A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.
A worldwide emerging disease of weaned piglets first recognized in swine herds in western Canada in 1997. This syndrome is characterized by progressive weight loss, rapid (tachypnea) and difficult (dyspnea) breathing, and yellowing of skin. PMWS is caused by PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS infection, specifically type 2 or PCV-2.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

Ultrastructure of porcine circovirus in persistently infected PK-15 cells. (1/285)

The ultrastructure of porcine circovirus was examined in persistently infected porcine kidney (PK)-15 cells. Virus-infected PK-15 cells had large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusions, and a few cells had intranuclear inclusions. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm but were most numerous in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Inclusion were of various sizes, round to oval, and electron dense and were of two general types. Inclusions of the first type were small (0.1-0.5 microm diameter), not surrounded by trilaminar membranes, and granular with indistinct margins that blended with surrounding cytoplasm. Some contained 12+/-2-nm-diameter icosahedral virions in loose aggregates or rarely forming paracrystalline arrays. Small inclusions could be sites of viral assembly or maturation. Intracytoplasmic inclusions of the second type were larger (0.5-5.0 microm diameter) and more numerous and had abrupt margins surrounded by trilaminar membranes. They were more electron dense than small inclusions and were heterogeneous, containing various proportions of aggregated virions, electron-dense crystalline lamellae of 5 nm periodicity, and/or whorls of myelinoid membranes. Virions usually formed paracrystalline arrays and occasionally were loosely aggregated. Larger inclusions were typical of autophagolysosomes. Intranuclear inclusions were not membrane bound and were often associated with reticulated nucleoli or aggregates of heterochromatin. Some inclusions were irregularly shaped aggregates of indistinct, circular 10-12-nm-diameter viruslike particles. Others were 0.1-1.0 microm in diameter, round or ring shaped, dense, and finely granular, with sharply demarcated margins.  (+info)

Observations on pigeon circovirus infection in Ontario. (2/285)

Subclinical pigeon circovirus infection was diagnosed in 1-day-old to 6-week-old birds from a loft with no history of clinical disease. Pigeons from other lofts presented with various illnesses and were found at necropsy to be concurrently infected with pigeon circovirus.  (+info)

Electron microscopical observations of psittacine beak and feather disease in an Umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba). (3/285)

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) was diagnosed in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with severe feather dystrophy and loss. Electron microscopically, the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies observed by light microscopy were composed of viral particles forming paracrystalline arrays, whorls, semicircles or concentric circles. Recovered viral particles from the skin and feather follicle tracts were icosahedral and 15 to 20 nm in diameter.  (+info)

Detection of porcine circovirus from lesions of a pig with wasting disease in Japan. (4/285)

A wasting disease characterized by progressive weight loss and dyspnea has been observed in weaning pigs on a farm in Yamagata Prefecture in 1998. Histopathologic findings in an affected pig were bronchointerstitial pneumonia and intracytoplasmic clusters of basophilic inclusions in macrophages of lymph nodes, which were similar to those in pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) recently reported in North America and Europe. Porcine circovirus (PCV)-like particles were observed in bronchial lymph node of the pig by electron microscopy, and PCV antigens were detected in the lesions by immunohistochemical staining. PCV DNA was also detected in the lung and tonsil by PCR, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR products with HinfI showed the same type of the PCV associated with PMWS (pmws PCV). Homology of nucleotide sequences between the PCR product and corresponding regions of published pmws PCV genomes was very high. These results indicated that virus detected in this study was pmws PCV. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pmws PCV in Japan.  (+info)

Multiplex PCR for detection and typing of porcine circoviruses. (5/285)

Sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the sequences of the open reading frames (ORFs) ORF1 and ORF2 of the prototype nonpathogenic PK-15 strain of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 1 (PCV-1). By the PCR performed with the various primer sets, genomic DNA or RNA from other bacterial or viral pathogens of the respiratory tracts of pigs could not be amplified. A positive amplification reaction could be visualized with DNA extracted from a viral suspension containing as few as 10 viral particles per ml. No DNA fragment could be amplified from lysates of continuous porcine cell lines (PT, ST, and PFT cells) known to be negative for PCV. When tested with clinical samples from pigs, the results of the single PCR method showed nearly 93% (13 of 14 samples) correlation with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Interestingly, subclinical PCV infections could be detected by single PCR with clinical samples that have been submitted from animals with irrelevant cases of respiratory and/or enteric problems. On the basis of the nucleotide sequences of PCV strains (PCV-2) recently associated with outbreaks of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) in Quebec, Canada, pig farms, other primers were designed from the PCV-1 genome, and these primers failed to amplify genomic fragments specific to the ORF1 or ORF2 genes of clinical isolates associated with PWMS but amplified DNA from the PCV-1 strain. Two rapid multiplex PCR (mPCR) methods have been developed to distinguish between both genotypes of PCV. By those two mPCR methods, (i) species-specific primer pairs were used to amplify a DNA fragment of 488 bp specific for the ORF2 genes of both genotypes, whereas a 375-bp fragment was amplified from the ORF1 gene of the PCV-1 strain only, or (ii) species-specific primer pairs were used to amplify a DNA fragment of 646 bp specific for the ORF1 genes of both genotypes, whereas a 425-bp fragment was amplified from the ORF2 gene of the PCV-1 strain only. By both mPCR methods, a PCV-2 infection was demonstrated in tissues of 94.2% (33 of 35) of the sick pigs tested, in agreement with previous findings showing the close association of this new genotype of PCV with outbreaks of PMWS in Europe and North America. On the other hand, a PCV-1 infection was confirmed in only 5.7% (2 of 35) of the pigs, and confirmation of a mixed infection with PCV-2 was obtained by a single PCR with PCV-2-specific primers.  (+info)

PCR detection and characterization of type-2 porcine circovirus. (6/285)

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting porcine circovirus (PCV). The assay readily detected type-2 PCV (PCV-2) and type-1 PCV (PCV-1). The PCR primers were designed based on DNA sequences conserved in all reported PCV genomes. Type 1 PCV and type 2 PCV both produced 438 bp amplification products, which were easily identified and differentiated from one another by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Porcine circovirus was detected in 55% (931/1693) of randomly tested pigs with various clinical signs and lesions, most of which were difficult to differentiate from those associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The PCR products from all positive clinical samples were identified by RFLP to be only PCV-2; DNA tested by PCR was extracted directly from one or more of lung, mesenteric or mediastinal lymph nodes, and tonsil. Type 2 PCV was also detected in 6% (2/34) of DNA extracted directly from semen of randomly chosen healthy boars. Positive PCR reactions from 554 diseased pigs were characterized by RFLP and categorized into 5 different profiles (A-E), of which 82.8% were PCV-2A (456/554), 3.0% were PCV-2B (17/554), 9.9% were PCV-2C (55/554), 1.1% were PCV-2D (6/554), and 3.2% were PCV-2E (18/554). The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PCV-2A, B, C, D, and E were determined and found to have at least 95% homology compared with one another and with all other PCV-2 found in the GenBank database. All PCV-2 had less than 76% homology with PCV-1. This PCR assay will hopefully be useful to veterinary diagnostic laboratories for routine testing and surveillance of infection with PCV-2. The RFLP profiling system might be useful for preliminary characterization and identification of PCV isolates and might also benefit studies on the molecular epidemiology of PCV.  (+info)

Porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Korean pig: detection of porcine circovirus 2 infection by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. (7/285)

This report describes the first diagnosis of porcine circovirus (PCV) infection in weaned pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Korea by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The most unique lesions were multifocal granulomatous inflammation affecting lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, characterized by infiltrates of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Circoviral antigen was detected in formalin-fixed sections and was usually present in large, round, dendritic cells in the white pulp of spleen and remnants of follicles in lymph nodes. Lymphoid follicles in the tonsils also contained PCV antigen. A 530-bp DNA fragment of circovirus was successfully amplified from all tested lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.  (+info)

High prevalence of TT virus DNA in human saliva and semen. (8/285)

Using the PCR assay, we found a high prevalence of TT virus (TTV) DNA in saliva and semen from patients who were seropositive for TTV. This finding suggests that the presence of TTV in body fluids other than serum may affect the routes of viral transmission.  (+info)

Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
1. Meehan BM, McNeilly F, Todd D, Kennedy S, Jewhurst VA, Ellis JA, Hassard LE, Clark EG, Haines DM, Allan GM. Characterization of novel circovirus DNAs associated with wasting syndromes in pigs. J Gen Virol. 1998;79:2171-2179.. 2. Chae C. A review of porcine circovirus 2-associated syndromes and diseases. Vet J. 2005;169:326-336.. 3. Chae C. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome: a review of aetiology, diagnosis and pathology. Vet J. 2004;168:41-49.. 4. Chae C. Commercial porcine circovirus type 2 vaccines: Efficacy and clinical application. Vet J. 2012;194:151-157.. 5. Chae C. Porcine circovirus type 2 and its associated disease in Korea. Virus Res. 2012;164:107-113.. 6. Fenaux M, Opriessnig T, Halbur PG, Elvinger F, Meng XJ. A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV) with the immunogenic capsid gene of the pathogenic PCV type 2 (PCV2) cloned into the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 induces protective immunity against PCV2 infection in pigs. J Virol. 2004;78:6297-6303.. 7. Chow SC, ...
Porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), threaten the pig industry worldwide. Five genotypes of PCV2 were recently identified: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d and PCV2e. In addition, a novel porcine circovirus from a case of a sow with dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure has been identified based on metagenomic analysis and classified as porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3). Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV2 and PCV3 in clinical samples. A total of 471 samples (161 tissue samples of lungs and lymph nodes from 34 farms and 310 serum samples from 47 farms) were tested for PCV2. Among them, 171 samples from 59 farms that had been positive for PCV2 were genotyped. Another 690 samples (296 tissue samples of lungs and lymph nodes from 91 farms, 108 samples of aborted foetuses from 26 farms, and 286 serum samples from 47 farms) were tested for PCV3. Based on PCV2 genotyping
TY - JOUR. T1 - Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. AU - Segalés, Joaquim. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Clinical signs and pathological features are still the corner-stones to suspect and diagnose overt disease associated with PCV2 infection. The clinico-pathological scope of this viral infection has been expanded over time. From the initial description of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, some enteric, respiratory and reproductive disorders have been subsequently linked with PCV2. Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, an immunocomplex disease, has also been associated with infection by this virus. All together, these conditions have been grouped under the name of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) or porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The precise mechanisms by which a PCV2 infected pig develops a PCV2 subclinical infection or a clinical PCVD/PCVAD are still to be fully elucidated, but inferences ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in growing pigs but generally requires the presence of other infectious or non-infectious factors to produce the full clinical expression of disease. These factors remain to be identified, but management routines, concurrent infections and maternal immunity are thought to influence the risk for PMWS outbreak in swine herds. Pigs presenting with PMWS develop severe immunosuppression and the work of this thesis focuses on the interaction between PCV2 and the immune system of the pig in vivo and in vitro. Development of PMWS was studied in models for experimental infection in young pigs using coinfections with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or Escherichia coli. Three-day-old colostrum-deprived pigs infected with PCV2 and PPV developed severe PMWS, and a possible role for interleukin 10 as well as impaired production of antibodies to PCV2 in the development of disease was observed. Four-week-old colostrum fed pigs ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) belongs to the family Circoviridae, and is the causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of three complete PCV2 genomic sequences from Hong Kong suggest that natural recombination happened among different lineages of PCV2. A preliminary investigation of the parental strains of these potential recombinants was carried out using bootscanning. Statistical significance of this recombination event was tested and positions of the potential recombination breakpoints were estimated in a maximum-likelihood framework. The recombinant breakpoints were estimated to be located within the origin of replication (ori) and replicase (rep) gene of PCV2. Interestingly, several GenBank sequences of PCV2 in mainland China were found to have a recombination pattern similar to that of the potential PCV2 recombinants from Hong Kong, implying that this recombinant genotype might already be widespread within ...
Porcine circoviral disease (PCVD) and Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), is a disease seen in domestic pigs. This disease causes illness in piglets, with clinical signs including progressive loss of body condition, visibly enlarged lymph nodes, difficulty in breathing, and sometimes diarrhea, pale skin, and jaundice. PCVD is very damaging to the pig-producing industry and has been reported worldwide. PCVD is caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The North American industry endorses PCVAD and European use PCVD to describe this disease. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is the classic PCVD entity, caused by PCV-2. PCV-2 has a near universal distribution - present in most pig herds. In contrast, PMWS is more sporadic in its distribution. Experimental induction of PMWS has not been achieved by PCV-2 infection alone, using infectious DNA clones of the virus or a pure form of PCV-2 derived from infectious DNA clones. Therefore, it is assumed that PMWS is a ...
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging circovirus that might be associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multisystemic inflammation. To aid the prevention and control of the infectious disease caused by PCV3, we developed a novel isothermal amplification assay using polymerase spiral reaction (PSR), which allows the visual detection of preserved strains and clinical samples. This assay precisely amplified the PCV3 genome with the use of a water bath at 62 °C for 50 min. The detection limit was found to be 1.13 × 102 copies/μL by gel electrophoresis or with the use of a visible dye (an indicator comprising phenol red and cresol red). No cross-reaction with other porcine infectious viruses was observed. The detection results for 23 PCV3-positive samples by PSR were in accordance with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. The detection rate of the PSR assay for PCV3 positivity of clinical samples was 68/97, which was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of a polyclonal-antibody-based immunohistochemical method for the detection of type 2 porcine circovirus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. AU - Sorden, Steven D.. AU - Harms, Perry A.. AU - Nawagitgul, Porntippa. AU - Cavanaugh, David. AU - Paul, Prem S.. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - An immunohistochemical method for the detection of type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) in paraffin-embedded tissue was developed. Rabbits were inoculated with purified PCV2 to obtain a polyclonal antiserum. Antiserum was applied to sections of porcine tissue that contained lesions consistent with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and in which PCV2 genome had been demonstrated by in situ hybridization. In all cases (18/18), the density and distribution of positive cells detected by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry were identical. The immunohistochemical method is more rapid and less expensive than in situ hybridization and is thus more suitable for routine ...
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Porcine circoviruses are small, icosahedral viruses that were discovered in 1974 as contaminants of a porcine kidney cell line. They were later called circoviruses when their genome was found to be a circular, single-stranded DNA molecule. Upon entry into cells, the viral ssDNA genome enters the nucleus where it is made double-stranded by host enzymes. It is then transcribed by host RNA polymerase II to form mRNAs that are translated into viral proteins. There is some evidence that circoviruses might have evolved from a plant virus that switched hosts and then recombined with a picorna-like virus.. Porcine circoviruses are classified in the Circoviridae family, which contains two genera, Circovirus and Gyrovirus. There are two porcine circoviruses, PCV-1 and PCV-2; only the latter causes disease in pigs. Infection probably occurs via oral and respiratory routes, and leads to various diseases including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and porcine dermatitis and ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 Capsid antibody for IHC, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Porcine circovirus type 2 Capsid pAb (GTX128120) is tested in Porcine circovirus type 2 samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233 amino acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify regions in CP preferentially recognized by sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs, and compare these responses to pigs diagnosed with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The approach was to react porcine sera with different CP polypeptide fragments that each contained one or more immunoreactive regions. Expression of polypeptides was performed using E.coli. Initial results showed that sera from vaccinated pigs preferentially recognized only the largest CP(43-233) polypeptide fragment and showed low levels of binding to other CP polypeptide fragments. The results of sera from pigs diagnosed with PMWS showed only minimal reactivity with CP polypeptide fragments, including the ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), whereas the ubiquitous porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) is nonpathogenic for pigs. Since its initial detection in a Canadian commercial swine herd in 1991, PMWS has been detected in all swine producing regions of the world and is now a serious economic problem to the swine industry. The objectives of this dissertation were to biologically, genetically and experimentally characterize both PCV1 and PCV2, to identify the genetic determinant(s) for virulence and replication, and to develop an effective genetically-engineered vaccine against PCV2 infection and PMWS. The genetic heterogeneity of PCV2 and PCV1 isolates from different geographic origins were determined. We found that, although PCV1 and PCV2 genomes were very conserved, some minor genomic variation exists among PCV1 isolates and PCV2 isolates. The nonpathogenic PCV1 and pathogenic PCV2 share only about 76% nucleotide ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be an important emerging pathogen associated with a number of different syndromes and diseases in pigs known as PCV2-associated diseases. It has been responsible for significant mortality among pigs and remains a serious economic problem to the swine industry worldwide leading to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. In this study we have demonstrated that PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein based virus-like particles (VLPs) were efficiently produced in yeast S. cerevisiae and induced production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with virus-infected cells. Moreover, PCV2 Cap VLPs served as a highly specific recombinant antigen for the development of an indirect IgG PCV2 Cap VLP-based ELISA for the detection of virus-specific IgG antibodies in swine sera. Four hundred-nine serum samples collected from pigs in Lithuania were tested for PCV2-specific IgG to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed ELISA in
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive disease was diagnosed in a herd containing only gilts. A single case of abortion occurred and no other disorder was evident in the herd. PCV2 antigen and/or DNA were detected in two aborted fetuses. One of the fetuses, revealing both PCV2 DNA and antigen, presented multinucleated giant cells, severe vascular lesions (intramural oedema, fibrinoid necrosis, mild lympho-histiocytic vasculitis, fibrin thrombi) and mild non-suppurative inflammation in the lungs. Other abortifacient infections were not found. This is the only report of PCV2-induced abortion in Hungary since 1999, when PCV2-associated disease was first discovered in the country. ...
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3) had posed a potential threat to the swine industry since its discovery in the United States in 2015. The Shanxi province had a wide range of large-scale pig farms in China, but the transmission of PCV-3 was unclear. T
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination leads to reduced mortality, increased growth rate, inconsistent effects on feed efficiency and no impacts on carcass traits but the effects on nursery performance are product-dependent, according to Dr Steve Dritz of Kansas State University.
Coreplication of the major genotype group members of porcine circovirus type 2 as a prerequisite to coevolution may explain the variable disease ...
Baltimore Classification== ===Higher order taxa=== Viruses; ssDNA viruses; Circoviridae; Circovirus ===Species=== Beak and feather disease virus, Canary circovirus, Goose circovirus ==Description and Significance== Circoviruses are very small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with a single stranded circular DNA genome. They have been described in pigs (porcine circovirus, PCV), chickens (chicken anemia virua, ChAV), psittacines (psittacine beak and feather disease virus, PBFD) and pigeons. The virus targets the lymphoid tissue and causes immunosuppression in the host. Circoviruses are the smallest pathogenic DNA viruses that have been identified and characterized in animals. ==Genome Structure== The genome of the circovirus is monomeric. It is unsegmented and contains a single molecule of circular, ambisense, sinle-stranded DNA that forms a covalently closed circle. The complete genome is 1800-2000 nucleotides long and the genome has a guanine+cytosine content of 48.4-53.1 %. (source: ...
Circoviridae is a family of viruses. Birds and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently 70 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: PCV-2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; CAV: chicken infectious anemia. Viruses in the family Circoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 20 nm. Genomes are circular and non-segmented, around 3.8kb in length. The capsid consists of 12 pentagonal trumpet shaped pentamers. There are two main open reading frames arranged in opposite directions that encode the replication (Rep) and capsid (Cap) proteins. Alternative start codons are common in the avian species. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. DNA templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits ...
Two types of porcine circovirus (PCV) exist, referred to as PCV1 and PCV2. PCV2 has been associated with disease syndromes in pigs, including that designated postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has been identified in all regions of the world bar Australia (Hamel et al., 1998; Allan et al., 1999a; Onuki et al., 1999; Martelli et al., 2000; Kyriakis et al., 2000; Wellenberg et al., 2000; Done et al., 2001; Trujano et al., 2001; Saradell et al., 2004; Castro et al., 2004; Jemersic et al., 2004; Maldonado et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2004; Motovski and Segales, 2004; Garkavenko et al., 2005). PMWS affects young weaner pigs and results in weight loss, tachypnea, dyspnea, enlarged lymph nodes and jaundice (Harding, 1998). PCV2 may also cause or contribute to other swine diseases such as congential tremors (CT) (Stevenson et al., 1999), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) (Rosell et al., 2000), reproductive failure (Meehan et al., 2001) and several other emerging ...
Combination vaccine gives swine industry effective, convenient option. FLORHAM PARK, N.J., Aug. 20, 2014 - Fostera™ PCV MH - the porcine circovirus (PCV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) combination vaccine that was built from the ground up by Zoetis - now has the longest demonstrated duration of immunity (DOI) to help protect pigs from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) caused by PCV Type 2 (PCV2). The U.S. Department of Agriculture has granted the combination vaccine the extended label claim of at least 23 weeks of protection against PCV2, which is three weeks longer than any other PCV2 vaccine on the market.. PCVAD continues to be one of the most economically harmful swine diseases. Affected pigs suffer from progressive weight loss, increased mortality and other clinical impacts, which takes a toll on producers productivity and profitability, said Darrell Neuberger, DVM, Pork Technical Services, Zoetis. Now, with a vaccine that offers at least 23 weeks of immunity, ...
1111767DNAPorcine circovirus 1accagcgcac ttcggcagcg gcagcacctc ggcagcacct cagcagcaac atgcccagca 60agaagagtgg aagaagcgga ccccaaccac ataaaaggtg ggtgttcacg ctgaataatc 120cttccgaaga cgagcgcaag aaaatacggg agctcccaat ctccctattt gattatttta 180ttgttggcga ggaaggtaat gaggagggcc gaacacccca cctacagggg ttcgctaatt 240ttgtgaagaa gcaaactttt aataaagtga agtggtattt tggtgcccgc tgccacatcg 300agaaagcgaa aggaacagat cagcagaata aagaatattg cagtaaagaa ggcaacttac 360tgatagaatg tggagctcct agatctcaag gacaacggag tgacctctct actgctgtga 420gtaccttgtt ggagagcggg agtctggtga ccgttgcaga gcagcaccct gtaacgtttg 480tcagaaattt ccgcgggctg gctgaacttt tgaaagtgag cgggaaaatg cagaagcgtg 540attggaagac gaatgtacac gtcattgtgg ggccacctgg gtgtggcaaa agcaaatggg 600ctgctaattt tgcagacccg gaaaccacat actggaaacc acctagaaac aagtggtggg 660atggttacca tggtgaagaa gtggttgtta ttgatgactt ttatggctgg ctgccgtggg 720atgatctact gagactctgt gatcgatatc ctttgactgt tgagactaaa ggtggaactg 780tacctttttt ggcccgcagt attctgatta ccagcaatca gaccccgttg gaatggtact 840cctcaactgc ...
Animal circoviruses belong to the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family. Nowadays, only swine and birds were identified as circovirus hosts. Circoviruses have a single-stranded circular genome of approximately 2000 nucleotide long. DNA of these viruses possesses : (i) a nonanucleotide sequence essential for replication, flanked by inverted repeat sequences, a palindrome that has the potential to form a stem-loop structure and (ii) two major ORFs, located on the viral and complementary strands, which encode respectively the replication-associated protein (Rep) and the capsid protein (Cap). All the circoviruses described at the present time, except porcine circovirus of type 1, are associated with immunosuppressive or immunodepressive diseases. Histopathological lesions such as cytoplasmic inclusions of virus in histiocytic cells and T and B lymphocyte depletion in lymphoid organs, are commonly noticed. No medical prophylaxis of circovirus infections is currently available.. ...
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Zoetis launched Fostera PCV MH on the US market. The vaccine is a one-bottle, one-dose combination vaccine that helps protect swine from Porcine Circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) and enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo).
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Document: Protocol (Danish). patients. Five-hundred and eighty-eight positive patients had been assessed for eligibility, which 559 had been excluded ahead of randomization. The Mouse monoclonal to MYST1 three significant reasons for exclusion had been duration of diarrhoea much longer than 21 times (n = 124), prior antibiotic treatment (n = 113), and co-pathogens in stools (n = 87). For that reason, 24 sufferers finished the trial with either azithromycin (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). Both groupings provided symptoms of gentle, prolonged diarrhoea with a mean duration of 18 times (95% CI: 16C19). One individual in the azithromycin group and four from the placebo group thought we would continue with crossover medicine after the preliminary ten-time period. In the azithromycin group, there is a mean of a week (95% CI: 5C9) to scientific treat and for the placebo group it had been ten days (95% CI: 6C14) (OR3 (95% CI: -7C1). We observed no distinctions in every examined ...
article{326621, abstract = {Stimulation of the porcine immune system causes increased replication of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether various cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interferon-alpha [IFN-alpha], and IFN-gamma) are able to influence PCV2 infection in vitro. No changes were observed in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, or IL-10-treated cells. However, it was demonstrated that IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma influenced PCV2 infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) and porcine monocytic cells (3D4/31). IFN-gamma added to the culture medium before, during, or after inoculation increased the number of PCV2 antigen-positive cells, respectively, by 418%, 171%, and 691% in PK-15 cells and by 706%, 114%, and 423% in 3D4/31 cells. IFN-alpha pretreatment decreased the number of infected PK-15 cells. When it was added after inoculation, IFN-alpha enhanced PCV2 infection by 529% in PK-15 cells and by 308% in 3D4/31 ...
Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been intriguing pig producers and scientists alike as it proved difficult to identify both the disease's origins and triggers. In this third episode of the series 'PCVD - From pathogenesis to protection', Pig Progress launches an attempt to unveil as many mysteries as possible that surround PCV2.
Last week we discussed measures being taken in Europe for treatment and control of porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV-2). This week we will consider
posted April 1, 2008 Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc. again requests proposals for studies investigating porcine circovirus-associated
Protection Against Evolving Virus. DURHAM, N.C., March 3, 2018 - Zoetis has introduced Fostera® Gold PCV MH, the U.S. pork industrys first vaccine to include two genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) - 2a and 2b.. Together, the two genotypes provide the broadest range of protection against evolving PCV2 viruses in U.S. swine herds. The vaccines efficacy against 2d - the most prevalent PCV2 genotype - was demonstrated in a large field trial.. Were pleased to introduce a vaccine that brings real value to the U.S. pork industry - one that provides broader protection against PCV2 genotypes and, more importantly, helps to minimize performance problems due to the virus, reduce monetary losses for producers and benefit animal welfare, said Lucina Galina, DVM, PhD, director, swine technical services, Zoetis.. The duration of immunity (DOI) with Fostera Gold PCV MH is at least 23 weeks for PCV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), which means the vaccine will protect most herds through the ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a highly prevalent, economically important swine pathogen is classified into different genotypes (PCV2a-f) based on phylogenetic analysis. Since the introduction of extensive vaccination programs, at least two major shifts have been observed in the prevalence of PCV2 genotypes. The first genotype shift from 2a towards 2b occurred around 2003, while in recent years, we are witnessing the second change in genotype prevalence from the predominant 2b towards 2d. In this study, a PCV2d-2 isolate was characterized as a potential challenge virus for the evaluation of PCV2 vaccine efficacy. Ten-week-old pigs carrying low to moderate levels of maternally derived antibodies to PCV2 were infected with the isolate by the nasal route. Over the next 4 weeks post-infection, the pigs were monitored for the presence of viremia, fecal virus excretion, and humoral immune responses. At the end of the post-infection observation period, samples were taken from the mediastinal and mesenteric
UK - Researchers at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) have developed an oral vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) based on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Average daily gain (ADG) and viral load (VL) were evaluated for pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b). Pigs were pre-selected for WUR genotype (a marker on chromosome 4 associated with weight gain and VL under PRRSV-challenge), half were vaccinated for PRRS, and half were not. Results indicate that vaccination for PRRS resulted in slower growth prior to co-infection and that the AB WUR genotype was associated with faster growth prior to co-infection, lower PRRS VL, and lower PCV2b VL in vaccinated pigs.
Factors to be considered for deciding the optimal time of vaccination. Comparison of different vaccination programs in PCV2 subclinically infected piglets.
A long-established epidemic of enteritis, caused by an unidentified pathogen distinct from parvovirus, has now been recognized in mink. In 2013, we identified a novel circovirus by degenerate PCR and fully sequenced its genome. This virus differs substantially from currently known members of the genus Circovirus and represents a new species.
Background Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of...
El present treball es centra en lestudi de la producció de proteïnes recombinants en línies cel·∙lulars de mamífer. Concretament, sha realitzat lestudi de tres estratègies de bioprocés, totes elles basades en el cultiu de cèl·∙lules HEK293. Com a proteïna model per a lexpressió de proteïnes heteròlogues sha triat la proteïna CapPCV2, la qual conforma la càpsida viral del Circovirus porcí serotip 2 (PCV2). Aquest virus és lagent causal de PCVDS (porcine circovirus diseases o malaties derivades de circovirus porcí). Aquest terme engloba un conjunt de malalties i síndromes que tenen un elevat impacte econòmic en la indústria porcina. El projecte sha enfocat des de la perspectiva de desenvolupament i optimització del bioprocés i, en conseqüència, lincrement de la producció volumètrica ha estat la força impulsora de tot el treball. En primer lloc es presenten els estudis per a la selecció del medi de cultiu i suplements nutricionals. El creixement cel·∙lular
Ohio Ag Dept issued warning on Canine Circovirus, a contagious disease that has spread, killing 6 more dogs, but is there more to be feared than this virus …
En trece cap tulos se revisan las principales enfermedades que afectan al ganado porcino, tanto en producci n intensiva como extensiva. Realizado grandes especialistas en enfermedades infecciosas del ganado porcino de Espa a
2. Tischer I, Mields W, Wolff D, Vagt M, Griem W. Studies on epidemiology and pathogenicity of porcine circovirus. Arch Virol. 1986;91:271-276.. 3. Allan GM, McNeilly F, Cassidy JP, Reilly GA, Adair B, Ellis WA, McNulty MS. Pathogenesis of porcine circovirus; experimental infections of colostrum deprived piglets and examination of pig foetal material. Vet Microbiol. 1995;44:49-64.. 5. Segalés J, Sitjar M, Domingo M, Dee S, Del Pozo M, Noval R, Sacristan C, De las Heras A, Ferro A, Latimer KS. First report of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs in Spain. Vet Rec. 1997;141:600-601.. 6. Allan GM, Kennedy S, McNeilly F, Foster JC, Ellis JA, Krakowka SJ, Meehan BM, Adair BM. Experimental reproduction of severe wasting disease by co-infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus. J Comp Pathol. 1999;121:1-11.. 7. Balasch M, Segalés J, Rosell C, Domingo M, Mankertz A, Urniza A, Plana-Durán J. Experimental inoculation of conventional pigs with tissue homogenates from ...
The study conducts the first phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 in Chile. PCV2 isolated from Chilean intensive swine farms, covering over the 90% of the pork production, resulting a complete national perspective of PCV2. The results confirm the high presence of PCV2b (52%) and less represented PCV2a (14%). Surprisingly, 34% of sequences were PCV2a/PCV2d recombinant viruses. The no amplification of these 10 sequences by the selective PCR was further explained due to these primers were not able to amplified PCV2d, the major parenteral of these viruses. Furthermore, we were not able to detect PCV2d variant in the Chilean PCV2 diversity even if was the major parent of the recombinant viruses, probably this event occurred years before and the recombinant remained. PCV2a and PCV2b, and the recombinant viruses were found since 2005. Nevertheless, were not observed geographical, temporal and other patterns, most likely due to there is not enough sequences per farm.. Recently, a large-scale study determinates ...
12.Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong*, p53 signaling modulation of cell cycle arrest and viral replication in porcine circovirus type 2 infection cells. Veterinary Research, 2016. 47(1): p. 120-131.. 13.Hongling Zhang, Yong Huang, Lili Wang, Tingting Yu, Zengguo Wang, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Xiaomao Luo, Liang Zhang, Dewen Tong*, Immortalization of porcine placental trophoblast cells through reconstitution of telomerase activity. Theriogenology, 2016. 85(8): p. 1446-1456.. 14.Delong Li, Yong Huang, Qian Du, Zhenyu Wang, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Dewen Tong*, CD40 Ligand and GMCSF coexpression enhance the immune responses and protective efficacy of PCV2 adenovirus vaccine. Viral Immunology, 2016. 29(3): p. 148-158.. 15.Xiaomin Zhao, Hailing Xiang, Xiaoyuan Bai, Naijiao Fei, Yong Huang, Xiangjun Song, Hongling Zhang, Liang Zhang, Dewen Tong*, Porcine parvovirus infection activates mitochondria-mediated apoptotic ...
Read Increased yield of porcine circovirus-2 by a combined treatment of PK-15 cells with interferon-gamma and inhibitors of endosomal-lysosomal system acidification, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A blinded interlaboratory assessment of the diagnostic agreement and accuracy of serologic tests for routine detection of antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2), including indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) was conducted in 7 North American laboratories.
The present invention provides a novel chimeric porcine circovirus infectious DNA clone and live attenuated chimeric virus with the PCV2, preferably of subtype PCV2b, capsid gene integrated into a non
Porcine diseases associated with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) infection have resulted in significant economic losses worldwide. A real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was develop
Read Genetic characterization of type 2 porcine circoviruses detected in Hungarian wild boars, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The chicken anaemia virus is associated with increased mortality rates amongst chickens. This study makes considerable progress towards developing a defined attenuated vaccine against the virus.
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Fast Shipping. Great Low Price. Circumvent PCV-M G2 for swine is used in the prevention of viremia, the reduction of virus shedding, the reduction of lymphoid infection caused by porcine circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), and in the reduction of lung lesions due to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Circumvent PCV-M G2 is approved for piglets as early as 3 days of age. Convenient one or two dose administration options with five month PCV2 duration of immunity. Dosage Option 1: Give a single 2 ml dose IM to health
Viruses news In the middle of the worldwide pandemic crisis because of coronavirus, together with Chilean collegues working at the University of Concepción and at the University of Santiago de Chile (among others institutions), we recently published a new chimeric capsid protein as antigen for the treatment of the Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) disease.…
Canine Circovirus (CanineCV) is an emerging virus which since its first report in USA in 2012, it has been described worldwide. It was the second mammalian circovirus species identified in dogs and its role in canine enteritis is still being uncertain as much as its association in disease with the Canine Parvovirus-2 (CPV-2). Here, we aim to confirm for the first time the presence of CanineCV in Colombia and to develop phylogenetic evolutive analyses of CanineCV in CPV-2 positive animals. DNA from samples were extracted and PCR, full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed to detect and characterize CanineCV. From a total of 30 CPV-2 positive samples, 16.6% (n = 5) were positives for CanineCV. Sequencing analysis of Colombian CanineCV wild-type strains displayed high identity to each other (99.5-99.7% nt; 99.7% aa). The full genome phylogenetic analysis confirmed that worldwide reported CanineCV strains were separated into four distinct genotypes in addition to a European origin of the
MHYOSPHERE® PCV ID is the first intradermal & needle-free vaccine against M.hyo & Circovirus PCV2, all in one and ready-to-use in swine.
Vol 10: High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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"Identification of a New Cyclovirus in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Central Nervous System Infections". mBio. 4 (3 ... ICTV Online Report; Circoviridae ICTVdB Entry for Circoviridae Viralzone: Circoviridae. ... Circoviridae is a family of DNA viruses. Birds and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently 94 species in this ... The family Circoviridae contains two genera-Circovirus and Cyclovirus. Genus Circovirus: type species: Porcine circovirus 1 ...
For example, some protect against infection with related viruses. In some mammal groups, including higher primates, retroviral ... Bornaviridae and Circoviridae families of viruses, and 12 million years for the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
doi:10.1016/s1386-6532(00)00066-4. Zheng, MY; Lin, Y; Li, DJ; Ruan, HB; Chen, Y; Wu, TT (2010). "TTV and HPV co-infection in ... While bearing some similarity to members of the group Circoviridae, it lacks sequence homology with any known viruses, and it ... Infection with these viruses tends to lead to lifelong viraemia and their possible association with disease remains under ... Despite that the link between TTV infection and a given pathology has not been shown, the hypothesis of a relation between ...
The overall infection rate was 33.29%. Ducks at 3-4 weeks of age where more susceptible to DuCV virus. Anas platyrhynchos, ... DuCV has been clustered in the Circoviridae family genus Circovirus, according to the eighth report of the International ... Infection with DuCV appears to cause growth disorders in ducks as well as eventual immunosuppression due to depletion of ... "An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China". Veterinary ...
... viral infection, avian polyomavirus infection, adenovirus infection and herpesvirus infection in psittacine tissues using DNA ... The beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is currently considered a member of the family Circoviridae. Like other circoviruses ... or parasitic infections often occur as a result of diminished immunity caused by a PBFD viral infection. Clinical signs in ... are generally due to secondary infections and may not be directly related to PBFD virus infections. Furthermore, not all ...
Zheng, MY; Lin, Y; Li, DJ; Ruan, HB; Chen, Y; Wu, TT (2010). "TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with ... While bearing some similarity to members of the group Circoviridae, it lacks sequence homology with any known viruses. It is ... Infection with these viruses tends to lead to lifelong viraemia and their possible association with disease remains under ... Despite that the link between TTV infection and a given pathology has not been shown, the hypothesis of a relation between ...
In older chickens, an infection with no apparent symptoms may cause reduced growth rates due to a poor feed conversion ratio. ... Markey, B; Leonard, F; Archambault, M; Cullinane, A; Maguire, D (2013). "Chapter 46: Circoviridae". Clinical veterinary ... Clinical signs of CAV infection are predominantly found in young chicks due to vertical transmission from the breeder hens ... Quinn, PJ; Markey, BK; Leonard, FC; Fitzpatrick, ES; Fanning, S (2015). "Chicken anaemia virus infection". Concise Review of ...
The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime ... The smallest viral genomes - the ssDNA circoviruses, family Circoviridae - code for only two proteins and have a genome size of ... Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections ... Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans,[197] ...
Most viral infections of humans and other animals have incubation periods during which the infection causes no signs or ... The smallest-the ssDNA circoviruses, family Circoviridae-code for only two proteins and have a genome size of only two ... The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime ... Smallpox infections have been eradicated. Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans, and more ...
Aditi; Shariff, M. (2019). "Nipah virus infection: A review". Epidemiology and Infection. 147: e95. doi:10.1017/ ... Circoviruses, family Circoviridae, are among the most diverse of all viruses. Like anelloviruses, circoviruses are not ... In late 2012, a vaccine was released to prevent infection in horses. Vaccine uptake has been low, with an estimated 11-17% of ... Bats' immune systems may have evolved to be more tolerant of stressors such as viral infections compared to other mammals. The ...
Infection prevention and control during health care for probable or confirmed cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection (PDF) ... 圆形病毒科 Circoviridae. *Geminiviridae(英语:Geminiviridae). *丝状噬菌体科 Inoviridae ... WHO: Novel coronavirus infection. 2013-02-11 [2013-02-13].. *^ James Gallagher. Coronavirus: Signs the new Sars-like virus can ... Camel infection 'led to Mers death'. BBC News. 2014-06-05 [2014-06-05].. ...
Breuil, G., Bonami, J.R., Pepin, J.F., and Pichot, Y. (1991). Viral infection (picorna-like virus) associated with mass ... Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly and Viral Infection. PLoS Pathogens 11(10), e1005203. ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ... Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[3] ... Infections by poliovirus most often cause the mildest of symptoms. This was not known until the virus was isolated in cultured ...
Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... At that point, the infection will persist indefinitely. In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is ... As a result, cells such as neurons are very resistant to infection and transduction by retroviruses. This gives rise to a ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of ...
Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... cell to infect others or are immediately dismantled so the new viral genomes can enter the nucleus and magnify the infection. ...
The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes.[9] ... Ackermann, M. (2006). "Pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections". Veterinary Microbiology. 113 (3-4): 211-222. doi:10.1016/j ... Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected ... Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Surprisingly, latency- ...
... infection status), and its specific role if in a multicellular organism. Gene expression can be regulated at any step: from ... the parvoviridae and circoviridae are more than 40 to 50 million years old". Journal of Virology. 84 (23): 12458-62. doi: ...
Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the ... The infection does not lead to replication of new viruses, rather it affects the caterpillar's immune system. ...
Common infections in humans caused by members of this order include cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, and ...
chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish.[1][2] ...
It then injects its DNA or RNA into the host to initiate infection. In animal cells these viruses get into the cell through the ... Two examples include the Circoviridae and Parvoviridae. They replicate within the nucleus, and form a double-stranded DNA ... Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must ...
doi:10.1007/s10495-007-0174-5. Noteborn, Mathieu H. M.; Koch, Guus (1995). "Chicken anaemia virus infection: Molecular basis of ... Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Circoviridae Genus: Gyrovirus Chicken anemia virus Gyroviruses have an average size of ... Merck Veterinary Manual (online) Accessed 4/20/2009 Chicken Anemia Virus Infection: Introduction http://www.merckvetmanual.com/ ...
Co-infections are also a common occurrence in animals afflicted with CaCV. Canine distempter and parvovirus (genotype 2) were ... It is a member of the Circoviridae family and the genus Circovirus. There are currently 11 species of known circoviruses that ... Two dogs died within a week of infection while the others were ill but able to recover. One of the bodies underwent laboratory ... Within the group of dogs that tested positive for CaCV, 68% of them had other co-infections of varying illnesses. There have ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Circoviridae. Birds (such as pigeons and ducks) and pigs serve as natural hosts ... Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H (July 2006). "Viral infections in pigeons". Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997). 172 (1): 40- ...
Collectively, these results suggest that while infection with PRRSV may be common, it is not an essential component of PMWS ... Circoviridae Infections. *Circovirus. *Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. *Immunoassay. *Immunohistochemistry. *In Situ ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection status in pigs naturally affected with post-weaning ...
Circoviridae Infections / complications * Circoviridae Infections / veterinary* * Circovirus / classification * Circovirus / ... It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. ...
Circoviridae, p 326-334. In Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA , Virus taxonomy. Eighth Report of the ... Infection Network. . 2012. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based ... Torquetenovirus infection among Northeastern Thai blood donors. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 38:686-689. ... Circoviridae is a family of nonenveloped viruses containing a circular single-stranded DNA genome and is subdivided into two ...
A cyclovirus-cyclovirus-Vietnam-has been isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of 25 Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of ... doi: 10.1128/mBio.00231-13 ICTV Online Report; Circoviridae ICTVdB Entry for Circoviridae Viralzone: Circoviridae. ... Circoviridae". Journal of General Virology. 98 (8): 1997-1998. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.000871. "ICTV Report Circoviridae". "Viral ... Circoviridae is a family of viruses. Birds and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently 70 species in this family, ...
Circoviridae Infection - an overview , ScienceDirect Circoviridae Infection. Circovirus infections have been reported in at ... Circoviridae Infection - an overview , ScienceDirect Circoviridae Infection. Circovirus infections have been reported in at ... 2006-7-13 · infection. The Compendium 19:267-309. 4. Neiger R, Simpson KW: 2000. Helicobacter infection in dogs and cats: facts ... Helicobacter infection and gastric neoplasia. J Pathol 208:233-248. 6. Simpson KW et al: 1999. Helicobacter felis infection in ...
swine, circoviridae, postweaning period, experimental infection, dna, cytokines, immunity, animal diseases. Keywords:. PCV2, ... Development of PMWS was studied in models for experimental infection in young pigs using coinfections with porcine parvovirus ( ... These factors remain to be identified, but management routines, concurrent infections and maternal immunity are thought to ... Experimental co-infection of 4-week-old colostrum fed pigs with PCV2 and E. coli (manuscript). III. Hasslung, F.C., Berg, M., ...
... receptor expression on maturing thymocytes by latent Circoviridae family member porcine circovirus type 2 cell infections in ...
... finding three sequences related to small DNA viruses in the family Circoviridae. This shows ancestral circoviral infection with ... An alignment of the three EVEs to the type species of the family Circoviridae, PCV-1 (GenBank accession number JX566507), is ... Poliovirus 3A protein limits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and beta interferon secretion during viral infection. J Virol 75:8158- ... A new ribonucleic acid polymerase appearing after mengovirus infection of L-cells. J Biol Chem 238:3395-3400. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Transient correlation between viremia levels and IL-10 expression in pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
keywords = "Animals, Antibodies, Viral, Antigens, Viral, Circoviridae Infections, Circovirus, Coinfection, Kinetics, Porcine ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and ... T1 - Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of ... Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of ...
Circoviridae Infection. Circovirus Infection. Circovirus Infections. Infection, Circoviridae. Infection, Circovirus. Infections ... Circoviridae Infections Entry term(s). Circoviridae Infection Infection, Circoviridae Infections, Circoviridae Circovirus ... Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE. Preferred term. ... Circoviridae Infections - Preferred Concept UI. M0027400. Scope ...
Sequences from Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More than 40 ... Infection Control Today is part of the Global Exhibitions Division of Informa PLC ...
Circoviridae Infections/immunology Circoviridae Infections/veterinary* Circoviridae Infections/virology Circovirus/immunology* ... In this study we analysed antigen-specific T cell responses against PCV2 in a controlled vaccination and infection experiment. ...
Circoviridae Infections/pathology , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , ... Circoviridae Infections/veterinary , Circoviridae Infections/virology , Amino Acid Substitution , Capsid Proteins/genetics ... Animals , Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Open Reading Frames , Swine , ... Animals , Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , Genetics , Phylogeny , Swine , Swine Diseases , Virology , Viral Proteins , ...
Circoviridae Infections / epidemiology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... suggestive of a neurotropic viral infection. Bacterial pathogens were not isolated by culture of neurologic tissue from ...
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a recently described virus belonging to the family Circoviridae. It is related to porcine ... Infection dynamics of porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) in longitudinally sampled pigs from four Spanish farms. Vet Rec 2019; doi: ... An epidemiological investigation of porcine circovirus 3 infection in cattle in Shandong province, China. BMC Vet Res 2019;15: ... Klaumann and colleagues also found that persistent infection with PCV3 did occur in pigs, but the occurrence of this was fairly ...
Animals , Circoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Prevalence , Torque teno virus/physiology , Virus Replication ... Aborted Fetus/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Circoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Circovirus/genetics , DNA Primers , ... Animals , Circovirus/isolation & purification , Circoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Semen ... Porcine circovirus infections are caused by the porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Among six different clinical manifestations ...
Circoviridae Infections - pathology , Swine Diseases - virology , Circoviridae Infections - diagnosis , Circoviridae Infections ... Circoviridae Infections - veterinary , Animals , Circoviridae Infections - pathology , Swine , Swine Diseases - virology , ... Circoviridae Infections - veterinary , Animals , Swine , Swine Diseases - virology , Circoviridae Infections - immunology , ... Circoviridae Infections - veterinary , Swine Diseases - virology , Thailand - epidemiology , Circoviridae Infections - virology ...
Circoviridae Infections Medicine & Life Sciences * Circovirus Medicine & Life Sciences * Clinical Pathology Medicine & Life ... Segalés, J. (2012). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. Virus ... Segalés, J 2012, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis, Virus ... Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. In: Virus Research. 2012 ; Vol ...
Circoviridae Infections Medicine & Life Sciences * Circovirus Medicine & Life Sciences * retrospective studies Agriculture & ... Retrospective study on porcine circovirus type 2 infection in pigs from 1985 to 1997 in Spain. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retrospective study on porcine circovirus type 2 infection in pigs from 1985 to ... Retrospective study on porcine circovirus type 2 infection in pigs from 1985 to 1997 in Spain. / Rodríguez-Arrioja, G. M.; ...
Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology. *Circoviridae Infections/veterinary*. *Circoviridae Infections/virology. *Circovirus/ ... Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins ... Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in ...
Todd D, Bendinelli M, Biagini P, Hino S, Mankertz A, Mishiro S, Circoviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger ... Concurrent infections are important for expression of porcine circovirus associated disease. Virus Res. 2012;164:20-32. DOI ... Circoviruses (family Circoviridae) are nonenveloped, single-stranded, circular DNA (≈2 kb) viruses (1). Two genera, Circovirus ... No circovirus signal was found in control foxes with lymphocytic cuffs due to other (known) viral infections or in control ...
circoviridae infections*streptococcus equi*aquaporin 4*picryl chloride*podocytes*glycyrrhizic acid*hyperuricemia*angelica ... zooepidemicus infections. ... *. Chao Y, Zhu L, Qu X, Zhang J, Zhang J, Kong X, et al. Inhibition of angiotension II type 1 ... zooepidemicus infections. It may therefore be a candidate of interest to be included in vaccines against S. equi spp. ... Zhao D, Chen D, Ge C, Gotoh T, Hong X. Multiple infections with Cardinium and two strains of Wolbachia in the spider mite ...
Identification of a new cyclovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infections. mBio 4, ... References: Circoviridae. Allan, G. M. & Ellis, J. A. (2000). Porcine circoviruses: a review. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic ... Delwart, E. & Li, L. (2012). Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep ... Revisiting the taxonomy of the family Circoviridae: establishment of the genus Cyclovirus and removal of the genus Gyrovirus. ...
The presence of some viruses could lead to "long-term infections that may be associated with increased risk or possibly with ... Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. More research needs to be done to understand the scope and diversity of the viruses present in ... Researchers found that many of the viruses came from latent infections from years ago, while many subjects had low-level ... infections. The "normal viral flora found stems from seven families: Herpesviridae, Polyomaviridae, Papillomaviridae, ...
Following experimental infection by PCV2d-2, specific IgM antibodies were first detected at 14 days post challenge (dpch), ... At the end of the post-infection observation period, samples were taken from the mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes of the ... Over the next 4 weeks post-infection, the pigs were monitored for the presence of viremia, fecal virus excretion, and humoral ... receptor expression on maturing thymocytes by latent Circoviridae family member porcine circovirus type 2 cell infections in ...
PCV2 infection is spread in farms all over the world. However, only a small percentage (4-30%) of infected animals develops ... PCV2 is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to Circoviridae family. Its genomic organization consists of two head to head ... In order to fight against PCV2 infection spread in farms, it is essential to vaccinate the animals and to detect, as soon as ... Besides PMWS, PCV2 infection has been associated with some other pathological outcomes in pigs, collectively named porcine ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A review of DNA viral infections in psittacine birds. Together they form a ...
The Pathogenesis of Virus Infections 4. Antiviral Immunity and Prophylaxis 5. The Diagnosis of Virus Infections 6. The ... Circoviridae 14. Retroviridae 15. Reoviridae 16. Birnaviridae 17. Paramyxoviridae 18. Rhabdoviridae 19. Filoviridae 20. ... partI presents the fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease, and partII addresses the ... Epidemiology of Virus Infections. PART II: VETERINARY AND ZOONOTIC VIRUSES 7. Poxviridae 8. Asfarviridae and Iridoviridae 9. ...
  • Circoviridae is a family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses in the family Circoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010. Sequences from Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More than 40 to 50 Million Years Old. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated. (cdc.gov)
  • Circoviruses (family Circoviridae ) are nonenveloped, single-stranded, circular DNA (≈2 kb) viruses ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of some viruses could lead to "long-term infections that may be associated with increased risk or possibly with protection from disease,'' the study stated, but the findings should not be cause for alarm. (boston.com)
  • Researchers found that many of the viruses came from latent infections from years ago, while many subjects had low-level infections. (boston.com)
  • Some viruses establish long-term infections that may be associated with increased risk or possibly with protection from disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Members of the family Circoviridae are nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses with diameters of 16-26 nm and a small, circular, single-stranded DNA genome (the smallest known autonomously replicating viral genome) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, numerous novel viruses belonging to the family Circoviridae with unverified pathogenic roles have been discovered in different human samples. (springer.com)
  • Viruses of the family Genomoviridae have also been described as being highly abundant in different faecal and environmental samples, with case reports showing them to be suspected pathogens in human infections. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed the nucleotide composition of members of the family Circoviridae to determine the possible host origins of these viruses. (springer.com)
  • This approach has provided minimum ages ranging from 30-93 million years for the Parvoviridae, Filoviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae families of viruses, and 12 million years for the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some protect against infection with related viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in addition to bacteria, the skin is colonized by viruses, and recent studies suggest that Papillomaviridae , Polyomaviridae and Circoviridae also contribute to the normal skin microbiota. (openstax.org)
  • DuCV has been clustered in the Circoviridae family genus Circovirus, according to the eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variola and monkeypox viruses cause systemic infections with high levels of lethality, but the details of their pathogenesis are not well-understood. (datexis.com)
  • The similar viral families detected in sick and healthy giant pandas indicate that these viruses result in commensal infections in most immuno-competent animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As infection with TTV and/or related viruses is universal, measures to prevent transmission are unwarranted. (asmscience.org)
  • Virology is a study of viruses, small parasites that are not able to reproduce by themselves, but upon infection of a susceptible cell they can direct the cell machinery to produce progeny. (news-medical.net)
  • In this paper, we take an ecological approach to studying the diversity of human viruses (defined as viruses for which there is evidence of natural infection of humans). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As a starting point for our survey, we used a previously published database (see [ 5 ]) obtained by systematically searching the primary scientific literature up to and including 2005 for reports of human infection with recognized virus species, using species as defined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such viruses can cause a wide variety of devastating effects and can often be challenging to study due to multiple factors that make it difficult to separate the effects of experimental treatments from preexisting background infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viruses in these families cause asymptomatic infections and also outbreaks or sporadic cases with a wide range of symptoms from mild to severe gastroenteritis to meningitis, respiratory disease, conjunctivitis, miocarditis, paralysis, or hepatitis. (waterpathogens.org)
  • A large portion of circular ssDNA viruses similar to the family Circoviridae have been revealed primarily through metagenomics in a diverse range of samples. (waterpathogens.org)
  • The concentration of viruses observed in urban sewage is high and is related to the epidemiology of each viral infection. (waterpathogens.org)
  • Porcine circoviruses (PCVs), classified as a member of the family Circoviridae, are small icosahedral non-enveloped viruses (size ~17 nm) containing a circular single-stranded DNA molecule of about 1.7 kb. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An average of 4.2 different mammalian viruses were shed by healthy piglets, reflecting a high level of asymptomatic infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PCV-2 are small non-enveloped viruses, belonging to the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses belonging to the Circoviridae family, have been suggested as possible causes of enteric, respiratory and neurological disorders in human patients. (pasteur.fr)
  • The door to infection is opened by mycoplasma and viruses, in addition to fungi und trichomonads. (pearltrees.com)
  • The virus is classified as a member of a family of viruses known as Circoviridae and the genome of PiCV is similar to other members of the family. (pearltrees.com)
  • The virus causing Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) is a member of the Circoviridae family of viruses. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • The "normal viral flora'' found stems from seven families: Herpesviridae, Polyomaviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae (common cold and pneumonia causing), Anelloviridae, Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. (boston.com)
  • Exceptions include the Parvoviridae (e.g., parvovirus B19, adeno-associated virus) and the Circoviridae (which includes the TT virus, possibly related to the development of some cases of hepatitis). (news-medical.net)
  • Ninety-nine percent of the viral sequences were related to the RNA virus families Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, and Caliciviridae, while 1% were related to the small DNA virus families Circoviridae, and Parvoviridae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The majority of DNA animal virus-derived EVEs have, for unknown reasons, originated from members of the families Parvoviridae and Circoviridae . (nature.com)
  • It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. (nih.gov)
  • 2006-4-1 · Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affects 5- to 14-week-old piglets and is associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection (2, 7, 26, 29). (techmaniac.online)
  • 2013-3-12 · The present study was conducted to determine which cells of the primary lymphoid organs support viral replication during PCV2 infection in swine. (techmaniac.online)
  • The presence of immunomodulatory sequences in the genome of PCV2 may contribute to evasive mechanisms utilized by the virus during persistent infection of immune cells and/or development of clinical disease. (slu.se)
  • Regardless of concurrent PCV2 infection, VR-2385 initially replicated at higher levels and reached peak replication levels at dpi 6. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In this study we analysed antigen-specific T cell responses against PCV2 in a controlled vaccination and infection experiment. (vu-wien.ac.at)
  • Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections were the most frequent, accounting for 51.3% of the cases (739/1,441) with a higher frequency from 2005 to 2007, characterizing an epidemic distribution, with a gradual decline after 2008. (bvsalud.org)
  • Porcine circovirus infections are caused by the porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). (bvsalud.org)
  • abstract = "Clinical signs and pathological features are still the corner-stones to suspect and diagnose overt disease associated with PCV2 infection. (uab.cat)
  • The precise mechanisms by which a PCV2 infected pig develops a PCV2 subclinical infection or a clinical PCVD/PCVAD are still to be fully elucidated, but inferences based upon clinical, gross and histologic findings from field cases of disease have been useful to suggest the pathogenesis of this viral infection. (uab.cat)
  • The objective of the present review is to update the current knowledge on the clinical and pathological scope of PCV2 infections, as well as on their diagnosis. (uab.cat)
  • Segalés, J 2012, ' Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis ', Virus Research , vol. 164, no. 1-2, pp. 10-19. (uab.cat)
  • Serological and pathological data of the present study indicate that PCV2 was a enzootic infection in Spain since 1985, suggesting that the introduction of this virus in the livestock occurred previously. (umn.edu)
  • Pathogenicity of PCV2 is complex, and presumably involves the infection of pig fetuses, especially their thymus, where the virus establishes a latent infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCV2 was suspected as predisposing agent for subsequent secondary infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides PMWS, PCV2 infection has been associated with some other pathological outcomes in pigs, collectively named porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). (omicsonline.org)
  • PCV2 is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to Circoviridae family. (omicsonline.org)
  • PCV2 infection is spread in farms all over the world. (omicsonline.org)
  • In order to fight against PCV2 infection spread in farms, it is essential to vaccinate the animals and to detect, as soon as possible, a PCV2 outbreak. (omicsonline.org)
  • Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). (asm.org)
  • Nowadays, PCV2 is included with Chicken anemia virus , Beak and feather disease virus , and PCV1 in the family Circoviridae . (asm.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 p53m/m ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 p53 − / − ) compared with the respective mock infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • PCV2 infection activated p53 signaling, up-regulated the expression of p21, Cyclin E, and down-regulated Cyclin A, CDK2. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, PCV2 viral genomic DNA and Cap protein levels were higher in the cells released from S phase synchronized cells than in the cells released from the G0/G1 phase or G2/M phase-synchronized, or asynchronous cells after 18 h post-infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, this study demonstrates that PCV2 infection induces S phase accumulation to favor viral replication in host cells through activation of the p53 pathway. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV) with the immunogenic capsid gene of the pathogenic pcv type 2 (PCV2) cloned into the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 induces protective immunity against PCV2 infection in pigs", 2004, Journal of VIrology, 78(12):6297-6303. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chae, PCV2-associated systemic infection is clinically characterized by wasting, dyspnea, and lymphadenopathy and might be associated with diarrhea, pallor, and jaundice Harding, The most relevant histological lesions in this condition occur in lymphoid organs and consist of extensive lymphocytic depletion, macrophage infiltration, a few multinucleated giant cells, and botryoid basophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies Rosell et al. (greenworldslimmingcapsule.info)
  • Reproductive losses attributed to PCV2 infection are less pporcino reported. (greenworldslimmingcapsule.info)
  • The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, it is a good candidate antigen for the design of new recombinant vaccines against PCV2 infection and for the development of serologic tests. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PCV2 infection causes immunosuppression that leads to multiple diseases, causing serious economic problems for the swine industry in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a member of the family Circoviridae , is a small, non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCV2 infection normally causes immunosuppression and reduced immunity by damaging the immune system, which leads to co-infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), CSFV and Porcine Pseudorabies Virus (PRV), usually resulting in worse conditions, making the requirements for prevention and control more serious [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCV2 infection has caused huge economic losses in pig production in China and worldwide and is recognized as one of the most important pig diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Circoviridae Genus: Circovirus Beak and feather disease virus Canary circovirus Duck circovirus Finch circovirus Goose circovirus Gull circovirus Pigeon circovirus Porcine circovirus-1 Porcine circovirus-2 Starling circovirus Swan circovirus Genus: Cyclovirus Chicken anemia virus The family Circoviridae contains two genera-Circovirus and Cyclovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Circovirus: type species: Porcine circovirus 1 Genus Cyclovirus : type species Dragonfly associated cyclovirus 8, A cyclovirus-cyclovirus-Vietnam-has been isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of 25 Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown aetiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proposed new genus ( Cyclovirus ) within the family Circoviridae consists of cycloviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • This non-enveloped single-stranded DNA virus was renamed Torque teno virus, a species of the genus Anelloviridae in an unassigned family that is most closely related to Circoviridae (4), (5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Duck circovirus (DuCV), a tentative member of the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae, was first isolated in Germany in 2003 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA), circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. (nih.gov)
  • the fi rst human-infecting member of the genus Gyrovirus , Thus, because HGyV might cause clinically relevant which is part of the family Circoviridae and encompasses disorders, guidance in choosing the directions for clinical only 1 previously known species, CAV ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Development of PMWS was studied in models for experimental infection in young pigs using coinfections with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or Escherichia coli. (slu.se)
  • Can porcine circovirus type 3 cause persistent infection in pigs? (bmj.com)
  • Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is widespread in clinically healthy pigs but the viral load is low, suggesting the presence of subclinical infection. (bmj.com)
  • Klaumann and colleagues also found that persistent infection with PCV3 did occur in pigs, but the occurrence of this was fairly low. (bmj.com)
  • Unfortunately, the sampling period did not cover the whole lifetime of the pigs, so information regarding infection dynamics during gestation and adulthood (over 26 weeks old) was not obtained. (bmj.com)
  • Klaumann and colleagues also found that PCV3 infection was either intermittent or occurred once during the lifetime of most pigs. (bmj.com)
  • Over the next 4 weeks post-infection, the pigs were monitored for the presence of viremia, fecal virus excretion, and humoral immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family Circoviridae is currently composed of 2 genera, Gyrovirus and Circovirus , each of which has been associated with diseases in birds, pigs, and dogs ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Pigs can also have a role in zoonotic transmission of some viral infections to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The E2 envelope glycoprotein is the key immunogenic protein that elicits protective immunity against CSFV infection in pigs. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. (nih.gov)
  • The attenuated chimeric virus, designated PCV1-2b, effectively protects pigs from PCV2b challenges, and can be used as a live vaccine, as well as an inactivated (killed) vaccine, that provides protection and cross protection against PCV2b and PCV2a subtypes infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pigs infected experimentally often developed sub-clinical infection and typical PMWS is hard to reproduce. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections caused by circoviruses have been associated with damage to lymphoid tissues resulting in extensive lymphocyte depletion ( 18 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Porcine circoviruses are classified in the Circoviridae family, which contains two genera, Circovirus and Gyrovirus. (pamfa.org)
  • Outside of the United States, the circoviruses found in human stools do not appear to be derived by meat consumption and might cause enteric infections. (pamfa.org)
  • The canine skin and ear microbiome: A comprehensive survey of pathogens implicated in canine skin and ear infections using a novel next-generation-sequencing-based assay. (techmaniac.online)
  • Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. (nih.gov)
  • Today, they represent a possible alternative tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. (news-medical.net)
  • These virus particles can then be used in honey bee cage bioassays to test inocula viability, as well as various other virus infection dynamics, including interactions with nutrition, pesticides, and other pathogens. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eukaryotic viral sequences were dominated by plant pathogens from the Geminiviridae and Nanoviridae families, and animal pathogens from the Circoviridae family. (ucc.ie)
  • These factors remain to be identified, but management routines, concurrent infections and maternal immunity are thought to influence the risk for PMWS outbreak in swine herds. (slu.se)
  • The present invention is drawn to exploiting the role of RNase-L in innate immunity for methods of treating a microbial infection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The first section provides an introduction to microbiology, infection, immunity and molecular diagnostic methods. (booksmed.com)
  • Secondary viral, fungal, bacterial or parasitic infections often occur as a result of diminished immunity caused by a PBFD viral infection. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • In case of an infection in unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated flocks, the hatching of eggs can be stopped for several weeks until the adequate immunity is obtained in the flock. (farm.com.np)
  • Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes. (ictvonline.org)
  • Among birds, circovirus infections have been associated with beak abnormalities, lethargy, and anorexia in parrots and pigeons and production losses and death in geese ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic form results in progressive feather loss (alopecia), beak deformation, and predisposition to opportunistic infections ( Pass and Perry, 1984 ). (scielo.br)
  • Budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the etiologic agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), is a member of the family Circoviridae. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Gerlach H (1994) Circoviridae-psittacine beak and feather disease virus. (springer.com)
  • Ha HJ, Anderson IL, Alley MR, Springett BP, Gartrell BD (2007) The prevalence of beak and feather disease virus infection in wild populations of parrots and cockatoos in New Zealand. (springer.com)
  • The beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is currently considered a member of the family Circoviridae . (wikiversity.org)
  • Following experimental infection by PCV2d-2, specific IgM antibodies were first detected at 14 days post challenge (dpch), while IgG class antibodies were first detected at 21 dpch. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection and neutralizing antibodies in gilts subclinically infected and to determine the effect on their litters. (greenworldslimmingcapsule.info)
  • New-born chicks are protected against infection by antibodies received from the mother through the egg. (blogspot.com)
  • If we think this way it seems logic pigeons and parrots must have received protective antibodies from their mother in the egg, protecting them from circovirus infections in the egg and in their first weeks of life. (blogspot.com)
  • Testing for PBFD-specific antibodies can also reveal important information about a possible infection. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • Antibodies can be detected in the blood serum of breed flocks in case of infection. (farm.com.np)
  • Flu infection is caused by influenza A virus of Orthomyxoviridae family which has negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome of HGyV, which resembles CAV more aimed at defi ning the prevalence of HGyV infection in closely than other members of the family ( 1 , 3 ), contains different human populations, portal of entry, type of cells an untranslated region of 380 nt and 3 major partially targeted during primary amplifi cation, and site of latency/ overlapping open reading frames (named viral protein [VP] persistence. (cdc.gov)
  • The genera Cyclovirus have been suggested to cause human enteric infections and, a study identified and characterized the full genome of a novel cyclovirus (tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam [CyCV-VN]) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of two Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology. (waterpathogens.org)
  • The virus, a member of the Circoviridae, is known to possess a non-enveloped, circular, single-stranded DNA genome. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a recently described virus belonging to the family Circoviridae. (bmj.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV)0, porcine circovirus type 2(PCV-2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV)0 infections were investigated as possible causes of the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome(PMWS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, an immunocomplex disease, has also been associated with infection by this virus. (uab.cat)
  • The Pathogenesis of Virus Infections 4. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Diagnosis of Virus Infections 6. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • A team from Oxford University have discovered a novel virus found in some patients with severe infections in Vietnam, tentatively naming it cyclovirus-Vietnam [CyCV-VN]. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • We don't yet know whether this virus is responsible for causing the serious brain infections we see in these patients, but finding an infectious agent like this in a normally sterile environment like the fluid around the brain is extremely important, said Dr Rogier van Doorn, Head of Emerging Infections at the Wellcome Trust Vietnam Research Programme and Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Vietnam. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • However, detecting the virus in human samples is not in itself sufficient evidence to prove that the virus is causing disease, particularly since the virus could also be detected in patients with other known viral or bacterial causes of brain infection. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • Clearly we need to do more work to understand the role this virus may play in these severe infections. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • Virus infections possess persistent health challenges in swine industry leading to severe economic losses worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The economic burden caused by virus infections such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Swine influenza virus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Porcine Circovirus 2, Foot and Mouth Disease Virus and many others are associated with severe morbidity, mortality, loss of production, trade restrictions and investments in control and prevention practices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines are available against porcine viral infections with variable efficacy under field conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Reserve (WR) strain was generated by intracerebral mouse passages, and an intranasal inoculation results in an acute infection of the lung followed by dissemination of the virus to various organs. (datexis.com)
  • In this study, we focused on the differences in virus replication and host immune responses between lethal and non-lethal respiratory infections with VV. (datexis.com)
  • Numbers of studies have broadened our understanding of the roles of p53 signaling in the process of different virus infection and replication. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Multiple infection of porcine Torque teno virus in a single pig and characterization of the full-length genomic sequences of four U.S. prototype PTTV strains: implication for genotyping of PTTV. (lens.org)
  • Unraveling the puzzle of human anellovirus infections by comparison with avian infections with the chicken anemia virus", Virus Research, 2008, pp. 1-15, vol. 137, Issue 1, Israel. (lens.org)
  • A major outbreak of chikungunya virus infection has been ongoing in the Caribbean since December 2013. (tropnet.net)
  • Moreover, the significant downregulation of BmFerHCH, BmNHR96, and BmSINAL10 in both strains following BmNPV infection revealed their role in benefiting virus infection, as well as the upregulation of BmFerHCH in YeB midgut and BmSINAL10 in YeB hemolymph. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we present a method to mass produce large quantities of virus particles along with a high throughput bioassay to test viral infection and effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • A major advantage of using such particles is that it greatly reduces the chances of introducing unknown variables in subsequent experimentation when compared to current alternatives, such as infection via infected bee hemolymph or homogenate, though care should still be taken when sourcing the bees, to minimize background virus contamination. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cage assays are not a substitute for large-scale, field-realistic experiments testing virus infection effects at a colony level, but instead function as a method to establish baseline viral responses that, in combination with the semi-pure virus particles, can serve as important tools to examine various dimensions of honey bee-virus physiological interactions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Direct demonstration of virus infections I: virus isolation. (univet.hu)
  • Also our canaries face virus infections, best example being the pox virus, but there are many others. (blogspot.com)
  • Using a combination approach of both molecular and serological tests increases the capacity to detect infections or exposure to virus. (ufs.ac.za)
  • New techniques described should be used in conjunction with existing tests and should not completely replace conventional techniques for diagnosis of BFDV infection or detection of exposure to the virus. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Die virus, 'n lid van die Circoviridae, is bekend as 'n nie-omvou, sirkulêre, enkelstring DNA genoom in besit te neem. (ufs.ac.za)
  • n Kombinasie van beide molekulêre en serologiese toetse verhoog die kapasiteit om infeksies of die blootstelling aan die virus op te spoor. (ufs.ac.za)
  • The virus that causes PBFD can also affect the liver, brain, and immune system causing diminished resistance to infections. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • Additional symptoms not mentioned above, including elevated white blood cell counts are generally due to secondary infections and may not be directly related to PBFD virus infections. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • The young chickens upto 3 weeks are susceptible to the virus infection. (farm.com.np)
  • AI virus infection usually causes sporadic or no disease. (farm.com.np)
  • Viral epidemiology would be the department of health care science that promotions With all the transmission and Charge of virus bacterial infections in human beings. (blogkoo.com)
  • Fully revised and updated by the new author team, partI presents the fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease, and partII addresses the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and prevention of individual diseases. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. (prolekare.cz)
  • The clinical signs of influenza infection include fever, anorexia, loss of weight gain and respiratory problems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied respiratory droplet generation and exhalation in human and nonhuman primate subjects with and without COVID-19 infection to explore whether SARS-CoV-2 infection, and other changes in physiological state, translate into observable evolution of numbers and sizes of exhaled respiratory droplets in healthy and diseased subjects. (bvsalud.org)
  • In our observational cohort study of the exhaled breath particles of 194 healthy human subjects, and in our experimental infection study of eight nonhuman primates infected, by aerosol, with SARS-CoV-2, we found that exhaled aerosol particles vary between subjects by three orders of magnitude, with exhaled respiratory droplet number increasing with degree of COVID-19 infection and elevated BMI-years. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infection probably occurs via oral and respiratory routes, and leads to various diseases including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. (pamfa.org)
  • In birds, C. psittaci may manifest itself as an upper respiratory infection with nasal, and or ocular discharge, diarrhea, or a combination of all three. (pearltrees.com)
  • A significant proportion of asymptomatic BFDV infections exist. (ufs.ac.za)
  • However, it was not possible to associate BFDV infection with the geographical origin of birds and no local marker was detected. (scielo.br)
  • More recently, a circovirus-like infection of canaries was identified in adult birds that had died following a short illness characterized by dullness, anorexia, lethargy and feather disorder (Todd et al. (blogspot.com)
  • This means the circovirus, which attacks the immune system of the birds, makes the birds vulnerable to infections which, under normal circumstances, pose no problem for the immune system of the birds. (blogspot.com)
  • For a review of circovirus infections in non-psittacine birds I refer to Dr. Leslie Woods (2000). (blogspot.com)
  • Birds infected before that age will never develop a mature immune system and will die of secondary infections. (blogspot.com)
  • Fungal infections Fungal infections in birds may play an important role in the insufficient shape of racing pigeons. (pearltrees.com)
  • PBFD can cause fatal infections, primarily in young birds. (animalgenetics.eu)
  • Though adult birds may acquire infection, the clinical signs are not seen in them. (farm.com.np)
  • Birds from live poultry market system and backyard flocks have higher infection rates. (farm.com.np)
  • Die studie was uiteengesit om die huidige diagnostiese strategie vir BFDV te evalueer en te verbeter, met beide molekulêre en serologiese tegnieke. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Om polimerase kettingreaksie (PKR) en kwantitatiewe werklike tyd polimerase kettingreaksie (qPCR) as diagnostiese instrumente vir BFDV te vergelyk. (ufs.ac.za)
  • A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. (deepdyve.com)
  • This facilitates diagnosis of the infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections (collection and transport of samples). (univet.hu)
  • Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, but the etiology frequently remains unknown, which hampers development of therapeutic or preventive strategies, researchers said. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • In one report intranasal infection with the WR strain caused pneumonia showing severe alveolar edema and acute necrotizing bronchiolitis and peribronchiolitis as well as neutrophilic infiltrates in the interstitium of the lung. (datexis.com)
  • Chronic fatigue often starts with an acute viral infection-as witnessed in the case of SARS-CoV-2-but indirect consequences of these infections are presumably the actual cause of the condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is characterised by a state of prolonged fatigue that is seen in 20% of acute Q fever infections and has major health-related consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2000). In the CNS and other major organs like lungs and kidneys, there may be development of small vessel vasculopathy (disseminated) in case of acute infection (Wong et al. (datexis.com)
  • Later chapters will discuss viral infections such as chickenpox, measles, and rubella-diseases that cause skin rashes but invade the body through portals of entry other than the skin. (openstax.org)
  • The future of the endangered giant pandas depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases, especially viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This can be used in genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases and viral infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Circovirus infections are commonly associated with immune deficiency-related diseases that are potentially fatal. (blogspot.com)
  • Zhao D, Chen D, Ge C, Gotoh T, Hong X. Multiple infections with Cardinium and two strains of Wolbachia in the spider mite Tetranychus phaselus Ehara: revealing new forces driving the spread of Wolbachia. (labome.org)
  • however, infection with a high dose of WR strain caused lethality, which has been used as a challenge model to study the effect of antiviral drugs, immune IgG, soluble viral proteins and other vaccine strains. (datexis.com)
  • This lack of prevalence of PVL (38.9%) was found determinants in relation to infection is data led us to investigate the frequen- in S. aureus strains causing abscesses hard to establish. (cdc.gov)
  • The family Circoviridae contains two genera-Circovirus and Cyclovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the research, the novel cyclovirus was idenitified and genomically characterized in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of two Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • In canaries we know chicks born with what we call 'black spot' show high mortality, up to 90-100%, due to secondary infections. (blogspot.com)
  • There are many economically important swine viral infections which cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and responsible for significant economic losses to the pork industry (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of these current and past viral infections enriches our knowledge of the cane toad virome, an understanding of which will facilitate future work on infection and disease in this important invasive species. (asm.org)
  • The specificity of binding determines the host species and cell varieties which are receptive to viral infection. (blogkoo.com)
  • Dr Le Van Tan of the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam said: 'The evidence so far seems to suggest that CyCV-VN may have crossed into humans from animals, another example of a potential zoonotic infection. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • Lethal infection with WR strain resulted in fewer lymphocytes and an altered phenotype of T cells in the lung compared to non-lethal infection and uninfected controls, and induced severe thymus atrophy with a marked reduction of CD4 and CD8 double positive (DP) T cells. (datexis.com)
  • The ratio of the two transcripts varies later on, although similar amounts of rep and rep' are detected by real time PCR immediately after PCV1 infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • The results showed that the relative stable or upregulated expression level of BmAtlatin-n, BmTHY, Bmseroin1, and Bmseroin2 in YeA resistant strain following BmNPV infection further indicated their antiviral role in vivo, compared with susceptible YeB strain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Those that are present in virions (mature viral particles) are also known as structural proteins, whereas those involved in the assembly, replication and modification of the host innate response to infection are referred to as non-structural proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Expression of viral proteins and replication of viral DNA was observed, but the infection was not to be passed on to fresh cells, indicating that PCV-infection of human cells is non-productive. (pamfa.org)
  • The clinical disease is mainly noticed in young chicks of 10-14 days of age, which usually acquire the infection vertically. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In looking at these different clinical pictures of related circovirus infections in different breeds an important question arises. (blogspot.com)
  • Analysis of these presentations revealed that porcine TTSuV2 was readily transmitted to TTSuV-negative swine and that infection was associated with characteristic pathologic changes in specific pathogen-free piglets inoculated with porcine TTSuV2.So, porcine TTSuV2 could be an unrecognized pathogenic viral infectious etiology of swine.This study indicated a directly related description of lesions responsible for TTSuV2 infection in swine. (nih.gov)
  • However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. (nih.gov)
  • This study indicated a directly related description of lesions responsible for TTSuV2 infection in swine. (nih.gov)
  • With the development of infection, the sections of tonsil, spleen, hilar lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the normal architecture with no special lesions through the study but only rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) of tonsiland hilar lymph nodes marked by black arrowheads (m, o, p, s. (nih.gov)
  • Focal skin lesions can also be seen which may be accompanied with bacterial infection which is known as blue wing disease. (farm.com.np)
  • Medicines which the fancier may be wise to stock, and the reasons to use them: Baytril--a good choice for serious infections, mainly intestinal or systemic. (pearltrees.com)
  • Swine are an important source of proteins worldwide but are subject to frequent viral outbreaks and numerous infections capable of infecting humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 16-18 Despite this, evidence of persistent infection has not been systematically established. (bmj.com)
  • 19 Persistent infection with PCV3 was observed during the period between lactation (two to four weeks old) and growing/fattening (10 to 25 weeks old). (bmj.com)
  • Recent years, many works have been done to clarify the silkworm anti-BmNPV mechanism, and a significant progress has been made in screening and studying of genes and proteins related to BmNPV infection, but several of them lacked the proofs in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data could be used to complementary the proofs of the function of these genes in response to BmNPV infection. (bvsalud.org)