The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The absence of light.
A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
The consumption of edible substances.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.

Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria. (1/177)

The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

cpmA, a gene involved in an output pathway of the cyanobacterial circadian system. (2/177)

We generated random mutations in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 to look for genes of output pathways in the cyanobacterial circadian system. A derivative of transposon Tn5 was introduced into the chromosomes of reporter strains in which cyanobacterial promoters drive the Vibrio harveyi luxAB genes and produce an oscillation of bioluminescence as a function of circadian gene expression. Among low-amplitude mutants, one mutant, tnp6, had an insertion in a 780-bp open reading frame. The tnp6 mutation produced an altered circadian phasing phenotype in the expression rhythms of psbAI::luxAB, psbAII::luxAB, and kaiA::luxAB but had no or little effect on those of psbAIII::luxAB, purF::luxAB, kaiB::luxAB, rpoD2::luxAB, ndhD::luxAB, and conII::luxAB. This suggests that the interrupted gene in tnp6, named cpmA (circadian phase modifier), is part of a circadian output pathway that regulates the expression rhythms of psbAI, psbAII, and kaiA.  (+info)

Nucleotide binding and autophosphorylation of the clock protein KaiC as a circadian timing process of cyanobacteria. (3/177)

A negative feedback control of kaiC expression by KaiC protein has been proposed to generate a basic oscillation of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. KaiC has two P loops or Walker's motif As, that are potential ATP-/GTP-binding motifs and DXXG motifs conserved in various GTP-binding proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that in vitro KaiC binds ATP and, with lower affinity, GTP. Point mutation by site-directed mutagenesis of P loop 1 completely nullified the circadian rhythm of kaiBC expression and markedly reduced ATP-binding activity. Moreover, KaiC can be autophosphorylated in vitro. These results suggest that the nucleotide-binding activity of KaiC plays important roles in the generation of circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

A kaiC-interacting sensory histidine kinase, SasA, necessary to sustain robust circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria. (4/177)

Both regulated expression of the clock genes kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC and interactions among the Kai proteins are proposed to be important for circadian function in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. We have identified the histidine kinase SasA as a KaiC-interacting protein. SasA contains a KaiB-like sensory domain, which appears sufficient for interaction with KaiC. Disruption of the sasA gene lowered kaiBC expression and dramatically reduced amplitude of the kai expression rhythms while shortening the period. Accordingly, sasA disruption attenuated circadian expression patterns of all tested genes, some of which became arrhythmic. Continuous sasA overexpression eliminated circadian rhythms, whereas temporal overexpression changed the phase of kaiBC expression rhythm. Thus, SasA is a close associate of the cyanobacterial clock that is necessary to sustain robust circadian rhythms.  (+info)

Circadian clock-protein expression in cyanobacteria: rhythms and phase setting. (5/177)

The cyanobacterial gene cluster kaiABC encodes three essential circadian clock proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. The KaiB and KaiC protein levels are robustly rhythmical, whereas the KaiA protein abundance undergoes little if any circadian oscillation in constant light. The level of the KaiC protein is crucial for correct functioning of the clock because induction of the protein at phases when the protein level is normally low elicits phase resetting. Titration of the effects of the inducer upon phase resetting versus KaiC level shows a direct correlation between induction of the KaiC protein within the physiological range and significant phase shifting. The protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol prevents the induction of KaiC and blocks phase shifting. When the metabolism is repressed by either translational inhibition or constant darkness, the rhythm of KaiC abundance persists; therefore, clock protein expression has a preferred status under a variety of conditions. These data indicate that rhythmic expression of KaiC appears to be a crucial component of clock precession in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria. (6/177)

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, cell division is regulated by a circadian clock. Deletion of the circadian clock gene, kaiC, abolishes rhythms of gene expression and cell division timing. Overexpression of the ftsZ gene halted cell division but not growth, causing cells to grow as filaments without dividing. The nondividing filamentous cells still exhibited robust circadian rhythms of gene expression. This result indicates that the circadian timing system is independent of rhythmic cell division and, together with other results, suggests that the cyanobacterial circadian system is stable and well sustained under a wide range of intracellular conditions.  (+info)

Two KaiA-binding domains of cyanobacterial circadian clock protein KaiC. (7/177)

kaiABC, a gene cluster, encodes KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins that are essential to circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Kai proteins can interact with each other in all possible combinations. This study identified two KaiA-binding domains (C(KABD1) and C(KABD2)) in KaiC at corresponding regions of its duplicated structure. Clock mutations on the two domains and kaiA altered the strength of C(KABD)-KaiA interactions assayed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Thus, interaction between KaiA and KaiC through C(KABD1) and C(KABD2) is likely important for circadian timing in the cyanobacterium.  (+info)

Long-term microclimatic stress causes rapid adaptive radiation of kaiABC clock gene family in a cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, from "Evolution Canyons" I and II, Israel. (8/177)

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes known thus far possessing regulation of physiological functions with approximate daily periodicity, or circadian rhythms, that are controlled by a cluster of three genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC. Here we demonstrate considerably higher genetic polymorphism and extremely rapid evolution of the kaiABC gene family in a filamentous cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, permanently exposed to the acute natural environmental stress in the two microsite evolutionary models known as "Evolution Canyons," I (Mount Carmel) and II (Upper Galilee) in Israel. The family consists of five distinct subfamilies (kaiI-kaiV) comprising at least 20 functional genes and pseudogenes. The obtained data suggest that the duplications of kai genes have adaptive significance, and some of them are evolutionarily quite recent (approximately 80,000 years ago). The observed patterns of within- and between-subfamily polymorphisms indicate that positive diversifying, balancing, and purifying selections are the principal driving forces of the kai gene family's evolution.  (+info)

Circadian rhythm is the internal biological clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. It is controlled by a small group of cells in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which responds to light and dark signals from the environment to synchronize our bodily functions with the 24-hour day-night cycle.

Sleep disorders can be caused by disruptions to the body's natural circadian rhythm, such as shift work sleep disorder, jet lag, or exposure to artificial light at night. These disruptions can lead to difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing poor quality sleep, which can have negative effects on physical and mental health.

Treatment for sleep disorders often involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment. Medications or other therapies may also be prescribed to help regulate sleep patterns or manage symptoms.

In addition to disrupting circadian rhythm, sleep disorders can also have other causes, such as stress, anxiety, depression, or certain medical conditions like sleep apnea. It is important to seek medical advice if you are experiencing persistent sleep problems or difficulty functioning during the day due to poor sleep.

Chronobiology disorders can result when the body's natural circadian rhythm is disrupted or altered, leading to problems with sleep timing, duration, and quality, as well as other physiological and behavioral issues. Examples of chronobiology disorders include:

1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD).
2. Jet lag: This occurs when traveling across time zones, causing a mismatch between the body's internal clock and the local environment.
3. Shift work sleep disorder: This affects people who work outside of traditional daytime hours and experience difficulty adjusting to irregular sleep schedules.
4. Irregular sleep-wake patterns: This can be caused by factors such as working night shifts, rotating shifts, or having an irregular sleep schedule.
5. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder in which a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep, often causing them to wake up frequently throughout the night.
6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, often caused by stress, anxiety, or other factors that disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle.
7. Depression: A mood disorder that can affect the body's circadian rhythm, leading to changes in sleep patterns and other physiological functions.
8. Bipolar disorder: A mood disorder that can cause changes in sleep patterns, energy levels, and other physiological functions.
9. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is less sunlight.
10. Hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness or prolonged periods of sleep, often caused by factors such as medication side effects, sleep disorders, or other medical conditions.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many potential causes of irregular sleep patterns, and there may be other underlying factors that contribute to this symptom. If you are experiencing persistent changes in your sleep patterns, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional to determine the cause and find appropriate treatment.

Jet lag is also known as desynchronosis or traveler's exhaustion. It occurs when our body's natural sleep-wake cycle, regulated by an internal biological clock, is disrupted due to rapid travel across different time zones. The circadian rhythm, which controls the release of hormones and other physiological processes, takes time to adjust to the new time zone, leading to symptoms such as:

* Fatigue
* Insomnia or excessive sleepiness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Digestive problems such as constipation or diarrhea
* Mood disturbances like irritability or depression

The severity of jet lag can vary depending on the number of time zones crossed, with longer flights causing more significant disruptions to our internal clock. Additionally, some people may be more sensitive to jet lag than others due to individual differences in sleep patterns and circadian rhythms.

There are several strategies that can help alleviate the symptoms of jet lag, such as:

* Gradually adjusting sleep schedules before traveling
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can disrupt sleep patterns further
* Exposure to sunlight or bright artificial light to help regulate our circadian rhythm
* Taking melatonin supplements to help reset our internal clock.

While jet lag is a temporary condition that usually resolves within a few days, it can have significant impacts on our daily activities and overall well-being during the adjustment period. Therefore, understanding the definition of jet lag syndrome and its causes is essential for managing this common travel-related disorder.

SAD is thought to be caused by the lack of sunlight during the winter months, which can disrupt the body's internal clock and affect the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and melatonin. This can lead to feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed.

Treatment for SAD may include light therapy, which involves exposure to bright artificial light that mimics natural sunlight, as well as other forms of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication. Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, social support, and improving sleep habits can also be helpful in managing symptoms of SAD.

The effects of sleep deprivation can be severe and long-lasting, including:

1. Impaired cognitive function: Sleep deprivation can affect attention, memory, and decision-making skills, making it more difficult to perform daily tasks and make sound judgments.
2. Emotional distress: Lack of sleep can lead to irritability, anxiety, and depression, which can negatively impact relationships and overall well-being.
3. Physical health problems: Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and immune system dysfunction.
4. Impaired motor function: Sleep deprivation can cause coordination problems, clumsiness, and a higher risk of accidents, particularly in activities that require attention and quick reflexes (e.g., driving).
5. Premature aging: Chronic sleep deprivation can accelerate the aging process and reduce the body's ability to repair and regenerate cells.
6. Reduced productivity and performance: Sleep deprivation can lead to decreased productivity, poor work quality, and increased absenteeism, which can negatively impact career advancement and financial stability.
7. Increased risk of accidents and injuries: Drowsy driving and workplace accidents are common consequences of sleep deprivation, which can result in fatalities and long-term disabilities.
8. Weakened immune system: Sleep deprivation can weaken the immune system, making it more difficult to fight off infections and diseases.
9. Negative impact on relationships: Sleep deprivation can lead to mood swings, irritability, and difficulty interacting with others, which can strain personal and professional relationships.
10. Increased risk of mental health disorders: Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk of developing anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders.

To avoid these negative consequences, it's essential to prioritize sleep and make it a critical component of your daily routine. Establishing a consistent sleep schedule, creating a sleep-conducive environment, and practicing relaxation techniques can help improve sleep quality and duration. Additionally, avoiding stimulating activities before bedtime, limiting exposure to electronic screens, and seeking professional help if sleep problems persist can contribute to better overall health and well-being.

People with dyssomnia may experience symptoms such as:

* Difficulty falling asleep
* Waking frequently during the night
* Waking too early in the morning
* Feeling groggy or disoriented upon waking
* Poor quality sleep

Dyssomnia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, sleep disorders, and certain medications. Treatment options for dyssomnia may include lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep schedule and avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, as well as cognitive behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, and in some cases, medication.

It is important to note that dyssomnia is not a specific sleep disorder, but rather a term used to describe a group of related conditions. If you are experiencing difficulty sleeping or poor quality sleep, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several risk factors for developing AF, including:

1. Age: The risk of developing AF increases with age, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.
2. Hypertension (high blood pressure): High blood pressure can damage the heart and increase the risk of developing AF.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk of developing AF.
4. Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing AF.
5. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can increase the risk of developing AF.
6. Certain medications: Certain medications, such as thyroid medications and asthma medications, can increase the risk of developing AF.
7. Alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of developing AF.
8. Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
9. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.

Symptoms of AF can include:

1. Palpitations (rapid or irregular heartbeat)
2. Shortness of breath
3. Fatigue
4. Dizziness or lightheadedness
5. Chest pain or discomfort

AF can be diagnosed with the help of several tests, including:

1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.
2. Holter monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a 24-hour period.
3. Event monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a longer period of time, usually 1-2 weeks.
4. Echocardiogram: This is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart.
5. Cardiac MRI: This is an imaging test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the heart.

Treatment for AF depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, such as:

1. Beta blockers: These medications slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
2. Antiarrhythmics: These medications help regulate the heart's rhythm.
3. Blood thinners: These medications prevent blood clots from forming and can help reduce the risk of stroke.
4. Calcium channel blockers: These medications slow the entry of calcium into the heart muscle cells, which can help slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.

In some cases, catheter ablation may be recommended to destroy the abnormal electrical pathway causing AF. This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter through a vein in the leg and guiding it to the heart using x-ray imaging. Once the catheter is in place, energy is applied to the abnormal electrical pathway to destroy it and restore a normal heart rhythm.

It's important to note that AF can increase the risk of stroke, so anticoagulation therapy may be recommended to reduce this risk. This can include medications such as warfarin or aspirin, or in some cases, implantable devices such as a left atrial appendage closure device.

In conclusion, atrial fibrillation is a common heart rhythm disorder that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or anticoagulation therapy. It's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for AF.

1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
2. Sleep apnea: pauses in breathing during sleep
3. Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep
4. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable sensations in the legs during sleep
5. Periodic limb movement disorder: involuntary movements of the legs or arms during sleep
6. Sleepwalking: walking or performing other activities during sleep
7. Sleep terrors: intense fear or anxiety during sleep
8. Sleep paralysis: temporary inability to move or speak during sleep
9. REM sleep behavior disorder: acting out dreams during sleep
10. Circadian rhythm disorders: disruptions to the body's internal clock, leading to irregular sleep patterns.

Sleep disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, sleep deprivation, and underlying medical conditions like chronic pain or sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes (such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment), medications, and behavioral therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia). In some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a sleep disorder, as untreated sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the specific sleep disorder and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Constant light disrupts the circadian rhythm of steroidogenic proteins in the rat adrenal gland". Molecular and Cellular ... It is well known that levels of corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in humans) secretion demonstrate a circadian rhythm, highly ... ACTH levels, ACTH receptor expression, and MRAP1 expression also demonstrate circadian rhythm, with ACTH secretion and MRAP ...
... a class B1 G protein coupled receptor. Null mutations of PDFR suggests that it is also required for circadian rhythms in ... They have shown that PDF receptor signals differently in different pacemaker groups, and that PDF receptor signaling interact ... At a molecular level, DIMM concerns secretory peptides that are amidated, and at a cellular level, DIMM concerns peptidergic ... Peschel, Nicolai (May 20, 2011). "Setting the clock - by nature: Circadian rhythm in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster". ...
The mutation found by Allada, that abolishes fly circadian rhythms is termed Jrk. Functioning, CLOCK proteins encoded by the ... The receptor was found to be a class II peptide G protein-coupled receptor. The location of the PDF receptor was identified ... PDF neurons being able to alter rhythmicity within wild-type flies demonstrates PDF's role as a signaling molecule. PDF's lack ... casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a protein that helps to regulate key pacemaker proteins, TIM and PER. TIM and PER proteins form a ...
This rhythm is regulated by the binding of circadian proteins to the E-box, along with transcriptional regulation of other ... Exon A encodes a putative signal peptide, the arginine vasopressin hormone, and the N terminus of the NP carrier protein. Exon ... which binds mammalian clock proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 involved in generating circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus ( ... Daily rhythms in the phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB) supports that these elements also contribute to ...
Shafer, Orie T.; Yao, Zepeng (2014-07-01). "Pigment-Dispersing Factor Signaling and Circadian Rhythms in Insect Locomotor ... PDF is also sufficient to induce high levels of timeless protein (TIM), another essential protein that regulates circadian ... "Vasoactive intestinal peptide and the mammalian circadian system". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 152 (2-3): 165-175. ... as the elevated TIM level is enough to rescue circadian rhythm. In 2011, Ng et al. demonstrated that glial-neural signaling may ...
Forskolin Interleukin-6 Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) Stress or trauma Circadian rhythms Forskolin and ... This activates the protein kinase A pathway, which results in the binding of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) onto ... These signaling hormones act via signal transduction, causing the synthesis of POMC and eventual cleavage to ACTH and β- ... These peptide hormones are stored within vesicles in the corticotropic cells and are released in response to CRH stimulation ...
Regulation of melatonin synthesis is important to melatonin's main function in circadian rhythms. The main molecular control ... The presence of the protein RIBEYE and other proteins in both pinealocytes and sensory cells (both photoreceptors and hair ... a peptide which affects pCREB transcription, have a resulting increase in melatonin synthesis. AANAT is activated through a ... Nature's most versatile biological signal?". The FEBS Journal. 273 (13): 2813-38. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05322.x. PMID ...
This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood ... Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... In bacterial circadian rhythms, the oscillations of the phosphorylation of cyanobacterial Kai C protein was reconstituted in a ... Circadian clocks are the central mechanisms that drive circadian rhythms. They consist of three major components: a central ...
... as it maintains the circadian rhythm, and nerve signals from ipRGCs to the SCN entrain the internal circadian rhythm to the ... G protein-coupled receptors, Circadian rhythm, Human proteins). ... in a therapeutic setting to produce Fc-glucagon-like peptide 1 ... This is also reflected by the downstream signaling cascade, melanopsin couples in ipRGCs to the G-proteins G(q), G(11), and G( ... Triple-mutant mice that were rod-less, cone-less, and melanopsin-less display a complete loss in the circadian rhythms, so all ...
... master circadian pacemaker'. See SCN and circadian rhythm below. VIP in the pituitary helps to regulate prolactin secretion; it ... VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... The presence of VPAC2 in ventrolateral side suggests that VIP signals can actually signal back to regulate VIP secreting cells ... Then it will activate gene expression pathways such as Per1 and Per2 in circadian rhythm. In addition, GABA levels are ...
Saper, Clifford B.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lu, Jun (2005). "Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms". Nature. 437 ... Delta wave signalling arising either in the thalamus or in the cortex influences the secretion of releasing hormones; GHRH and ... Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must pass through the blood-brain barrier. ... In general, ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs) are gene activators, with increased mRNA and subsequent protein synthesis ...
Virshup DM, Eide EJ, Forger DB, Gallego M, Harnish EV (2007). "Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates circadian rhythms ... a scaffold protein exhibiting important roles in Wnt signaling, and CK1δ/ε were fine-mapped using a peptide library. The ... CK1δ seems to be involved in the circadian rhythm, the internal cellular clock, which permits a rhythm of about 24 h. The ... "A small molecule modulates circadian rhythms through phosphorylation of the period protein". Angewandte Chemie. 50 (45): 10608- ...
ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms. Deficiency of ACTH is an indicator of secondary adrenal ... ACTH is synthesized from pre-pro-opiomelanocortin (pre-POMC). The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ...
... affecting the circadian rhythm, reducing voluntary alcohol intake, lowering blood pressure, and controlling epileptic seizures ... The receptor protein that NPY operates on is a G protein-coupled receptor in the rhodopsin like 7-transmembrane GPCR family. ... Acuna-Goycolea C, Tamamaki N, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, van den Pol AN (August 2005). "Mechanisms of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and ... In most obesity cases the increased secretion of NPY is a central / hypothalamic resistance to energy excess hormone signals ...
Preliminary research indicates that ghrelin participates in the regulation of circadian rhythms. A review reported finding ... Current Protein & Peptide Science. 12 (4): 293-304. doi:10.2174/138920311795906673. PMC 3670092. PMID 21428875. Zigman JM, ... Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from alcohol and palatable/rewarding foods. Ghrelin has been linked to ... which suggests there is a flaw in the circadian rhythm of obese individuals. Ghrelin levels are high in people with cancer- ...
The protein encoded by CCDC47 is 483 amino acids in length and contains both a signal peptide and transmembrane domain. It is ... or decreasing the transcription of downstream genes while PAR b ZIP family is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ...
They found the mRNA methylation alters the speed of circadian rhythms and heterogeneity of G protein signaling is necessary for ... Ribbon in 2007 Recipient of Aschoff's Ruler in 2009 Okamura began his study of circadian rhythms in 1982 with the peptide work ... and the adrenal gland is the key organ in transforming circadian signals from nerve signals to the endocrine signals. Okamura's ... "Circadian regulation of intracellular G-protein signalling mediates intercellular synchrony and rhythmicity in the ...
This finding suggests a role for EGFR signaling in the regulation of CLOCK and circadian rhythms within the SCN. Similar ... "Characterization of disulfide bond position in proteins and sequence analysis of cystine-bridged peptides by tandem mass ... The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a ... influencing activation and signaling of other proteins that interact in many signal transduction pathways. In an animal model ...
Since then, she has moved the focus of her study to circadian rhythms and sleep. Early research in the field of chronobiology ... time imaging of cellular circadian gene expression across mice SCN slice cultures to investigate the role of VIPergic signaling ... and animalian mechanisms required for circadian functioning are developmentally independent of the presence of Cry proteins. In ... Additionally, Maywood and colleagues have demonstrated that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), another SCN neuropeptide, can act ...
... identifying circadian rhythms in macrophages, and investigating the necessity of heme degradation for circadian rhythms. ... analyzing the coupling between peripheral circadian oscillators, and live cell imaging of circadian clock proteins. Along with ... Kramer wrote his undergraduate thesis on peptide libraries used to identify tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antagonists ... signaling pathways. TGF-α binding to its epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was shown to decrease locomotor activity in ...
Sleep is controlled both by circadian rhythms and the homeostatic drive produced by wakefulness. Circadian rhythms are produced ... In fact, Senile plaques are dense, protein deposits composed of amyloid β peptide. The two types of senile plaques are diffuse ... both necrotic and apoptotic processes utilize a similar intracellular signaling cascade which uses caspase proteins to induce ... 894-898 King, D; Takahashi, JS.Molecular Genetics of Circadian Rhythms in Mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci, 2000, pp. 713-742 ...
In others, rhythm is regulated primarily on the protein level. One example is in rodents, where AANAT mRNA levels increase more ... This, in turn, leads to a signaling cascade, resulting in Protein Kinase A phosphorylation of two key Ser and Thr residues of ... Due to its important role in circadian rhythm, AANAT is subjected to extensive regulation that is responsive to light exposure ... Peptide combinatorial libraries of tri-, tetra-, and pentapeptides with various amino acid compositions were screened as ...
T4 may be elevated, and TSH is usually normal, although TSH's normal circadian rhythm may be disrupted. Bipolar 1 and PTSD can ... Other signals associated with hunger also affect the HPT axis. Insulin and bile acids, which are elevated after a meal, lead to ... It is typically associated with high-T3 syndrome, increased plasma protein binding of thyroid hormones, and an elevated set ... and agouti-related peptide. In critical illness, inflammation increases tanycyte D2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the ...
... protein or peptides (e.g. insulin and CLE peptides), and gases (e.g. ethylene and nitric oxide). Hormones are used to ... stimulation or inhibition of growth wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms mood swings induction or suppression of ... Hormones are ligands, which are any kinds of molecules that produce a signal by binding to a receptor site on a protein. ... Neural signalling is an all-or-nothing (digital) action, whereas hormonal signalling is an action that can be continuously ...
Przewłocki R, Lasón W, Konecka AM, Gramsch C, Herz A, Reid LD (January 1983). "The opioid peptide dynorphin, circadian rhythms ... Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin. When prodynorphin is ... A putative mechanism of signal transmission". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (28): 26360-70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412494200. PMID 15894804. ... Dynorphins are important in maintaining homeostasis through appetite control and circadian rhythms. Przewlocki et al. found ...
It is a synthetic fusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP), calmodulin (CaM), and M13, a peptide sequence from myosin light- ... For instance, Bonder and McCarthy (2014) used GCaMP to show that astrocytic G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and ... and showed that SCN neurons that produced vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exhibited daily activity rhythms in vivo that ... 2018) used GCaMP6 in mice to measure neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the mammalian circadian pacemaker ...
The SCN is a region in the brain known to control circadian rhythms in mammals which can be influenced by external light cues. ... RGS16, a gene regulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling, attenuates FAA but is also not necessary for it. Up until the ... Proteins involved in the SCN pathway (Prokineticin 2 (PK2), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase- ... The presence or absence of glucose and fatty acids, loss of AMPK in the mouse liver has led to disrupted circadian rhythms in ...
"ELF3 encodes a circadian clock-regulated nuclear protein that functions in an Arabidopsis PHYB signal transduction pathway". ... ELF3 is known to be a hub of protein-protein interactions, and the regions of the ELF3 peptide responsible for these ... In living organisms, circadian oscillators are cyclic biochemical processes that produce daily rhythms. In Arabidopsis, ELF3, ... The ELF3 protein is also a component of the PHYB signaling complex to control hypocotyl elongation. PHYB is a protein that ...
Froy O, Miskin R (December 2010). "Effect of feeding regimens on circadian rhythms: implications for aging and longevity". ... and of plasma proteins). Moreover, exerkines - signalling biomolecules released during/after exercise - have also shown ... Peptides: such as MOTS-c released by mitochondria Mitochondria modulation: early-stage research indicates mitochondrial ... Froy O (August 2011). "Circadian rhythms, aging, and life span in mammals". Physiology. 26 (4): 225-235. doi:10.1152/physiol. ...
This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da). In some ... which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and circadian rhythms, can be affected through ... This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that ... protein G), Staphylococcus aureus (protein A), and Peptostreptococcus magnus (protein L). The mechanisms used to evade the ...
"Genetic basis of human circadian rhythm disorders". Experimental Neurology. Circadian rhythms and sleep disorders. 243: 28-33. ... BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 are also known to alter the expression of several contractile proteins and mitochondrial proteins in ... Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". T Helper Cell Differentiation and ... defective TH2 responses after being repeatedly stimulated with OVA peptide, and reduced alveolar infiltrate. BHLHE41 knockout ...
Circadian rhythm signals also affect the melanocortin system, both directly with melatonin affecting POMC gene expression in ... Peptides. 26 (10): 1728-32. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.12.028. PMID 15993514. S2CID 28219196. Donovan, MH; Tecott, LH (2013 ... ghrelin and agouti-related protein. It receives inputs from hormones, nutrients and afferent neural inputs, and is unique in ... The rhythm of the activity of serotonin neurons is also shown as circadian changes, with a clear downward trend during the dark ...
CLOCK is a circadian rhythm master regulator that functions with BMAL1 to carry out its HAT activity. Three important nuclear ... HAT domains bound to acetyl-CoA and histone substrate peptides reveal that the latter bind across a groove on the protein that ... acetylation can affect protein function in this manner has led to inquiry regarding the role of acetyltransferases in signal ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ...
The main function of this kind of endopeptidases is to catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in order to cleave proteins ... Notably, Dronc-dependent Tau cleavage was also shown in an experiment that connected circadian rhythm and Alzheimer's disease. ... In the end, anti-IAPs release the IAPs proteins (mainly XIAPs). Apoptosis can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic signals. ... Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a family of proteins that act as endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis: they inhibit ...
For instance, core body temperature in humans varies during the course of the day (i.e. has a circadian rhythm), with the ... The control center responds to the signal by determining an appropriate response and sending signals to an effector, which can ... Renin is an enzyme which cleaves a decapeptide (a short protein chain, 10 amino acids long) from a plasma α-2-globulin called ... This causes heart muscle cells to secrete the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the blood. This acts on the kidneys ...
... glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, leptin and peptide YY and relationships with cardiorespiratory and subjective responses". ... "The pineal gland is critical for circadian Period1 expression in the striatum and for circadian cocaine sensitization in mice ... Dopamine neurotransmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.e., the transporter ... abnormal heart rhythms, and death. Anxiety, paranoia, and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With ...
Circadian rhythm, Fungal proteins). ... a chromophore-binding peptide region. This binding site is ... Schwerdtfeger C, Linden H (Feb 2001). "Blue light adaptation and desensitization of light signal transduction in Neurospora ... Second, it is necessary for regulating circadian rhythms in FRQ. It is a key component of a circadian molecular pathway that ... Cha J, Zhou M, Liu Y (2015). "Methods to study molecular mechanisms of the Neurospora circadian clock". Circadian Rhythms and ...
Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. The four ... Savvidis C, Koutsilieris M (December 2012). "Circadian rhythm disruption in cancer biology". Molecular Medicine. 18 (1): 1249- ... ß peptide-induced neurotoxicity. When used in vivo in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke, PFKFB3 inhibitor alleviates motor ... Circadian clocks dysregulation is associated with many types of cancer. PFKFB3 expression exhibits circadian rhythmicity that ...
... but also circadian rhythms. Slo binding proteins (Slobs) can modulate BK channels as a function of circadian rhythms in neurons ... Thus, the signaling system can be involved in treating hypertension and atherosclerosis through targeting of the ɑ subunit to ... Yu M, Liu SL, Sun PB, Pan H, Tian CL, Zhang LH (January 2016). "Peptide toxins and small-molecule blockers of BK channels". ... BK channels help regulate physiological processes, such as circadian behavioral rhythms and neuronal excitability. BK channels ...
Some studies have shown Avpr1a knockout mice to have deficits in their circadian rhythms and olfaction. Avpr1a's role in social ... AVPR1A is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with 7 transmembrane domains that couples to Gaq/11 GTP binding proteins, which ... Peptides. 18 (7): 985-93. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(97)00072-7. PMID 9357056. S2CID 30519466. North WG, Fay MJ, Longo KA, Du J ( ... of the V1a vasopressin receptor provides two independent epitopes required for high-affinity agonist binding and signaling". ...
... peptide - peptide bond - peripheral protein - peroxisome - Pfeffer cell - phage - phagocytosis - phenotype - phloem - ... circadian rhythm - cloning vector - closed circulatory system - cobalamin - codominance - codon - coenzyme - cofactor - ... signal transduction - silk - Sir Charles Lyell - sister chromatid - skeleton - skin cell - sleep - smooth ER - sociobiology - ... protein biosynthesis - protein - protein translocation - proteolysis - proteome - proteomics - protist - protista - proton pump ...
This protein makes the female reluctant to copulate for about 10 days after insemination. The signal pathway leading to this ... Young for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm". 2 October 2017. ... Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, which is found in semen. ... The signal is sent to a brain region that is a homolog of the hypothalamus and the hypothalamus then controls sexual behavior ...
... generates a roughly 24 hour circadian clock. In the circadian day an ultradian rhythm takes control of the sleeping pattern. ... The signals received may cause the neuron to initiate an action potential (an electrochemical signal or nerve impulse) which is ... Proteins expressed in glial cells include astrocyte markers GFAP and S100B whereas myelin basic protein and the transcription ... Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy, V.R.; Watson, R.R.; Martin, C.R. (eds.). ...
The hypothalamus controls the body's "biological clock" and circadian rhythm. In episodic cluster headache, attacks occur once ... Preliminary sensations of pain in the general area of attack, referred to as "shadows", may signal an imminent CH, or these ... Fremanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptides alpha and beta, is in phase 3 ... G protein beta 3 (GNB3), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor (ADCYAP1R1), and membrane ...
The CRY protein is also signaled for degradation by poly-ubiquitination from the FBXL3 protein resulting in the disinhibition ... in circadian rhythms was not fully realized until the knockout of the gene in mice showed complete loss of circadian rhythms in ... Inducing EAE through the active immunization of mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide during the rest ... Kondratov RV (May 2007). "A role of the circadian system and circadian proteins in aging". Ageing Research Reviews. 6 (1): 12- ...
Cytokines - are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are ... and entrainment of the circadian rhythm. Eye surgery - Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also ... peptides, and cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T ... Eyes signal information which is used by the brain to elicit the perception of color, shape, depth, movement, and other ...
Furthermore, anandamide levels possess a circadian rhythm in the rat, with levels being higher in the light phase of the day, ... OX1-CB1 dimerization was suggested to strongly potentiate orexin receptor signaling, but a likely explanation for the signal ... showed an increase in the expression of transcripts encoding myelin basic protein, endoplasmic proteins, cytochrome oxidase, ... Our multiple labeling immunofluorescence findings revealed co-localization of CB1R, OX1R and the peptide orexin-A within the C1 ...
Prog.) ^ Colwell, C. S., "Circadian Rhythms", (4th Gen. Prog.) ^ Lewy, A. J., "Circadian Phase Sleep And Mood Disorders", (5th ... Thus there are many proteins which are not even in the direct path of signal transduction, any of which may still be a target ... Different treatment-related studies are investigating the potential role of peptide nucleic acids in treating Parkinson's ... All of the proteins involved in neurotransmission are a small fraction of the more than 100,000 proteins in the brain. ...
Circadian Clock Proteins and Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Proteins. ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0533472. Scope note. A broad category of proteins ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins Descriptor Spanish: Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360.138] Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano. ... Period Circadian Proteins. Proteínas Circadianas Period. Proteínas Correpressoras. Co-Repressor Proteins. Proteínas Co- ... Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins. Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma. Proteínas Ubiquitinadas. Ubiquitinated Proteins. ... CLOCK Proteins. Proteínas CLOCK. Quinase 3 Dependente de Ciclina. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3. Quinasa 3 Dependiente de la ...
Hormones are also involved in the wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms. Hormones can activate or inhibit of the immune ... Protein Purity and Homogeneity Characterization. *Sequence Analysis of Peptides or Proteins. *Membrane Protein Identification ... Animal Hormones is a type of signaling molecules, which is produced by glands in multicellular organisms. Hormone is secreted ... Hormones can be classified into 3 classes, eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives, such as amines, peptides, and ...
... neuroinflammation and Wnt signaling were the most significant. Application of RNA sequencing to dissect pathogenic alterations ... 2.4.4. Circadian Rhythm and Entrainment. The circadian rhythm and entrainment pathway showed alterations only in the M area of ... Wnt Signaling. Wnt proteins are implicated in several pathways and their receptor interaction result in a variety of ... or peptide neurotransmitters (Sstr, Tacr, Th, Thr, Tnn, and Vipr) are altered. Channels for solutes (Slc), sodium (Scn) and ...
Evidence for the role of bile in regulating circadian rhythms. In order for a hormone or protein to help regulate circadian ... take advantage of the powerful effect circadian rhythms have on improving your gut health by sending the appropriate signals at ... Bile acids are antimicrobial, and they cause the release of antimicrobial peptides in the ileum when they bind to a bile acid ... The underlying circadian dichotomy. If you havent noticed, the purpose of circadian rhythms is to form a sort of dichotomy. In ...
Amplitude of circadian rhythms becomes weaken in the north, but there is no cline in the period of rhythm in a beetle. ... The CCHamide1 Neuropeptide Expressed in the Anterior Dorsal Neuron 1 Conveys a Circadian Signal to the Ventral Lateral Neurons ... Antibodies Against the Clock Proteins Period and Cryptochrome Reveal the Neuronal Organization of the Circadian Clock in the ... However, peptides 5 and 6 showed cytotoxicity equal to or stronger than 1. Those ten peptides except for 5 and 6 showed a clear ...
Tv1 and Tsu1.1 are distinct from previously identified venom peptides, expanding the toolkit of peptides that can potentially ... hybrid approach for screening venom peptides that is amenable to large-venom peptide libraries with minimal amounts of peptide ... These findings describe the first functional bioactivity of terebrid venom peptides in relation to pain and diet and indicate ... Using this approach, we characterized the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of two peptides from the venom of predatory ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano. ... Period Circadian Proteins. Proteínas Circadianas Period. Proteínas Correpressoras. Co-Repressor Proteins. Proteínas Co- ... Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins. Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma. Proteínas Ubiquitinadas. Ubiquitinated Proteins. ... CLOCK Proteins. Proteínas CLOCK. Quinase 3 Dependente de Ciclina. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3. Quinasa 3 Dependiente de la ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano. ... Period Circadian Proteins. Proteínas Circadianas Period. Proteínas Correpressoras. Co-Repressor Proteins. Proteínas Co- ... Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins. Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma. Proteínas Ubiquitinadas. Ubiquitinated Proteins. ... CLOCK Proteins. Proteínas CLOCK. Quinase 3 Dependente de Ciclina. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3. Quinasa 3 Dependiente de la ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano. ... Period Circadian Proteins. Proteínas Circadianas Period. Proteínas Correpressoras. Co-Repressor Proteins. Proteínas Co- ... Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins. Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma. Proteínas Ubiquitinadas. Ubiquitinated Proteins. ... CLOCK Proteins. Proteínas CLOCK. Quinase 3 Dependente de Ciclina. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3. Quinasa 3 Dependiente de la ...
Cell Cycle Proteins. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. *Chloroplast Proteins. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... "Protein Precursors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Protein Precursors" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Protein Precursors" by people in Profiles. ...
"Signal transduction in simple organisms". "G proteins and signal processing in eukaryotic organisms". "Interesting odds and ... "Lifes 24 hour clock: molecular control of circadian rhythms in animal cells". "New parts for Drosophilas circadian clock" ... "The Potential of Synthetic Peptides as Viral Vaccines". Andy McMahon, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard ... "Molecular neurogenetics of rhythms in Drosophila: The midst of the flys circadian system and outward". "Special topic for the ...
Ghrelin signalling is dysregulated in male but not female offspring in a rat model of maternal vertical sleeve gastrectomy . J ... Elastin-Like Polypeptide: VEGF-B Fusion Protein for Treatment of Preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2021 Dec;78(6):1888-1901. Wiggins ... 2020) Biopolymer-Delivered, Maternally Sequestered NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-κB) Inhibitory Peptide for Treatment of Preeclampsia ... Dysregulated appetitive leptin signaling in male rodent offspring from post-bariatric dams. Curr Res Physiol. 2020 Dec;3:50-58 ...
... and circadian rhythm, partly through SIRT1 activation. NMN is used for studying binding motifs within RNA aptamers and ribozyme ... China Good Quality HGH 191aa Peptide Supplier. © 2021 - 2023 All Rights Reserved. ... The coenzyme NAD and its derivatives are involved in hundreds of metabolic redox reactions and are utilized in protein ADP- ... ribosylation, histone deacetylation, and in some Ca2+ signaling pathways. NMNAT (EC is a central enzyme in NAD ...
It has a circadian rhythm that anticipates the metabolic, immunoregulatory and cognitive needs of the active portion of the day ... Apelin is a bioactive peptide recently identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ. ... Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already ... Type I (PC1/PC3) is thought to cleave between the B-chain and the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and type II (PC2) between the ...
... such as changes to other proteins that interact with the target protein or are in a signaling pathway with it. The hope is that ... Mouse Study Finds Circadian Rhythm-Related Gene Expression Changes Linked to Sleep Apnea A paper in PLOS Biology reveals tissue ... the researchers used the Proteograph system to identify more than 18,000 peptides from roughly 3,000 proteins across the 325 ... Protein quantitative trait loci are links between genetic variants and plasma protein levels. They are typically characterized ...
Circadian or diurnal rhythm *Any biological activity or rhythm with cyclicity of exactly 24hr revisions is called Circadian ... Protein hormones mainly remain free in the plasma. As a result, the t1/2 of protein and peptide hormones are short. For example ... Endocrine Cell Signaling. *In the endocrine type of cell signaling, the chemical substances produced by the gland enter the ... The sleep-wake cycle is the simplest example of a circadian rhythm. When this circadian rhythm is associated with the light- ...
Then target protein can be located either inside or outside the empty shell by fusing the protein with signal sequences, using ... from those responding to heat stress to ones oscillating under a circadian rhythm. The promoters and ribosome binding sites ... The cell-penetrating peptides will aid in passing the proteins through the skin and target the pigment cells to reach ... Fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) will be utilized as dose-responsive signals of ambient CO. ===[[Team:METU_Turkey_Software , ...
... feature extraction from population wearable device data identified novel loci associated with sleep and circadian rhythms. by ... 1-30 Protein-protein interaction network controlling establishment and maintenance of switchable cell polarity. by Luís António ... 1-27 Bacterial recognition by PGRP-SA and downstream signalling by Toll/DIF sustain commensal gut bacteria in Drosophila. by ... 1-26 Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 mediates dietary regulation of sleep intensity. by Elizabeth B Brown & Kreesha D Shah & ...
Circadian rhythms are generated by an internal clock system, which synchronizes these daily variations to the day/night ... We suggest that these NA epitope peptides might be used in conjunction with HA proteins as vaccine Cilengitide manufacturer ... Circadian rhythms are seen in many metabolic pathways (glucose and lipid metabolism, etc.) and endocrine secretions (insulin, ... "Duez H, Staels B. Rev-erb-alpha: an integrator of circadian rhythms and metabolism. J Appl Physiol 107: 1972-1980, 2009. First ...
... and high efficiency approaches with the support of bioinformatic tools in order to identify and quantify the total protein ... Differentiated proteins between healthy and patient groups were immune, transport and signalling pathways members [60]. In fact ... circadian rhythm, psychological factors such as pain and stress, and any factors such as some medication and diseases (oral and ... DIA is more likely to sample all peptides within the selected mass ranges and it is not predisposed to detect only the most ...
Biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism depends upon measurement of enzymes and proteins released during bone formation and ... Circadian rhythm in bone metabolism causes markers to vary by 10-20%. A study by Yavropoulou et al investigated postprandial ... However, the peptide is rapidly degraded in the serum, and intact and fragmented segments coexist in the serum. The resulting ... This relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of this technique does not allow rapid (within months) differentiation of responders ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.360.138] Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476.156] Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein [D12.776.260.457] Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence ... Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein [D12.776.930.327] Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence ...
Although the nerve-derived protein agrin has been suggested to be a positive signal, the negative signals remain elusive. Here ... Ucn-II/stresscopin related peptide and Ucn-III/stresscopin are two new members of the CRF/Ucn-I gene family and are selective ... Here we report that female, but not male, mice lacking urocortin 2 exhibit a significant increase in the basal daily rhythms of ... Urocortin 2-deficient mice exhibit gender-specific alterations in circadian hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive- ...
Finally, TGF-betaR signaling inhibition suppressed the expression of transforming acidic coiled-coil protein-3 (TACC3) that ... Our hypothesis was that compared to controls, mice that had their circadian rhythms disrupted in this ECD model will have a ... Importantly, EGFR inhibition suppressed TGF-beta expression, and an inhibitory thrombospondin-1 (Tsp1)-based peptide inhibited ... Shift work has been shown to disrupt circadian rhythms and is associated with several adverse health outcomes and chronic ...
Transfer of the male seminal fluid protein Sex Peptide reduces female post-mating immune defense. Sex Peptide is known to cause ... Maintenance of circadian rhythm and sleep were not affected. It is concluded that neurite pruning and regrowth of γ-type Kenyon ... The protein phosphatase 2A complex (PP2A), the major Ser/Thr phosphatase in the brain, is involved in a number of signaling ... Retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has served as a paradigm ...
C-reactive protein (CRP). A. Is secreted in a circadian rhythm with higher levels in the morning Wrong Choice! ... a cytosolic signaling complex that responds to cellular stress. With stress or tissue injury, mtDNA and peptides are released ... coagulation and complement proteins, and transport proteins. Clinically, only C-reactive protein (CRP) has been consistently ... Mitochondrial proteins and/or DNA can act as DAMPs by triggering an inflammatory response to necrosis and cellular stress. ...
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476.156] * Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides [D12.776.476.175] ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476] * ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.776.476.075] * Axin Signaling Complex [D12.776.476.081] * Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ... Axin Signaling Complex Proteins Term UI T784902. Date01/31/2011. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2012). ...
... including regulators of DNA damage response and circadian rhythms. We review this complex network using an interactive ... Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) to explore the interplay between these two proteins. Here we discuss how NAD + competition and ... An intricate network regulates the activities of SIRT1 and PARP1 proteins and continues to be uncovered. Both SIRT1 and PARP1 ... DNA damage signaling pathway. Both SIRT1 and PARP1 are DNA damage responders and the absence of either of these proteins may ...
  • Animal Hormones is a type of signaling molecules, which is produced by glands in multicellular organisms. (
  • Hormones are also involved in the wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms. (
  • Colonic muscle contractility is also influenced by gut microflora profile, an array of neuropeptides, several peripheral peptides and select hormones, and the rate of food consumption. (
  • These hormones and proteins alter genetic expression in target tissues which adjusts our physiology to the environment. (
  • Over the years her laboratory made important contributions to the current knowledge on the regulation and the relative roles of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin on the HPA axis, and characterization of the properties, signaling-transduction and regulation of the receptors and actions for these peptide hormones. (
  • It means that hormones are cell signaling molecules. (
  • These hormones are synthesized from a rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) as a long peptide called pre-pro-hormones. (
  • Multi-disciplinary, multiple-investigator teams proposing mechanistic clinical studies to elucidate the relationship of circadian rhythm to causal pathways of disease are encouraged. (
  • The central clock in the brain uses specific biochemical and neural pathways to pass its circadian signals along to other organs, such as the liver or heart. (
  • Recent studies have also revealed that circadian system affects metabolic homeostasis while metabolic pathways feed back into the regulation of circadian system and modulate many physiological processes and behavior. (
  • We do not yet know the discrete targets, in brain, of the NCS-Rapgef2/ERK-, PKA/CREB- and Epac/p38-specific cAMP signaling pathways elucidated in cellula . (
  • The coenzyme NAD and its derivatives are involved in hundreds of metabolic redox reactions and are utilized in protein ADP-ribosylation, histone deacetylation, and in some Ca2+ signaling pathways. (
  • Previous findings suggest that parallel pathways independently relay innate threat signals from different sensory modalities to multiple brain areas, such as the midbrain and hypothalamus, for immediate avoidance. (
  • Our molecular clock and circadian rhythm is affected by clock genes and their transcription factors. (
  • 2009). The rhythmic impact of clock genes, Per1 and Per2, affect circadian activity in the hypothalamus and in peripheral tissues. (
  • It appears that some circadian clock genes, such as Foxa2 , are not only regulated differently under feeding and fasting conditions, but that there is tissue specificity, such as lipid and protein metabolism in heart and liver, at least in mice (Wolfrum, C. et al. (
  • Roughly 170 of these genes representing common characteristics of slightly more than 11,000 time-related metabolic traits had an overlap with several categories, such as wound healing, inflammation, protein kinase cascade, and regulation of signal transduction. (
  • Ninety nine percent of PfNF-YB binding was to putative promoter regions of protein coding genes of which only 16% comprise proteins of known function. (
  • PfNF-YB binds to genes coding for proteins implicated in a range of different biological functions, such as replication protein A large subunit (DNA replication), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (nucleic acid metabolism) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (intracellular transport). (
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin abolishes circadian regulation of hepatic metabolic activity in mice. (
  • 19. RBP4 functions as a hepatokine in the regulation of glucose metabolism by the circadian clock in mice. (
  • Her most recent work demonstrating that activation of CRH transcription requires the CREB coactivator, Transducer of Regulated CREB activity (TORC), regulated by the protein kinase, salt inducible kinase (SIK), uncovered a missing link in current knowledge of the regulation of CRH transcription. (
  • Using cell cytometry (FACS) and fluorimetry, we demonstrated in yeast the successful expression and translational regulation of a fusion of mRNA binding protein and fluorescent protein. (
  • Apelin is a bioactive peptide recently identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ. (
  • Targeted mutations in either the intracellular clock or intercellular neuropeptide signaling mechanisms, such as VIP-VPAC2 signaling, can lead to desynchronization of SCN neuronal clocks and loss of behavioral rhythms. (
  • This FOA invites applications for clinical research to elucidate circadian-dependent mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of human obesity, diabetes-related metabolism, obesity-coupled risks for heart, lung, and blood disease, and the identification of novel therapies to improve circadian rhythm for primary or secondary prevention of obesity-associated disease risks. (
  • Intervention studies to identify circadian-mediated mechanisms of obesity, diabetes-related metabolism, and obesity-coupled heart, lung, and blood pathophysiology may be proposed. (
  • Behavioral, physiological, pharmacological, molecular, and genomic studies aimed at elucidating the relationship between circadian-dependent mechanisms and disease are appropriate. (
  • 3. Resveratrol Maintains Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis via One of the Mechanisms Associated with the Key Circadian Regulator Bmal1. (
  • 5. Capsaicin Ameliorates the Redox Imbalance and Glucose Metabolism Disorder in an Insulin-Resistance Model via Circadian Clock-Related Mechanisms. (
  • 12. Tea polyphenols ameliorates neural redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction via mechanisms linking the key circadian regular Bmal1. (
  • The objective of this FOA is to understand the molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced tissue damage that involve central and peripheral circadian rhythms, particularly their connection with metabolism and metabolic disorders. (
  • In the past two decades, major progress has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms. (
  • Tv1 and Tsu1.1 are distinct from previously identified venom peptides, expanding the toolkit of peptides that can potentially be used to investigate the physiological mechanisms of pain and diet. (
  • In addition, research addressing the mechanisms of pulsatility of glucocorticoid secretion recently demonstrated that each ACTH-induced secretory pulse is associated with induction of steroidogenic proteins transcription. (
  • Third, it demonstrates that fold switchers can regulate biological processes by discussing two proteins, RfaH and KaiB, whose dramatic secondary structure remodeling events directly affect gene expression and a circadian clock, respectively. (
  • A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. (
  • The neuropeptide functions through G protein-coupled receptors to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulate intracellular calcium levels, and activate potassium channels. (
  • I'm not going to jump down the 3000 word blog rabbit hole and go all comprehensive on the way circadian rhythms regulate gut health because I already did that here . (
  • The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its VPAC2 receptor form a key component of intercellular signaling systems in the SCN and critically control cellular coupling. (
  • This gene encodes a neuropeptide that is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes, including cortical excitability, stress response, food intake, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular function. (
  • The Gs-coupled GPCR PAC1, the receptor for the neuropeptide PACAP, in the retinohypothalamic projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus required for environmental re-setting of circadian rhythm through photosensitive retinal ganglion cell activation (see e.g. (
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation is reported to alter the hepatic expression of circadian clock regulators, however the impact on clock-controlled metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. (
  • Maren Laughlin, Ph.D. Energy balance, thermogenesis and mitochondria biology, whole body intermediary carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and functional and metabolic imaging in adipose, pancreas and other metabolic organs. (
  • 1. Nobiletin protects against insulin resistance and disorders of lipid metabolism by reprogramming of circadian clock in hepatocytes. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages applications that propose to conduct mechanistic studies of the circadian rhythms involved in alcohol-induced organ damage. (
  • NMN also enhances hepatic sensitivity and restores gene expression related to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and circadian rhythm, partly through SIRT1 activation. (
  • As you can probably guess, organs doing random things at randoms times is very bad, especially organs that are dependent on properly timed signals from other organs. (
  • In the endocrine type of cell signaling, the chemical substances produced by the gland enter the bloodstream through fenestrated capillaries in the body and travels further to reach various target organs or cells that act as receptors. (
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key peptide in the afferent nociceptive pathway from the parabrachial area and mediates excitatory drive of CeA neurons. (
  • Here, we report that neurons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the parvocellular subparafascicular nucleus in the thalamus and external lateral parabrachial nucleus in the brainstem respond to multi-sensory threat cues from various sensory modalities and relay negative valence to the lateral and central amygdala, respectively. (
  • The flow rate and composition of saliva are effectively regulated by the autonomous nervous system, and are dependent on signalling by neuropeptides and intracellular calcium [ 12 ]. (
  • In the juxtacrine type of cell signaling, the cells that produce the chemical substance and the cells on which their receptors are present are in such close contact that the lie end expressed by the secretory cell and the receptor cell interact directly with each other. (
  • The opioid system of mu, delta and kappa receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR) and their peptide ligands (β-endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin) have complex and partially opposing effects on amygdala function. (
  • The control of food intake is also an example of ultradian rhythm since the interval between two meals is less than 24hr. (
  • Individual neurons in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain an intracellular molecular clock and use intercellular signaling to synchronize their timekeeping activities so that the SCN can coordinate brain physiology and behavior. (
  • The circadian rhythm system orchestrates the temporal organization of many aspects of physiology. (
  • Circadian rhythms adjust our physiology so that we are more successful at adapting to our environment. (
  • They are further influenced by a number of factors such as age, circadian rhythm, psychological factors such as pain and stress, and any factors such as some medication and diseases (oral and systemic) affecting the physiology of the salivary glands [ 6 ]. (
  • 8. Effects of the Clock Modulator Nobiletin on Circadian Rhythms and Pathophysiology in Female Mice of an Alzheimer's Disease Model. (
  • Our long-term goal is to examine the parcellation of cAMP signaling during neurotransmission in the brain, at the genetic, cellular, morphological, and biochemical levels, and their penetrance to experience-driven behavior in the mouse. (
  • Emerging research suggests that the extent of these processes and involvement of the genetic network, and the normal mammalian circadian rhythm controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, depend on our fed and fasting state and the kinds of foods consumed. (
  • Protein quantitative trait loci are links between genetic variants and plasma protein levels. (
  • The hope is that pQTLs can help researchers map the connections between genetic variation and protein expression changes and, ultimately, disease. (
  • From that data, they identified 184 protein-altering genetic variants that corresponded significantly with mass spec measurements of the matching variant peptide, associations that they termed mass spec protein altering variants, or MS-PAVs. (
  • Team Aberdeen_Scotland:]] The AyeSwitch: a translationally regulated genetic toggle switch in yeast=== A novel genetic toggle switch regulated at the translational level was engineered in yeast that allowed the mutually exclusive expression of either green or cyan fluorescent protein. (
  • Genetic interaction study shows that Drice mediates its action by regulating Rho1GTPase functionally, and localization of polarity protein Disc large . (
  • Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD . (
  • Here we show that extended exposure to constant light promotes synchrony among SCN clock cells and the expression of ~24 h rhythms in behavior in mice in which intercellular signaling is disrupted through loss of VIP-VPAC2 signaling. (
  • To fully explore the complexity and function of the synapse proteome, and be able to analyze changes on a localized level in various cellular and subcellular compartments within the brain, it is essential to establish a comprehensive, highly characterized and standardized collection of specific monoclonal antibodies directed against all individual synapse proteins under native conditions. (
  • While monoclonal antibodies offer a higher degree of specificity than polyclonal antibodies since each typically binds to one specific epitope within a target antigen, many commercially available antibodies exhibit cross-reactivity to non-related proteins, with one study indicating 75% of commonly used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) show cross reactivity with other protein. (
  • There is a pressing need for a systematic, cost effective, and scalable approach to identify physiological effects of venom peptides. (
  • Using this approach, we characterized the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of two peptides from the venom of predatory terebrid marine snails, teretoxins Tv1 from Terebra variegata and Tsu1.1 from Terebra subulata . (
  • Multidisciplinary, multiple investigator teams are strongly encouraged to realize the full potential for synergy between experts in heart, lung, blood, and metabolic disorders with circadian and sleep researchers. (
  • The G-protein biased kappa opioid agonists, triazole 1.1 and nalfurafine, produce non-uniform behavioral effects in male rhesus monkeys. (
  • We tested whether social signal processing in more traditional, head-restrained contexts is representative of the putative natural analog-social communication-by comparing responses to vocalizations within individual neurons in marmoset prefrontal cortex (PFC) across a series of behavioral contexts ranging from traditional to naturalistic. (
  • These results suggest that neural representations of social signals in primate PFC are not static but highly flexible and likely reflect how nuances of the dynamic behavioral contexts affect the perception of these signals and what they communicate. (
  • The acute phase proteins are nonspecific biochemical markers produced by hepatocytes in response to tissue injury, infection, or inflammation. (
  • The best-characterized DAMP in the context of the injuryassociated inflammatory response is high-mobility group protein Bl (HMGBl), which is rapidly released into the circulation within 30 minutes following trauma. (
  • To assess the synchronicity between respiratory-related neurons and the breath-by-breath variability of respiratory neuronal activity from optical signals, we developed a novel method by which we are able to analyze respiratory-related optical signals without cycle-triggered averaging. (
  • Exploration of sensory and spinal neurons expressing gastrin-releasing peptide in itch and pain related behaviors. (
  • Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) functions as a neurotransmitter for non-histaminergic itch, but its site of action (sensory neurons vs spinal cord) remains controversial. (
  • Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP). (
  • 18. β-Caryophyllene attenuates palmitate-induced lipid accumulation through AMPK signaling by activating CB2 receptor in human HepG2 hepatocytes. (
  • High levels of inflammation promote cell death and decrease tight junction protein levels. (
  • Clinically, only C-reactive protein (CRP) has been consistently used as a marker of injury response due to its dynamic reflection of inflammation. (
  • With regard to digestion, circadian rhythms help prepare the gut for food by preparing an anticipatory secretion of gastric acid and digestive enzymes right before we eat. (
  • Many proteins exist in multiple forms, exhibiting alterations like amino acid variants or truncations or post-translational modifications, which can impact their function. (
  • Interestingly, Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs) express apoptotic proteins, without succumbing to cell death. (
  • The circadian system comprises of a complex feedback network that involves interactions between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. (
  • This reflects, in part, a transient hemodynamic shift from peripheral circulation to tissues involved in digestive processes and the release of "satisfaction" peptides and carbohydrates that affect brain function. (
  • Despite the impact of these biological processes in circadian rhythm and possible effect on circadian control, the clock gene did not seem to be diurnally regulated in peripheral tissues. (
  • Proteomics use high throughput and high efficiency approaches with the support of bioinformatic tools in order to identify and quantify the total protein content of cells, tissues or biological fluids. (
  • Whereas several previous reviews have focused on various structural, physical-chemical, and evolutionary aspects of this newly emerging class of proteins, this minireview focuses on how fold switching modulates protein function and regulates biological processes. (
  • The human oral microbiome is one of the most diverse of the human body and constitutes a dynamic entity that contributes more than 2000 microbial proteins from more than fifty bacterial genera to the saliva proteome [ 15 ]. (
  • And thus, electric light as both an effector and an enabler of additional activities or behaviors (e.g., shift work), may lead to circadian disruption. (
  • Given this, nanoparticles can serve as an enrichment tool, allowing researchers to pull proteins out of a sample, which they can then identify and quantify using technologies like mass spec. (
  • Accordingly, protein levels (ARNTL, REV-ERBα, NFIL3) and genomic binding (ARNTL) of select regulators were reduced and arrhythmic following treatment. (
  • Venom-peptide research and drug discovery has increased exponentially with the advance of genomic-transcriptomic sequencing and proteomic mass-spectrometry 10 . (
  • Such experiments have become more feasible in recent years as the development of affinity-based platforms - primarily from Olink and SomaLogic - have allowed researchers to measure thousands of proteins in parallel in plasma samples from tens of thousands of individuals, bringing the depth and throughput of proteomic studies to a level where they can be meaningfully integrated with genomic datasets. (
  • 11. Induction of Core Circadian Clock Transcription Factor Bmal1 Enhances β-Cell Function and Protects Against Obesity-Induced Glucose Intolerance. (
  • D-cell mediated paracrine signaling is also present at the level of islet cells of the pancreas. (
  • Parcellated cyclic AMP signaling is likely to be functionally critical at neuropeptidergic, and catecholamine-modulated as well as glutamate-driven synapses in the brain. (
  • Gierasch's research focuses on protein folding and protein-peptide interactions. (
  • The self-association property of Nab3 adds to the previously documented interactions between these hnRNP-like proteins, RNA polymerase II, and the nascent transcript, Selleck Entinostat leading to a network of nucleoprotein interactions that define a higher order Nrd1-Nab3 complex. (
  • A cis pQTL in many cases reflects the influence on a protein of the gene that codes for it, while trans pQTLs may reflect other phenomena, such as changes to other proteins that interact with the target protein or are in a signaling pathway with it. (
  • These findings describe the first functional bioactivity of terebrid venom peptides in relation to pain and diet and indicate that Tv1 and Tsu1.1 may, respectively, act as antinociceptive and orexigenic agents. (
  • 7. Liver clock protein BMAL1 promotes de novo lipogenesis through insulin-mTORC2-AKT signaling. (
  • 13. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes. (
  • The master clock also holds some control over the peripheral clocks, but the peripheral clocks beat to their own rhythm even in the absence of light signals to the master clock. (
  • 9. Casein glycomacropeptide-derived peptide IPPKKNQDKTE ameliorates high glucose-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via activation of AMPK signaling. (
  • A response to these social signals when subjects were head-restrained was not predictive of a comparable neural response to the identical vocalizations during natural communication. (
  • NEW YORK - A team led by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar has used Seer's Proteograph proteomics platform for mapping protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) in a cohort of 325 individuals. (
  • In their recent preprint, the researchers used the Proteograph system to identify more than 18,000 peptides from roughly 3,000 proteins across the 325 plasma samples they analyzed, providing a depth of coverage comparable to that of previous affinity-based efforts. (
  • Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group conclusion that "shift work that involves circadian disruption" is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) (IARC 2010). (
  • A polymorphism in this gene resulting in a change of leucine 7 to proline in the signal peptide is associated with elevated cholesterol levels, higher alcohol consumption, and may be a risk factor for various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Objective: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of cardiovascular disease. (
  • In this type of cell signaling, the chemical substances act on secretory cells themselves. (
  • In the paracrine type of cell signaling, the chemical substances a secretory cell produces reach the adjacent target cell, where the receptor is present, with the help of diffusion. (
  • The number of newly discovered peptides from the transcriptomes and proteomes of animal venom arsenals is rapidly increasing, resulting in an abundance of uncharacterized peptides. (
  • PACAPergic synapses mediating stress-dependent relapse to cocaine preference in rodents are also being investigated, in the context of parcellated cAMP signaling in both the PACAP- and dopamine-dependent components of this translationally important behavior. (
  • The rationale for this recommendation was that electric light acts as both an effector (based on direct effects on circadian disruption and melatonin suppression, and animal models and human studies of light pollution and indoor light), and as an enabler, allowing what were once daytime activities to be conducted 24/7. (
  • Mass spec-based proteomics, on the other hand, is better equipped to account for different proteoforms as it can detect features like variant peptides and post-translational modifications. (
  • Protein Precursors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (