The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The absence of light.
A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
The consumption of edible substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.

Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria. (1/177)

The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

cpmA, a gene involved in an output pathway of the cyanobacterial circadian system. (2/177)

We generated random mutations in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 to look for genes of output pathways in the cyanobacterial circadian system. A derivative of transposon Tn5 was introduced into the chromosomes of reporter strains in which cyanobacterial promoters drive the Vibrio harveyi luxAB genes and produce an oscillation of bioluminescence as a function of circadian gene expression. Among low-amplitude mutants, one mutant, tnp6, had an insertion in a 780-bp open reading frame. The tnp6 mutation produced an altered circadian phasing phenotype in the expression rhythms of psbAI::luxAB, psbAII::luxAB, and kaiA::luxAB but had no or little effect on those of psbAIII::luxAB, purF::luxAB, kaiB::luxAB, rpoD2::luxAB, ndhD::luxAB, and conII::luxAB. This suggests that the interrupted gene in tnp6, named cpmA (circadian phase modifier), is part of a circadian output pathway that regulates the expression rhythms of psbAI, psbAII, and kaiA.  (+info)

Nucleotide binding and autophosphorylation of the clock protein KaiC as a circadian timing process of cyanobacteria. (3/177)

A negative feedback control of kaiC expression by KaiC protein has been proposed to generate a basic oscillation of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. KaiC has two P loops or Walker's motif As, that are potential ATP-/GTP-binding motifs and DXXG motifs conserved in various GTP-binding proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that in vitro KaiC binds ATP and, with lower affinity, GTP. Point mutation by site-directed mutagenesis of P loop 1 completely nullified the circadian rhythm of kaiBC expression and markedly reduced ATP-binding activity. Moreover, KaiC can be autophosphorylated in vitro. These results suggest that the nucleotide-binding activity of KaiC plays important roles in the generation of circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

A kaiC-interacting sensory histidine kinase, SasA, necessary to sustain robust circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria. (4/177)

Both regulated expression of the clock genes kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC and interactions among the Kai proteins are proposed to be important for circadian function in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. We have identified the histidine kinase SasA as a KaiC-interacting protein. SasA contains a KaiB-like sensory domain, which appears sufficient for interaction with KaiC. Disruption of the sasA gene lowered kaiBC expression and dramatically reduced amplitude of the kai expression rhythms while shortening the period. Accordingly, sasA disruption attenuated circadian expression patterns of all tested genes, some of which became arrhythmic. Continuous sasA overexpression eliminated circadian rhythms, whereas temporal overexpression changed the phase of kaiBC expression rhythm. Thus, SasA is a close associate of the cyanobacterial clock that is necessary to sustain robust circadian rhythms.  (+info)

Circadian clock-protein expression in cyanobacteria: rhythms and phase setting. (5/177)

The cyanobacterial gene cluster kaiABC encodes three essential circadian clock proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. The KaiB and KaiC protein levels are robustly rhythmical, whereas the KaiA protein abundance undergoes little if any circadian oscillation in constant light. The level of the KaiC protein is crucial for correct functioning of the clock because induction of the protein at phases when the protein level is normally low elicits phase resetting. Titration of the effects of the inducer upon phase resetting versus KaiC level shows a direct correlation between induction of the KaiC protein within the physiological range and significant phase shifting. The protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol prevents the induction of KaiC and blocks phase shifting. When the metabolism is repressed by either translational inhibition or constant darkness, the rhythm of KaiC abundance persists; therefore, clock protein expression has a preferred status under a variety of conditions. These data indicate that rhythmic expression of KaiC appears to be a crucial component of clock precession in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria. (6/177)

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, cell division is regulated by a circadian clock. Deletion of the circadian clock gene, kaiC, abolishes rhythms of gene expression and cell division timing. Overexpression of the ftsZ gene halted cell division but not growth, causing cells to grow as filaments without dividing. The nondividing filamentous cells still exhibited robust circadian rhythms of gene expression. This result indicates that the circadian timing system is independent of rhythmic cell division and, together with other results, suggests that the cyanobacterial circadian system is stable and well sustained under a wide range of intracellular conditions.  (+info)

Two KaiA-binding domains of cyanobacterial circadian clock protein KaiC. (7/177)

kaiABC, a gene cluster, encodes KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins that are essential to circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Kai proteins can interact with each other in all possible combinations. This study identified two KaiA-binding domains (C(KABD1) and C(KABD2)) in KaiC at corresponding regions of its duplicated structure. Clock mutations on the two domains and kaiA altered the strength of C(KABD)-KaiA interactions assayed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Thus, interaction between KaiA and KaiC through C(KABD1) and C(KABD2) is likely important for circadian timing in the cyanobacterium.  (+info)

Long-term microclimatic stress causes rapid adaptive radiation of kaiABC clock gene family in a cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, from "Evolution Canyons" I and II, Israel. (8/177)

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes known thus far possessing regulation of physiological functions with approximate daily periodicity, or circadian rhythms, that are controlled by a cluster of three genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC. Here we demonstrate considerably higher genetic polymorphism and extremely rapid evolution of the kaiABC gene family in a filamentous cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, permanently exposed to the acute natural environmental stress in the two microsite evolutionary models known as "Evolution Canyons," I (Mount Carmel) and II (Upper Galilee) in Israel. The family consists of five distinct subfamilies (kaiI-kaiV) comprising at least 20 functional genes and pseudogenes. The obtained data suggest that the duplications of kai genes have adaptive significance, and some of them are evolutionarily quite recent (approximately 80,000 years ago). The observed patterns of within- and between-subfamily polymorphisms indicate that positive diversifying, balancing, and purifying selections are the principal driving forces of the kai gene family's evolution.  (+info)

Component of the KaiABC clock protein complex, which constitutes the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. The KaiABC complex may act as a promoter-nonspecific transcription regulator that represses transcription, possibly by acting on the state of chromosome compaction. In the complex, it enhances the phosphorylation status of KaiC. In contrast, the presence of KaiB in the complex decreases the phosphorylation status of KaiC, suggesting that KaiB acts by antagonizing the interaction between KaiA and KaiC. A KaiA dimer is sufficient to enhance KaiC hexamer phosphorylation (By similarity).
Kai proteins globally regulate circadian gene expression of cyanobacteria. The KaiC phosphorylation cycle, which persists even without transcription or translation, is assumed to be a basic timing process of the circadian clock. We have reconstituted the self-sustainable oscillation of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro by incubating KaiC with KaiA, KaiB, and adenosine triphosphate. The period of the in vitro oscillation was stable despite temperature change (temperature compensation), and the circadian periods observed in vivo in KaiC mutant strains were consistent with those measured in vitro. The enigma of the circadian clock can now be studied in vitro by examining the interactions between three Kai proteins.. ...
The core circadian oscillator of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing the proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, resulting in oscillations in KaiC phosphorylation. The underlying mechanism of this biochemical oscillator has been elusive. Rust et al. (see the Perspective by Poon and Ferrell) now show that phosphorylation of KaiC at two residues is cyclically ordered and that the abundance of each phosphorylated form determines the phase of the oscillator. This sequential phosphorylation of KaiC, combined with negative feedback caused by one of the phosphorylation states, is sufficient to explain stable oscillation.. M. J. Rust, J. S. Markson, W. S. Lane, D. S. Fisher, E. K. OShea, Ordered phosphorylation governs oscillation of a three-protein circadian clock. Science 318, 809-812 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text]. A. C. Poon, J. E. Ferrell Jr., A clock with a flip switch. Science 318, 757-758 (2007). [Summary] [Full Text]. ...
cyanobacteria KaiC protein: encoded by gene C of circadian clock gene cluster kaiABC in cyanobacteria; amino acid sequence in first source
Welcome to the lab notebook for the Cyanobacteria oscillator project! The goal of our team, composed of four members, is to reconstruct the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator system into E. coli. Three proteins, KaiA, B, and C, have been shown to have an in-vitro phosphorylation state oscillation (Nakajima et al. 2005) by transcriptional-translational independent methods. If this system can be reconstituted in E. coli, there are two important applications ...
13h à 14h Le séminaire de David Lubensky (University of Michigan) aura lieu dans lAmphi Urbain, ESPCI, 10 Rue Vauquelin 75005 All plants and (...)
Cyanobacteria have a system of proteins, KaiABC, capable of generating rhythmic oscillations in the expression of other genes with a period of about a day. KaiC performs autophosphorylations, modulated by its interactions with the other clock proteins, and appears to act as transcriptional repressor. This remarkable system can continue its oscillations even in the absence of transcription and translation of kaiABC itself. KaiB and KaiC, at least, may be universal among the Cyanobacteria. Homologs outside the Cyanobacteria and paralogs within, both with uncertain function, occur for KaiB and KaiC ...
SDS-PAGE using gels with low crosslinking of acrylamide and bisacrylamide. This protocol can be used to separate phosphorylation forms of KaiC proteins.
Old Joes Kaia, Schoemanskloof Picture: Large and private Swimming Pool - Check out TripAdvisor members 313 candid photos and videos.
Kuidas tõhusalt oma harjumusi muuta? Külas on eratreener Rauno Oolberg, kes võttis hiljuti 20 kg kaalus juurde ja siis need jälle maha - lihtsalt selleks, et omal nahal tunda, mida tähendab muuta oma harjumusi ning mõista, kuidas seda tõhusamalt teha. Tema kõrval on saates kliiniline psühholoog Kaia Kuppart, kes selgitab, kuidas meie keha uute harjumustega kohaneb ja kui kaua võtab aega, et uuest tegevusest saaks elu loomulik osa. Saadet juhib Tervisekassa avalike suhete peaspetsialist Heidi Kukk.. ...
Text Mining at Work: Critical Assessment of the Completeness and Correctness of Knowledge-Based, Computable Disease Models for the Pharmaceutical ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cells of diverse organisms, from cyanobacteria to humans, execute temporal programs that are driven by circadian oscillators. The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is a discrete nanomachine comprising three proteins - KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC - which interact progressively to set up the timekeeping mechanism, and two kinases whose activities are altered by engaging the Kai oscillator.. ...
Catalyses the reaction in the opposite direction. This enzyme, purified from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, catalyses the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of an activated fatty acid (acyl-[acp]) to the corresponding aldehyde. Together with EC, octadecanal decarbonylase, it is involved in alkane biosynthesis. The natural substrates of the enzyme are C16 and C18 activated fatty acids. Requires Mg2+ ...
This enzyme, purified from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of an activated fatty acid (acyl-[acp]) to the corresponding aldehyde ...
The past year has seen millions of people hunched over makeshift home-office desks and perched on dining chairs at kitchen tables, wreaking havoc on their bodies. No wonder that demand for virtual physical therapy has soared - and delivered a boost to Kaia Health, a startup that offers digital pain management via its app. Founded in Munich in 2016 by Konstantin Mehl and Manuel Thurner, Kaia Health is based in Germany and New York City. The company says it has seen 600% revenue growth during the pandemic year, as people turn to its chronic-pain treatment plans - including those with musculoskeletal pain (MSK) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).. With $75 million in their pockets from a Series C round in April, Kaia Health is ramping up its push into the biggest European markets, and investing heavily in the US commercial team. In the US, they work with health insurance companies and self-insured employers, and the aim is to double the amount of US employer clients from 50 to 100 ...
Getting your body back after baby takes time, energy, and a convenient way to make it all happen. Because being a healthy Mom is so important, its just as important for you to start making yourself a priority! Getting into, or back into shape after kids can happen! And, its easier than you might think!. Val Krist of Woodland, California made the decision to make the time to finally get back into shape after having her three kids. Thanks to Kaia FIT, Val started sleeping better, gained strength, and was able to start eating better. Heres Vals success story to help motivate you to keep on trying!. ...
The model celebrated her entry into fashion design with the launch of the Karl Lagerfeld x Kaia capsule at the Revolve Social Club.
Extent and character of the protein-MC binding interface. (a) Plotof buried SASA versus total SASA. The dotted line represents the line of identity,correspondin
Idadi ya watu walioko hatarini kuugua ugonjwa wa vikope, ugonjwa ambukizi unaoongoza duniani kwa kusababisha upofu imepungua kwa asilimia 91, limesema shirika la afya ulimwenguni, WHO. |
Circadian rhythms are daily cycles of activity that have been demonstrated in many organisms including bacteria, fungi, insects, plants, and mammals. A clock system is composed of three parts: the input pathway, the central oscillator, and the output pathway. The input pathway takes temporal and environmental signals and transfers that information to the central oscillator, which contains the core components of the clock, to synchronize the endogenous clock with the environment. Temporal cues are then sent through output pathways to control certain cell processes. The CikA (circadian input kinase) protein is an integral part of the input pathway because a cikA mutant cannot reset its circadian rhythm in response to dark pulses. CikA contains a histidine protein kinase (HPK) domain, which suggests that CikA is part of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system in which CikA autophosphorylates in response to a signal and transfers that phosphate to a putative partner response regulator ...
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism for the study of photosynthesis and gene regulation, and for biotechnological applications. Besides several freshwater cyanobacteria, S. elongatus 7942 also contains multiple chromosomal copies per cell at all stages of its cell cycle. Here, we describe a method for the direct visualization of multicopy chromosomes in S. elongatus 7942 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Synechococcus elongatus ATCC ® 33912D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 TypeStrain=False Application:
By default, all articles on are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here to begin the singup process ...
Domain combinations containing the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily in Staphylococcus aureus RF122. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily.
Domain combinations containing the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily.
The first part of this thesis focuses on the mechanisms of hormone induced Ca2+ oscillations and how these depend on fluctuations in the concentration of the Ca2+-releasing messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We were able to show that IP3 oscillations greatly enhances the ability to frequency encode the hormone stimulus by Ca2+ oscillations. Two mechanisms for the generation of IP3-oscillations have been investigated, we could show that Ca2+-activation of phospholipase C is the most probable mechanism. To better understand the role of IP3-oscillations a detailed model for the phosphoinositide pathway has been developed. The model illustrates the importance of futile (de)phosphorylation cycles for regenerating phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophat during stimulation, an essential property to support long-lasting Ca2+ signals. The second part of the thesis is devoted to nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is a versatile DNA repair mechanism that can remove lesions such as UV light ...
The oxidative phosphorylation cycle is the process by which cells within the human body produce adenosine triphosphate, ATP, via the electron transport chain, an aerobic energy system that follows the Krebs cycle in the bodys never-ending production of energy. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place within the matrix and inter-membrane space of the mitochondria within each cell.…
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So it seems, 49-year-old Cindy Crawford is stepping away from the spotlight and her 14-year-old daughter Kaia Gerber is ready to take her place. As. ...
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Kaia Gerber is poised to become a fashion icon, just like her supermodel mom. She made her runway debut during New York Fashion Week and is crushing it.
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Circadian rhythms in gene transcription imparted by chromosome compaction in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus: In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elo
Structural biologists have made important progress towards better understanding the functioning of the circadian clock. The circadian or inner clock coordinates the sleep-wake rhythm and many other body processes that regulate, ...
Organisms and even single cells have endogenous biological clocks that allow them to tell the time of day. Research in our laboratory is directed towards understanding the cellular and molecular bases of these fascinating timing mechanisms in a variety of organisms: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), plants, and animals. To analyze the molecular nature of the clock in the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, we have developed a bioluminescent reporter strain that expresses a daily rhythm of light emission. Using this bioluminescence rhythm as a marker, clock mutants have been identified. We found that the essential clock gene, KaiC, is rhythmically expressed and forms ATP-dependent hexamers. In collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Martin Egli, we have crystallized KaiC to determine its three-dimensional structure and discover its phosphorylation sites. The three key bacterial clock proteins (KaiA + KaiB + KaiC) will show circadian oscillations in a test tube! In collaboration with the laboratories ...
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of conductivity temperature compensation: компенсация температурного изменения проводимости [Engineering (general) (Tech/Engineering)].
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
* All-in-one IP including body-bias voltage generator, low power sensors and adaptive control loop * Foundation IP independent * Ultra-wide voltage ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
SASA is a Coimbatore based self-publishing company; we are in the process of helping the authors (research scholars, academician, students and intellectuals) to uncover all their studies, thoughts and their innovative ideas in the hand of readers. Apart from English and Tamil we also publish books in Hindi, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and other regional languages. ...
Bewusste Korperpflege von innen und aussen. Bei finden Sie alles rund um Naturkosmetik und Naturheilkunde. Sorgfälltig ausgewählt, von klei...
Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider, 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294 ...
Amesema azma ya Serikali ni kuhakikisha Utalii wa mikutano inaanza kuchukua nafasi kwa kulingiizia Taifa mapato yatokanayo na wageni wanaokuja kwa ajili ya kuhudhuria mikutano ya kimataifa.. Kwa upande wake, Mwenyekiti wa Bodi ya TAWIRI, Prof. Aporinalia Peleka amesema mkutano huo umetoa fursa kwa wahifadhi pamoja na watunga sera kuziona changamoto zinazoikabili nchi katika masuala ya uhifadhi.. Aliongeza kuwa, tafiti hizo zilizowasilishwa zitaisaidia Serikali kupanga mipango yake ya muda mrefu na muda mfupi kulingana na matokeo ya tafiti zilivyojitokeza.. Aidha, amezitaka taasisi na mashirika binafsi kuzitumia tafiti hizo kwa ajili ya kujiletea maendeleo.. Mkutano huo ulifunguliwa juzi na Naibu Waziri wa Maliasili na Utalii, Japhet Hasunga ambapo alizitaka taasisi za Serikali pamoja na mashirika binafsi ziisaidie TAWIRI ili iweze kufanya tafiti tofauti na inavyofanya sasa.. ...
This is the SUKI! page of Kai Ataki. Follow this popular creator on Tokyo Otaku Mode! Kai Ataki has posted 0 works and has 0 followers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen-tolerant coenzyme A-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase facilitates efficient photosynthetic n-butanol biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. AU - Lan, Ethan I.. AU - Ro, Soo Y.. AU - Liao, James C.. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Metabolic engineering of photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria for the production of fuels or chemicals is challenging, particularly when the pathway involves oxygen-sensitive enzymes. We have previously designed a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent n-butanol biosynthesis pathway tailored to the metabolic physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 by incorporating an ATP driving force and a kinetically irreversible trap. However, one of the enzymes involved, CoA-acylating butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (Bldh) is oxygen sensitive, therefore hindering efficient n-butanol synthesis in cyanobacteria. To overcome this obstacle of n-butanol biosynthesis, we characterized six oxygen tolerant CoA-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenases ...
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Plasmid Design Our first plasmid contains KaiC fused to a Gal4 activation domain, with a self-cleaving peptide linker, P2A, fusing it to KaiB. P2A cleaves itself during translation, causing the KaiC-Gal4AD and the KaiB to separate. We did this to allow us to control the exact ratio of KaiC, KaiB, and KaiA, and make sure it is constant and equal in every cell. The second plasmid has KaiA linked by P2A to another fusion protein, SasA fused with the LexA binding domain. The third plasmid is our reporter plasmid, and contains GFP fused with a PEST degradation tag, and has a lexA operator region before the promoter. The degradation tag allows the amount of GFP in the cell to drop quickly enough once its no longer being expressed that we can use fluorescence assays to measure gene expression over time. The lexA binding domain binds to the lexA operator region, causing the SasA-LexA fusion protein to bind to the lexA operator region on the reporter plasmid. In cyanobacteria, SasA binds to ...
A disk drive provides temperature compensation for write current. The write current not only provides an acceptable bit error rate for data written to and read from the disk, but also prevents write induced instability in the head. Furthermore, the write current prevents excessive pole tip protrusion. As a result, the write current ensures that data is reliably stored and retrieved at a given temperature.
A circadian rhythm is a 24-hour period affecting the physiology of all living creatures, including plants and animals. While some circadian rhythm functions are governed internally, others are...
Light, activity & meals are key inputs to the circadian rhythm. These tools can be used to help managing the circadian rhythm & getting it back in sync.
Ndabona umuginga uri hano wiyise inararibonye yakamejeje mu mutwe watewemo idirisha na Kagame. Uti iki mwa? Yabaye wari mutaraga sasa washoboye kumva ko ibyo uri kuvuga byerekana ko genocide yakorewe abatutsi yari ngombwa kugirango babakosore kandi bababuze gukomeza kwangiza! Hi? Subiza...Ntacyo usubiza kuko uri akabwa gusa. Erega, watu wetu murajya impaka ku busa kweri. Ikibazo cya bwana wanditse iyi nkuru, si ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Kayumba Nyamwasa kuko niba ibi bivugwa yaranabikoze koko yakoze nabi cyane. Sasa ikibazo kiri aha ni iki: Ninde wasabaga Kayumba gukora ibyo yakoraga? Uwo muginga mwese muramuzi. Icyo gihe sasa Kayumba yahawe amategeko ya gisirikari. Uretse imbwa zinkotanyi zirirwa zibwejurura aha, guhabwa itegeko rya gisirikari bizwi icyo bisobanuye. Sasa ikibazo ni iki. Kayumba amaze kubona ibyo bari gukora babitegetswe numuginga Kagame, yakoze iki tena? Kayumba nkumuntu wize sasa akaminuza hapana siniya 4, yagiye kwa Kagame aramubwira ati ubu buryo bwo kurwana ntaho bushobora ...
The Precision Biomonitoring Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus) M1 Go-Kit for eDNA is an end-to-end mobile solution for the detection of Redside Dace environmental DNA from filtered water samples.
My deep-thinking granddaughter, Kaia, informed me of this thought last Sunday morning. Nothing is something, she said.. I believe her concept is right. Even if we look across the landscape and see nothing and say there is nothing, there is still something, even if it is only light and air.. The nothing we sometimes feel in ourselves when we think we are useless and have no purpose in life, even then nothing is something because we exist and we are something.. After much discussion on this topic, the very next day I came across this Bible verse in my morning study.. ...
Kai kurie įrodymai iš tiesų leidžia spręsti, jog kūno svorio padidėjimo šventiniu laikotarpiu poveikis išlieka visus metus.
Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Constant light disrupts the circadian rhythm of steroidogenic proteins in the rat adrenal gland". Molecular and Cellular ... It is well known that levels of corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in humans) secretion demonstrate a circadian rhythm, highly ... ACTH levels, ACTH receptor expression, and MRAP1 expression also demonstrate circadian rhythm, with ACTH secretion and MRAP ...
This rhythm is regulated by the binding of circadian proteins to the E-box, along with transcriptional regulation of other ... Exon A encodes a putative signal peptide, the arginine vasopressin hormone, and the N terminus of the NP carrier protein. Exon ... which binds mammalian clock proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 involved in generating circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus ( ... Daily rhythms in the phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB) supports that these elements also contribute to ...
Regulation of melatonin synthesis is important to melatonin's main function in circadian rhythms. The main molecular control ... The presence of the protein RIBEYE and other proteins in both pinealocytes and sensory cells (both photoreceptors and hair ... a peptide which affects pCREB transcription, have a resulting increase in melatonin synthesis. AANAT is activated through a ... Nature's most versatile biological signal?". The FEBS Journal. 273 (13): 2813-38. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05322.x. PMID ...
Shafer, Orie T.; Yao, Zepeng (2014-07-01). "Pigment-Dispersing Factor Signaling and Circadian Rhythms in Insect Locomotor ... PDF is also sufficient to induce high levels of timeless protein (TIM), another essential protein that regulates circadian ... "Vasoactive intestinal peptide and the mammalian circadian system". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 152 (2-3): 165-175. ... as the elevated TIM level is enough to rescue circadian rhythm. In 2011, Ng et al. demonstrated that glial-neural signaling may ...
Its signal peptide is at the N-terminus but is not cleaved off. The protein is co-translationally glycosylated and the ... Circadian rhythms that use neuromodulators such as adenosine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and melatonin, rhythmically ... It is important to understand that, because of these rhythms, rod outer segment discs are shed at the onset of light (in the ... Endogenous dopamine and melatonin seem to be the light and dark signal, in particular. Their method of action is simply as ...
Cell-autonomous clock of astrocytes drives circadian behavior in mammals Circadian Rhythms: Per2bations in the Liver Clock The ... Prior research has not, however, fully elucidated the hierarchy of signals within the SCN nor how these signals influence ... and animalian mechanisms required for circadian functioning are developmentally independent of the presence of Cry proteins. In ... Furthermore, Maywood and colleagues have demonstrated that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), another SCN neuropeptide can act as ...
Forskolin Interleukin-6 Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) Stress or trauma Circadian rhythms Forskolin and ... This activates the protein kinase A pathway, which results in the binding of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) onto ... These signaling hormones act via signal transduction, causing the synthesis of POMC and eventual cleavage to ACTH and β- ... These peptide hormones are stored within vesicles in the corticotropic cells and are released in response to CRH stimulation ...
This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood ... Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... In bacterial circadian rhythms, the oscillations of the phosphorylation of cyanobacterial Kai C protein was reconstituted in a ... Circadian clocks are the central mechanisms that drive circadian rhythms. They consist of three major components: a central ...
Virshup DM, Eide EJ, Forger DB, Gallego M, Harnish EV (2007). "Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates circadian rhythms ... a scaffold protein exhibiting important roles in Wnt signaling, and CK1δ/ε were fine-mapped using a peptide library. The ... CK1δ seems to be involved in the circadian rhythm, the internal cellular clock, which permits a rhythm of about 24 h. The ... "A small molecule modulates circadian rhythms through phosphorylation of the period protein". Angewandte Chemie. 50 (45): 10608- ...
Saper, Clifford B.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lu, Jun (2005). "Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms". Nature. 437 ... Delta wave signalling arising either in the thalamus or in the cortex influences the secretion of releasing hormones; GHRH and ... Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must pass through the blood-brain barrier. ... In general, ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs) are gene activators, with increased mRNA and subsequent protein synthesis ...
... as it maintains the circadian rhythm, and nerve signals from ipRGCs to the SCN entrain the internal circadian rhythm to the ... it appears to be a photopigment with intrinsic photoisomerase activity and signals through a G-protein of the Gq family. ... an optogenetic synthetic transcription device that was tested in a therapeutic setting to produce Fc-glucagon-like peptide 1 ( ... Triple-mutant mice that were rod-less, cone-less, and melanopsin-less display a complete loss in the circadian rhythms, so all ...
... master circadian pacemaker'. See SCN and circadian rhythm below. VIP in the pituitary helps to regulate prolactin secretion; it ... VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... The presence of VPAC2 in ventrolateral side suggests that VIP signals can actually signal back to regulate VIP secreting cells ... Then it will activate gene expression pathways such as Per1 and Per2 in circadian rhythm. In addition, GABA levels are ...
... affecting the circadian rhythm, reducing voluntary alcohol intake, lowering blood pressure, and controlling epileptic seizures ... The receptor protein that NPY operates on is a G protein-coupled receptor in the rhodopsin like 7-transmembrane GPCR family. ... Acuna-Goycolea C, Tamamaki N, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, van den Pol AN (August 2005). "Mechanisms of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and ... In most obesity cases the increased secretion of NPY is a central / hypothalamic resistance to energy excess hormone signals ...
ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms. Deficiency of ACTH is a sign (?a cause) of secondary adrenal ... ACTH is synthesized from pre-pro-opiomelanocortin (pre-POMC). The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ...
This finding suggests a role for EGFR signaling in the regulation of CLOCK and circadian rhythms within the SCN. Similar ... "Characterization of disulfide bond position in proteins and sequence analysis of cystine-bridged peptides by tandem mass ... The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a ... influencing activation and signaling of other proteins that interact in many signal transduction pathways. In an animal model ...
Preliminary research indicates that ghrelin participates in the regulation of circadian rhythms. A review reported finding no ... Current Protein & Peptide Science. 12 (4): 293-304. doi:10.2174/138920311795906673. PMC 3670092. PMID 21428875. Zigman JM, ... Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from alcohol and palatable/rewarding foods. Ghrelin has been linked to ... which suggests there is a flaw in the circadian rhythm of obese individuals. Ghrelin levels are high in people with cancer- ...
The protein encoded by CCDC47 is 483 amino acids in length and contains both a signal peptide and transmembrane domain. It is ... or decreasing the transcription of downstream genes while PAR b ZIP family is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ...
In others, rhythm is regulated primarily on the protein level. One example is in rodents, where AANAT mRNA levels increase more ... This, in turn, leads to a signaling cascade, resulting in Protein Kinase A phosphorylation of two key Ser and Thr residues of ... Due to its important role in circadian rhythm, AANAT is subjected to extensive regulation that is responsive to light exposure ... Peptide combinatorial libraries of tri-, tetra-, and pentapeptides with various amino acid compositions were screened as ...
T4 may be elevated, and TSH is usually normal, although TSH's normal circadian rhythm may be disrupted. Bipolar 1 and PTSD can ... Other signals associated with hunger also affect the HPT axis. Insulin and bile acids, which are elevated after a meal, lead to ... It is typically associated with high-T3 syndrome, increased plasma protein binding of thyroid hormones, and an elevated set ... and agouti-related peptide. In critical illness, inflammation increases tanycyte D2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the ...
... protein / peptides (e.g. insulin and CLE peptides) and gases (e.g ethylene and nitrous oxide). Hormones are used to communicate ... stimulation or inhibition of growth wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms mood swings induction or suppression of ... Hormones are ligands, which are any kinds of molecules that produce a signal by binding to a receptor site on a protein. ... Neural signalling is an all-or-nothing (digital) action, whereas hormonal signalling is an action that can be continuously ...
They found the mRNA methylation alters the speed of circadian rhythms and heterogeneity of G protein signaling is necessary for ... Ribbon in 2007 Recipient of Aschoff's Ruler in 2009 Okamura began his study of circadian rhythms in 1982 with the peptide work ... and the adrenal gland is the key organ in transforming circadian signals from nerve signals to the endocrine signals. Okamura's ... "Circadian regulation of intracellular G-protein signalling mediates intercellular synchrony and rhythmicity in the ...
Przewłocki R, Lasón W, Konecka AM, Gramsch C, Herz A, Reid LD (January 1983). "The opioid peptide dynorphin, circadian rhythms ... Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin. When prodynorphin is ... A putative mechanism of signal transmission". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (28): 26360-70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412494200. PMID 15894804. ... Dynorphins are important in maintaining homeostasis through appetite control and circadian rhythms. Przewlocki et al. found ...
The SCN is a region in the brain known to control circadian rhythms in mammals which can be influenced by external light cues. ... RGS16, a gene regulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling, attenuates FAA but is also not necessary for it. Up until the ... Proteins involved in the SCN pathway (Prokineticin 2 (PK2), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase- ... The presence or absence of glucose and fatty acids, loss of AMPK in the mouse liver has led to disrupted circadian rhythms in ...
Sleep is controlled both by circadian rhythms and the homeostatic drive produced by wakefulness. Circadian rhythms are produced ... In fact, Senile plaques are dense, protein deposits composed of amyloid β peptide. The two types of senile plaques are diffuse ... both necrotic and apoptotic processes utilize a similar intracellular signaling cascade which uses caspase proteins to induce ... 894-898 King, D; Takahashi, JS.Molecular Genetics of Circadian Rhythms in Mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci, 2000, pp. 713-742 ...
This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da). In some ... which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and circadian rhythms, can be affected through ... This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that ... protein G), Staphylococcus aureus (protein A), and Peptostreptococcus magnus (protein L). The mechanisms used to evade the ...
... identifying circadian rhythms in macrophages, and investigating the necessity of heme degradation for circadian rhythms. ... analyzing the coupling between peripheral circadian oscillators, and live cell imaging of circadian clock proteins. Along with ... Kramer wrote his undergraduate thesis on peptide libraries used to identify tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antagonists ... signaling pathways. TGF-α binding to its epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was shown to decrease locomotor activity in ...
Prog.) ^ Colwell, C. S., "Circadian Rhythms", (4th Gen. Prog.) ^ Lewy, A. J., "Circadian Phase Sleep And Mood Disorders", (5th ... Thus there are many proteins which are not even in the direct path of signal transduction, any of which may still be a target ... Different treatment-related studies are investigating the potential role of peptide nucleic acids in treating Parkinson's ... All of the proteins involved in neurotransmission are a small fraction of the more than 100,000 proteins in the brain. ...
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • body fluid secretion. • prolactin secretion. • mRNA stabilization. • positive ... SCN and circadian rhythmEdit. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication ... VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... protein binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. • peptide hormone receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ...
Circadian rhythm signals also affect the melanocortin system, both directly with melatonin affecting POMC gene expression in ... Peptides. 26 (10): 1728-32. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.12.028. PMID 15993514. Donovan, MH; Tecott, LH (2013). "Serotonin and ... ghrelin and agouti-related protein. It receives inputs from hormones, nutrients and afferent neural inputs, and is unique in ... The rhythm of the activity of serotonin neurons is also shown as circadian changes, with a clear downward trend during the dark ...
... peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is ... wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms. *mood swings. *induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death) ... Peptide hormones - Examples include oxytocin and insulin. *Peptide hormones are made of a chain of amino acids that can range ... Binding proteinsEdit. Hormone transport and the involvement of binding proteins is an essential aspect when considering the ...
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... Volicer L, Harper D, Manning B, Goldstein R, Satlin A (2001). "Sundowning and circadian rhythms in Alzheimer's disease". Am J ... "Signaling Effect of Amyloid-β42 on the Processing of AβPP". Exp. Neurol. 221 (1): 18-25. PMC 2812589. PMID 19747481. doi ... Hiltunen M, van Groen T, Jolkkonen J (2009). "Functional roles of amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptides: ...
It has been observed that while serum or blood plasma concentrations follow a circadian rhythm or reflect short-term dietary ... This increases peptide hormone stability and activity.[99][100]. Pharmacokinetics[edit]. Absorption[edit]. From the U.S. ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ...
G protein. A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are implicated in transmitting signals from a ... circadian rhythm. citric acid cycle. Also called the Krebs cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). ... An anabolic peptide hormone produced in the pancreas which helps to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein ... A group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses ...
circadian rhythm. • animal organ regeneration. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of cell size ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC *Extracellular signal-regulated *MAPK1. *MAPK3 ... 1996). "Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20-residue peptide derived from p16CDKN2/INK4A". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ...
... has a circadian rhythm), with the lowest temperatures occurring at night, and the highest in the afternoons. Other normal ... The control center responds to the signal by determining an appropriate response and sending signals to an effector, which can ... This causes heart muscle cells to secrete the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the blood. This acts on the kidneys ... The abnormally high plasma ionized calcium concentrations cause conformational changes in many cell-surface proteins ( ...
CLOCK is a circadian rhythm master regulator that functions with BMAL1 to carry out its HAT activity.[9] ... HAT domains bound to acetyl-CoA and histone substrate peptides reveal that the latter bind across a groove on the protein that ... acetylation can affect protein function in this manner has led to inquiry regarding the role of acetyltransferases in signal ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ...
Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, which is found in semen.[22] ... "molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".[124] Male flies sing to the females during courtship using their wings ... TRP, InaC, and PLC form a signaling complex by binding a scaffolding protein called InaD. InaD contains five binding domains ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ...
regulation of circadian rhythm. • positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission. • signal ... dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine ... identical protein binding. • dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • protein ... Neve KA, Seamans JK, Trantham-Davidson H (August 2004). "Dopamine receptor signaling". Journal of Receptor and Signal ...
cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of female receptivity. • circadian rhythm. • grooming behavior. • locomotory ... protein kinase activity. • signal transducer activity. • receptor binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. • neurohypophyseal ... Peptides 2002 Mar 23:3 581-3 ... protein kinase C signaling. • negative regulation of release of ... signal transduction. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration. • ...
Volicer L, Harper DG, Manning BC, Goldstein R, Satlin A (May 2001). "Sundowning and circadian rhythms in Alzheimer's disease". ... A protein called tau stabilises the microtubules when phosphorylated, and is therefore called a microtubule-associated protein ... Exactly how disturbances of production and aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide give rise to the pathology of AD is not ... people can often understand and return emotional signals. Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and ...
A mismatch between the circadian rhythm and the meals schedule, such as in circadian rhythm disorders, may increase insulin ... with the signal propagating through a signaling cascade collectively known as PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.[37] Recent ... Much of the attention on production of proinflammatory cytokines has focused on the IKK-beta/NF-kappa-B pathway, a protein ... Studies have consistently shown that there is a link between insulin resistance and circadian rhythm, with insulin sensitivity ...
de Weerth C, Zijl RH, Buitelaar JK (August 2003). "Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy". Early Human ... Manchester, KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Allison, NH & Munro JB. Mammalian Protein ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators. List of ... The primary control of cortisol is the pituitary gland peptide, ACTH, which probably controls cortisol by controlling the ...
1994 - Alfred G. Gilman, and Martin Rodbell, United States, for finding G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal ... "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"[110]. *2018 James P. Allison, U.S, Tasuku Honjo ... 1977 - Roger Guillemin, Andrew W. Schally, United States, for their discoveries about how the brain makes peptide hormone[68] ... 1999 - Günter Blobel, United States, for the discovery that proteins have built-in signals that control their transport and ...
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells" [93]. ... "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" [118]. Michael Rosbash United States ... "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones" [76]. 1978 Werner Arber Switzerland "for the discovery of ... "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell" [98]. ...
Circadian rhythm[edit]. In animals, melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles.[35] Human infants ... "Plant Signal Behav. 1 (3): 89-95. doi:10.4161/psb.1.3.2640. PMC 2635004. PMID 19521488.. ... "Melatonin receptors , G protein-coupled receptors , IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology". Retrieved 7 ... Arendt J (October 2000). "Melatonin, circadian rhythms, and sleep". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (15): 1114-16. doi:10.1056/ ...
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder *Advanced sleep phase disorder. *Delayed sleep phase disorder ... Calcitonin gene related peptides (CGRPs) have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of the pain associated with ... typically a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur.[12] Occasionally, an aura can ... The fourth is an axonal protein associated with the exocytosis complex.[50] Another genetic disorder associated with migraine ...
Carrier proteins: Neurophysin (I, II). See also. Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. ... Vasopressin is released into the brain in a circadian rhythm by neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.[15] ... cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • protein kinase C signaling. • generation of precursor ... signal transduction. • apoptotic process. • membrane organization. • regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled ...
It has been observed that while serum or blood plasma concentrations follow a circadian rhythm or reflect short-term dietary ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... This increases peptide hormone stability and activity.[107][108]. *4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase modulates tyrosine ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ...
... and circadian rhythms.[citation needed] The hypothalamus derives its name from Greek ὑπό, under and θάλαμος, chamber. ... Peptide hormones and neuropeptides that regulate feeding[29]. Peptides that increase. feeding behavior Peptides that decrease. ... Delta wave signalling arising either in the thalamus or in the cortex influences the secretion of releasing hormones; GHRH and ... In general, ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs) are gene activators, with increased mRNA and subsequent protein synthesis ...
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[91] ... "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"[115]. 迈克尔·罗斯巴什 美國 ... "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[74] ... "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[96] ...
circadian rhythm. • somitogenesis. • Notch signaling pathway. • regulation of neurogenesis. • anterior/posterior pattern ... protein dimerization activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • MRF binding. • GO:0001106 transcription corepressor ... defective TH2 responses after being repeatedly stimulated with OVA peptide, and reduced alveolar infiltrate.[10] BHLHE41 ... "Genetic basis of human circadian rhythm disorders". Experimental Neurology. Circadian rhythms and sleep disorders. 243: 28-33. ...
circadian rhythm. • positive regulation of cellular senescence. • spermatogenesis. • intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in ... negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. • circadian regulation of gene expression. • protein deacetylation ... resveratrol was later shown to directly activate Sirtuin 1 against non-modified peptide substrates.[26][27] Resveratrol also ... SIRT1 mediated HR requires the WRN protein.[61] WRN protein functions in double-strand break repair by HR.[62] WRN protein is a ...
Volicer L, Harper DG, Manning BC, Goldstein R, Satlin A. Sundowning and Circadian Rhythms in Alzheimer's Disease. The American ... Roles of Proteolysis and Lipid Rafts in the Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein and Prion Protein. Biochemical Society ... Amyloid-β peptide protects against microbial infection in mouse and worm models of Alzheimer's disease. Science Translational ... Su B, Wang X, Nunomura A. Oxidative Stress Signaling in Alzheimer's Disease. Current Alzheimer Research. 2008-12, 5 (6): 525-32 ...
circadian rhythm Triiodothyronine. T3. peripheral tissue of thyroid gland. Thyroid Follicular cell / Tyrosine. thyroid hormone ... Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin). ANP. heart. ANP receptor → cGMP. Brain natriuretic peptide. BNP. heart[dubious - ... In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes ... Eicosanoid for more information about this class of paracrine signalling chemicals and hormones. ...
The main function of transglutaminases is bind proteins and peptides intra- and intermolecularly, by a type of covalent bonds ... Circadian rhythm sleep disorder *Advanced sleep phase disorder. *Delayed sleep phase disorder ... The weaker signals from subthalamic nuclei thus cause reduced initiation and modulation of movement, resulting in the ... Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that ...
Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application. [Q Ashton Acton;] ... signaling_peptides_and_proteins_advances_in_research_and_application> ;. schema:name "Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and ... Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application. Author:. Q Ashton ... rdfs:label "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins : Advances in Research and Application." ;. schema:description " ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins*Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides*Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Proteins*Circadian Rhythm ... "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Circadian Rhythm Signaling ... "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ...
Circadian Rhythm*. Humans. Insulin / blood. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood*. Leptin / blood*. Male. ... 0/Adiponectin; 0/Blood Glucose; 0/Insulin; 0/Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Leptin ... There were significant endogenous circadian rhythms in leptin, glucose, and insulin, with peaks around the usual time of ... Thus, the day/night pattern in leptin is likely caused by combined effects from the endogenous circadian pacemaker and day/ ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics * Coronavirus Infections / pathology * Coronavirus Infections / ... Melatonin induces the circadian gene, Bmal1, which disinhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), countering viral ... Pineal melatonin suppression attenuates this, preventing the circadian "resetting" of mitochondrial metabolism. This is ...
The mammalian circadian clock is built on a feedback loop in which PER and CRY proteins repress their own transcription. We ... Circadian Clocks* * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins / deficiency * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and ... The mammalian circadian clock is built on a feedback loop in which PER and CRY proteins repress their own transcription. We ... Macromolecular Assemblies of the Mammalian Circadian Clock Mol Cell. 2017 Sep 7;67(5):770-782.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.07 ...
Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Down-Regulation / ... 0/Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Heat-Shock Proteins; 0/Histones; 0/MicroRNAs ... circadian rhythms, stress response proteins, miRNA expression, and global histone modifications in rBMSCs were analyzed. rBMSCs ... The level of a core circadian protein, Rev-erb α, was significantly increased in rBMSCs from old animals. Furthermore, analysis ...
1999 DCRY is a Drosophila photoreceptor protein implicated in light entrainment of circadian rhythm. Genes Cells 4: 57-65. ... To establish whether the protein encoded by Spp has enzymatic activity as a signal peptide peptidase, we expressed both the ... Signal peptide peptidase activity of Drosophila SPP. In this assay, SDS-PAGE resolves the test peptide but cleavage products ... SPP was originally identified as an enzyme that cleaves signal peptides, potentially cleansing the ER membrane of the signal ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.189]. *Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1 [D12.776. ... Circadian rhythm-dependent and circadian rhythm-independent impacts of the molecular clock on type 3 innate lymphoid cells. Sci ... Circadian clock protein Rev-erba regulates neuroinflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 03 12; 116(11):5102-5107. ... BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS. ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.189]. *Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1 [D12.776. ... BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS. ... that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian ... Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN ...
... beta Nerve Growth Factor Recombinant Protein-NP_002497.2 (MBS144360) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins ... receptor signaling protein activity. Biological Process: response to nicotine; circadian rhythm; response to peptide hormone ... Peptide. Rec./Purified Protein. Custom ELISA Kit. Custom Protein. Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide ... Protein type: Secreted, signal peptide; Secreted. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1p13.1. Cellular Component: ...
Artificial light causes changes to gene expression and cellular signaling cascades that coordinate mass spawning events for a ... Neuropeptides are another diverse class of signalling molecules that act through G-protein coupled receptors. These peptides ... circadian rhythms, adaptive behaviors and cognition (Grimmelikhuijzen and Hauser, 2012). The importance of neuropeptides in ... The release of gametes occurs in the presence of moonlight or another signal (such as an olfactory signal) that stimulates ...
The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by ... A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. We cultured ... Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured ... Circadian rhythms in cardiac function are apparent in e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, and acute adverse cardiac events. ...
An organism whose circadian clock exhibits a regular rhythm corresponding to outside signals is said to be clonazepam 1mg ... Carboxypeptidase cleaves peptide linkages during digestion of proteins. ... an entrained rhythm persists even if the outside signals suddenly disappear. It serves as a source of bromide ions. A blue ...
The circadian expression of fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes an ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism/physiology*. *Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics/physiology ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism/physiology*. *Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics/physiology ... In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse ...
Plant E1A Binding Protein P300 (EP300) ELISA Kit-EAW60408.1 (MBS9373733) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Biological Process: apoptosis; circadian rhythm; DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in ... peptide N-acetyltransferase activity; protein binding; protein C-terminus binding; transcription activator binding; ... Androgen Receptor Signaling Pathway antibodies. Androgen Receptor Signaling Pathway Diagram. Attenuation Phase Pathway ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Chemical Compounds * Sexual Maturation Medicine & Life Sciences ... circadian GH rhythms varied significantly in amplitude and mean values (but not in phase) throughout puberty. Plasma ... circadian GH rhythms varied significantly in amplitude and mean values (but not in phase) throughout puberty. Plasma ... circadian GH rhythms varied significantly in amplitude and mean values (but not in phase) throughout puberty. Plasma ...
Environmental Signals, Entrainment and Regulation of Biological Rhythms. Interaction of circadian, ultradian and infradian ... Modeling circadian oscillations of the PER and TIM proteins in Drosophila (J.-C. Leloup, A. Goldbeter). Antagonistic effects of ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) in the retinohypothalamic tract phase shifts the circadian clock (J.D. ... Dopamine and retinal circadian rhythms in mammals (J. Nguyen-Legros, E. Chanut, C. Versaux-Botteri). External signals and ...
Regulates the circadian expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver. Represses ... Plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock; binds to the GC box sequence in the promoter of the core clock component ... circadian rhythm Source: Ensembl. *negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: ProtInc ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p ... cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles where the ...
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *Per1 protein, mouse. *Period Circadian Proteins. *RNA, Messenger ... Loss of melatonin signalling and its impact on circadian rhythms in mouse organs regulating blood glucose.. Mühlbauer E1, Gross ... The pineal hormone melatonin acts via G-protein-coupled receptors to synchronise these clock-generated circadian rhythms. The ... The transmission of circadian rhythms is mediated by specific promoter sequences binding a particular circadian clock factor. ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *KaiC protein, cyanobacteria. Grant support. *MH01179/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United ... Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.. Johnson CH1, Golden SS. ... At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. Their " ... Three genes have been identified that specifically affect circadian phenotypes. These genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, are adjacent ...
In the process of ubiquitination the small protein ... Control of mammalian circadian rhythm by CKIepsilon-regulated ... In the process of ubiquitination the small protein ubiquitin is attached to a target protein by a peptide bond. The ... In neuropathology, alteration of the UPS, or mutations in UPS target proteins may result in signaling abnormalities leading to ... Murakami G, Watabe T, Takaoka K, Miyazono K, Imamura T (2003) Cooperative inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by ...
Circadian Clock Proteins and Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Proteins. ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0533472. Scope note. A broad category of proteins ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360.138] + Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins + ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476.156] + Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins + ...
Structure and function of nuclear localization signal peptide present in circadian rhythm hormone peptide precursor. Matsushima ... Localization profiles of the precursor protein of circadian rhythm pacemaker hormone PDF in Gryllus brain. Honda, T., Chuman, Y ... SCN Circadian rhythm signal transduction neuropeptides evoke hypoactive phenotype differently in male and female mice. Sugiyama ... a circadian rhythm pacemaker hormone. Matsushima, A., Nose, T., Tomioka, K., Shimohigashi, M. & Shimohigashi, Y., 2003, Peptide ...
NEP plays an important role in brain function due to its role in terminating neuropeptide signalling and its decrease during ... release from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its removal by perivascular drainage or by amyloid-degrading enzymes (ADEs ... peptide (A,i,β,/i,) is the primary trigger for neuronal loss specific to this pathology. In healthy brain, A,i,β,/i, levels are ... Circadian rhythms [73], pathophysiology of itch [50]. Neuropeptide Y. Food intake, hormonal release, circadian rhythms, ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics. *Dopaminergic Neurons/physiology. *Emotions/physiology ...
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the ... Cell Cycle Proteins (0) * Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins (0) * Chloroplast Proteins (0) * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and ... Immobilized Proteins (0) * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0) * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0 ...
Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others ... Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. ... Cell Cycle Proteins (0) * Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins (0) * Chloroplast Proteins (0) * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and ... Immobilized Proteins (0) * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0) * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0 ...
Indeed, neuropeptides can function as peptide hormones regulating physiological homeostasis (e.g., cognition, blood pressure, ... They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous ... The signalling pathway associated with the induction of autophagy by NPY involved the activation of different protein kinases, ... circadian rhythm, cognition, stress response, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection [6, 55-58].. In mouse hypothalamic neuronal ...
Further, VIP has been shown to regulate hormonal release, circadian rhythms, vasodilation, and T cell proliferation in central ... Protein assays and western blotting analysis for phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were performed to define quantitative changes in ERK ... VIP binding has previously been shown to increase downstream MAPK signaling cascades, especially MEK/ERK. Given the structural ... is a neuroendocrine peptide that has been implicated in a myriad of functions. VIP promotes neuronal survival during ...
Measuring G-protein-coupled Receptor Signaling via Radio-labeled GTP Binding ... H2S Signals Through Protein S-sulfhydration Science Signaling. Nov, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19903941 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a ... Circadian Rhythms. Carbon Monoxide and Clocks Science (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12493901 ... phosphorylated peptides are more acid-labile and more resistant to phosphatases than ATP phosphorylated peptides, indicating a ...
  • A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. (
  • These strategies depend on a plethora of diverse signaling pathways, involving a broad spectrum of molecules, including enzymes, transcription factors, and other proteins associated with plant defense systems. (
  • Cell signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), 1 comprises an interconnected network of pathways associated with various regulatory processes. (
  • Tyr-1092 and Tyr-1110 for Grb2 ( 2 ), Tyr-1172 and Tyr-1197 for SHC ( 3 )) act as docking sites for a variety of proteins upstream of several signaling cascades, most prominently mitogen-activated protein kinase, phospholipase C-γ, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways, leading to proliferation, differentiation, migration, and antiapoptotic effects ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Indeed, because dysregulation of EGFR-activated pathways, often a consequence of receptor overexpression or mutation, has been shown to be correlated with many types of cancer, one promising step toward identifying mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis associated with aberrant EGFR signaling would be to generate a quantitative comparison of a broad variety of specific cellular signaling events downstream of this RTK under multiple biological cell states. (
  • These data could then be used to implement models of cellular signaling pathways, from which predictions could be made as to the most beneficial intervention strategies. (
  • However, with exposure to constant light, the rhythmic expression of the ACTH receptor and MRAP genes reversed, suggesting ACTH-independent signalling pathways for MRAP and ACTH receptor transcription and expression. (
  • CRE/CREB-mediated regulation of the AVP gene is activated through the cAMP activation of Ras signaling pathways, culminating in the MAP kinase phosphorylation of the CREB transcription factor. (
  • Our data establish that there are fundamental differences in the transcriptional and cellular signaling pathways used by the two myoblast lineages. (
  • Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica . (
  • In the previous research cycle, we studied where the receptor for PDF (PDF-R) is expressed, we developed realtime imaging methods to study its activation in vivo, and screened for kinases and phosphatases that participate in its signaling pathways. (
  • Among its related pathways are Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and Circadian rythm related genes . (
  • The circadian clock synchronizes to the external 24-hour environment by the SCN receiving information on the light-dark cycle and by the peripheral clocks, including the liver clock, receiving information from the SCN through multiple pathways such as food intake, which induces strong entrainment due to insulin secretion and intracellular signaling. (
  • Extracellular ligand for the NTRK1 and NGFR receptors, activates cellular signaling cascades through those receptor tyrosine kinase to regulate neuronal proliferation, differentiation and survival. (
  • The pineal hormone melatonin acts via G-protein-coupled receptors to synchronise these clock-generated circadian rhythms. (
  • VIP binds with equally high affinity to VPAC 1 and VPAC 2 receptors, members of the Class B family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that also include the PAC 1 , glucagon (GCGR), and CRH receptors. (
  • Ligand binding to cell surface receptors initiates a cascade of signaling events regulated by dynamic phosphorylation events on a multitude of pathway proteins. (
  • Both human and bovine ACTH receptors are synthesized as 297 residue long proteins with 81% sequence homology. (
  • ACTH receptors also require the binding of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein-1 (MRAP1) without which ACTH receptors cannot bind ACTH. (
  • Hormones are regulated by the amplification of the signal for hormone production, by adding or removing receptors on target cells, through interactions with other hormones, or by removing the hormone altogether. (
  • The effect of hormones can be regulated by negative feedback, by adding or removing receptors in target cells, by circadian rhythms, and through a process of hormone removal. (
  • Paracrine signals act locally in the same tissue, while autocrine messengers bind to receptors on the cell that produced them. (
  • The neuropeptide functions through G protein-coupled receptors to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulate intracellular calcium levels, and activate potassium channels. (
  • PDF-R is a Class B peptide GPCR - that category includes receptors for the mammalian PACAP and VIP peptides. (
  • Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are involved in mediating intercellular signalling via purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • Photoentrainment is processed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, a member of the opsin subgroup of G protein-coupled receptors that is typically linked to a chromophore consisting of a specific form of vitamin A called 11-cis-retinal (or related compounds) ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD. (
  • The Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Signal Transduction System for Intracellular and Intercellular Communication. (
  • In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been detected. (
  • However, other opsin constructs have emerged from the wealth of information about opsin mechanisms including light-driven constructs to regulate G-protein mediated signaling, 6 - 8 intracellular signaling molecules, 6 , 9 - 13 and gene -expression. (
  • The posttranslational addition of ubiquitin ( Ub ) profoundly controls the half-life, interactions, and/or trafficking of numerous intracellular proteins. (
  • In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. (
  • We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. (
  • Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. (
  • A) The circadian expression of fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes and representatives of each group (per2, cry2a, and aanat1) on the microarrays are shown. (
  • Furthermore, we observed that the LD circadian phases of light-induced genes were predominantly distributed around CT5. (
  • Three genes have been identified that specifically affect circadian phenotypes. (
  • Regulates the circadian expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver. (
  • In protein science , Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides are a broad category of proteins complex amino acids important for our body's circadian rhythm processes , controlled by internal molecular clock, assembled from the cycling RNA and protein products by a small group of genes, conserved throughout the animal kingdom. (
  • Nonetheless, the shorter light pulses resulted in the differential regulation of a variety of genes including those implicated in the circadian control, suggesting that light induced masking effects also involve clock components. (
  • Expression of AVP is regulated by the Transcription Translation Feedback Loop (TTFL), which is an important part of the circadian system that controls the expression of clock genes. (
  • Nerves or special chemical signals cause cells to turn on genes responsible for the production and secretion of hormones. (
  • Appetite regulation by nutritional intervention is required early in life that involves the anti-aging gene Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) with Sirt 1 maintenance of other cellular anti-aging genes involved in cell circadian rhythm, senescence and apoptosis. (
  • The connections between Sirt 1 and other anti-aging genes such as Klotho, p66Shc (longevity protein) and Forkhead box proteins (FOXO1/ FOXO3a) have been associated with programmed cell death and alterations in these anti-aging genesregulate glucose, lipid and amyloid beta metabolism that are important to various chronic diseases. (
  • Cloning of an X. laevis gene expressed during early embryogenesis coding for a peptide region homologous to Drosophila homeotic genes. (
  • It has been suggested that some lncRNAs act in cis to regulate the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes (PCGs) in a mechanism that fine-tunes gene expression. (
  • The total number of potential protein encoding genes for the entire genome was determined to be 4430 or on average one gene for evey 1052 base pairs. (
  • Regulates the circadian locomotor rhythms via transcriptional activation of neuropeptidergic genes which are essential for intercellular synchrony and rhythm amplitude in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain (By similarity). (
  • Our molecular clock and circadian rhythm is affected by clock genes and their transcription factors. (
  • 2009). The rhythmic impact of clock genes, Per1 and Per2, affect circadian activity in the hypothalamus and in peripheral tissues. (
  • It appears that some circadian clock genes, such as Foxa2 , are not only regulated differently under feeding and fasting conditions, but that there is tissue specificity, such as lipid and protein metabolism in heart and liver, at least in mice (Wolfrum, C. et al. (
  • Roughly 170 of these genes representing common characteristics of slightly more than 11,000 time-related metabolic traits had an overlap with several categories, such as wound healing, inflammation, protein kinase cascade, and regulation of signal transduction. (
  • Also, mice that have a functional knockout of the gene encoding vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, a major SCN neuropeptide, show dampened rhythms in heart rate under entrained conditions and loss of this rhythm under constant darkness conditions [9] . (
  • NEP plays an important role in brain function due to its role in terminating neuropeptide signalling and its decrease during ageing or after such pathologies as hypoxia or ischemia contribute significantly to the development of AD pathology. (
  • The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila. (
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinate the neuronal, humoural systems and the circadian rhythms activate the arcuate nucleus that releases neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) that control physiological functions (body) temperature, melatonin release, glucocorticoid secretion and behavioural functions (feeding and memory). (
  • Prepro-orexin encodes a precursor protein of a neuropeptide producing orexin A and B (hcrt1 and hcrt2), which is enriched in the hypothalamus and regulates maintenance of arousal. (
  • This gene encodes a neuropeptide that is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes, including cortical excitability, stress response, food intake, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular function. (
  • Genetic evidence indicates the neuropeptide PDF (Pigment Dispersing Factor) is a principal circadian transmitter in Drosophila. (
  • The effects of aging on stem cell properties and indicators of stem cell fitness such as proliferation, differentiation, circadian rhythms, stress response proteins, miRNA expression, and global histone modifications in rBMSCs were analyzed. (
  • This protein has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. (
  • It targets oxidized, mutant or misfolded proteins for general proteolytic destruction, and allows for the tightly controlled and specific destruction of proteins involved in development and differentiation, cell cycle progression, circadian rhythms, apoptosis, and other biological processes. (
  • 2010) Development of the circadian oscillator during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro. (
  • Fat/Hippo pathway regulates the progress of neural differentiation signaling in the Drosophila optic lobe. (
  • Inhibition of Wnt signaling by PORCN inhibition holds promise as differentiation therapy in genetically defined human cancers. (
  • Recent work from our group demonstrated that c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase activity triggers differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells to primitive ectoderm-like cells. (
  • In this report, we identified Timeless (Tim), the mammalian ortholog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm protein, as a binding partner and substrate for c-Src and probed its role in the differentiation of mES cells. (
  • To determine whether Tim is involved in ES cell differentiation, Tim protein levels were stably suppressed using shRNA. (
  • These findings reveal a new function for Tim in the coordination of ES cell differentiation, and raise the intriguing possibility that circadian rhythms and early development may be intimately linked. (
  • We identified the Drosophila melanogaster Signal peptide peptidase gene ( Spp ) that encodes a multipass transmembrane aspartyl protease. (
  • Drosophila SPP is homologous to the human signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and is distantly related to the presenilins. (
  • We show that, like human SPP, Drosophila SPP can proteolyze a model signal peptide and is sensitive to an SPP protease inhibitor and that it localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Here we report the identification of a Drosophila signal peptide peptidase (SPP), an I-CLiP with activity against the TMD of signal peptides. (
  • Modeling circadian oscillations of the PER and TIM proteins in Drosophila (J.-C. Leloup, A. Goldbeter). (
  • DISCO Interacting Protein 2 regulates axonal bifurcation and guidance of Drosophila mushroom body neurons. (
  • A series of suppressive signals within the Drosophila circadian neural circuit generates sequential daily Outputs. (
  • Functional PDF signaling in the Drosophila circadian neural circuit is gated by Ral A-dependent modulation. (
  • Synchronous Drosophila circadian pacemakers display nonsynchronous Ca²⁺ rhythms in vivo. (
  • Peptidergic Cell-Specific Synaptotagmins in Drosophila: Localization to Dense-Core Granules and Regulation by the bHLH Protein DIMMED. (
  • E and M Circadian Pacemaker Neurons Use Different PDF Receptor Signalosome Components in Drosophila. (
  • We have investigated these phenomena by studying the circadian behaviour of transgenic Drosophila expressing the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). (
  • Characterization of Drosophila DNA-binding protein DB-2: demonstration of its sequence-specific interaction with DNA. (
  • Deletions of two heat activated loci in Drosophila melanogaster and their effects on heat induced protein synthesis. (
  • Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young used Drosophila to uncover molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm. (
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotide release from the circadian clock protein KaiC reveal atomic-resolution functional insights. (
  • Circadian rhythm-dependent and circadian rhythm-independent impacts of the molecular clock on type 3 innate lymphoid cells. (
  • Reflects the recent advances in the study of biological rhythms in different areas such as molecular genetics, cell functions, neurobiology, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. (
  • Molecular, Cellular and Genetic Aspects of Biological Rhythms. (
  • Molecular analyses of the Xenopus photoreceptor circadian oscillator (C.B. Green, J.C. Besharse). (
  • Among the topics covered in Volume 49 are neurotransmitter transporters circadian rhythms, transgenic model for studying isles development, protein phosphateses, the androgen receptor, molecular genetics of steroid 5oz-reductases and benign and malignant prostatic neoplasms. (
  • Circadian Variations of Gi Peptides and Cell Proliferation in Rats: Effects of Adrenalectomy, Molecular Genetic Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency By Allele-Specfic Hybridization. (
  • Emphasis is given to the examination of proteins, whether soluble or membrane-bound, and their key biological functions and we seek a molecular understanding of their evolution, cellular interactions, structures and functions. (
  • "Life's 24-hour clock: molecular control of circadian rhythms in animal cells" Trends Biochem Sci. (
  • Although the participation of GRPs in plant stress response has been indicated in numerous model and non-model plant species, relatively little is known about the key physiological processes and molecular mechanisms in which those proteins are engaged. (
  • Despite the importance of light as a regulator of malaria transmission, our knowledge on the molecular interactions between environmental cues, the circadian oscillators and the host seeking and feeding systems of the Anopheles mosquitoes is limited. (
  • Despite the essential role of circadian clocks in the regulation of vector behaviors that enable disease transmission, little is known about the molecular control of the host-seeking and feeding behavior of mosquitoes. (
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (
  • We find that Aβ expression results in an age-related loss of circadian behavioural rhythms despite ongoing normal molecular oscillations in the central clock neurons. (
  • Importantly, circadian oscillations are self-sustaining at both molecular and behavioural levels. (
  • Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) . (
  • Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. (
  • The recent definition of the circadian molecular oscillator has permitted identification of the critical pacemaker neurons underlying circadian timekeeping. (
  • The signalosomes are different for different pacemakers - their molecular definition will greatly advance our understanding of circadian physiology. (
  • Our studies focus on evolutionarily-conserved molecular mechanisms of circadian clock output and will identify leads for better therapeutic interventions to redress such conditions. (
  • Studies pertaining to the molecular mechanisms of the clock have yielded valuable results with the identification of a protein responsible for the setting of the length of periods of activity and inactivity within cells. (
  • There is no particular agreed size at which a large polypeptide becomes a small protein, but generally polypeptides have molecular weights of a few thousand, while proteins have molecular weights of tens of thousands. (
  • A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. (
  • Circadian clock protein Rev-erba regulates neuroinflammation. (
  • Here we describe the critical role of protein complex COP9 signalosome (CSN) that regulates Sens expression by integrating temporal and spatial information. (
  • The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. (
  • The Bone Marrow Peptide regulates the calcium level and calcium and phosphorus metabolism, thus increasing bone density. (
  • A research team led by Shigenobu Shibata , professor of neurochemistry at Waseda University, discovered that glucagon, a peptide hormone, and/or insulin-like grown factors (IGF-1) production regulates resetting of the liver circadian clock in response to a protein or amino-acid only diet when insulin signaling is disrupted for reasons such as diabetes. (
  • This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. (
  • Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. (
  • It is well established that positional cues, such as extrinsic signals and intrinsic tissue-specific transcriptional factors, play key roles in neural specification and neuronal patterning. (
  • This rhythm is regulated by the binding of circadian proteins to the E-box, along with transcriptional regulation of other elements, including the CRE in the promoter region. (
  • To do that, from plant growing in shallow (−5 m) and deep (−25 m) portions of a single meadow, (i) we generated two reciprocal Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii) we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. (
  • Circadian timekeeping in animals is a cell-autonomous mechanism based on the intrinsic 24-hour-period oscillation of 'clock gene' products (such as PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, CLOCK and BMAL1 in humans) mediated by interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback and feedforward loops (TTFLs). (
  • Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as regulators of tissue-specific cellular functions and have been shown to regulate transcriptional and translational processes, acting as signals, decoys, guides, and scaffolds. (
  • Transcriptional repressor which forms a core component of the circadian clock. (
  • Light-driven changes in energy metabolism directly entrain the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. (
  • Pineal melatonin suppression attenuates this, preventing the circadian "resetting" of mitochondrial metabolism. (
  • MYC Disrupts the Circadian Clock and Metabolism in Cancer Cells. (
  • Furthermore, another possible biological mechanism associated with both T2D and depression - circadian rhythm - has received limited research attention and is thus one of the focus areas of current thesis in relation to glucose metabolism. (
  • It includes the most active short peptide chain that act directly to the cells of the hematopoietic system, thus stimulating metabolism and improving functional activity of the hematopoietic system. (
  • Secretory peptides are short chains of amino acids linked together via peptide bonds which function primarily as signalling molecules in animals. (
  • In organic chemistry, Peptides are an infraclass of organic compounds in the amino acids, peptides, and analogues subclass , in the carboxylic acid class in the organic acids superclass , containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another. (
  • Despite this, the primary sequence, exon structure, fold and FAD, antenna and dna binding sites have largely been conserved -- along with key regulatory binding sites to other proteins -- even as antenna molecules and dna repair capacity might be dispensed with. (
  • proteins and peptides , steroids (fat-soluble molecules whose basic structure is a skeleton of four carbon rings), or derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, characterized by a 6-carbon, or benzene, ring. (
  • Peptides are amazing molecules. (
  • We are interested in the molecules and signaling mechanisms by which circadian pacemaker neurons transmit information from the clock to the brain and body. (
  • When hormone levels change, cells in these nuclei release peptide signaling molecules into a special system of blood vessels that carry them to the anterior lobe of the pituitary. (
  • Peptides are molecules extracted from glandular or non-gland organs and consist of two or more amino acid compounds. (
  • A Novel Upstream Activator in the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Transduction Pathway. (
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (
  • Many of the novel peptides are produced from cytosolic proteins, and not from secretory pathway proteins that are the precursors of classical neuropeptides. (
  • Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. (
  • However, proclaimed anabolic increase from the articular cartilage width was also seen in these mice young, and some versions show that EGFR suppression exacerbates cartilage devastation, further helping the context-dependent character from the EGFR signaling pathway [26C28]. (
  • Using rodent types of PTOA, latest studies have recommended C-C theme chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and integrin 11 to become downstream and upstream mediators of EGFR signaling, respectively, additional elucidating this complicated pathway for better advancement of therapeutic goals [29? (
  • Advancement of healing strategies concentrating on FGFR3 activation, nevertheless, requires careful marketing because of the pleiotropic character from the FGF-signaling pathway. (
  • The Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway provides been shown to try out major jobs in joint advancement aswell as maintenance of skeletal Rabbit polyclonal to Hsp22 cells [36,37]. (
  • Nevertheless, Wnt-antagonists also play essential roles in bone tissue biology, and modulations have already been shown to impact subchondral bone adjustments seen in osteoarthritis pathology [41C43], recommending additional elucidation of Wnt-signaling in various joint tissues to become necessary for ideal targeting of the pathway. (
  • It appeared that the Toll signalling pathway acts as a sensor, detecting pathogens and prompting the immune system to produce antimicrobial peptides. (
  • We were among several groups to propose that KNDy neurons comprise a critical component of the GnRH pulse generator, and since that time compelling evidence has accumulated supporting the view that KNDy cells serve as a final common pathway for external and internal regulatory signals that control GnRH secretion in a wide range of mammals. (
  • The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) postulates that accumulation in the brain of amyloid β -peptide (A β ) is the primary trigger for neuronal loss specific to this pathology. (
  • 2009) A riot of rhythms: neuronal and glial circadian oscillators in the mediobasal hypothalamus. (
  • Optogenetic manipulation is currently used in neuroscience to understand temporal and activity specific alterations in neuronal circuits, circuit connectivity, signaling mechanisms, and gene regulation that underlie behavior. (
  • Previously in mRNA-level assessments, OPN3 encoding has actually resulted in the abundant presence of OPN3 protein in neurons of human brain, but not in non-neuronal peripheral tissues. (
  • The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. (
  • Those outcomes helped establish a foundation for a cycle of studies we now propose - to analyze PDF-R signal transduction mechanisms and consequences on neuronal activity. (
  • Shearman LP. et al "Two period homologs: circadian expression and photic regulation in the suprachiasmatic nuclei" Neuron. (
  • Bioluminescence microscopy for cellular level circadian analysis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (
  • It is well known that levels of corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in humans) secretion demonstrate a circadian rhythm, highly regulated by effects of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, with higher levels in the early evening and lower levels in the morning. (
  • The AVP gene promoter region consists of an E-box element located 150 residues upstreams of the transcription start site, which binds mammalian clock proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 involved in generating circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (
  • All of these body functions show time-of-day-dependent variations controlled by the master circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (
  • Since the identification of a master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus of mammals, researchers sought to identify the nature of the clock and characterize its components. (
  • The circadian clock consists of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, which acts as the master pacemaker, and peripheral clocks in peripheral organs. (
  • Emerging research suggests that the extent of these processes and involvement of the genetic network, and the normal mammalian circadian rhythm controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, depend on our fed and fasting state and the kinds of foods consumed. (
  • MBS9373733 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip-or-full plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the E1A Binding Protein P300 (EP300) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (
  • Physiological "dissection" of the mammalian biological clock (R. Silver, M.-T. Romero, J. LeSauter) Non-SCN rhythm in the circadian domain (K. Honma, S. Honma). (
  • Models of temperature compensation in biological rhythms (P. Ruoff). (
  • Their "biological clock" orchestrates cellular events to occur in an optimal temporal program, and it can keep track of circadian time even when the cells are dividing more rapidly than once per day. (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • Replicate analyses of a separate biological sample provided both validation of this first data set and identification of 26 additional tyrosine phosphorylation sites and 18 additional proteins. (
  • Neuropeptides and peptide hormones function in cell-cell signaling and are involved with a wide variety of biological functions including feeding and body weight regulation, fear, anxiety, pain, circadian rhythms, memory, reward mechanisms, and many others. (
  • People with Alzheimer's often have poor biological rhythms, something that is a burden for both patients and their carers. (
  • To study the flies' biological clocks, the researchers attached the protein luciferase -- an enzyme that emits light -- to one of the proteins that forms part of the biological clock. (
  • Crucially, however, the diurnal patterns of the luciferase-tagged protein were the same in both healthy and diseased flies, showing that the biological clock still ticks in flies with Alzheimer's. (
  • Another possible common biological mechanism underlying T2D and depression comorbidity is related to disrupted circadian rhythms. (
  • The expression of robust circadian rhythms depends on the integrity of the biological clock and on the integration of thousands of individual cellular clocks found in the clock. (
  • here they are responsible for passing on biological signals. (
  • Their discoveries explain how living organisms synchronise their biological rhythm with the turning of the Earth. (
  • Despite the impact of these biological processes in circadian rhythm and possible effect on circadian control, the clock gene did not seem to be diurnally regulated in peripheral tissues. (
  • In our body, the gastrointestinal hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide , encoded by the CCK gene , secreted in the duodenum causing the gallbladder to release bile (gall) and the pancreas to secrete lipase, the hormone is released when chyme arrives in the duodenum, especially if the chyme contains lipids and partially digested proteins. (
  • This peptide hormone inhibits gastric activity and causes the release of insulin from the pancreatic islets. (
  • Class I, II, and IV members are known to be involved in hormone signaling, stress acclimation, and floral development, and are crucial for regulation of plant cells growth. (
  • Our results suggest a novel CSN-mediated regulation that converts temporal hormone signaling to the patterning of neurons at the right place. (
  • Exon A encodes a putative signal peptide, the arginine vasopressin hormone, and the N terminus of the NP carrier protein. (
  • Autophagic process acts in a physiological manner to degrade cytoplasmic constituents, proteins, protein aggregates, and whole organelles, which are engulfed in autophagosomes which then fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosome for degradation [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • We investigate important integral membrane proteins on the biochemical, biophysical, structural, and physiological levels. (
  • Peptides play many important physiological roles in most organisms. (
  • Ghrelin is thus a major physiological hunger signal. (
  • Several researchers in the department are interested in problems related to signal transduction. (
  • Additional analysis and modeling of the data generated in this study are likely to yield more sophisticated models of receptor tyrosine kinase-initiated signal transduction, trafficking, and regulation. (
  • By functionally linking the signal transduction of melanopsin to the control circuit of the nuclear factor of activated T cells, we have designed a synthetic signaling cascade enabling light-inducible transgene expression in different cell lines grown in culture or bioreactors or implanted into mice. (
  • Circadian PER1 protein expression was found to be retained in melatonin receptor double knockout mice with an increased amplitude as measured by semiquantitative Western blot analysis. (
  • Our results suggest that these compounds can uniquely restrict the conformational microstate of the VPAC 1 receptor to amplify VIP-mediated ERK signaling. (
  • Commonly there are several receptor subtypes for a given peptide ligand and many naturally occurring peptides exhibit a high degree of promiscuity across GPCRs [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • To understand the dynamic operation of signaling cascades, we have developed a method enabling the simultaneous quantification of tyrosine phosphorylation of specific residues on dozens of key proteins in a time-resolved manner, downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. (
  • A G protein-coupled receptor located on the external cell plasma membrane, it is coupled to Gαs and upregulates levels of cAMP by activating adenylyl cyclase. (
  • α-MSH and ACTH are both peptides derived from processed POMC, and both activate the other MCR's, but ACTH is the only agonist ligand for MC2R (ACTH receptor). (
  • ACTH levels, ACTH receptor expression, and MRAP1 expression also demonstrate circadian rhythm, with ACTH secretion and MRAP expression highest in the evening, suggesting that MRAP expression is responsible for CORT secretory regulation. (
  • Sustained maximal action potential firing frequency in inhibitory hippocampal interneurons is negatively modulated by histamine H2 receptor activation in a cAMP- and protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation-dependent manner. (
  • Collectively, data in the literature support the notion that blockade of NOP receptor signaling could be a novel and interesting strategy for the development of innovative antidepressants. (
  • A Pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and Disheveled appear to be an intermediary between Wnt-mediated activation of the Frizzled receptor and activation of casein kinase 2. (
  • We will pursue two specific aims related to PDF receptor signaling. (
  • A protein fold switch joins the circadian oscillator to clock output in cyanobacteria. (
  • Rhythms in energy storage control the ability of the cyanobacterial circadian clock to reset. (
  • Ma L, Ranganathan R. Quantifying the rhythm of KaiB-C interaction for in vitro cyanobacterial circadian clock. (
  • Ordered phosphorylation governs oscillation of a three-protein circadian clock. (
  • The mammalian circadian clock is built on a feedback loop in which PER and CRY proteins repress their own transcription. (
  • Our results define the macromolecular assemblies comprising the circadian feedback loop and provide an initial structural view of endogenous eukaryotic clock machinery. (
  • Protein malnutrition after weaning disrupts peripheral clock and daily insulin secretion in mice. (
  • Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured tissues, but the magnitude of this response was uniquely large in atrial tissue. (
  • The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by mechanical treatment, an intriguing observation considering the mechanical nature of cardiac tissue. (
  • When these daily patterns persist under constant conditions, they are described as circadian (∼ 24 hours) rhythms, and are driven by an endogenous clock. (
  • While behavioral state is an important causal factor to diurnal variation in blood pressure and heart rate, there is a significant contribution of a functional circadian clock to this rhythm [4] . (
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) in the retinohypothalamic tract phase shifts the circadian clock (J.D. Mikkelsen et al. (
  • Effect of light environment upon the development of the astrocytic population within the circadian clock of hamster (M. Lavialle et al. (
  • The transmission of circadian rhythms is mediated by specific promoter sequences binding a particular circadian clock factor. (
  • their accumulation is regulated by the circadian clock. (
  • In the present study, we show that the blood feeding behavior of mosquitoes is under circadian control and can be modulated by light pulses, both in a clock dependent and in an independent manner. (
  • The circadian clock in cyanobacteria has the necessary 24-hour period despite its three component proteins having biochemical activities that occur on a much faster time scale. (
  • BMAL1 and CLOCK gene knockouts in the SCN (Bmal-/- and clk-/-) eliminate rhythmicity in AVP mRNA expression, confirming that binding of the protein heterodimers to the E-box element is necessary for the intrinsic circadian pattern of the AVP gene. (
  • An unexpected role for the clock protein timeless in developmental apoptosis. (
  • Our data demonstrate a novel function for the clock protein Tim during a key stage of early development. (
  • In addition, there seems to be significant non-cell-autonomous Aβ toxicity resulting in morphological and probably functional signalling deficits in central clock neurons. (
  • DEC2 is a transcription factor regulating the circadian clock in mammals, although its role in sleep regulation has been unclear. (
  • The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. (
  • Stroke and cardiac arrest display clear of time-of-day variation, yet circadian biology has a poor understanding of the nature of output signals from the circadian clock to effector organs. (
  • According to Dr Damian Crowther of Cambridge's Department of Genetics, one of the study's authors: "We wanted to know whether people with Alzheimer's disease have a poor behavioural rhythm because they have a clock that's stopped ticking or they have stopped responding to the clock. (
  • Levels of the protein rise and fall during the night and day, and the glowing protein provided a way of tracing the flies' internal clock. (
  • An attempt was made to describe the neurotransmitters and hormonal/diffusible signals of the SCN efference, which are necessary for the master clock to exert its overt function. (
  • Great advances have been made in the study of mechanisms of the circadian clock in the past decade. (
  • The circadian clock not only can generate its own rhythms but can also be entrained by the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. (
  • Multiple single cell circadian oscillators that are present in the clock can, when synchronized, generate coordinated circadian outputs which ultimately regulate the overt rhythms. (
  • It is believed that the identification of this protein will have far reaching implications not only in the understanding of the working of the clock but also in clinical applications, such as the treatment of jet lag and the design of optimal times for the administration of anti-cancer drugs. (
  • Neurotransmitters are released at the inputs for entrainment, in the clock itself for integration and consolidated output, and in efferent projections for the control of overt rhythms. (
  • The present review concentrates on studies conducted in the last decade and gives particular attention to neurotransmitters whose involvement in the circadian clock have not been traditionally recognized. (
  • It is observed that the presence of neurotransmitters in the afferent and efferent projections of the SCN is equally important for the entrainment of the clock and for the control of overt rhythms. (
  • Thus, we have neurotransmitters released at the inputs for entrainment, in the clock itself for the integration and consolidated output, and in the efferent projections for the control of overt rhythms. (
  • In this study, the team analyzed whether feeding mice a protein-only diet or amino-acids that do not cause insulin secretion cold cause entrainment of the liver clock to identify possible additional factors. (
  • Their findings demonstrated that in place of insulin, increasing glucagon and IGF-1 levels by feeding a protein-only diet entrains the liver circadian clock, and that cysteine, an inexpensive amino acid, has the strongest phase advance via increases in IGF-1 in the liver. (
  • 2012) Simulated body temperature rhythms reveal the phase-shifting behavior and plasticity of mammalian circadian oscillators. (
  • Casein kinase 2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, regulation of the circadian rhythm and other cellular processes. (
  • A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. (
  • Further, VIP has been shown to regulate hormonal release, circadian rhythms, vasodilation, and T cell proliferation in central and peripheral tissues. (
  • Ma L, Ranganathan R. Systems-level characterization of the kernel mechanism of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. (
  • They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous and endocrine systems. (
  • Evidence exists for a role of purinergic signalling in intercellular coupling within SCN. (
  • In the body peptides are used as chemical messengers to signal between cells as hormones (such as insulin) and neuropeptides (endorphins). (
  • Hormones can move freely within the bloodstream, or hormones can be bound to a carrier protein. (
  • Hormones are classified as either hydrophilic or lipophilic and can be amino acid derived, peptide derived, or lipid derived. (
  • Hormones can circulate freely in the bloodstream or bind to carrier proteins to activate or retard a response as the body requires. (
  • One carboxypeptidase, which we named carboxypeptidase E, is responsible for the formation of many peptide hormones (such as insulin) and neuropeptides (such as enkephalin). (
  • Hormones can be divided into four separate groups: amino acids, polypeptides and proteins, steroids, and eicosanoids. (
  • There are a huge number of hormones that can be categorized as peptides. (
  • In addition, some release chemicals (hormones), usually small proteins called peptides, into the bloodstream so they can act on target cells at a considerable distance. (
  • These peptides cause pituitary cells to either increase or decrease the secretion of one of about eight specific hormones into the bloodstream. (
  • Colonic muscle contractility is also influenced by gut microflora profile, an array of neuropeptides, several peripheral peptides and select hormones, and the rate of food consumption. (
  • This revealed that light causes changes to gene expression and signaling processes inside cells. (
  • Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. (
  • Historically, bioluminescence imaging is used to study circadian rhythms of gene expression, measured over several days. (
  • Consistent with a central role of Wnt signaling in regulation of cancer gene expression, inhibition of PORCN causes a marked remodeling of the transcriptome. (
  • Daily rhythms in the phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB) supports that these elements also contribute to circadian rhythmicity of the gene expression. (
  • Here we have initiated a detailed dissection of the delicate interactions that occur between the mosquito's light-sensing system, the circadian oscillators and the host seeking and feeding systems. (
  • 2010) Circadian oscillators in the epithalamus. (
  • Circadian oscillators in the SCN are entrained by light to keep them in synchrony with the external light-dark cycle. (
  • Here, we show that moonlight is an important external stimulus for mass spawning synchrony and describe the potential mechanisms underlying the ability of corals to detect environmental triggers for the signaling cascades that ultimately result in gamete release. (
  • External signals and internal oscillation dynamics: frequency coding, signal amplification and interaction mechanisms (F. Kaiser). (
  • catalytic mechanisms and the evolution of proteins and enzymes. (
  • In this review, various classes of GRPs are described, with special focus on class IV GRPs, which are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. (
  • Long and short light pulses can induce inhibition of blood-feeding through circadian and unknown mechanisms, respectively, that involve the chemosensory system. (
  • Optogenetics is a revolutionary neuroscience tool that uses bioengineered light-sensitive proteins to selectively activate or inhibit specific cell types and neural circuits within milliseconds, allowing greater specificity and temporal precision for dissecting neural circuit mechanisms in diseases. (
  • Further studies are aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which these peptides are produced, secreted, and regulated. (
  • Further studies are aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which these peptides are produced, secreted, and regulated, with the overall goal to identify the peptides' functions. (
  • However other putative mechanisms of action, including modulation of the CRF system, circadian rhythm and a possible neuroendocrine-immune control might be involved. (
  • Here I propose a research program dedicated to addressing fundamental circadian output mechanisms. (
  • VIP binding has previously been shown to increase downstream MAPK signaling cascades, especially MEK/ERK. (
  • These have been explored using a range of compounds (peptide and non peptide antagonists), across different species (rat and mouse) and assays (behavioral despair and chronic mild stress) suggesting a robust and consistent antidepressant-like effect. (
  • Antagonists of Wnt, including frizzled-related proteins (FRZB/sFRP3) and dickkopf-related proteins 1 (DKK-1), have already been shown to have protective results against articular cartilage degradation and osteoarthritis [40,41]. (
  • The distribution and localization of OPN3 protein in human brain and peripheral tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining, using polyclonal antibody against OPN3. (
  • This reflects, in part, a transient hemodynamic shift from peripheral circulation to tissues involved in digestive processes and the release of "satisfaction" peptides and carbohydrates that affect brain function. (
  • For the heart, diel (observed under light:dark conditions) and circadian rhythms are apparent in physiology and behavior. (
  • Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. (
  • When performed with genetic and pharmacological manipulations of PDF, this will permit us to relate PDF-R signaling data to normal pacemaker physiology. (
  • The SCN, acting as circadian pacemakers, have the function of orchestrating the timing in physiology and behaviour. (
  • When the hypothalamus, using signals like those just described, establishes a need for response, hypothalamic cells influence other cells in two ways. (
  • Since the experiments of Lashley, it has been generally accepted that appetite for food is in part governed by a balance between hunger signals and satiety signals that converge at the hypothalamus. (
  • In the brain, it plays a key role in circadian rhythm control in the hypothalamus. (
  • A major focus of our studies concerns transmitter signaling by pacemaker neurons. (
  • Hypothalamic neurons also receive information from other body and brain areas by way of electrical impulses conducted from many sensory sources (signaling pain, vision, and blood pressure, for example) scattered through the body. (
  • Like other neurons, they send electrical signals (action potentials) to stimulate or inhibit cells in other regions of the brain and body. (
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a signal that sustains neurons. (
  • Rev-erba dynamically modulates chromatin looping to control circadian gene transcription. (
  • Related to CPB (CREB-binding protein), and like CPB can stimulate transcription through activation of CREB. (
  • Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. (
  • In addition to spatially restricted expression of transcription factors, specification of SOPs also depends on steroid hormonal ecdysone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling. (
  • Transcription of the AVP gene to produce AVP mRNA has daily rhythms, with mRNA levels peaking during the subjective day and reaching its lowest point in the subject night. (
  • Synthetic light-pulse-transcription converters may have applications in therapeutics and protein expression technology. (
  • In concert with SMAD-dependent TGF-beta signaling can repress the transcription of AFP via its interaction with SMAD2/3 (PubMed:25105025). (
  • There were significant endogenous circadian rhythms in leptin, glucose, and insulin, with peaks around the usual time of awakening. (
  • Thus, the day/night pattern in leptin is likely caused by combined effects from the endogenous circadian pacemaker and day/night patterns in behaviors. (
  • In the 1970s an endogenous peptide was found in nerve cells and the term neuropeptides was then introduced [ 1 ]. (
  • Detects recombinant human Cryptochrome 1 (Cry 1) (not tested on endogenous protein yet). (
  • Database searching and manual confirmation of peptide phosphorylation site assignments led to the identification of 78 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 58 proteins from a single analysis. (
  • The data set of quantitative temporal phosphorylation profiles was further characterized by self-organizing maps, which resulted in identification of several cohorts of tyrosine residues exhibiting self-similar temporal phosphorylation profiles, operationally defining dynamic modules in the EGFR signaling network consistent with particular cellular processes. (
  • The presence of novel proteins and associated tyrosine phosphorylation sites within these modules indicates additional components of this network and potentially localizes the topological action of these proteins. (
  • His laboratory studies Wnt Signaling and signaling through protein phosphorylation with a secondary focus on circadian rhythms and Protein Phosphatase 2A. (
  • Chemically, neuropeptides have a less complex three-dimensional structure and are smaller (3-100 amino acid residues long) than normal proteins but are larger than classic neurotransmitters. (
  • More than 100 different neuropeptides are currently described in cell signalling ( ). (
  • these are putative "nonclassical" neuropeptides, a novel class of cell-cell signaling molecule. (
  • Some of these are neuropeptides that function in cell-cell signaling that control feeding/body weight. (
  • Fricker, L.D., Neuropeptides and Other Bioactive Peptides: From Discovery to Function, Morgan Claypool Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-61504-521-1. (
  • In protein science , Dipeptides are single peptide fragments ( oligopeptides ) composed of two amino acid units. (
  • In protein science , Proteins are large organic polypeptide compounds, arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bond (amide bond) between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues, synthesized on ribosomes . (
  • Proteins are chemically constructed from only Amino Acid (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (about 16%), oxygen and sometimes sulfur). (
  • Amino Acid are the building blocks that make up the Proteins and is what distinguishes Proteins from carbohydrates and fats. (
  • By sequencing complementary DNA strands that encoded for the hormone's mRNA, Land outlined the amino acid sequence of the precursor protein. (
  • The amino acid sequence, encoded by its gene, determines a protein\u2019s structure and function. (
  • This is a secreted, 252 amino acid long neurotrophic protein. (
  • caused a mismatch in certain cellular signaling processes that prevented the corals from spawning. (
  • Recently, Promega has introduced NanoLuc® Luciferase, a luciferases that is reported to be up to 150x brighter than the most used firefly luciferase allowing for shorter exposure times or imaging of faster cellular processes like calcium signaling. (
  • An, Gynheung 2016-04-02 00:00:00 Phytochromes recognize light signals and control diverse developmental processes. (
  • Carrier Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Carrier Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Carrier Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Carrier Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Recently, we have developed a method to isolate and quantify peptides from mouse tissues. (
  • Tryptic peptides from four different EGFR stimulation time points were labeled with four isoforms of the iTRAQ reagent to enable downstream quantification. (
  • CSN accomplishes this by transforming the temporal hormonal ecdysone signaling from activation to repression of downstream target BR-Z1. (
  • Circadian rhythms are governed by internal clocks that, in the presence of timing cues, are synchronized (entrained) to the external environment [1] . (
  • 2011) Circadian Clocks in Mouse and Human CD4+ T Cells. (
  • Circadian clocks keep organisms in synch with such daily cycles as illumination, activity, and food availability. (
  • Among the enzymes that help to produce these rapid changes are proteases that bring about the maturation, activation, or relocalization of membrane proteins. (
  • Structure, function, and biogenesis of membrane proteins. (
  • and, assembly and function of membrane proteins involved in the immune response, infectious diseases, and viral envelopes. (
  • The mammalian retina is a light-capturing multicellular assembly ( 3 ) that controls the environment-brain interface, facilitating vision ( 4 - 6 ) and a variety of non-image-forming activities, such as the entrainment of circadian rhythms ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Melatonin induces the circadian gene, Bmal1, which disinhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), countering viral inhibition of Bmal1/PDC. (
  • Loss of melatonin signalling and its impact on circadian rhythms in mouse organs regulating blood glucose. (
  • THE distribution of proteins in cell membranes can shift rapidly in response to changes in metabolic or developmental conditions. (
  • Zhang J. et al "Constant darkness is a circadian metabolic signal in mammals" Nature. (
  • A polymorphism in this gene resulting in a change of leucine 7 to proline in the signal peptide is associated with elevated cholesterol levels, higher alcohol consumption, and may be a risk factor for various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Inositol Pyrophosphates Are Required for DNA Hyperrecombination in Protein Kinase C1 Mutant Yeast Biochemistry. (
  • Biochemistry of the Src Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: Regulation By SH2 and SH3 Domains. (
  • The Casein kinase 2 (EC is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that is a tetramer of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. (
  • RdoA is a bacterial protein kinase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium first noted for its regulation of dsbA expression in this organism. (
  • In healthy brain, A β levels are regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between A β release from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its removal by perivascular drainage or by amyloid-degrading enzymes (ADEs). (
  • Peptide processing enzymes include endopeptidases which initially cleave the peptide precursors at specific sites (usually pairs of the basic amino acids lysine and arginine), and then carboxypeptidases which selectively remove the basic amino acids remaining on the C-terminus. (
  • In addition to peptides, we are also interested in enzymes that modify peptides/proteins. (
  • these enzymes modify tubulin (and possibly other proteins) by removing amino acids from the C-terminus and/or side-chains, thereby altering the properties of tubulin. (
  • A family of unique proteases collectively called deubiquitylating enzymes ( DUBs ) also participates, which reverses Ub addition by specifically cleaving Ub peptide/isopeptide linkages. (
  • Abgent is a leading provider of Custom Peptide Synthesis. (
  • It normalizes the function of the lungs and the bronchial and gastric mucosa by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells. (
  • Our study show that the mosquito's feeding behavior is under circadian control. (
  • That information now presents the possibility to re- examine fundamental questions regarding the cellular basis for circadian regulation of behavior. (
  • In protein science , Oligopeptides , as biopolymeric substances , are peptides composed of a single linear chain of between two and twelve amino acids joined by peptide bonds, between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. (
  • Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes. (
  • If the number of amino acids in the chain reaches around ten or so, such substances are called polypeptides, while large polypeptides are called proteins. (
  • Nevertheless, this protective impact had not been mirrored during ageing-associated osteoarthritis or DMM-induced osteoarthritis in old mice, recommending therapeutic ramifications of TGF- signaling to become context-dependent, such as for Selumetinib example in posttraumatic osteoarthritis of youthful people [23? (
  • Light-controlled expression of the glucagon-like peptide 1 was able to attenuate glycemic excursions in type II diabetic mice. (
  • Using microdialysis techniques to measure brain interstitial fluid (ISF) Aβ in Tg2576 mice, the researchers were at first puzzled to see peptide levels going up or down at various times. (
  • Reasoning that higher levels of ISF Aβ tend to make the peptide more likely to aggregate over time, the researchers subjected AD transgenic mice (APPswe/PS1dE9) to chronic sleep deprivation to see the effect on brain Aβ deposition. (
  • When the researchers gave mice six-hour brain infusions of orexin at a time they would normally be asleep, ISF Aβ was elevated relative to peptide levels measured during the same period 24 hours prior. (
  • Conversely, mice treated with a compound that blocks orexin signaling slept more and had lower Aβ levels. (
  • This method has led to the identification of a large number of novel peptides. (
  • We have discovered a number of novel peptides using mass spectrometry-based peptidomic techniques. (
  • this gene was initially named shanti , but with the demonstration that it encodes a signal peptide peptidase, is henceforth called Spp . (
  • This gene is a member of the NGF-beta family and encodes a secreted protein which homodimerizes and is incorporated into a larger complex. (
  • The human enzyme has been identified and characterized and has been shown to cleave signal peptide fragments that are released during maturation of precursor proteins. (
  • This final stage of research began when Gainer and colleagues found a precursor protein to vasopressin in 1977. (
  • Copeptin, the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin precursor peptide, is a sensitive and stable surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin release. (
  • Copeptin, a peptide of 39 amino acids, is the C-terminal part of pro-AVP and is released together with AVP during processing of the precursor peptide (see Figure 1 ) [ 3 ]. (
  • Dopamine and retinal circadian rhythms in mammals (J. Nguyen-Legros, E. Chanut, C. Versaux-Botteri). (
  • A unique situation found thus far only in mammals involves the assembly of peptide-linked linear Ub chains connected through the N-terminal Met ( Iwai and Tokunaga, 2009 ). (
  • Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • OPN3 mRNA has previously been localized in rodent brains and in mRNA expression level in the human brain, but the actual protein and it's location has not been clarified. (
  • Loss of mRNA is accompanied by protein depletion in the PVN and by increased PPG heteronuclear (hnRNA) expression in the NTS. (
  • Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism. (
  • At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. (
  • Growth competition experiments demonstrate that the fitness of cyanobacteria is enhanced when the circadian period matches the period of the environmental cycle. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuroendocrine peptide that has been implicated in a myriad of functions. (
  • Therefore, we propose producing a de-activating agent, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), BioBrick with an oxidative stress promoter . (
  • so it is possible that SPP functions to produce and release functional peptides or proteins from membranes and could be regulated to target specific substrates. (