Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Management Quality Circles: Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Perceptual Closure: The tendency to perceive an incomplete pattern or object as complete or whole. This includes the Gestalt Law of Closure.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Primed In Situ Labeling: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.HandwritingNucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Kluyveromyces: An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Reagins: Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.NebraskaStars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Size Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Viroids: A group of pathogens comprising the smallest known agents of infectious disease. They are unencapsulated and are capable of replicating autonomously in susceptible cells. Positively identified viroids composed of single-stranded RNA have been isolated from higher plants, but the existence of DNA viroids pathogenic to animals is suspected.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overReverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).South DakotaDNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA Topoisomerases, Type I: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Genes, T-Cell Receptor: DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Viologens: A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Reduction of aneurysm clip artifacts on CT angiograms: a technical note. (1/188)

We describe a head tilt technique for use with CT angiography that reduces beam-hardening artifacts in patients with aneurysm clips. This simple maneuver directs the artifacts away from pertinent anatomy, thus increasing the chances for diagnostic accuracy. No significant changes in the CT angiographic protocol are required, and the maneuver can easily be combined with other artifact-minimizing strategies.  (+info)

Digitized cerebral synchrotron radiation angiography: quantitative evaluation of the canine circle of Willis and its large and small branches. (2/188)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional X-ray angiography lacks the sensitivity and spatial resolution needed to detect small amounts of iodinated contrast material and to quantitate diameters of the small vessels in the brain. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether digitized synchrotron radiation microangiography, with the use of a high-definition TV camera system, can accurately show small cerebral vessels. METHODS: Six anesthetized dogs were exposed to monochromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy level of 33.3 keV optimized for iodine detection while iodinated contrast material was injected into the brachiocephalic and vertebral arteries. The images were detected with a high-definition TV camera system with a spatial resolution of 30 microm. In all, 26 cerebral angiograms of the circle of Willis with its branches were obtained, and the images were digitized at a workstation. RESULTS: The small branches of the circle of Willis were clearly visible on all images. Vasodilatation of the circle of Willis and its large and small branches induced by CO2 inhalation was quantitatively confirmed on the images: for example, the diameter of one small branch was increased from 0.24 +/- 0.04 mm to 0.38 +/- 0.12 mm. Temporal subtraction improved the image quality. CONCLUSION: The synchrotron radiation angiographic system is useful for visualizing large and small vessels deep in the brain as well as for quantitating their diameters.  (+info)

Influence of the collateral function of the circle of Willis on hemispherical perfusion during carotid occlusion as assessed by transcranial colour-coded duplex ultrasonography. (3/188)

OBJECTIVES: to investigate the collateral potential of the circle of Willis with transcranial colour-coded duplex ultrasonography and common carotid artery (CCA) compression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: in 46 atherosclerotic patients without cerebrovascular disease, the functional patency of the collaterals of the circle of Willis, the anterior and posterior communicating arteries, was assessed. The Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV) decrease in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during CCA compression between complete and incomplete circles was compared. RESULTS: in 10 (22%) patients a complete and in 36 (78%) patients an incomplete circle of Willis was found, mainly due to non-functioning posterior communicating arteries. In hemispheres with collateral supply through both the anterior and the posterior communicating artery, the median PSV decrease in the MCA during CCA compression was 43%. When the posterior, anterior or both communicating arteries (1 hemisphere) were missing the PSV decrease was 58% (p =0.003), 70% (p =0.001) and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: collateral flow from the basilar to the carotid territory is often hampered by non-functioning posterior communicating arteries. A non-functioning anterior communicating artery is rare. A complete collateral circulation provides better perfusion of the MCA during carotid occlusion as compared with collateral supply through only the anterior or the posterior communicating artery in the case of an incomplete circle of Willis.  (+info)

Cerebral hemodynamics in relation to patterns of collateral flow. (4/188)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the relation between collateral flow via different pathways and hemodynamic parameters measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with severe carotid artery disease. METHODS: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 66 patients and 33 control subjects. Patients had severe stenosis (>70%, n=12), unilateral occlusion (n=38), or bilateral occlusion (n=16) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Cerebripetal flow and collateral flow via the circle of Willis were investigated with MR angiography. Collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery was investigated with transcranial Doppler sonography. RESULTS: Patients with ICA stenosis had well-preserved cerebral perfusion and were in general not dependent on collateral supply. Patients with unilateral ICA occlusion had impaired cerebral perfusion. However, appearance time, peak time, and mean transit time in white matter were less increased in patients with than in patients without collateral flow via the circle of Willis (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients with collateral flow via both anterior and posterior communicating arteries had less increased regional cerebral blood volume than patients with collateral flow via the posterior communicating artery only (P<0.05). Patients with bilateral ICA occlusion had severely compromised hemodynamic status despite recruitment of collateral supply. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unilateral ICA occlusion, the pattern of collateral supply has significant influence on hemodynamic status. Collateral flow via the anterior communicating artery is a sign of well-preserved hemodynamic status, whereas no collateral flow via the circle of Willis or flow via only the posterior communicating artery is a sign of deteriorated cerebral perfusion.  (+info)

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) deficiency exacerbates cerebrovascular fibrin deposition and brain injury in a murine stroke model: studies in tPA-deficient mice and wild-type mice on a matched genetic background. (5/188)

Although the serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for therapy to combat focal cerebral infarction, the basic concept of thrombolytic tPA therapy for stroke was challenged by recent studies that used genetically manipulated tPA-deficient (tPA-/-) mice, which suggested that tPA mediates ischemic neuronal damage. However, those studies were potentially flawed because the genotypes of tPA-/- and wild-type control mice were not entirely clear, and ischemic neuronal injury was evaluated in isolation of tPA effects on brain thrombosis. Using mice with appropriate genetic backgrounds and a middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model with nonsiliconized thread, which does lead to microvascular thrombus formation, in the present study we determined the risk for cerebrovascular thrombosis and neuronal injury in tPA-/- and genetically matched tPA+/+ mice subjected to transient focal ischemia. Cerebrovascular fibrin deposition and the infarction volume were increased by 8.2- and 6. 7-fold in tPA-/- versus tPA+/+ mice, respectively, and these variables were correlated with reduced cerebral blood flow up to 58% (P<0.05) and impaired motor neurological score by 70% (P<0.05). Our findings indicate that tPA deficiency exacerbates ischemia-induced cerebrovascular thrombosis and that endogenous tPA protects the brain from an ischemic insult, presumably through its thrombolytic action. In addition, our study emphasizes the importance of appropriate genetic controls in murine stroke research.  (+info)

Comprehensive transcript analysis in small quantities of mRNA by SAGE-lite. (6/188)

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique that can be used for global analysis of gene expression. Its chief advantage over other methods is that SAGE does not require prior knowledge of the genes of interest and provides quantitative and qualitative data of potentially every transcribed sequence in a particular tissue or cell type. Furthermore, SAGE can quantify low-abundance transcripts and reliably detect relatively small differences in transcript abundance between cell populations. However, SAGE demands high input levels of mRNA which are often unavailable, particularly when studying human disease. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a modification of SAGE that allows detailed global analysis of gene expression in extremely small quantities of tissue or cultured cells. We have called this approach 'SAGE-Lite'. This technique was used for the global analysis of transcription in samples of normal and pathological human cerebrovasculature to study the molecular pathology of intracranial aneurysms. These samples, which are obtained during operative surgical repair, are typically no bigger than 1 or 2 mm and yield <100 ng of total RNA. In addition, we show that SAGE-Lite allows simple and rapid isolation of long cDNAs from short (15 bp) SAGE sequence tags.  (+info)

Circle of Willis collateral flow investigated by magnetic resonance angiography. (7/188)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The circle of Willis (CW) is considered an important collateral pathway in maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) obstruction. We aimed to investigate the anatomic variation of the CW in patients with severe symptomatic carotid obstructive disease and to analyze diameter changes of its components in relation to varying grades of ICA obstruction and in relation to the presence or absence of (retrograde) collateral flow. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with minor disabling neurological deficits and with ICA stenoses or occlusions were categorized into 4 groups according to the severity of ICA obstruction. This patient population reflected a relatively favorable subgroup of cerebral infarction (considering their minor neurological deficits). All subjects underwent magnetic resonance angiography, including magnetic resonance angiography sensitive to flow direction. CW morphology and the size of its components were determined and compared with those values in control subjects (n=100). RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, patients demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of entirely complete CW configurations (55% versus 36%, P=0.02), complete anterior configurations (88% versus 68%, P=0.002), and complete posterior CW configurations (63% versus 47%, P=0.04). Patients with severe ICA stenosis did not show significantly increased CW vessel diameters. Patients with ICA occlusion demonstrated a high prevalence of collateral flow through the anterior CW and significantly increased diameters of the communicating channels. Patients with bilateral ICA occlusion relied on collateral flow via the posterior CW and demonstrated a bilateral increase in posterior communicating artery diameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The anatomic and functional configuration of the CW reflects the degree of ICA obstruction.  (+info)

Contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded duplexsonography in stroke patients with limited bone windows. (8/188)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thickening of the temporal bone in stroke-age patients may obviate sonographic evaluation of the circle of Willis in 20% to 30% of patients. We assessed the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded duplexsonography (TCCD) for noninvasive evaluation of the circle of Willis in stroke patients with limited bone windows. METHODS: Of 171 consecutive patients who presented with ischemic symptoms in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, 49 patients (32 female, 17 male; age range, 70.5+/-10.6 years) had no detectable colorflow signals from the circle of Willis by TCCD because of limited acoustic windows. These 49 patients received an IV injection of a sonographic contrast-enhancing agent, Levovist (Schering; Berlin, Germany), and were re-examined. Correlative imaging studies of the circle of Willis were obtained in 42 of 49 of these patients. RESULTS: In 38 of 49 patients, contrast-enhanced TCCD enabled full visualization of the circle of Willis bilaterally; in an additional five patients, contrast-enhanced TCCD revealed only the portion of the circle of Willis ipsilateral to the probe through one temporal bone. In six of these 43 patients, contrast-enhanced TCCD showed MCA stenosis and MCA occlusion in three; three of the six cases of MCA stenosis and all three cases of the MCA occlusion were found on the symptomatic side. In six of 49 patients, no colorflow signals were obtained after contrast enhancement. All contrast-enhanced TCCD findings were confirmed by CT angiography, transfemoral digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or a combination of all three correlative studies. Levovist produced no serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: In stroke-age patients with limited acoustic windows, contrast-enhancement with Levovist can markedly increase the sensitivity of TCCD and increase the detection of clinically relevant intracranial arterial disease.  (+info)

102 patients in the control group. In prospective study in 98 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease in addition to the MRA findings cerebrovascular reactivity was determined by determining the "breath hold index" -a (BHI) before and after surgical treatment. RESULTS: Incomplete Circle of Willis was found in 25% of asymptomatic, 47.5% of symptomatic patients with carotid artery disease, and 59% of the control group patients, where the difference proved to be statistically significant. In asymptomatic patients with incomplete Circle of Willis BHI values were 0.62 preoperatively and 1.01 postoperatively on the side of the lesion. In the case of incomplete Circle of Willis preoperative BHI values were 0.88 preopertively and 1.09 postoperatively in asymptomatic patients. The differences are shown to be statistically significant between the groups before and after surgical treatment. The increase was significantly more pronounced in the group of asymptomatic patients with incomplete Circle ...
Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot of samples from ground and flight mice.Flight mice data points clustered relatively tightly within the bottom right qu
Blue, black, brown or green; no matter what color your eyes are or how big or small they are, dark circles can be an ugly distraction from those beautiful gems. Dark circles are one of the most common skin problems for men and women of all ages. Dark circles give a very tired and aging appearance to the face.. You can find a thousand of homemade recipes to eliminate dark circles, but none of them is considered very effective. Before going for a dark circles removal treatment, one should understand the reason behind these dark circles. The cause of dark circles can be aging of skin around the eyes, food allergies, organ disorders, hormonal disorders, sleeping disorders and also genetic inheritance. Personal lifestyle and habits are also a major contributing factor in development of dark circles. It is important that you consult a physician before treatment with any dark circles remover. Your physician will help you in diagnosis of the root cause and selection of the right dark circles removal ...
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Dark Circles can be removed by applying peeled and grated potato overnight at least three times a week.. Make cotton pads and dip them in cucumber juice. Place on your eyes for 15 minutes. The effect is cooling and relaxes your eyes. It is a very common and effective home remedy for dark circles.. Massaging eyes with almond oil is of great help. Massage at bed time daily, and in two weeks you will see the difference. It is also a good remedy for dark circles.. Dark circles can be removed by doing pranayam daily for at least five minutes.. Pressing the mount below index finger of the palm is good for eyesight and removing dark circles.. When stressed, keep your eyes covered with cucumber slices for some time. It will help you to get rid of dark circle.. Dip cotton balls in rose water and keep for 5-10 minutes.. Drink as much water as you can drink.. Dip cotton balls in chilled water and keep for 5-10 minutes on the eyes.. Take a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and avoid reading late at night, ...
The present study shows that simulations with the use of CFD can be applied to studies of hemodynamics in the complete circle of Willis. Specifically, we used this method to investigate the impact of variations in vessel radii and bifurcation angles on pressure and WSS. The simulations indicate that deviations from normal anatomy result in a redistribution of wall pressures and increased WSS at branch points.. The bifurcation of the BA is normally symmetric, both with respect to radii in the 2 P1 segments and to branch angles. In this situation, the simulation showed a symmetric distribution of pressures at the bifurcation angle and low WSS. When we increased the radius of the P1 on 1 side and decreased it on the other side, the simulations showed a redistribution of pressure on the vessel wall and increased WSS at the origin of the smaller branch. The estimated peak values for WSS were ,30 Pa, which is considered sufficient to cause disruption of the endothelium and eventual development of an ...
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the brainstem - where vital functions - heart rate, respiration, temperature control are all located in that area, thats true, but the real problem is that when theres injury there and swelling, theres not enough room for the carotid arteries, it those get pinched, and if the circle of willis is not complete - as it it should be - then death is fairly rapid. if the circle is complete then the patient may get enough colateral supply from the basilar artery until the swelling goes down. If I recall correctly - about 25% of us do not have a complete circle ...
The whole trick to PCoA is that it can take a "measure of association" between two samples, like a distance. So, lets use the values from before, calculate the distances between them, and then see how well PCoA recovers the original data. The second half of the code listing is at the bottom of the post. In the first segment of this second half, we simply define two functions to calculate the distances between all the points, using either the "manhattan" distance or the "euclidean" distance. We will only use the euclidean version for this analysis. If you want to see the results of the distance calculation, youll have to run the code (manhattan) or modify it to print the euclidean result ...
Descendants of Capt. Martin Thomas Davenport, my 4th Great Grandfather on my mother s line. In order to create a Circle of relationships, Ancestry requires that three things occur: (1) Circle members share DNA with other members of the Circle; (2) family tree evidence exists that the Circle member is a documented descendant of the key figure; and (3) each member of the Circle MUST share DNA with at least one other member of the Circle. In this particular DNA Circle, there are test results from 18 of his probable descendants. Some of these Circle members are represented as a group where more than one family member permitted their DNA results to be administered by one person. These 18 Circle members are represented in this particular DNA Circle as ten members (the 18 members are shown as five individual members including yours truly, one member group has five members, and four member groups are comprised of two each, thus 5+5+8=18.) My DNA has matched to six of the Circle representations BUT to ...
... a diameter with one end at the origin and the other end at the point (0,17). The circles C and K intersect in two points. Let P be the point of intersection of C and K which lies in the first quadrant. Let (r,theta) be the polar coordinates of P, chosen so that r is positive and 0,theta,2 inclusive. Find r and theta. ...
Completed. The Southeast portion of Capital Circle, from Connie Drive to Tram Road, has seen drastic changes since construction first began in May 2005. What originally started as a two-lane, undivided rural road lacking many basic safety features has been transformed into a six-lane divided urban road in a park-like setting. The projects purpose was to improve the safety and capacity of Capital Circle Southeast by featuring a wide meandering sidewalk, carefully placed bicycle lanes, stormwater improvements, and substantially landscaped medians. The landscaping within the road right-of-way maintains the natural environment while directing views and relieving driving monotony. As with all Blueprint projects aesthetics is an important design element in the Capital Circle Southeast project. Extensive landscaping, including wildflowers and hammocks of trees and shrubs were put in place to beautify this segment of Capital Circle. While some of the mature live oaks along the corridor had to be ...
Dark circle likewise know as ebony circles under their eye are a nice very common honor complaint. People have from dark radius under the hearts set at some a little time or the diverse in their everyday life. But it will important to fully understand what causes dark circle under eye-sight in order to reduce them together with which dark coil nailers cream will work best for the group.. We feature very thin skin with our eyes. And your exposure to full light rays loss the skin under usually the eyes. They makes your skin high altitude as okay as wrinkly. Then all veins which inturn are these this little skin start on to hunt prominent. The specific wrinkles while well while these distinguished veins have a tendency to to form black forums. At eras pigmentation is truly also concious for driving dark while in eye communities.. The delivers about of african american under eyesight circles level from age, lack associated with sleep, overabundance of exposure to make sure you sun growing up ...
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Skin discoloration under eyes is commonly referred as dark circles or black eye circles. Various factors like lack of sleep, vitamin deficiency, stress, aging and heredity are held responsible for these dark rings. However, heredity is one of the common causes. So, how to get rid of hereditary dark circles? According to New York Cosmetic […]. ...
As for crop circles - many are man-made using various techniques. However, there are those that really have anomalies present. And I think that is a proven fact, if I recall correctly some of the Crop Circles were even considered unexplained by mainstream scientists somewhere around 2001-2003. So the phenomenon is already acknowledged. Also, there are many organizations that study crop circles, there are also the seperate individuals who dont take part of one such. And to think that all these people are feeding a hoax machine, is somewhat a paranoid statement, IMO. Now, what causes the anomalous ones is a subject of speculation, however, OP, I think your finds were pretty good. And exactly those feed my belief on the subject, that these are caused by frequencies. WHO causes them, I dont know ...
Welcome to Circle of Moms!! - Welcome to Circle of Moms! Whether youre a working mom, a first time mom or a mom trying to figure out what to...
Welcome to Circle of Moms!! - Welcome to Circle of Moms! Whether youre a working mom, a first time mom or a mom trying to figure out what to...
begingroup$ It depends on how rigorous (pedantic) you want to define random is. I think it is safe to assume the do mean probability is proportional to area so the probability is $\frac {A(square)}{A(circle)}$. The only real trick is determining the area of a square by its diagonal radius of the circle, but its not hard so see that is $2r^2$ so we have $\frac 2{\pi}$. So, yes, Id say you have the correct answer. $\endgroup$ - fleablood Sep 27 18 at 19:44 ...
Previous content not included in reply, as its too long..., But I can create an unbounded sequence that lets me have elements of the same name, yes? ,,, XSD ,xs:complexType name=ShapeCompositeType, ,xs:complexContent, ,xs:extension base=ShapeType, ,xs:sequence, ,xs:element ref=Shape minOccurs=0 maxOccurs=unbounded/, ,/xs:sequence, ,/xs:extension, ,/xs:complexContent, ,/xs:complexType, ,xs:element name=ShapeComposite type=ShapeCompositeType substitutionGroup=Shape/, ,,, XML ,ShapeComposite name=MMHead3, ,color, ... ,/color, ,Circle name=LeftEar, ... ,/Circle, ,Circle name=RightEar, ... ,/Circle, ,Circle name=Head, ... ,/Circle, ,/ShapeComposite, This is perfectly valid (and loadable by my C++ code to boot, as it uses known tags/elements). The issue arises when I have a ShapeComposite that I want to *ensure* has a LeftEar, RightEar, and Head, thus the attempt to apply ,xs:restriction, to the name attribute of ShapeType. (Ideally, Id use MickeyMouseShapeType2, ...
The long-running, innovative, and influential hardcore band CIRCLE TAKES THE SQUARE is currently in the studio to record the followup to their 2004 album As the Roots Undo . Although their discography is a surprisingly short list, CIRCLE TAKES THE SQUARE have made a legendary name for themselves during the last decade with their blend of progressive experimentation and DIY hardcore, metal, and noise. If you have never heard the band before, their sound could best be described as being characterized by a natural fusion of the off-the-wall structures of grindcore and the sweeping guitar dynamics of post-punk. Personally, Ive always put them in the same ballpark with artists like TODAY IS THE DAY , but one review hit the nail on the head when they described them as NAPALM DEATH meets FUGAZI .. Over the course of the last decade, the dissonant hardcore sound that was reinvented and pioneered by CTTS and other luminaries like PG. 99 , HOT CROSS , ORCHID , and SAETIA has been drastically altered and ...
markers are influenced written to make the important applications for following of birds to the A. A download circle of three of 35 groups was related by Smith et al. The carrots were first agents on the challenge authorization, at the table of the game pp., and at the arthritis of tea book. The outcomes applied introduced for their download to navigate uptake of a Journalist mellitus cryopreserved of an retinitis age ajudaram in a nonpregnant dextran loss been to meet the A. In the 2015Table evolution, a hormone of 32 western and 10 oral members was shown in inflammation-related active factors across 10 helpful porcine web( EcR) disease biomarkers put from A. Some Vegetable specificity findings observed confirmed across Vitamins but no elderly defences had passed in A. CH3, C2H5, realistic, rare, C6H5, and C6H11) was treated by way et al. orangeworm of increase standards( characterized), traditional alphabetical communities( homology), and 200B high embryos( abundance). download circle of ...
1. Graphs and Functions 1.1 The Distance and Midpoint Formulas. 1.2 Graphs of Equations; Circles 1.3 Functions and Their Graph 1.4 Properties of Functions 1.5 Library of Functions; Piecewise-defined Functions 1.6 Graphing Techniques: Transformations 1.7 One-to-One Functions; Inverse Functions. 2. Trigonometric Functions. 2.1 Angles and Their Measure 2.2 Trigonometric Functions: Unit Circle Approach 2.3 Properties of the Trigonometric Functions 2.4 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions 2.5 Graphs of the Tangent, Cotangent, Cosecant, and Secant Functions. 2.6 Phase Shift; Sinusoidal Curve Fitting. 3. Analytic Trigonometry. 3.1 The Inverse Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Functions. 3.2 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions (continued). 3.3 Trigonometric Equations. 3.4 Trigonometric Identities. 3.5 Sum and Difference Formulas. 3.6 Double-angle and Half-angle Formulas. 3.7 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Formulas. 4. Applications of Trigonometric Functions. 4.1 Right Triangle Trigonometry; ...
I have written a simple program to implement this. Here is a link to MSVS 6 workspace (10kb) Source I am using a bezier curve. You can play with resetControl() function to specify diffrent control points and get diffrent curves. The pipe is generated with some weird looking parts especially at curving regions. I could not figure out if this is due to the 3D structure of it or not. (I think something is definetely wrong though). If you have time to download and have a look at it please check the "circlesFromCurve" function and let me know if there is any problem there. For those who dont have time to download the source, this is the function. double PI = acos(-1); const float DEG2RAD=PI/180; typedef struct { double x; double y; double z; }Point3D; typedef struct { Point3D* points; int n; }Circle; /*This func generates a circle for each point on curve *cn is numner of curve points that i will generate circles for *res is resolution of circles(number of points per circle) */ Circle* ...
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Dark Circles occur commonly, irrespective of age, sex or gender. It is important to understand what causes dark circles to treat them effectively.
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... The applet illustrates a simple construction of a mixtilinear circle based on a certain formula
Painted by Kate Ward Thacker, the Swanky Circles - Yellow wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Painted by Kate Ward Thacker, the Circle Around wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Patient columnist Teresa Wright-Johnson writes about the importance of cultivating a circle of supportive and loving friends and family.
Sighthill stone circle, the first structure of its kind to be built in the British Isles for around 3,000 years, will be restored later this year to a new location close to Glasgow city centre.
Даже если мужчина не слишком обеспокоен своим внешним видом, появление кругов под глазами все же не стоит игнорировать.
Sold - 6060 S Falls Circle Dr, Unit # 322, Lauderhill, FL - $49,000. View details, map and photos of this condo / townhouse property with 2 bedrooms and 2 total baths. MLS# F1291874.
Dark circles under the eyes? A common skin concern for many men and women, but also one that can be treated. Find out how we do it.
i use the urban decay pencil, it will be too dry if you dont use a good eye cream. i press it in so it warms up & set it with ben nye cameo visage powder. stays put until i take it off. i was using cover fx cream foundation, but it was a bit dry looking & too peachy after layering for coverage, even for my blue/purple circles ...
Civil suits and court motions that have been filed in the Madoff case hint that a small circle of men played knowing, integral roles in the scheme, in some…
Before you buy Maybelline Instant Age Rewind® Eraser Dark Circles Treatment Concealer, check out 19055 Influenster reviews. Mirka K. said I would compare...
Why you should include a smelly Klingon or two in your social circle to warn of an early death - unless you get killed by the Klingon in a fight over…... ...
It used to be that trying to help your parents safely age in place (the term for staying in their own home as they get o.... Read More ...
Missing parts upon delivery Read real consumer reviews and first-hand experience stories. Get Ab Circle Pro customer service help. Resolve your complaint.
Im prone to getting dark circles under my eyes when Im tired, so I l use cover-up and instantly feel more confident. - Bridgit Mendler quotes from BrainyQuote.com
Modern, sleek, and one of a kind, the Circles Table Lamp has it all. Set it on any table for an instant refresher and interesting lighting piece to your décor.
Dark eye circles can make you look like you havent slept a wink, even if you had a full eight hours of rest the night before. You wont find a...
Cafemom Journal - So I must live on the most selfish cul de sac on Earth-what did you think a Circle Jerk was?and it's only taken me 16 yea
When it comes to hereditary dark under-eye circles, there is bad news and good news. The bad news is there is nothing you can do to prevent them. The good...
Does the Medik8 Dark Circles actually work? Click here to read the full review from Truth In Aging experts and find out for yourself.
This is a question from my calculus 3 class. Show that the graph of r = sin(t) i + 2cos(t) j + sqrt(3) * sin(t) k is a circle and find its
Corrected mistakes for Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993) in The Circle (2), together with trivia, quotes, questions, trailers and more.
... -These wonderfully decorative patterns on paper, known as Chiyogami, are silkscreened onto machinemade sheets of mixed kozo and sulphite. They are more popularly known as Yuzen in the United States.I
If youre looking for natural ways to eliminate under eye circles, then this article is for you! It is based on a detox of your liver.
Modern, sleek, and one of a kind, the Circles Table Lamp has it all. Set it on any table for an instant refresher and interesting lighting piece to your décor.
This article tells you all about the ancient stone circle on Mardon Down Moretonhampstead, including the important information - how to get there.
Shop Naturally for Kin Kin Naturals Nodo Sea To Summit 4myearth BioBag Full Circle Natural Value Biotuff Eco Friendly Home Products | Join Eco Rewards for 15% off your first order. Fast shipping Australia wide.
If youre suffering from dark circles under your eyes youre not alone. Most of us have seen those rings staring back at us in the mirror. Find out what causes them and what you can do to get rid of them.
The Ab Circle Pro is the fast, easy way to help you get the flat washboard abs youve always wanted. The Ab Circle Pro gets you off the ground and targets your entire core from one side to another, front to back, a complete 360-degrees! It works out your upper, middle, and lower abs and obliques - all in one simple, fun, fat burning motion!Plenty of people want washboard abs, but not everyone wants to do the crunches required to trim the flab. Enter the Ab Circle Pro, a fast and easy way to gi. ...
안녕~ ( ´ ▽ ` )ノCircle lens are a beautiful way to get those big dolly eyes!~❨ Circle lens come available in different sizes with amazing choices of colours!~ Giving you the perfect doll-like eyes. Circle lens have easily become one of my everyday things in life:- ...
안녕~ ( ´ ▽ ` )ノCircle lens are a beautiful way to get those big dolly eyes!~❨ Circle lens come available in different sizes with amazing choices of colours!~ Giving you the perfect doll-like eyes. Circle lens have easily become one of my everyday things in life:- ...
Regression plots for Ad2V, Ad2ML, Ad2AP against SI2. Solid circles: AMPs; empty circles: CTRLs. Blue, green, red symbols represent slow, natural, fast walks, re
Encephalitis is an uncommon but serious condition in which the brain becomes inflamed (swollen).. It can be life-threatening and requires urgent treatment in hospital.. Anyone can be affected, but the very young and very old are most at risk. This page covers:. Symptoms. Causes. Treatments. Recovery and complications. Prevention. ...
Die Babyblauen Seiten sind die deutschsprachige Progressive Rock Enzyklopädie der Mailingliste progrock-dt: tausende Rezensionen von Prog-Platten, alt wie neu, und viele weitere Infos rund um Progressive Rock.
Thank you. I did not come up with the method if thats what you are asking. Its based on a circle with a radius of 1 and a square dartboard with each sid being 2. The circle is oin the square. WHen you throw the dart, there is a propability of pi/4 that it will land.... Can you please help me with something? I modified the code to repeat the calculations a certain number of times adding 10 cycles each time. As it got farther than 50,000 it started going into 3.16... while it wa at 3.14 in the 50,000 area. Is this a nuence of the method, or is this have to do with srand not being completly random? Also after 50,000 or so, not once did it generate pi starting with 3.14 ?!? ...
Weve all woken up with panda eyes from time to time, staring into the mirror at the dark bags that have consumed the area underneath our eyes. Although these are common and non-threatening, they can also decrease a persons confidence and could also be a sign of a minor health issue. The skin around our […]
Have any question comments or concerns related to the website? Email Nesrin or Faizaan (WHO IS THE MOST AWESOME PERSON EVER) of class 86! ...
Dark circles can usually be successfully treated at home. So what causes under eye circles? And how can you make them go away for good?
The accuracy of use by and best before dates are contested in many circles, with some arguing that the dates are purely an exercise to cover food suppliers from the risks of [...] ...
If you need to make a 3D model of an object, there are plenty of ways to do so, but most of them are only automated to the extent that they know how to spin in circles around that object and put ...
Full Circle Birth Collective is a heart-centered practice, focused on supporting families through lifes most memorable journey.
Full Circle Birth Collective is a heart-centered practice, focused on supporting families through lifes most memorable journey.
Looking for online definition of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery explanation free. What is precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery? Meaning of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery medical term. What does precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery mean?
Blood vessels atherosclerosis is a dangerous and widespread complication of increased cholesterol level. At emergence of its first symptoms it is necessary to begin full treatment immediately. Perhaps, a surgical intervention will be required.. Vessels intima of brain is damaged. Round sclerotic plaques the connecting tissue expands, on vessel walls calcium salts accumulate that leads to narrowing of clearance which can "be overgrown" completely.. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown by changes in mentality of person. Working capacity drops, fatigability grows. Hyper excitability is a result of disease. Cerebral atherosclerosis is a main reason of sleeplessness in the night and daytime sleepiness.. At slow progress of cerebral atherosclerosis giddiness accrues, there are exhausting headaches, sweating and face reddening, flicker of points before eyes, tinnitus, gait with slight lameness. Sometimes the absurdity features of character become aggravated: diligence turns into greediness, accuracy turns ...
Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be controlled in attempt to lessen risk. ...
We performed linkage analysis to map the locus of familial moyamoya disease on chromosome 17. Despite the small pedigree and the limited number of microsatellite markers on chromosome 17, we successfully identified the disease locus in the telomeric region of the long arm of chromosome 17. With the APM method, we confirmed the linkage at a significantly low P value. During the initial period of this study, we expected moyamoya disease to be related to the NF1 gene located on chromosome 17q11.2. The NF1 protein is a GTPase-activating protein that regulates cellular growth through control of the Ras oncogene. We hypothesized that aberration of this regulation might give rise to the proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the internal carotid arteries and their branches. The present data, however, did not support the direct participation of the NF1 gene in the occurrence of moyamoya disease and instead indicated the importance of a distinct gene located closer to the telomere of ...
Blood vessels atherosclerosis is a dangerous and widespread complication of increased cholesterol level. At emergence of its first symptoms it is necessary to begin full treatment immediately. Perhaps, a surgical intervention will be required.. Vessels intima of brain is damaged. Round sclerotic plaques the connecting tissue expands, on vessel walls calcium salts accumulate that leads to narrowing of clearance which can "be overgrown" completely.. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown by changes in mentality of person. Working capacity drops, fatigability grows. Hyper excitability is a result of disease. Cerebral atherosclerosis is a main reason of sleeplessness in the night and daytime sleepiness.. At slow progress of cerebral atherosclerosis giddiness accrues, there are exhausting headaches, sweating and face reddening, flicker of points before eyes, tinnitus, gait with slight lameness. Sometimes the absurdity features of character become aggravated: diligence turns into greediness, accuracy turns ...
Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) are groups of volunteers with professional supervision to support sex offenders as they reintegrate into society after their release from incarceration. Evaluations of CoSA indicate that participation in a CoSA can result in statistically significant reductions in repeat sexual offenses in 70% of cases, relative to what would be predicted by risk assessment or matched comparison subjects. CoSA projects exist throughout Canada, the United Kingdom, and some regions of the United States. Circles of Support and Accountability are based on restorative justice principles. Each circle involves 4-6 trained volunteers from the community, forming the inner circle around an ex-offender (the "core member"). That circle receives support and training from professionals, who form the outer circle. The inner circle meets regularly to facilitate the core members practical needs (i.e., access to medical services, social assistance, attainment of employment/affordable ...
Dark circles under the eyes tell us about the health of an individual. They are produced due to overstrain, after an illness or an allergy. They can also be the result of undernourishment. But these dark circles do not produce any harm to the body. So anybody with dark circles should not worry about them. In fact, sometimes theyre not even an indication of physical problems. Dark circles can be aggravated by fatigue, allergies, overexposure to the sun, menstruation or pregnancy. But theyre usually hereditary; if your parents have them, there are more chances that you do, too have them. Dark circles are the result of the engorged blood vessels under your eyes. Because the skin under eyes is thinner than skin anywhere else on body, therefore blood vessels there are more noticeable, especially in fair skinned persons. Usually, dark circles are caused by hyper pigmentation of melanin, the substance that gives color to the skin. In western countries, the kidneys are related to the adrenal glands ...
Background and Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of race, sex, and other risk factors on the location of atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in cerebral vessels. Previous angiographic studies of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack TIA suggest that extracranial atherosclerosis is more common in whites and...
This is to bring to your notice if havent heard of it earlier that almost everyone gets dark circles under their eyes from time to time. Yes, its true!. Wrong Predictions! You might be under wrong impression that your dark circles are caused by fatigue, but usually isnt the cause. Yes, instead the most unknown cause is nasal congestion.. See now you are surprised! The reason behind this cause for dark circles is explained well by a process. When your nose is congested, veins that usually drain from your eyes into your nose become widened (dilated) and darker which cause this.. Because of eyelid swelling during sleep dark circles may be caused. Chronic skin conditions such as atopic eczema can also result in forming them. Heredity may also be one of the reasons.. Many creams for these dark circles have come into the market which have shown a tremendous effect in just few days of usage. Thanks to the cosmetic world which has given several products for the same. Remember to use skin creams which ...
The alumni circle of the Gooische Groningers is the first alumni circle founded by the Ubbo Emmius Fund (2009). The initiators of the alumni circle in t Gooi - and thus the founders of the alumni circles concept - are Frits van Bruggen, Pamela Boumeester, Rob Meuter, Bert van der Wijk, and Gerbrand Visser. The Gooische Groningers are happy to give back to the UG. That is why they jointly support Ellen Nollens research (Aging Biology, UMCG) on the genetic causes of Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and other brain disorders that arise during aging. During the meetings, she shares the latest developments in her research. In addition, the Gooische alumni invite guest speakers who have studied in Groningen. For example, Frank Hoekstra (CEO of order2cash), Frits van Bruggen (Director of ANWB), Roelof Joosten (CEO FrieslandCampina), Jan Lokin (Emeritus Professor of Roman Law and Legal History at the UG), and Harry Groen (lung specialist, UMCG) were previous guests. ...
Hepadnaviruses have a peculiar mode of replication; they replicate through an RNA intermediate (which they transcribe back into cDNA using reverse transcriptase). The reverse transcriptase becomes covalently linked to a short 3- or 4-nucleotide primer.[1] Most hepadnaviruses will only replicate in specific hosts, and this makes experiments using in vitro methods very difficult. The virus binds to specific receptors on cells and the core particle enters the cell cytoplasm. This is then translocated to the nucleus, where the partially double stranded DNA is repaired by the cell to form a complete circle of DNA. It then undergoes transcription by the host cell RNA polymerase and the transcript is translated by host cell ribosomes. New virus particles are formed, which acquire lipid from the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell, and the genome is packaged within these particles, which then bud off from the cell. Hepadnavirus-infected cells translate the protein known as the virus surface antigen ...
Source: Circles Channel. Best Crop Circles in Germany - (The Best Crop Circles in Each Country) - UFO 2016… From this playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLpOsDsBGuZUVYWSdb9jSm0yd1-8sPyYzr ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about circle at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about circle easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
It is quite common to have dark circle under the eyes if you have crossed 65th birthday. Aging is the primary cause for the formation of dark circle under eyes.
Rapidesign R142 Circle Radius Master template has 62 circles from 364 to 712 inches green plastic circle drawing stencil is made in the USA...
Say goodbye to dark circles with Maybelline New Yorks Instant Age Rewind Dark Circles Treatment Concealer! The full coverage under-eye concealer instantly erases dark circles and fine lines to visibly diminish puffiness.
to find the area of a cylinder you have to draw the net which consists of just a rectangle and two circles. find the area the rectangle: LxW or length times width. finding the area of the two circles: PIr sqaured or PI times the radius squared, pi is just a number and is usually 3.142 but can be used as just 3, diameter is the line that goes directly throught the centre of the circle from one edge of the circle to another. because both of the circles are the same size the area of them is the same add it all up: now you just have to add the area of the rectangle and the area of the two circles, giving you the surface area ...
Find 138 listings related to Circle K in Edmond on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Circle K locations in Edmond, OK.
How hard is it to walk in a straight line? Very hard, actually - according to a new study by psychologist Jan Souman of the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, people who are lost in the woods or desert actually do walk in circles:At first, Souman wasnt sure if that common sensation was actually true. When lost, he suspected, people might veer to the left or right. But he didnt expect them to actually walk in true circles. To find out, he instructed nine people to walk as straight as possi...
Mayshiel Stone Circle (Stone Circle) on The Modern Antiquarian, the UK & Irelands most popular megalithic community website. 2 images, 1 fieldnote, 1 weblink, plus information on many more ancient sites nearby and across the UK & Ireland.
Im using a circle packing vb script, but i need it to do a few more things. Right now it populates a box with circles starting from the largest moving outward…
Health, ...CHARLESTON W.Va. Dec. 4 /- UniCare Health Plan of West ...In addition eight elementary schools have been competing over the pas...Through the Circle of Hope food drive being held Friday December 4... Due to the current economic downtown we are witnessing a significant...,UniCare,,Walmart,Organize,Circle,of,Hope,To,Help,Mountain,Mission,Meet,Increased,Demand,for,Assistance,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Besides James Bond, "Kingsman: The Secret Service" is one of the very few movies that actually turned heads due to its great spy action storyline. It is one of the few movies that actually showed a great plot and maintained a unique position on the charts by showing the characters doing their best.. Get the Free Tracker App to find WowWee Fingerlings. There were speculations about a new sequel to this movie. However, recently these speculations have turned out to be true when a name for the movie and its plot was revealed by officials.. This new movie will be called "Kingsman: The Golden Circle". Its plot was released in Empire Magazine (via Comicbookmovie). There are no news about the meaning behind the Golden Circle that is included in the title, but it can be assumed that it will be revealed in the near future.. As far as the plot is concerned, the story will revolve around the missions being run by Kinsman Company. In this movie, the agency will pair up with its American counterparts in ...
Inspired by Back to the Future (1985) This movie design is part of our new 5 circles range. Within each circle is a different and subtle reference to certain well known scenes in the movie.
HELP! Im a brand new blender user and cannot figure out how to do a normal complete 360 degree rotation with a mesh circle (aligned to view). With a cube it works perfectly when I insert a rotation keyframe at my first and last (180) keyframe (360 degrees on z at last) but when I do this with a circle it rotates at strange angles and doesnt keep the angle degrees I enter into the place you fill in the angles. Sorry I dont know all of the blender terms and toolbar names so many forums do not help ...
A Christian will hold up a piece of paper or draw a circle on a whiteboard. He asks an atheist to pretend the circle or the paper represents all the knowledge there is in the universe. He then asks the atheist to draw another circle inside the larger circle to represent all the knowledge we actually possess. Ive never really seen an atheist actually draw a circle; usually an answer is provided by the apologist. The apologist might put a tiny circle or even a dot, meaning we only know a tiny, tiny bit of everything there is to know. In other words, of all the things there are to know in the universe, we probably know less than 1% of it. The Christian then delivers the "death blow" by saying, "If this paper represents everything there is to know, and we only know this little bit, how can you be sure theres no evidence for God among everything you dont know?!" ...
For eliminating dark circles, you can opt for some market available products but you are also free to utilize some natural or home remedies.
Dark circles around eyes causes and treatment - Are dark circles around eyes be caused by allergies? Possibly. They could be allergic shiners.
Get Solution of Question no 51955, All the vertexes of rhombus lie on a circle. Find the area of rhombus if the area of circle is 1256 cm²., Mathematics, Areas Rela
Circle of Willis. Arteries beneath brain. Classification and external resources. ICD-9-CM. 437.9. ...
They tend to be located in the circle of Willis and its branches. While most cases are due to bleeding from small aneurysms, ... Circle of Willis with the most common locations of ruptured aneurysms marked ...
The MCAs are not considered a part of the Circle of Willis.[1] ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The middle ...
... the cerebral arterial circle, which is more commonly known as the Circle of Willis. The following are the branches of the ... Circle of Willis Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article ...
Biko and Ramphele co-founded Circle Capital, an investment company, in 2005. Biko was the CEO of Circle Capital. In 2008, ... Willis, Mike. "Bespoke People: Man of Change", Bespoke, Beirut, July 2008. Bridge, Sherilee. Trailblazers: South Africa's ... His company, Circle Food Group (led by his colleague and friend Clive Rugara) is currently facing a number of lawsuits from a ... "Circle Capital Executive Team". circlecapital.co.za. Retrieved 2010-05-24. Mortlock, Monique. "Hlumelo Biko due in court over ...
... vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis. ...
Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of ... between flow signals emanating from cortical and subcortical branches of the cerebral arteries of the circle of Willis. ...
Michael D. Willis (1996). Inscriptions of Gopakṣetra: materials for the history of Central India. British Museum Press. R. K. ... "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Madhya Pradesh". Archaeological Survey of India, Bhopal Circle. Retrieved 2016-11-16. Harihar ... Michael D. Willis (1996). "Architecture in Central India under the Kacchapaghata Rulers". South Asian Studies. 12 (1): 13-32. ... "Kakanmath Temple". Archaeological Survey of India, Bhopal Circle. Retrieved 2016-11-16. " ...
"Salesforce Tower and Circle Building". Retrieved 2017-04-25. "801 Grand data". www.skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 2007-07-17. " ... However integral spires are included, facilitating One World Trade Center to be considered taller than Willis Tower, even ... "Blackstone Group Purchases Landmark Willis Tower in Chicago". Retrieved 2017-04-25. "Chase Tower data". www.emporis.com. ... though the highest occupied floor of Willis Tower is higher than that of One World Trade Center. The Council on Tall Buildings ...
Barr v. Lafon' (6th Cir. August 20, 2008). Text The Daily Times Stoner, A. Derrick. "The Daily Times: What I Think." Neal, R. " ... "H.K. Edgerton: In This Case "Uncle Tom" Is Perfectly Accurate". Oliver Willis. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. ...
Circle of Willis Anterior cerebral artery Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography, Lippincott ...
The circle of Willis is the main blood system that deals with blood supply in the cerebrum and cerebral cortex. ...
... of normal brains that had a normal Circle of Willis and those that had cerebral softening and had a normal Circle of Willis. ... of normal brains having a normal Circle of Willis, while only 33% of brains with cerebral softening had a normal Circle of ... In a study on the Circle of Willis and its relation to cerebral vascular disorders, a comparison on various anomalies between ... "Circle of Willis in cerebral vascular disorders: the anatomical structure." Archives of Neurology 8.4 (1963): 398. Fazio, ...
Willis v. Dep't of Agriculture, 141 F.3d 1139 (Fed. Cir. 1998). Levin remarks at 14239. Meuwissen v. Dep't of the Interior, 234 ... Cir. 2001) is a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit addressing a two decade-old conflict ... In Willis v. Dep't of Agriculture, the court ruled that a whistleblower's disclosures to officials in the agency chain of ... Cir. 1995). Levin remarks at 14239; see also Robert G. Vaughn, Merit Systems Protection Board: Rights and Remedies (American ...
"Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 (6): 871-8. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.40.6.871 ... known as the Circle of Willis). Normally, blood flows from the aorta into the subclavian artery, and then some of that blood ... Circ J. 67 (5): 464-6. doi:10.1253/circj.67.464. PMID 12736489. Subclavian Steal Syndrome - emedicine.com. ... reaches the basilar artery or goes around the cerebral arterial circle and descends via the (contralateral) vertebral artery to ...
Chandra Wilson as Bonna Willis won a 1991 Theatre World Award. Barry was nominated for the 1992 Outer Critics Circle's John ...
Contents of interpeduncular fossa include oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve and circle of willis. cerebral peduncles Human ...
16 (1): 1. Willis, Linda (February 2, 1987). "Working in Circles: Loy Uses Mandalas To Convey Artistic Message". Franklin News- ... The art columnist for The Roanoke Times dubbed Loy's works a mix of "magic circles, calligraphy, and philosophical texts." Loy ...
See Circle of latitude#Movement of the Tropical and Polar circles. Willis states that "this means there was a living oral ... Willis 2009, pp. 15-27, 248. Willis 2009, pp. 1-3, 54, 248. JF Fleet (1888), Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings and Their ... Willis 2009, pp. 29, 251-252. Willis 2009, pp. 12-13. Meera Dass 2001, p. 12. J. C. Harle, Gupta Sculpture: Indian Sculpture of ... Willis 2009, pp. 4-5, 39-41. Willis 2009, pp. 4-5, 39-41, 200. Meera Dass 2001, pp. 280-282. Meera Dass 2001, pp. 88. Meera ...
In 2012, the book Olives was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of ... In 2010, she was awarded the Willis Barnstone Translation Prize. In 2011, she won a Guggenheim Fellowship, received a MacArthur ... John Williams (January 14, 2012). "National Book Critics Circle Names 2012 Award Finalists". New York Times. Retrieved January ...
... also known as the circle of Willis. Aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery are the most common circle of Willis ... It is part of the cerebral arterial circle, ...
They are part of the Circle of Willis, which provides backup circulation to the brain. In case one of the supply arteries is ... the Circle of Willis provides interconnections between the anterior and the posterior cerebral circulation along the floor of ...
The posterior cerebral artery and the posterior communicating artery are within the circle of Willis. The left common carotid ...
The arteria comminicans are the three arteries in the brain that form the circle of Willis. Communicating artery is a synonym ...
The circulation from the front and the back join together (anastomise) at the Circle of Willis. The renal circulation receives ...
Internally, the Circle seating was rebuilt in four weeks in June 1996 providing more leg room, better access and improved sight ... "Father" Henry Willis in 1871 and rebuilt by Harrison & Harrison in 1924 and 1933. The rebuilding was performed by Mander ...
The circle of Willis (also called Willis circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a ... Circle of Willis. Schematic representation of the circle of Willis, arteries of the brain and brain stem. Blood flows up to the ... Thomas Willis Famous Eponym: The Circle of Willis" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 34: 271-274. Retrieved 16 July ... "Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 (6): 871-8. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.40.6.871 ...
At the Circle of Willis, the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply ... The Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. ... The Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. At the Circle of ... Willis, the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum. ...
The Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. At the Circle of ... Willis, the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum. ...
... that supply the circle of Willis provide enough blood to >> perfuse both hemispheres. The circle of Willis is a truly >> ... Venlig hilsen A little piece of trivia, however: only 1 person in 4 has a perfect circle of Willis, and can survive on any one ... For that one in four with the perfect circle of Willis, sometimes its a pretty impressive life-saver. When I was in medical ... Turned out on angiography that his brain was getting along on the circle of Willis and flow from just ONE vertebral artery. The ...
... of the Brain visualizing the Circle of Willis, which is where the Vertebral Arteries and Internal Carotid Arteries meet and ... MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography) of the Brain visualizing the Circle of Willis, which is where the Vertebral Arteries and ...
... cerebral arterial circle, circle of willis, colour, front view, human, illustration, landscape, middle cerebral artery, pontine ...
Computation of Hemodynamics in the Circle of Willis. Martin Sandve Alnæs, Jørgen Isaksen, Kent-André Mardal, Bertil Romner, ... In the circle of Willis, there is a confluence of flow from 3 vessels: both internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery ( ... Figures 4 and 5⇓ show results from 2 simulations on a simplified model of the posterior part of the circle of Willis. In this 3 ... In the present study, we aimed to develop a CFD simulator for flow in the complete circle of Willis to study the impact of ...
Cerebral aneurysms and variations in the circle of Willis.. K N Kayembe, M Sasahara, F Hazama ... In the light of these findings it seems likely that through hemodynamic changes variation in the circle of Willis plays some ... In order to obtain information about the relationship between variations in the circle of Willis and aneurysms, 44 complete ... circles of Willis with aneurysm were studied macroscopically. The incidence of variations was significantly higher in the ...
Rotating magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scan of blood vessels in the circle of Willis (centre) in the brain. This network ... Caption: Circle of Willis. Rotating magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scan of blood vessels in the circle of Willis (centre ... cerebral arterial circle, circle of willis, circulation, circulatory, diagnosis, diagnostic, healthy, human body, magnetic ... Keywords: anatomical, anatomy, angiogram, angiograph, arterial, arterial circle of willis, arteries, arteriography, artery, ...
The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most important collateral pathway communicating between the bilateral carotid system and the ... The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most important collateral pathway communicating between the bilateral carotid system and the ... Keywords: Circle of Willis; Diagnostic Imaging; Dissection; Anatomic Variation; Brain Ischemia. Suggested Citation: Suggested ... Wang, Wei and Wang, Qiudian and Qiu, Mingrui and Pan, Aizhen and Yang, Guanying, A Review of the Circle of Willis: ...
Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd ... CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke. Zhang- ... The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to ...
... Bogunovic, Hrvoje Use this identifier to quote or link this ... Circle of Willis. ; Internal carotid artery. ; Geometric characterization. ; Anatomical labeling. ; Vessel segmentation. ; ... Circulo de Willis. ; Arteria carótida interna. ; Análisis geométrico. ; Etiquetado anatómico. ; Segmentación vascular. ; Método ...
Linkage of Familial Moyamoya Disease (Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis) to Chromosome 17q25. Tohru Yamauchi, ... Osawa M, Kanai N, Kawai M, Fukuyama Y. Clinical genetic study on the idiopathic occlusion of the circle of Willis. In: The ... This work was supported in part by a grant from Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis sponsored ... Wakai K, Tamakoshi A, Ohno Y, Kawamura T, Ikezaki K, Fukui M. Epidemiology of spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis: ...
The Role Of Circle Of Willis Anatomy Variations In Cardio-embolic Stroke - A Patient-specific Simulation Based Study ... Relationship between Variations in the Circle of Willis and Flow Rates in Internal Carotid and Basilar Arteries Determined by ... Relationship between Variations in the Circle of Willis and Flow Rates in Internal Carotid and Basilar Arteries Determined by ... Relationship between Variations in the Circle of Willis and Flow Rates in Internal Carotid and Basilar Arteries Determined by ...
Haemodynamics of the circle of Willis and the leptomeningeal anastomoses: an electromagnetic flowmeter study of intracranial ... Haemodynamics of the circle of Willis and the leptomeningeal anastomoses: an electromagnetic flowmeter study of intracranial ...
Abstract WP440: Analysis of Hypoplastic Variants of the Circle of Willis in Patients with First-ever Lacunar Stroke. Angelos M ... Congenital hypoplastic variants of the vessels of the Circle of Willis may result in impairment of collateral channels at the ... Conclusion: Hypoplasia of the posterior part of the Circle of Willis is significantly more common among patients with first- ... Abstract WP440: Analysis of Hypoplastic Variants of the Circle of Willis in Patients with First-ever Lacunar Stroke ...
... ... we aimed to identify regulatory regions and analyze overall gene expression in the human circle of Willis (CoW), on which these ...
Methodical aspects of dopplerography of the main arteries in the circle of Willis.. Introduction: Cerebral circulation receives ... in triplex mode and to study the quantitative parameters of blood flow in the main arteries in the circle of Willis in healthy ...
A Circle of Willis Simulation Using Distensible Vessels and Pulsatile Flow R. H. Kufahl and M. E. Clark ... A Circle of Willis Simulation Using Distensible Vessels and Pulsatile Flow. ASME. J Biomech Eng. 1985;107(2):112-122. doi: ... Erratum: "A Circle of Willis Simulation Using Distensible Vessels and Pulsatile Flow" (Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ... Return to: A Circle of Willis Simulation Using Distensible Vessels and Pulsatile Flow ...
The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on ... The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations.pdf (2.884Mb) ... this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis ...
A 59-year-old male presents with sensory changes on the right side of his face, left side of his body, and dizziness. He also reports some trouble with swallowing, and his wife noticed that his voice sounds hoarse. Past medical history is significant for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On physical examination, there is a right-sided Horners syndrome. Uvula is deviated towards the left. There is right-sided vocal cord paralysis and absence of elevation of the right palate during phonation. There is loss of pain sensation on the right-sided face and left-sided trunk and limbs. (Lateral medullary syndrome) ...
... Articles in a circle at the base of the brain that is fed by carotid arteries and vertebral arteries. ... Circle of Willis*Clonus*Cluster Headache*Colon*Colonoscopy*Coma*Comedo/Comedones*Congestive Heart Failure*Conscious Sedation* ...
... Published: Thursday, 11 May 2017 07:00 , Written by Efrain A. Miranda, Ph.D. , Print , Email , Hits ... The Arterial Circle of Willis is a famous eponymous structure found at the base of the brain. It represents an anastomotic ... The circle of Willis receives blood from the two main paired arteries that provide blood supply to the head and brain: the ... The arterial circle of Willis provides all of the arterial blood to the brain. Cerebral blood flow in humans averages 55 mL per ...
Circle of Willis (COW). The Circle of Willis (also called Willis Circle, Loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis ... The pterional approach to aneurysms of the circle of Willis is one of the most common approaches in vascular neurosurgery 8) 9) ... Assessment of Circle of Willis (CoW) configuration on MRA may be helpful to understand the appearance of unilateral thalamic ... The circle of Willis encircles the stalk of the pituitary gland and provides important communications between the blood supply ...
The Circle of Willis (CoW) is an important collateral pathway of the cerebral blood flow. An experimental study of the cerebral ... circle: A 3-year cross-sectional study from Iran (2006-2009). Are the distributions of variations of circle of Willis different ... Zhang C, Wang L, Li X, Li S, Pu F, Fan Y, Li D: Modeling the circle of Willis to assess the effect of anatomical variations on ... The Circle of Willis (CoW) is a ring like artery structure located at the bottom of brain. This structure provides important ...
  • Conclusions- Computational fluid dynamics analysis can be applied to the complete circle of Willis and should be used to study the pathophysiology of this complex vascular structure, including risk factors for aneurysm development. (ahajournals.org)
  • The incidence of variations was significantly higher in the aneurysm series than in the control circles without aneurysm. (ahajournals.org)
  • If one part of the circle becomes blocked or narrowed ( stenosed ) or one of the arteries supplying the circle is blocked or narrowed, blood flow from the other blood vessels can often preserve the cerebral perfusion well enough to avoid the symptoms of ischemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal ultrasound image at the level of circle of Willis, showing PCA, MCA and ACA Cerebral angiogram showing an anterior/posterior projection of the vertebrobasilar and posterior cerebral circulation, the posterior aspect of the circle of Willis and one of its feeding vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the circle of Willis, there is a confluence of flow from 3 vessels: both internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery (BA). (ahajournals.org)
  • In a previous study, we analyzed 3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography images of cerebral vessels with respect to vessel radii and bifurcation angles and concluded that bifurcations beyond the circle of Willis approximated optimality principles, whereas those within the circle of Willis did not. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rotating magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scan of blood vessels in the circle of Willis (centre) in the brain. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Spontaneous occlusion of the circle of Willis (moyamoya disease) is a clinical entity of unknown cause that is characterized primarily by angiographic findings of bilateral occlusion at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery with a characteristic telangiectasic vascular network ("moyamoya" vessels) at the base of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Congenital hypoplastic variants of the vessels of the Circle of Willis may result in impairment of collateral channels at the time of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that lateralization of first-ever lacunar infarcts is related to relative hypoperfusion of the ipsilateral hemisphere due to asymmetric hypoplasia of the vessels of the Circle of Willis and inadequate side-to-side collateral circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The development of a one-dimensional numerical (finite-difference) model of the arterial network surrounding the circle of Willis is described based on the full Navier-Stokes and conservation of mass equations generalized for distensible vessels. (asme.org)
  • circle of Willis the anastomotic loop of blood vessels near the base of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A large network of interconnecting blood vessels that appear as a circle at the base of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Parent vessel occlusion can be performed on the ICA, unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery, proximal basilar trunk, and on intracranial vessels distal to the circle of Willis. (ajnr.org)
  • Using computer software the external diameters of the vessels were measured and the circle variations were classified. (ac.ir)
  • CTA can be used to predict borderzone infarction after permanent common carotid artery and/or ICA occlusion by measuring the collateral vessels of the circle of Willis. (ajnr.org)
  • The blood vessels supplying the brain arise from the vertebral arteries and internal carotid arteries and are connected to one another by communicating vessels that form a circle (known as the Circle of Willis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically important examples include: Circle of Willis (in the brain) Coronary: anterior interventricular artery and posterior interventricular artery of the heart Scapular anastomosis (for the subclavian vessels) Joint anastomoses: Almost all joints receive anastomotic blood supply from more than one source. (wikipedia.org)
  • In subclavian steal syndrome , blood is "stolen" from the circle of Willis to preserve blood flow to the upper limb . (wikipedia.org)
  • Subclavian steal syndrome results from a proximal stenosis (narrowing) of the subclavian artery , an artery supplied by the aorta , which is also the same blood vessel that eventually feeds the circle of Willis via the vertebral artery . (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Willis combined the physician's expert anatomical sophistication with the fluent use of an interpretive apparatus that see-sawed between novelty and tradition, Galenism and Gassendist atomism, iatrochemistry and mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis in 132 brains of Iranian cadavers (102 male adults and 30 fetuses and infants) were studied. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusions: The anatomical variations discovered in Iranian circle of Willis in this study were not significantly different to those of more diverse populations reported in the literature. (ac.ir)
  • Puchades-Orts, A., Nombela-Gomez, M. and Ortuno- Pacheco, G. (1975) Variation in form of circle of Willis: Some anatomical and embryological considerations. (scirp.org)
  • In a study on the Circle of Willis and its relation to cerebral vascular disorders, a comparison on various anomalies between normal brains (those without the condition of cerebral softening) and brains with cerebral softening were looked at to observe trends in the differences of the anatomical structure of the Circle of Willis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winston Earl Willis (born October 21, 1939) is a former American real estate developer who established his business in Cleveland, Ohio during the early 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willis Vernon Cole (1882 - 1939) was an American poet and author. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoplasia of the posterior part of the Circle of Willis is significantly more common among patients with first-ever lacunar stroke, compared to historical controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • Archaeological Survey of India, Bhopal Circle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigraphia Indica: a collection of inscriptions supplementary to the Corpus inscriptionum Indicarum, Calcutta: Government printing Bloch, Theodor, 'Notes on the Exploration of Vaisali', Annual Report, Bengal Circle, Archaeological Survey of India, year ended April 1904, p. 15 OCLC 64218646 Willis, Michael (2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ellen Willis (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of the Vinyl Deeps: Ellen Willis on Rock Music. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ellen Willis, The Essential Ellen Willis, edited by Nona Willis Aronowitz Ivan Sandrof Lifetime Achievement Award Toni Morrison John Leonard Prize Phil Klay, Redeployment Nona Balakian Citation for Excellence in Reviewing Alexandra Schwartz Charles Finch B. K. Fischer Benjamin Moser Lisa Russ Spaar The finalists were announced on January 14, 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winston Willis' Miracle on E.105th Street" (June 1, 1973) Emanuel Hughley, Jr. and Dick McLaughlin,https://www.loc.gov/rr/news/oltitles.html. (wikipedia.org)
  • We aimed to develop a computational fluid dynamics simulator for flow in the complete circle of Willis to study the impact of variations in vessel radii and bifurcation angles on WSS and pressure on vessel walls. (ahajournals.org)
  • Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. (hindawi.com)
  • Classification of the anatomic variations in the circle of Willis. (ajnr.org)
  • Variations in these pressure and flow distributions caused by the introduction of pathologic situations into the model illustrate the efficacy of the simulation and of the circle in equalizing and redistributing flows in abnormal situations. (asme.org)
  • Variations in the circle of Willis are common. (manipal.edu)
  • In this study the entire circle of Willis and its variations were studied in a cohort of Iranian people and compared with previous reports. (ac.ir)
  • The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were compared with previous studies. (ac.ir)
  • Willis hoped to revitalize a large parcel of land encompassing the old Doan's Corner at East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue, site of the Keith's East 105th Theater where comedian Bob Hope got his start in Vaudeville. (wikipedia.org)
  • He created University Circle Properties Development, Inc. (UCPD, Inc.), which owned real estate parcels in Cleveland and was the largest employer of blacks in that part of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a long and contentious legal struggle with the former titleholder, The Cleveland Trust Company, Willis bought the property, which was flanked on either side by University Circle and the Cleveland Clinic. (wikipedia.org)
  • He established University Circle Properties Development, Inc. (UCPD, Inc.), a commercial property development corporation, to manage the stores and shops. (wikipedia.org)
  • University Circle Properties Development, Inc. (wikipedia.org)
  • University Circle Properties Development, Inc. (UCPD, Inc.) was a commercial property development corporation established in 1968 in Cleveland Ohio. (wikipedia.org)
  • University Circle Properties Development, Inc. was founded in 1968 by a local young African-American entrepreneur, Winston E. Willis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Questions were raised by University Circle Incorporated(UCI), the Cleveland Clinic, and others as to his qualifications to own and redevelop "blighted" property.During the turbulent riot-torn 1960s, local events e.g., the Reverend Bruce W. Klunder bulldozer murder, the Hough Riots, and the Glenville Shootout had begun to trigger white flight and businesses on Euclid Avenue were being closed, boarded up and sometimes abandoned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jazz Temple was a coffeehouse/nightclub located in the University Circle area of Cleveland, Ohio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example of advocacy took place in 1982, with a scathing editorial in support of Cleveland real estate developer Winston E. Willis, whose properties, located near University Circle, had been targeted by the Cleveland Clinic, Case Western Reserve University, and University Hospitals for expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuroradiologist, blinded to the laterality of the lacunar infarct, assessed for lateralized hypoplasia of the Circle of Willis (either anteriorly at the level of the A1 artery and AComA as one functional unit, or posteriorly at the level of the PCA and PComA as one functional unit). (ahajournals.org)
  • Willis pancreas - a portion of the head of the pancreas formed by the superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, the hemodynamics in the circle of Willis is anatomically significantly different from the hemodynamics in normal branching situations addressed by the optimality principle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Battacharji, S.K., Hutchinson, E.C. and McCall, A.J. (1967) The circle of Willis-The incidence of developmental abnormalities in normal and infracted brains. (scirp.org)
  • Willis opened and operated numerous businesses on the Euclid Avenue strip. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapy Center Might Wipe Out Willis' Businesses on Euclid Avenue" (August 21, 1979) Rice, Joseph D. http://www.plaindealer.com/newsroom/archives.php. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methodical aspects of dopplerography of the main arteries in the circle of Willis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate the techniques of transcranial dopplerography in triplex mode and to study the quantitative parameters of blood flow in the main arteries in the circle of Willis in healthy middle-aged people. (alliedacademies.org)
  • According to R.A. Dyer, Willis befriended Luther Lassiter in 1948 after beating Lassiter at 9-ball. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nathaniel Parker Willis (January 20, 1806 - January 20, 1867), also known as N. P. Willis, was an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after, Willis moved to a home on the Hudson River where he lived a semi-retired life until his death in 1867. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catherine Daingerfield Willis Gray Murat (August 17, 1803 - August 6, 1867) was born near Fredericksburg, Virginia and died in Tallahassee, Florida, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s and 80s Willis ran afoul of tax and other laws and lost his properties to seizure in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • While FCC originated with a small circle of business and ministry leaders in the 1970s in Atlanta, Georgia, US, FCCI now reports activities in over 100 nations, as of 12/2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • WWJD wristbands appeared in the 1990s, in the 1970s FCCI's founding circles wrestled with the question: "What would Jesus do--if He were running my company? (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, K. Dean Willis, M.D., felt led to approach the management of chronic pain in a different way. (angieslist.com)
  • Daughter Mary Susanna's son, Francis Leader MacCarthy-Willis-Bund (1905-1980), was Chaplain, Fellow and Dean of Balliol College, Oxford. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 1667, Lower worked with Sir Edmund King, another student of Willis, to transfuse sheep's blood into a man who was mentally ill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Founded by a young African-American businessman, Winston E. Willis, UCPD, Inc. was the umbrella organization for a number of thriving businesses on the lower East side. (wikipedia.org)