collected through personal interview. Serum antibodies to HPV 16, 18 and 31 virus like particles (VLP) were detected using ELISA assays. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HPV DNA in frozen biopsies of cases. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus 6, 18, 31 VLP were detected in 60.4% of cases and 45.4% of controls (P = 0.03). Overall, HPV DNA was identified in 96.9% of the cervical cancer cases. Risk factors for cervical cancer were parity >10 versus <5 children ([odds ratio] OR = 4.8, 95% CI : 1.5-14.7), never having practised vaginal douching (OR = 17.6, 95% CI : 4.2-74.7), re-using home-made feminine napkins (OR = 45.9, 95% CI : 8.8-238.7) and having a husband with more than two wives (OR = 5.3, 95% CI : 1.3-21.3). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence on the role of HPV in cervical cancer and show that high parity and poor genital hygiene conditions were the main co-factors for cervical cancer in this population with prevalent HPV infection.  (+info)

Is there an association between female circumcision and perinatal death? (6/48)

OBJECTIVE: In Sweden, a country with high standards of obstetric care, the high rate of perinatal mortality among children of immigrant women from the Horn of Africa raises the question of whether there is an association between female circumcision and perinatal death. METHOD: To investigate this, we examined a cohort of 63 perinatal deaths of infants born in Sweden over the period 1990-96 to circumcised women. FINDINGS: We found no evidence that female circumcision was related to perinatal death. Obstructed or prolonged labour, caused by scar tissue from circumcision, was not found to have any impact on the number of perinatal deaths. CONCLUSION: The results do not support previous conclusions that genital circumcision is related to perinatal death, regardless of other circumstances, and suggest that other, suboptimal factors contribute to perinatal death among circumcised migrant women.  (+info)

Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students towards this practice. (7/48)

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision is the removal of variable amounts of tissue from the female external genitalia. It is practised all over the world on very young girls. This study was conducted in Sudan where FGM is a criminal offence and not a religious dictate. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of this practice among Khartoum university students and compared the differences between male and female student responses. METHODS: An anonymised detailed questionnaire was distributed among the university students. In addition to the participant's age, marital status, course studying, details regarding their attitude, knowledge of the practice of FGM, and their own experiences were collected. RESULTS: Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 414 (82.8%) were returned from 192 (46%) females and 222 (54%) males. 109 (56.8%) of the female respondents were themselves circumcised.18.8% of the male students and 9.4% of the female students thought FGM was recommended by their religion. Only 90 (46.9%) female students compared with 133 (59.9%) male students thought FGM was illegal. Though 16 (8.3%) female respondents thought FGM would increase their chances of marriage, the majority, 166 (74.8%), of the male students would prefer a non-circumcised female. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that 109 (56.8%) female university students who responded were circumcised. Confusing religious messages and ambiguous laws seem to be responsible for the continuation of this practice. The study highlights the partnership that needs to be established between religious leaders and educationalists to end this medieval practice.  (+info)

Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom--critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation. (8/48)

Despite global and local attempts to end genital mutilation, in their various forms, whether of males or females, the practice has persisted throughout human history in most parts of the world. Various medical, scientific, hygienic, aesthetic, religious, and cultural reasons have been used to justify it. In this symposium on circumcision, against the background of the other articles by Hutson, Short, and Viens, the practice is set by the author within a wider, global context by discussing a range of rationalisations used to support different types of genital mutilation throughout time and across the globe. It is argued that in most cases the rationalisations invented to provide support for continuing the practice of genital mutilation--whether male or female--within various cultural and religious settings have very little to do with finding a critical and reflective moral justification for these practices. In order to question the ethical acceptability of the practice in its non-therapeutic forms, we need to focus on child rights protection.  (+info)

There are several causes of phimosis, including:

1. Congenital phimosis: This is when the foreskin is too tight or short to retract over the head of the penis, and it is present at birth.
2. Acquired phimosis: This can occur due to inflammation, infection, or injury to the foreskin.
3. Paraphimosis: This is when the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be retracted.
4. Circumcision: This is a surgical procedure that removes the foreskin entirely, so it is not possible to have phimosis after circumcision.

Symptoms of phimosis can include:

1. Pain during urination or sexual activity
2. Difficulty retracting the foreskin over the head of the penis
3. Redness, swelling, or discharge in the area
4. Fever or chills
5. Difficulty starting to urinate or stopping urination

Treatment for phimosis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Topical creams or ointments to reduce inflammation and promote healing
2. Stretching exercises to help loosen the foreskin
3. Steroid injections to reduce swelling
4. Circumcision, if the condition is severe or does not respond to other treatments.

It is important to note that phimosis can be a symptom of other underlying conditions, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or urinary tract infections (UTIs), so it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Some common penile diseases include:

1. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
2. Premature Ejaculation (PE): Ejaculation that occurs before or shortly after penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it.
3. Penile Cancer: A type of cancer that affects the skin or tissue of the penis.
4. Phimosis: A condition in which the foreskin cannot be retracted over the head of the penis.
5. Paraphimosis: A condition in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be returned to its normal position.
6. Balanitis: Inflammation of the glans (head) of the penis.
7. Posthetic Syndrome: Pain or discomfort after surgery on the penis.
8. Priapism: A persistent and usually painful erection that lasts for more than four hours and is not relieved by sexual activity or orgasm.
9. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra, which can be caused by bacterial or viral infections.
10. Proctitis: Inflammation of the rectum, which can be caused by bacterial or viral infections.

These diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests or imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease and can include antibiotics, medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as some penile diseases can lead to complications such as scarring, loss of sensation, or erectile dysfunction if left untreated. It is also important to practice safe sex and take steps to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to help prevent the development of penile diseases.

In simpler terms, Balanitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the skin of the penis, specifically around the foreskin and glans. It can be caused by poor hygiene or other medical conditions like diabetes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, pain, and difficulty pulling back the foreskin. Treatment involves good hygiene practices and sometimes medicine to help clear up the infection.

The symptoms of BXO can vary in severity and may include:

* Redness and swelling of the foreskin and glans
* Pain during sexual activity
* Difficulty retracting the foreskin
* Thickening and tightening of the foreskin
* Foul-smelling discharge

The exact cause of BXO is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including:

* Poor hygiene
* Infection
* Allergies
* Irritation from certain chemicals or substances
* Poor fitting clothing or underwear

There are several treatments for BXO, including:

* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and scarring
* Circumcision to remove the affected tissue
* Dermabrasion or laser therapy to remove scar tissue

It is important for men with BXO to practice good hygiene, avoid irritants, and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment, most men with BXO can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.

There are several different types of penile neoplasms, including:

1. Penile squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of malignant penile neoplasm, and it arises from the squamous cells that line the shaft of the penis.
2. Penile basal cell carcinoma: This is a slower-growing type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the basal cells that are found in the skin of the penis.
3. Penile melanoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.
4. Penile adenocarcinoma: This is a rare type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the glandular cells that are found in the penis.
5. Penile lymphoma: This is a rare type of malignant penile neoplasm that arises from the immune system's lymphoid tissue.

The symptoms of penile neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the growth, but they may include:

* A firm or hard lump on the penis
* Painless bleeding or discharge from the penis
* Redness or swelling of the skin on the penis
* Difficulty urinating or painful urination
* Pain during sexual activity

If you notice any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may use imaging tests such as ultrasound or biopsy to diagnose the condition. Treatment for penile neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any unusual changes in your penis, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

Symptoms include:

* Painful blisters or sores on the genitals, anus, or mouth
* Itching, burning, or tingling sensations in the affected area
* Flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue
* Swollen lymph nodes in the groin

Complications:

* Recurrent episodes of herpes can cause scarring and inflammation of the genitals, anus, or mouth.
* Herpes simplex virus can be transmitted to the eye, leading to a condition called ocular herpes. This can cause vision loss if left untreated.
* Herpes simplex virus can also be transmitted to the central nervous system, leading to a condition called meningitis or encephalitis. This can be life-threatening.

Diagnosis:

* Physical examination and medical history
* Viral culture or PCR test to confirm the presence of the virus

Treatment:

* Antiviral medications such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir to reduce symptoms and prevent complications.
* Pain relief medication to manage discomfort.
* Topical creams or ointments to soothe blisters and sores.

Prevention:

* Avoid sexual contact during outbreaks.
* Use condoms or dental dams to reduce the risk of transmission.
* Practice safe oral sex.
* Avoid sharing personal items such as towels or lip balm.

Note: This is a general overview of herpes genitalis and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you suspect you have herpes or have any concerns, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.

The condition is often caused by forced retraction of the foreskin, such as during sexual activity or masturbation, or from a tight-fitting circumcision device. It can also be caused by other factors such as infection, allergic reactions, or injury to the genital area.

Treatment for paraphimosis usually involves applying a topical anesthetic and gradually retracting the foreskin over several days. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release the trapped tissue. Proper hygiene and care of the penis can help prevent the development of paraphimosis and other complications such as infection or gangrene.

Sources:

* American Urological Association. (2018). Paraphimosis. Retrieved from
* Mayo Clinic. (2019). Paraphimosis. Retrieved from
* WebMD. (2019). Paraphimosis. Retrieved from

There are several types of ulcers, including:

1. Peptic ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are caused by excess acid production and are often associated with stress, spicy foods, and certain medications.
2. Stomal ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the stoma (the opening) of a surgically created ostomy (a procedure that creates an artificial opening in the abdominal wall).
3. Pressure ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin, often seen in people who are bedridden or have mobility issues.
4. Venous ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the legs and is caused by poor blood flow and increased pressure in the veins.
5. Diabetic foot ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the feet of people with diabetes, often as a result of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor blood flow.

The symptoms of an ulcer can vary depending on its location and severity, but may include:

* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Redness and swelling around the ulcer
* Discharge or pus from the ulcer
* Fever or chills
* Difficulty healing

Treatment for an ulcer will depend on its cause and severity, but may include:

* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Medications to reduce acid production or protect the stomach lining
* Wound care and dressing changes to promote healing
* Surgery to close the ulcer or remove any dead tissue
* Changes to diet and lifestyle to manage underlying conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

* Vaginal discharge (in women) or abnormal semen (in men)
* Itching, burning, or redness of the genitals
* Painful urination
* Discomfort during sex
* Abdominal cramps

If left untreated, trichomoniasis can lead to complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. The infection can also increase the risk of HIV transmission.

Trichomoniasis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and a wet preparation, where a sample of vaginal fluid is examined under a microscope for the presence of the parasite. Treatment involves antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which are effective in eliminating the infection. It's important to treat both partners simultaneously to prevent re-infection.

Prevention measures for trichomoniasis include:

* Safe sexual practices such as using condoms and dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact during outbreaks
* Practicing good hygiene and drying the genital area after sexual activity
* Getting regular STI tests

It's important to note that trichomoniasis can be a recurring infection, so it's important to practice safe sex and get regular check-ups to prevent re-infection.

The exact cause of premature ejaculation is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of psychological, neurological, and hormonal factors. Some potential contributing factors include:

* Anxiety or performance anxiety
* Overactive or hypersensitive reflexes in the pelvic area
* Hormonal imbalances
* Poor communication with one's partner
* Incorrect or incomplete information about sexual health and functioning
* Certain medications or medical conditions

There are several ways to diagnose premature ejaculation, including:

* Medical history and physical examination
* Sexual function questionnaires or rating scales
* Measurement of ejaculatory latency (the time from penetration to ejaculation)

Treatment for premature ejaculation can include:

* Behavioral techniques, such as the "start-stop" method or "squeeze" technique, which involve stopping and starting sexual activity to delay ejaculation
* Medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or topical anesthetics, which can decrease sensitivity and increase latency
* Psychotherapy or counseling to address any underlying psychological issues
* Lifestyle changes, such as reducing stress or improving communication with one's partner

It is important to note that premature ejaculation is a treatable condition, and there are many resources available for men who experience it. If you are experiencing symptoms of premature ejaculation, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider or a sex therapist to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

This definition of 'Genital Diseases, Male' is from the Healthcare Professionals Network (HPN) Thesaurus, a comprehensive collection of terms used in healthcare and related fields.

The diagnosis of dyspareunia typically involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, along with additional tests such as vaginal swabs or ultrasound to determine the underlying cause. Treatment for dyspareunia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, hormone therapy, or surgery.

In addition to its medical definition, 'dyspareunia' can also be used as an adjective to describe a sexual act that is painful or uncomfortable for one or both partners. In this context, the term emphasizes the negative experience of the sexual activity rather than the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

Overall, 'dyspareunia' is a medical term used to describe painful sexual intercourse in women and can be caused by a variety of factors. While it has a specific definition in the medical field, the term may also be used more broadly to describe any sex that is painful or uncomfortable for one or both partners.

Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom First reading of Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act, Hansard, 2 March 1983 ... The Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 (c. 38) is a repealed Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It made ... Text of the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom ... Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom, 1985 in women's history). ...
These circumcisions take place at any point between birth and puberty. Gruenbaum, Ellen (2015). The Female Circumcision ... female circumcision'. This term, however, draws a direct parallel with male circumcision and, as a result, creates confusion ... including circumcision, female genital mutilation (FGM), and intersex genital surgeries; a number of anti-circumcision ... Male and female circumcision were already well established among these tribes, and probably had been for more than 1,000 years ...
If circumcision makes one a Muslim, then what about a woman? She is the other half of a man's body, and she does not leave him ... History of circumcision Prevalence of circumcision Glass, J. M. (January 1999). "Religious circumcision: a Jewish view". BJU ... "Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya". ... Because of the love of woman, circumcision is done; I don't believe in it, O Siblings of Destiny. If God wished me to be a ...
... since circumcision was rare among Eastern European Christians. Gruenbaum, Ellen (2015). The Female Circumcision Controversy: An ... Jewish Encyclopedia: Circumcision Catholic Encyclopedia: Circumcision Gentiles and Circumcision (Articles incorporating a ... Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza province Kenya. AIDS ... Circumcision has played an important role in Christian history and theology; the circumcision of Jesus is celebrated as a feast ...
... female circumcision' or FGM is Khafḍ. In many communities, khafd is a rite of passage and refers to excision of the female ... both male and female circumcision were carried out by Pagan Arabian tribes, and male circumcision by the Jewish tribes of ... while the purpose of female circumcision for Muslim women is to "regulate" and reduce their sexual desires. Within the Shīʿīte ... Male and Female Circumcision: Medical, Legal and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice. Page 147 "What Do You Do at a ...
Gruenbaum, Ellen (2015). The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. University of Pennsylvania Press ... Circumcision is forbidden in Mandaeism, and the sign of the Jews given to Abraham by God, circumcision, is considered abhorrent ... These circumcisions take place at any point between birth and puberty. "Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of ... While Buddhism appear to have a neutral view on circumcision. Circumcision in Africa, and the rites of initiation in Africa, as ...
"Circumcision: A Jewish Inquiry". Beliefnet. Retrieved 9 April 2008. Davis DS (Summer 2001). "Male and female genital alteration ... Bioethics of neonatal circumcision Children's rights Circumcision controversies Ethics of circumcision Prevalence of ... Between 60 BCE and 56 BCE, Diodorus Siculus indicated that female circumcision was a common custom in ancient Egypt. Between 29 ... Huebner, Sabine R. (2009). "Female Circumcision as a Rite de Passage in Egypt-Continuity through the Millennia?". Journal of ...
Male circumcision provides only indirect HIV protection for heterosexual women. The WHO does not recommend circumcision as a ... Male circumcision is standard practice, by tradition, among the Druze Gruenbaum, Ellen (2015). The Female Circumcision ... and syphilis among women. The evidence was less consistent in regards to the potential association of circumcision with women's ... If circumcision makes one a Muslim, then what about a woman? She is the other half of a man's body, and she does not leave him ...
Male circumcision Genital modification Prevalence of female genital mutilation Circumcision and law Yosha, Assaf; Bolnick, ... The prevalence of circumcision in Mexico is estimated to be 10% to 31%. Circumcision in Canada followed the pattern of other ... Circumcision is largely a modern-day phenomenon in South Korea. While during the twentieth century the rate of circumcision ... The overall prevalence of circumcision in Cambodia is reported to be 3.5%. The overall prevalence of circumcision in China is ...
Children's rights Ethics of circumcision Female genital mutilation Forced conversion Gendercide Religious intolerance Religious ... Any circumcision performed on a minor is considered forced circumcision due to the inability of the minor to give consent. R1 ... Forced circumcision is the circumcision of men and children against their will. In a biblical context, the term is used ... "Ritual Circumcision." Funani, Circumcision among the Ama-Xhosa, p. v. "And Mattathias and his friends went around and tore down ...
... indicated that female circumcision was practiced among the ancient Egyptians. Leo Africanus (16th century CE) indicated female ... Bantu circumcisions have been declining. The male circumcision rate in Angola is estimated to be 57.5%. The male circumcision ... Between 60 BCE and 56 BCE, Diodorus Siculus indicated that female circumcision was a common custom in ancient Egypt. Between 29 ... The male circumcision rate in Libya is estimated to be 96.6%. The male circumcision rate in Morocco is estimated to be 99.9%. ...
... retorted that Iceland had already prohibited female circumcision in 2005, and "If we have laws banning circumcision for girls, ... Khitan (circumcision) Children's rights Ethics of circumcision Forced circumcision FGM Sexual consent in law Violence against ... In a 2015 case regarding female circumcision, a judge concluded that non-therapeutic circumcision of male children is a " ... The woman's pastor had stated that circumcision was "important" but was not necessary for salvation.) On 24 July 2001 the ...
They have expressed opposition to both male circumcision and all forms of female circumcision; they do not advocate a ... Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin (prepuce) from the human penis. The ethics of circumcision in ... "Cultural bias and circumcision: the AAP Task Force on circumcision responds". Pediatrics. 131 (4): 801-4. April 2013. doi: ... Task force on circumcision (March 1999). "Circumcision policy statement. American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on ...
... circumcision; idol or grave worship; and compulsory wearing of the veil for women. Observation of the five Ks, however, is not ... Piercing of the nose or ears for wearing ornaments is forbidden for Sikh men and women. Female infanticide: A Sikh should not ... It is not proper for a Sikh woman to wear veil or keep her face hidden by veil or cover. Sikhs cannot wear any token of any ... ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. Sources from the 18th century indicate that sexual contact with Muslim women was polluting, and Guru ...
Is female circumcision obligatory or is tradition and merely recommended? Answer: If the purpose of female genital circumcision ... "Egypt Officials Ban Female Circumcision", Associated Press. "Egypt mufti says female circumcision forbidden", Reuters, 24 June ... Nawab, Aam (9 August 2018). "I Asked Bohri Women About Their Practice Of Female Genital Cutting Or Female "Khatna" And Here's ... "A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. The Prophet said to her: Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and ...
Beasley, Ina (1976). "Female Circumcision". Women Speaking: 23. Beasley, Ina M. (1968). "Education Is the Key for Women". The ... Beasley's work in female education had a profound impact on the educational system for women in Sudan, she was also concerned ... she also recognised that it was an important part of cultural identity that affected both men and women. She supported female ... During her time in Burma she worked as a lecturer and as a tutor to women students at Rangoon University. By 1939, there had ...
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision or female genital cutting, includes any procedure involving ... Jones WK, Smith J, Kieke B Jr, Wilcox L (1997). "Female genital mutilation. Female circumcision. Who is at risk in the U.S.?". ... "Rethinking the History of Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy: American Medicine and Female Sexuality in the Late Nineteenth ... Female genital mutilation laws by country Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country "Female genital mutilation". World ...
She has researched female circumcision in Africa, in particular foregrounding the experience of indigenous women's voices. She ... "Female Circumcision , Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf". www.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-24. Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva ( ... ISBN 978-1-55587-995-2. Abusharaf, Rogia Mustafa (2001-02-01). "Virtuous Cuts: Female Genital Circumcision in an African ... 2000). Female "circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ...
Male and Female Circumcision: Medical, Legal and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum ... "Circumcision and phimosis in eighteenth century France". History of Circumcision. Retrieved 16 December 2016. Hodges FM (1999 ... Circumcision is sometimes performed for phimosis, and is an effective treatment; however, this method has become less common as ... In women, a comparable condition is known as "clitoral phimosis", whereby the clitoral hood cannot be retracted, limiting ...
Rogan has been an outspoken critic of trans women competing with women in all forms of amateur and professional sports, ... Rogan is opposed to routine infant circumcision and has claimed there is a lack of significant scientific evidence for any ... If you want to talk to me about gay marriage, if you want to talk to me about gay rights, women's rights, drugs. You go down ... He has described himself as socially liberal, saying that he supports same-sex marriage, gay rights, women's rights, ...
Male circumcision is required in Judaism, optional in Islam, and not required in Christianity. Globally, male circumcision is ... She wrote that religion "promotes inequality between men and women", that Islam's message for a woman includes that "she will ... "Religions and Circumcision". BBC. "Circumcision (male)". Mayo Clinic. "Chapter 10: Postoperative management and care of adverse ... restrictions on the rights of women ranging from prohibiting women from certain behaviour and activities to requiring women to ...
He prohibited circumcision. Musaylima considered men and women equal, and allowed premarital sex. Musaylima prohibited polygamy ... In Medina, the deputation stayed with the daughter of al-Harith, a woman of the Ansar from the Banu Najjar. When the delegation ...
... presumably the chance is further increased when the woman is very tall among both women and men). Yet very tall women are not ... In some societies, such as the United States, circumcision is practiced on a majority of males, as well as sex reassignment on ... A trait in women known to greatly increase the chance of multiple births is being a tall woman ( ... "Tall women more likely to have twins". livescience. 24 September 2006. "Taller Women Are More Likely To Have Twins, ...
Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women's Issue's in Halakhic Sources, Rachel Biale, Shocken Books, 1984 On Women and ... Like most Christian churches, the Latter Day Saint movement does not require circumcision because circumcision was done away ... 1998 Women Who Would Be Rabbis Pamela S. Nadell, 1999 Beacon Press Women and Prayer: An Attempt to Dispel Some Fallacies, ... "Circumcision." LDS Bible Dictionary. Section 133:8 Green, Arnold H. (1994). "Jews in LDS Thought". BYU Studies Quarterly (9 ed ...
M Tractenberg (1999). Male and Female Circumcision. George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos ( ... Morrison J. (21 January 1967). "The origins of the practices of circumcision and subincision among the Australian Aborigines". ... like circumcision) is well documented[citation needed] among the peoples of the central desert of Australia such as the ...
Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa (2007-01-22). Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN ... "History of the University". Ahfad University for Women. 2007. "University Administration". Ahfad University for Women. 2007. " ... 32.4715197 Ahfad University for Women is a private women's university in Omdurman, Sudan that was founded in 1966, by Yusuf ... Women's universities and colleges, Omdurman, 1966 establishments in Sudan, Women in Sudan). ...
... female circumcision controversy'." Margaret Strobel and Marjorie Bingham (2004): "The 'female circumcision controversy' played ... The campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya (1929-1932), also known as the female circumcision controversy ... The Kikuyu regarded female genital mutilation, which they called irua or circumcision, as an important rite of passage between ... Strayer, Robert; Murray, Jocelyn (1978). "The CMS and Female Circumcision", in Robert Strayer (ed.), The Making of Missionary ...
Lynn M. Thomas, an American historian, writes that during the female circumcision controversy, the issue of female genital ... "female consciousness", "confidence as women", "gender equality" and justice for women. Many Kenyan women soon became active ... In such settings, a woman would marry another woman and have children with a man of her choice. The lives of Kenyan woman ... "The Women Activists Working to Keep Kenya's Election Peaceful". Women and Girls. Retrieved 17 May 2020. "Kenyan Women March ...
The Soninke people have long carried out female genital mutilation (FGM), also called female circumcision. The prevalence rate ... During the rainy season, men and women both cultivate. However, women usually stay at home to cook and take care of their ... the women meet to show the gifts that the couple received from their parents mostly from the woman's mother. Marriage across ... The Soninke practise circumcision and call it birou. Every afternoon, the boys who were circumcised the previous year organize ...
"Female Circumcision in Islam". Muslims in Calgary. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 29 ... "Female Circumcision - The Hidden Truth". Asiff Hussein. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. ... Daftari, Lisa (25 May 2016). "Following our report, Facebook removes 'Islamic Female Circumcision' page promoting FGM". The ... Blackwell, Tom (7 September 2017). "Calgary Muslim website defends female circumcision and critiques 'Jewish media'". National ...
This day ought to be kept holy unto the Lord, and men and women ought so to order their affairs, and prepare their hearts, that ... As a seal, also, or confirming sign, baptism answers to circumcision. Methodists recognize three modes of baptism as being ... and at last by circumcision" during the patriarchal ages and through "the paschal lamb, the scape goat, [and] the priesthood of ... which continues to observe the ordinance of women's headcovering, stipulates "renouncing all vain pomp and glory" and "adorning ...
"Swedish Jewish woman is applying for asylum in her own country". Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 10 January 2020. "SVT". ... ritual circumcision, and possibly even the importation of kosher meat. In August 2013, Hernroth-Rothstein applied for political ... Swedish women writers, Uppsala University alumni, Place of birth missing (living people)). ...
Co-author of Social and Cultural Aspects of Female Circumcision and Infibulation: A Preliminary Report (1985), she was one of ... Warsame, Aamina; Ahmed, Sayida; Talle, Aud (1985). Social and Cultural Aspects of Female Circumcision and Infibulation: A ... 2013). "Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Related Problems ... Oslo: Somaliland Women's Research and Action Group, Oslo University. Fried, Sarah; Warsame, Amina Mahmoud; et al. (2013). " ...
Apart from three female portraits and one male portrait given to the artist, the best known works of the artist are a miniature ... Circumcision' and the 'Resurrection'. These works were sent on 10 May 1614 to Philip II, Duke of Stettin and Pomerania, who had ...
Almah - a young woman of childbearing age. Amen - used in Jewish, Christian and Muslim worship as a concluding word or response ... Circumcision controversy in early Christianity - Jesus and Paul and presumably the Jewish Christians were circumcised according ...
Hitchens was a genital integrity activist, strongly criticizing the tradition of both male circumcision and female genital ... I don't think a woman should be forced to choose, or even can be", and, "as a materialist, I think it has been demonstrated ... which will base itself on the proposition that the proper study of mankind is man and woman [referencing Alexander Pope]. This ...
Male circumcision usually takes place after birth; in some families, it may be delayed until after the onset of puberty. ... "Shia women too can initiate divorce". The Times of India. 6 November 2006. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. ... Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-56023-181- ... "Talaq rights proposed for Shia women". Daily News and Analysis, www.dnaindia.com. 5 November 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2010. " ...
"The women of al-Aqsa: the compound's self-appointed guardians". Middle East Eye. "Israel Bans Two Muslim Activist Groups From ... the circumcision of Jesus was conventionally depicted as taking place at the Temple, even though European artists until ... He permits entry from all the gates into the 135 x 135 cubits of the Women's Courtyard in the east, since the biblical ... The New Testament recounts a story of a Samaritan woman asking Jesus about the appropriate place to worship, Jerusalem (as it ...
Women were 60% more likely to have mammograms and recipients overall were 20% more likely to have their cholesterol checked; In ... Adler PW (December 2011). "Is it lawful to use Medicaid to pay for circumcision?" (PDF). Journal of Law and Medicine. 19 (2): ... 2012). Women and Poverty in 21st Century America. NC, USA: McFarland. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-7864-4903-3. Archived from the ... In 2008, Medicaid provided health coverage and services to approximately 49 million low-income children, pregnant women, ...
Two females were sacrificed and then eaten by a Muslim man and his accomplice in the state of Kerala in 2022 Thuggees, or thugs ... others view that as being superseded by the symbolic pars-pro-toto sacrifice of the covenant of circumcision. Leviticus 20:2 ... After the Roman defeat at Cannae, two Gauls and two Greeks in male-female couples were buried under the Forum Boarium, in a ... The ancient Chinese are known to have made drowned sacrifices of men and women to the river god Hebo. They also have buried ...
Maliane meets an old woman "full of the itch", who asks the girl to lick her wounds. The old woman becomes clean and gives a ... She finds a young man "just like one out of the circumcision". She presents the now human Monyohe to Senképeng as her husband, ... The woman orders the girl to grind some kaffir corn and take it to her husband, along with some bread and thick milk. Again, ... One morning, a woman named 'Mamonyohe approaches a fountain and sees the heap. She finds Senképeng and rejoices that she found ...
... "circumcision of the heart", so women are considered born already physically circumcised. Joseph's resistance to Potiphar's wife ... This relates to the Circumcision "Covenant of Abraham", the Jewish "Sign of the Covenant" with God. As the Torah describes two ... In the bodily form of man and woman, Yesod corresponds to the organ of procreation, analogously where the Tiferet body descends ... In the Bible, Abraham began the Yesod covenant of circumcision, though his sefirah is Chesed love-kindness, the first emotional ...
Malouf is still performed in public, especially at weddings and circumcision ceremonies, though recordings are relatively rare ... a rare all-female orchestra, as well as well-known vocalist Raoul Journo, singer and oud player Dhafer Youssef, singer, ...
... in the female line) all used the spelling "Gair" as far back as the 17th century. Gayre's university degree in the mid-1920s ... and citing evidence including burial and circumcision practices. He suggested that the Shona artefacts which were found at ...
In 1999, the Jewish total fertility rate was 3.8 children per woman, while the Palestinian rate was 4.4. This led to concerns ... outlaws Sabbath and circumcision, sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it. 164 BCE ...
... circumcision, or exorcism, the search for a cure for illness or to make contact with the divine through the extase. Rituals ... at the request of female believers.[citation needed] As the Aissawa are supposed to bring to people blessings ("barakah"), ...
There is no law requiring the veiling of women in Lebanon, and women are free to dress as they wish. Many women choose not to ... circumcision (sunatan) ceremonies or weddings. However, wearing Islamic attire to Christian relatives' funerals and weddings ... The women were singing in honor of International Women's Day and to highlight women's continued challenges caused by forced ... In the video, in which three bare-headed Iranian women sing I am a Woman, calls upon women to join efforts to fight injustice ...
A ward round through Female Ward. A 40-year-old woman has been brought in with diabetic coma. She is actually recovering while ... This mainly affects traditionalists who are exposed to such objects especially during circumcision. There is a general belief ... In the afternoon, a 45-year-old women is found to have a locally spread tumour of the cervix. She thinks she cannot afford to ... In the same room, three women aged between 25 and 45 are admitted with extensive and very painful breast tumours. They are very ...
Instead, Teitelbaum wanted women to cover their hair with something else, such as a turban. He insisted that all Satmar women ... Teitelbaum was strongly opposed to the use of a tube for metzitzah during circumcision of a baby boy, and felt that this change ... He held that young men and women should not meet more than two or three times before getting engaged. Teitelbaum stressed the ... He was a strong proponent of the Hungarian Hasidic custom for married women to shave their heads every month before immersion ...
In mid-1991 Maldives had a total of 724 mosques and 266 women's mosques. Old Mosque of Malé, white coral decorations Sample of ... and Miraculous Circumcisions: Comparative Conversion Narratives and Popular Memories of Islamization, Fairleigh Dickinson ...
According to UNICEF and the World Health Organization studies, in Zarma culture the female circumcision is called Haabize. It ... The women among Zarma people, like other ethnic groups of Sahel and West Africa, have traditionally practiced female genital ... The Peul and the Zarma ethnic groups feature the highest proportion of excised women: 30% and 9%, respectively." Female Genital ... Excision and circumcision are common throughout the departments of Tollabery (Say, Ayerou, Torodi, Kollo), Marady and Diffa and ...
Zohry, A. G., "Attitudes of Egyptian Women Toward Female Circumcision in Egypt". Cairo Demographic Center, Research Monograph ... Zohry, A. G.; Hosam-el-Din, T. M. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Female Circumcision in the Sudan. Paper ... Zohry, A. (2013) Trafficking of Women and Children in the Arab Region: A Regional Perspective, United Nations Economic and ... Women Gathering for Change: Envisioning Ways to Create A Healthier Future Conference, Library of Alexandria, Alexandria, 16-18 ...
An Antichrist will first propose circumcision, asserting that he is Christ; next he will place his statue in the temple at ... Dailey, E.T., Queens, Consorts, Concubines: Gregory of Tours and Women of the Merovingian Elite, Leiden, Brill, 2015. Diem, ...
He called for the termination and ban of "female circumcision" in some parts of the Muslim world, especially in rural Africa ... Divorce -> Rebelliousness and Strife "Qaradawi Calls On Ending Female Circumcision, Considers It Banned In Islamic Law - ... This has come about as a result of men's unrelenting attempts to control women's movement, as men have never allowed women a ... Defending bombings against Israeli civilians, al-Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight in 2005 that: "An Israeli woman is not like women ...
... and Violence against Women and the Obstacles to the Malian Women Exercising their Rights. Madame Dembélé Diarra was a member of ... She has published many articles, for example Rights and Exclusion, Legal Assistance, Circumcision and Positive Malian Rights, ... Women in Sub Saharan Africa - Page 59 Kathleen E. Sheldon - 2005 "DIARRA, Fatoumata Dembélé (1949- ). Diarra is a judge from ... She is the founding president of the Office on Relief for Impoverished Women and Children and Observation of the Rights of ...
... to the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning. As seen above in the gallery Woman V is one of a series of six ... Dogon, circumcision cave, with paintings Mali c. contemporary African traditional culture and tribes do not seem to have great ... Female court attendants, a mural from an Eastern Han (25-220 AD) tomb in Zhengzhou, Henan province Female court attendants, a ... Woman III, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Woman IV, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. During the summer ...
When Elisha was a baby, many rabbis were invited to his circumcision. When they began to teach the Talmud and to learn the ... In the 1911 production after Gordin's death, the fallen woman Beata was played by Adler's wife Sara, Ben Abuyah's faithful ... for while it is true that Eliezer and Joshua were present as the geonim par excellence at Elisha's circumcision-which must, ...
A symbolic story on female genital mutilation (1992) As Stella Efua Graham with Scilla McLean (eds), Female Circumcision, ... In 1983 she founded the Foundation for Women's Health, Research and Development (FORWARD), a British NGO that supports women ... Child Protection and Female Genital Mutilation: Advice for Health, Education, and Social Work Profession (1992) Female Genital ... Ghanaian women's rights activists, BBC 100 Women, Deaths from cancer in England, People from Cape Coast). ...
Agot's research focuses on HIV, HIV transmission, and male circumcision. She is the Project Coordinator of a joint research ... "HIV Rates Lower in Women With Circumcised Partners". Melbourne, Australia: medscape.com. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2016 ... Nguyen, Katie (21 July 2014). "What's male circumcision worth? In Kenya, it's food vouchers". Thomson Reuters Foundation. ... evaluating the effect of male circumcision among HIV in young men. She is an HIV specialist. A Fulbright scholar, she earned ...
The men and women participate in separate groups, men washing men's feet and women washing women's feet. Each member of the ... A number of Jewish rabbis who disagree with the initiation custom of brit milah, or circumcision of a male baby, instead have ... And he turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for ... women with women, and frequently, spouse with spouse. This service is alternatively called the Ordinance of Foot-Washing or the ...
A law journal artice about the unequal protection of the female circumcision laws. ... STATE LAWS CRIMINALIZING FEMALE. CIRCUMCISION: A VIOLATION OF THE. EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT?. SHEA ... Female Circumcision and the Equal Protection Clause. 32 John Marshall L. Rev. 353 (1999). ... I. CIRCUMCISION IN THE UNITED STATES...........................355. II. FGM LAWS VIOLATE EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW ...
First ladies from seven west African countries gather here Monday for a conference on ways to end female circumcision, a ... New Sierra Leone Government Vows to Ban Female Circumcision. Female circumcision, a popular practice in the West African ... Female circumcision, or female genital mutilation (FGM), is common in some 30 African countries despite major awareness-raising ... Female Circumcision Continues Unabated in Egypt. Girls are being circumcised in Egypt despite a ban on female genital ...
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... and health care advocate who for decades has combated female circumcision and strived to improve women ... and health care advocate who for decades has combated female circumcision and strived to improve womens health care in East ... and healthcare advocate who for decades has combatted female circumcision and strived to improve womens health care in East ... and healthcare advocate who for decades has combatted female circumcision and strived to improve womens health care in East ...
... human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital ... The Organization aims to provide every child, woman and man with the best chance to lead a healthier, longer life. ... Two men in Kenya are rallying against the myths that perpetuate the violation of womens and girls ... human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital ...
Female circumcisers and their attendants waiting in an elementary-school classroom, where they do their work. More. Click on ...
Tackling female genital mutilation (FGM) should be made a global priority like HIV/AIDs, according to ... World leaders urged to make female circumcision a priority like HIV - Reuters. ... An estimated 513,000 women and girls are either at-risk of FGM or have already undergone FGM in America. Professionals all over ... Protecting Womens Rights. Trainings for Professionals. Promoting Campus Dialogue. CLARITy Coalition:. Exposing Islamist ...
Male circumcision and HIV risks and benefits for women. Baeten JM, Celum C, Coates TJ. Baeten JM, et al. Lancet. 2009 Jul 18; ... Male circumcision and risk of HIV in women. Berer M. Berer M. Lancet. 2009 Oct 31;374(9700):1497-8; author reply 1498. doi: ... Effect of circumcision of HIV-negative men on transmission of human papillomavirus to HIV-negative women: a randomised trial in ... Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised ...
The Spear & Shield project enrolled 668 men and female partners from ten Zambian community he … ... The World Health Organization has recommended the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in ... Note: VMMC voluntary medical male circumcision, WA womens acceptance, SOC stages of change, T1 baseline, T2 post-intervention ... The Effects of Medical Male Circumcision on Female Partners Sexual and Reproductive Health. Mehta SD. Mehta SD. Curr HIV/AIDS ...
Dear Prime Minister, End Female Circumcision In India. Thousands of girls from the Dawoodi Bohra community have the hood of ...
In the baby who may have hemophilia, avoid circumcision if possible. However, if circumcision is done, then a pediatric ... If the woman is receiving care at an HTC, those doctors and nurses should be involved and work closely with the womans doctor ... If the woman has low levels of factor IX, then she can bleed after delivery or surgery, such as Cesarean section. Some women ... In addition, a female who is a carrier sometimes can have symptoms of hemophilia. In fact, some doctors describe these women as ...
... female circumcision, female genital mutilation, FGM, male circumcision, president, re b and g children 2015. Bookmark the ... Tag Archives: female circumcision. FGM - an important authority. Posted on January 14, 2015 by suesspiciousminds ... It is at this point in the analysis, as it seems to me, that the clear distinction between FGM and male circumcision appears. ... It is going to be worth holding in mind that B was male, and G female. This will become important later on. ...
en female circumcision (n) An English term in ConceptNet 5.8 Sources: English Wiktionary and Open Multilingual WordNet ... female circumcision is a type of… * en circumcision ➜ * en female genital cutting ➜ ...
... December 15 2009, category: International NEWS (CNN) -- The Ugandan parliament unanimously ... The practice, which involves cutting off a girls clitoris, is also called female circumcision. In some communities in eastern ... About three million women and girls face female genital mutilation globally every year, and nearly 140 million have already ... Female genital mutilation has been banned in some African countries, but it is still practiced in some remote, close-knit ...
Among other things Tim writes about the practice of "cutting the women," (female circumcision). In the context of our ... Women are not included or thought of as equal partners. If that were true then the women would have to be included in spiritual ... and circumcision is circumcision of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a mans praise is not from men, but ... and circumcision is circumcision of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a persons praise is not from men, ...
Female Circumcision In Nigeria. Home » Female Circumcision In Nigeria » Female Circumcision In Nigeria. ... September 22, 2021 Public HealthComments Off on Female Circumcision In Nigeria ...
1999 Nov 13;143(46):2336-7; author reply 2337-8. [Female circumcision; the histories of 3 patients]. [Article in Dutch] Bender ... Female circumcision; the histories of 3 patients] #1. Posted byAfWORO. August 17, 2012. Posted inArchives, Blog, News. Tags: ... Female genital mutilation: A global bug that should not cross the millennium bridge. ...
... human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital ... The Organization aims to provide every child, woman and man with the best chance to lead a healthier, longer life. ... Two men in Kenya are rallying against the myths that perpetuate the violation of womens and girls ... human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital ...
Africans must fight female circumcision. This content was published on May 29, 2010 May 29, 2010 Mariam Namogo, head of a ... Prostitution is not a respectable profession in Mali, but it is a flourishing one, with poverty pushing many women, even girls ... Swiss charity project against female genital mutilation in Mali, says Africans need to fight against the practice. It is... ...
The circumcision of women : a strategy for eradication / Olayinka Koso-Thomas. By: Koso-Thomas, OlayinkaMaterial type: Text ... Circumcision, Female , Africa , Sierra LeoneNLM classification: WP 200 ...
... is the first facility in Europe to offer a comprehensive treatment package to victims of female genital mutilation. While they ... "The women who perform female circumcision have no other way to earn a living," she says. ... Pioneering Care Berlin Clinic Takes on Female Circumcision The Desert Flower Center, opening in Berlin this week, is the first ... But its not only the women themselves who need convincing. "I spoke to a woman recently who said shed like to undergo ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Circumcision, Female ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Circumcision, Female ... Circumcision, Female. Refusal to Participate 5. Contre lexcision Publication: Pau [France] : Ipadour [printer], [19--?] ... Circumcision, Female 2. Tohara ya wasichana inadhuru afya na elimu yao Publication: Nairobi : Maendeleo ya Wanawake ... Circumcision, Female. Paternal Behavior 3. Asante mama kwa kuniepusha tohara Publication: Nairobi : Maendeleo ya Wanawake ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Circumcision, Female ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Circumcision, Female Publication Year ...
Surgical management of a huge post-circumcision epidermoid cyst of the vulva presenting unusually in a postmenopausal woman: a ... Epidermoid cysts of the external genitalia are one of the late complications of female genital mutilation. These cysts are ... The presentation of a giant vulvar cyst in a postmenopausal woman has not been reported; the surgical management of a large ... CASE PRESENTATION A 60-year-old, para VI, Ethiopian woman presented with an 18 cm by 12 cm sized, fluctuant, multi-lobulated, ...
2002-05-28: Doctor in Philippine Islands Opposes Circumcision. *2002-05-23: UN calls male and female circumcision a cruel and ... circumcision Cultural and religious issues Female circumcision Declaration of the First International Symposium on circumcision ... Circumcision Information Pages: News: 2002. Back to the News page.. News of 2002, collected by the Circumcision Information ... 2002-02-26: South Korean Circumcision Rates Lead World. *2002-02-21: College Says Male Circumcision is Not Good Medical ...
It is just one of the many ways society tries to control the female body, sexuality and being. In our Malay community, we begin ... Sunat perempuan is no different from other forms of violence against women. ... Female circumcision is no different from other forms of violence against women. On September 29, 2016. September 5, 2016. By ... To not see it as a problem is to deny that this is part of a bigger picture of how society condones violence against women and ...
Newborn circumcision during the first year of life is, thus, a valuable preventive health measure, particularly … ... Newborn circumcision results in a 9. 1-fold decrease in incidence of UTI during the first year of life as well as markedly ... Results: Infants ,1 year old who were born in 1996 had 446 UTIs (292 in females; 154 in males); 132 (86%) of the UTIs in males ... Newborn circumcision decreases incidence and costs of urinary tract infections during the first year of life Pediatrics. 2000 ...
FGC is also called female genital mutilation or FGM; FGM/C; or female circumcision. ... July 14, 2009 Female genital cutting, or circumcision, is rampant in parts of Kenya. The procedure involves removing part or ... The Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting (FGM/C) News Blog This blog posts any and all news related to Female Genital Cutting ( ... Critics describe it as female genital mutilation, or FGM. In the town of Meru, Eastern province, the Catholic Church has come ...
Wait a minute, female circumcision violates Islam? Yes, it does. And the fact that this evil practice is thought of by many ... I was not surprised to see that an American woman embraced Islams view of sexuality as natural, while the Pakistani woman was ... But more directly to the issue of female genital mutilation, the practice violates the Prophets very clear teaching that women ... female circumcision is not found anywhere in the Quran.. A very few hadiths, or oral accounts attributed to the Prophet, have ...
  • The results of theses studies led the World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS to recommended the use of voluntary medical male circumcision (MMC) to fight the spread of HIV infection in countries with a low male circumcision prevalence rate and a high HIV prevalence rate. (medscape.com)
  • The program promotes HIV testing, counseling, use of ART, and voluntary medical male circumcision to participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. (nih.gov)
  • Ismail, a nurse-midwife, hospital founder, and healthcare advocate who for decades has combatted female circumcision and strived to improve women's health care in East Africa, was named Tuesday, May 16, 2023, as winner of the 2023 Templeton Prize, one of the world's largest annual individual awards. (ktla.com)
  • When I read about the recent arrests of Muslims in Michigan for practicing female genital mutilation , a horrific custom that tragically exists in parts of the Middle East and Africa, I was disgusted, appalled and bewildered that such evil had made its way to our shores in America. (god-muslims.com)
  • This Book Review tests the applicability of Gerhard's Western feminist theories to the anti female circumcision movements in Africa, and particularly focuses on the limitations of law as a method for claiming women's rights in circumcising communities. (bc.edu)
  • Through this analysis, this Review illustrates the limited applicability of Western feminism to the experiences and goals of African feminists and suggests alternate, non-legal approaches to eradicate the practice of female circumcision in Africa. (bc.edu)
  • This study outlines key beliefs and principles that defined the course of legal approaches to issues affecting women in the Middle East and North Africa. (stop-stoning.org)
  • [ 9 ] Data from a mathematical model suggest that routine circumcision in southern sub-Saharan Africa could prevent 2 million HIV infections over 10 years. (medscape.com)
  • 12. Female genital mutilation and reproductive health in Africa. (nih.gov)
  • CNN) -- The Ugandan parliament unanimously passed a bill banning female genital mutilation, a traditional rite that has sparked an international outcry and is practiced in some African and Asian communities. (clitoraid.org)
  • Tony spearheads the Men End FGM campaign from his web page and writes a blog on the need to end the damaging practice of female circumcision often performed without informed consent on girls up to age 15, although younger girls, even infants, and older women are subjected to the procedure. (who.int)
  • The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Sudan. (who.int)
  • Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. (nih.gov)
  • It is going to be worth holding in mind that B was male, and G female. (suesspiciousminds.com)
  • While male circumcision has always been a part of Islam as it has Judaism (both religions linking the practice to their ancestor, the biblical patriarch Abraham), female circumcision is not found anywhere in the Qur'an. (god-muslims.com)
  • [ 12 ] Further evaluation of these trials has shown no deleterious effects on male erectile function or sexual satisfaction, and 97.1% of female partners reported no change or improved sexual enjoyment after circumcision of their male partner. (medscape.com)
  • The results of the African randomized trials also sparked speculative interest in male circumcision to reduce HIV infection in the United States, especially in areas such as New York City. (medscape.com)
  • A total of 12,036 (54.4%) were male patients and 10,089 (45.6%) were female patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Voluntary, medically performed male circumcision, for example, significantly reduces a man's risk of acquiring HIV from his HIV-positive female partner. (nih.gov)
  • Every one or two years from April 1999 until September 2016, participants were tested for HIV and surveyed about their sexual behavior, use of ART, and male circumcision status. (nih.gov)
  • Phimosis may occur after circumcision if redundant inner prepuce slides back over the glans, with subsequent cicatricial scarring and contraction. (medscape.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the estimated prevalence of FGM among girls and women in northern Sudan in 2000 was 90% (2). (who.int)
  • Female circumcisers and their attendants waiting in an elementary-school classroom, where they do their work. (atheistmedia.com)
  • Of note, this decreased risk seems to be associated only with infant circumcision and not with adult procedures. (medscape.com)
  • A female who inherits one affected X chromosome becomes a "carrier" of hemophilia. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, a female who is a carrier sometimes can have symptoms of hemophilia. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, some doctors describe these women as having mild hemophilia. (cdc.gov)
  • Females who carry the hemophilia gene and have any symptoms of the disorder should be checked and cared for by a health care provider. (cdc.gov)
  • A woman who is a carrier of the hemophilia gene can have low factor VIII (8) or factor IX (9) levels, and have symptoms of hemophilia. (cdc.gov)
  • Bleeding from circumcision is the most common cause of bleeding among babies with hemophilia. (cdc.gov)
  • In the baby who may have hemophilia, avoid circumcision if possible. (cdc.gov)
  • VANCOUVER, Canada (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Tackling female genital mutilation (FGM) should be made a global priority like HIV/AIDs, according to campaigners concerned about growing evidence that the abusive practice was more widespread than thought. (theahafoundation.org)
  • The Spear & Shield project enrolled 668 men and female partners from ten Zambian community health centers into parallel interventions promoting VMMC for HIV prevention or time-matched control conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The theory that circumcision contributes to prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was encouraged by a 19th-century report of lower rates of syphilis in Jewish men. (medscape.com)
  • 3. [Prevention of female genital mutilation in Sweden]. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Female genital mutilation: the role of health professionals in prevention, assessment, and management. (nih.gov)
  • First ladies from seven west African countries gather here Monday for a conference on ways to end female circumcision, a widespread practise in the region despite efforts to end it. (medindia.net)
  • Defined by the World Health Organization as "partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons," FGM's immediate complications include severe pain, hemorrhage, bacterial infection and injury to surrounding genital tissue. (spiegel.de)
  • Epidermoid cysts of the external genitalia are one of the late complications of female genital mutilation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The procedure involves removing part or all of the external female genitalia and is typically performed on girls as a rite of passage into womanhood. (blogspot.com)
  • Female genital mutilation is an ancient practice where parts of a girl's genitalia are removed in order to eliminate sexual desire and pleasure in a woman. (god-muslims.com)
  • This finding might be the result of women having fewer risk factors for contracting mixed genotype infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, female genital mutation has been reported to have immediate and prolonged physiological and psychological effects, including frequent infections and chronic inflammation, but similar to most other practices, consequences for preterm birth remain understudied and for the vaginal microbiota, unknown. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the effect of newborn circumcision on the incidence and medical costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) during the first year of life for patients in a large health maintenance organization. (nih.gov)
  • [ 3 ] Additionally, controlled studies by Tobian et al have shown the efficacy of circumcision in reducing the incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, and a follow-up study suggested that it may protect female partners from acquisition in men already infected. (medscape.com)
  • HIV incidence declined by 54% among all men but by only 32% among all women. (nih.gov)
  • Ismail, the first African woman to win the prize, "has used the teachings of her faith, family, and scientific education to improve the health and opportunities of some of the world's most vulnerable women and girls," said Heather Templeton Dill, president of the John Templeton Foundation. (ktla.com)
  • She has employed her many positions of authority to argue passionately that female circumcision is against the teachings of Islam, and deeply harmful to women. (ktla.com)
  • But in reality, female genital mutilation has no basis in the Qur'an and violates the clear teachings of Prophet Muhammad. (god-muslims.com)
  • In 2006, Islamic scholars led by the grand Sheikh of Al Azhar University, the highest scholarly authority in the Islamic world, declared that female genital mutilation is a violation of Islam's teachings . (god-muslims.com)
  • Responding to traditional female genital surgeries. (nih.gov)
  • The circumcision of women : a strategy for eradication / Olayinka Koso-Thomas. (who.int)
  • The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). (who.int)
  • Medical professionals and first responders: you are the front line in the fight against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the USA. (theahafoundation.org)
  • Failure of medical treatment warrants surgical intervention, usually in the traditional form of a circumcision or preputioplasty. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Female genital mutilation and female genital schistosomiasis--bourouwel, the worm: traditional belief or medical explanation for a cruel practice? (nih.gov)
  • 13. Female genital circumcision: medical and cultural considerations. (nih.gov)
  • However, if circumcision is done, then a pediatric hematologist (a doctor who specializes in blood) should be consulted before the procedure to ensure that the child receives proper treatment to prevent excessive bleeding. (cdc.gov)
  • She would like to see more funds put to use in the field, with projects geared to raising awareness among public health workers, community elders and, of course, the women who still insist on subjecting their daughters to the procedure. (spiegel.de)
  • Circumcision: Routine Procedure or Child Abuse? (cirp.org)
  • It is a common occurrence that female relatives of the girl advocate for the practice and make arrangements for a traditional female excisor to conduct the procedure (6). (who.int)
  • All males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY) and all females have two X chromosomes (XX). (cdc.gov)
  • The mean total cost of managing UTI was 2 times as high in males ($1111) as in females ($542). (nih.gov)
  • Newborn circumcision during the first year of life is, thus, a valuable preventive health measure, particularly in the first 3 months of life, when uncircumcised males are most likely to be hospitalized with severe UTI. (nih.gov)
  • Rooted in her Muslim faith, she receives this year's award in recognition of her extraordinary efforts to harness the power of the sciences to affirm the dignity of women and help them to flourish physically and spiritually," said the announcement. (ktla.com)
  • Says Tony Mwebia, "Men believe that girls who have undergone female genital mutilation will attract more dowry in terms of cows. (who.int)
  • We need to change the mindset that girls who have undergone female genital mutilation are more attractive, beautiful, well mannered, faithful and respectful. (who.int)
  • An estimated 513,000 women and girls are either at-risk of FGM or have already undergone FGM in America. (theahafoundation.org)
  • About three million women and girls face female genital mutilation globally every year, and nearly 140 million have already undergone the practice, according to the United Nations. (clitoraid.org)
  • At least 200 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) in 30 countries around the world (1). (who.int)
  • However, according to a Sudan multiple indicator cluster survey, by 2014 the percentage of girls and women aged 15 to 49 years who had undergone FGM increased to 86.6% (4). (who.int)
  • 19. Caring for women who have undergone genital mutilation. (nih.gov)
  • Girls are being circumcised in Egypt despite a ban on female genital mutilation, imposed about six years ago. (medindia.net)
  • This is an excerpt from a television program about female circumcision in Egypt, which aired on Egyptian TV on May 10, 2007. (stop-stoning.org)
  • Debate on Female Circumcision. (sierraexpressmedia.com)
  • Gerhard tackles the feminist equality-versus-difference debate and concludes that both concepts are vital to women's efforts to achieve status that is both equal with men but uniquely female at the same time. (bc.edu)
  • 15. Female genital mutilation: cultural practice or child abuse? (nih.gov)
  • The commonly used Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) is not useful for shared clinical decision-making regarding osteoporosis screening in younger postmenopausal women. (medindia.net)
  • Surgical management of a huge post-circumcision epidermoid cyst of the vulva presenting unusually in a postmenopausal woman: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Huge epidermoid vulvar cysts following genital mutilation are rare and presentation in a postmenopausal woman has not been reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • Firstly, and importantly, one should note that the Court found that the allegation that G had been subjected to Female Genital Mutilation was not proven, and thus did not happen. (suesspiciousminds.com)
  • The three-day meeting will "discuss transboundary practices of circumcision in the region to better fight against the scourge," presidential spokesman Saidou Ouedraogo said. (medindia.net)
  • Consideration of Cultural Practices When Characterizing the Vaginal Microbiota Among African and African American Women. (nih.gov)
  • This manuscript considers intravaginal practices prevalent among African and African-American women, with the aim of providing a framework for how these practices may affect vaginal health and the vaginal microbiota, and consequently, impact pregnancy outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Intravaginal practices are influenced by traditional socio-cultural beliefs and gender norms, with prominent practices including intravaginal insertion of substances (herbs and traditional medicines), intravaginal cleansing (douching), and anatomical modification of the female organs (labia elongation and female genital mutilation). (nih.gov)
  • Dr Joyce Lavussa, a reproductive health expert with the World Health Organization (WHO), is optimistic that the increased high-level advocacy efforts by such men as Tony and Elias will greatly broaden the needed awareness on the damaging effects of female genital mutilation. (who.int)
  • Women grapple with the risk of mental illnesses as immense challenge of constantly striving for perfection and balancing multiple roles takes a toll. (medindia.net)
  • Two men in Kenya are rallying against the myths that perpetuate the violation of women's and girls' human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital mutilation. (who.int)
  • Elias is an activist with the Kenya Men Engage Alliance , which uses contemporary channels to reach out to boys and men to fight the acceptance of female genital mutilation, which is banned in Kenya and 24 other African countries. (who.int)
  • July 14, 2009 Female genital cutting, or circumcision, is rampant in parts of Kenya. (blogspot.com)
  • It is just one of the many ways society tries to control the female body, sexuality and being. (sahiyo.com)
  • The latter hadith is surprising to many people today in the West, where religion is often seen as embarrassed by sexuality, especially female sexuality. (god-muslims.com)
  • When I first published my novel " Mother of the Believers " on Aisha, the wife of Prophet Muhammad, I was approached at a book signing in the Midwest by a Pakistani woman who said she liked my book, but was very uncomfortable with the open discussion of sexuality among the female characters. (god-muslims.com)
  • She directs her theories to the feminist movements in Europe, and concludes that women must primarily use law to claim their rights. (bc.edu)
  • She comes from Guinea, where 98 percent of women have suffered FGM, and, although she welcomes the opening of the Desert Flower Center, she believes that female circumcision reversals are not a priority. (spiegel.de)
  • In light of this fact, changing females' knowledge and attitude towards the practice should be a priority in any strategy to eliminate the practice of FGM in Sudan. (who.int)
  • Men can foster positive beliefs and attitudes and raise awareness on the impact of female genital mutilation to the health of women and girls, which can promote behaviour change in men and boys through the identification and promotion of positive notions of masculinities," explains Elias. (who.int)
  • Wait a minute, female circumcision violates Islam? (god-muslims.com)
  • And in 2008, the US Agency for International Development published an important paper on the issue, " De-linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting from Islam . (god-muslims.com)
  • This content was published on Sep 26, 2011 Sep 26, 2011 Prostitution is not a respectable profession in Mali, but it is a flourishing one, with poverty pushing many women, even girls as young as 12, into. (swissinfo.ch)
  • This content was published on May 29, 2010 May 29, 2010 Mariam Namogo, head of a Swiss charity project against female genital mutilation in Mali, says Africans need to fight against the practice. (swissinfo.ch)
  • Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision Statistical analysis has received attention because of its health complications and the Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, recognition that it represents human rights abuse and violence against USA). (who.int)
  • They work separately, but both men are ardent campaigners against female genital mutilation and promoting the rights of girls and women. (who.int)
  • Some 200 million girls and women are impacted by FGM worldwide, according to U.N. data, but some activists said this was a "massive underestimate" as it ignored the true geographic spread of FGM and omitted children and older women. (theahafoundation.org)
  • The very idea that something is wrong with female reproductive organs or that it is not good enough the way it is and that it has to be cut reflects a deep-rooted idea that girls and women have to be controlled and subjected to many restrictions and etc. (sahiyo.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the effects of a secondary school-based health education intervention on the knowledge and attitude of female students towards FGM in Sudan. (who.int)
  • Female circumcision, or female genital mutilation (FGM), is common in some 30 African countries despite major awareness-raising campaigns and ever-tougher laws against the practise. (medindia.net)
  • 18. Female genital mutilation in the West: traditional circumcision versus genital cosmetic surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Sunat perempuan is no different from other forms of violence against women. (sahiyo.com)
  • To not see it as a problem is to deny that this is part of a bigger picture of how society condones violence against women and removes women's rights to live on their own terms. (sahiyo.com)
  • In 2017, the overall age-adjusted death rate for female breast cancer was 19.9 per 100,000 population. (cdc.gov)
  • Using films, role models and Twitter, under the tagline #MenENDFGM, both men are demonstrating the harmfulness of female circumcision through candid discussions with boys and men, including religious leaders. (who.int)
  • As this Handbook illustrates, in every country and community in which UNHCR works, women and girls are less likely than men and boys to have access to even the most fundamental of their rights, such as food, health care, shelter or documentation. (stop-stoning.org)
  • We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners. (nih.gov)
  • But more directly to the issue of female genital mutilation, the practice violates the Prophet's very clear teaching that women have the right sexual fulfillment . (god-muslims.com)
  • Percentage of females aged 15-24 with two or more sexual partners. (nationmaster.com)
  • The targeted advocacy campaigns with men and the enforcement of policies, laws and guidelines (typically by men), with an emphasis on multidisciplinary and multisector approaches, she says are concrete and realistic efforts in the fight against female genital mutilation. (who.int)
  • We'll help treat 1000's of FGM women in the first hospital of its kind! (clitoraid.org)
  • Practitioners in areas where female genital mutilation is prevalent should be aware of the peculiar anatomic and technical aspects of the surgical removal of these giant vulvar cysts for successful therapeutic and cosmetic outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Female circumcision, a popular practice in the West African country will soon be banned by the new Sierra Leone government. (medindia.net)
  • Female genital mutilation has been banned in some African countries, but it is still practiced in some remote, close-knit communities. (clitoraid.org)
  • All of the African tribes do not practice the "cutting" the women, but all of what has been calling itself "church" certainly does. (lovinglikegod.com)
  • But the opening this week of the Desert Flower Center marks an invisible bridge between Germany and the dozens of African countries that practice female genital mutilation (FGM). (spiegel.de)
  • In the town of Meru, Eastern province, the Catholic Church has come up with an alternative rite of passage for girls and young women. (blogspot.com)
  • Critics describe it as female genital mutilation, or FGM. (blogspot.com)
  • The practice, which involves cutting off a girl's clitoris, is also called female circumcision. (clitoraid.org)
  • Norwegian police accused a Gambian couple on Friday of subjecting five daughters to genital mutilation in the country's first-ever case against the illegal act of female circumcision. (medindia.net)