Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins: A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Darkness: The absence of light.Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chronotherapy: The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Chronobiology Phenomena: Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.FlavoproteinsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Drug Chronotherapy: The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Mice, Inbred C57BLMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Dyssomnias: A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Ganglionectomy: Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsCell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Eye ProteinsTrans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptor, Melatonin, MT2: A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.

Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria. (1/177)

The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

cpmA, a gene involved in an output pathway of the cyanobacterial circadian system. (2/177)

We generated random mutations in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 to look for genes of output pathways in the cyanobacterial circadian system. A derivative of transposon Tn5 was introduced into the chromosomes of reporter strains in which cyanobacterial promoters drive the Vibrio harveyi luxAB genes and produce an oscillation of bioluminescence as a function of circadian gene expression. Among low-amplitude mutants, one mutant, tnp6, had an insertion in a 780-bp open reading frame. The tnp6 mutation produced an altered circadian phasing phenotype in the expression rhythms of psbAI::luxAB, psbAII::luxAB, and kaiA::luxAB but had no or little effect on those of psbAIII::luxAB, purF::luxAB, kaiB::luxAB, rpoD2::luxAB, ndhD::luxAB, and conII::luxAB. This suggests that the interrupted gene in tnp6, named cpmA (circadian phase modifier), is part of a circadian output pathway that regulates the expression rhythms of psbAI, psbAII, and kaiA.  (+info)

Nucleotide binding and autophosphorylation of the clock protein KaiC as a circadian timing process of cyanobacteria. (3/177)

A negative feedback control of kaiC expression by KaiC protein has been proposed to generate a basic oscillation of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. KaiC has two P loops or Walker's motif As, that are potential ATP-/GTP-binding motifs and DXXG motifs conserved in various GTP-binding proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that in vitro KaiC binds ATP and, with lower affinity, GTP. Point mutation by site-directed mutagenesis of P loop 1 completely nullified the circadian rhythm of kaiBC expression and markedly reduced ATP-binding activity. Moreover, KaiC can be autophosphorylated in vitro. These results suggest that the nucleotide-binding activity of KaiC plays important roles in the generation of circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

A kaiC-interacting sensory histidine kinase, SasA, necessary to sustain robust circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria. (4/177)

Both regulated expression of the clock genes kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC and interactions among the Kai proteins are proposed to be important for circadian function in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. We have identified the histidine kinase SasA as a KaiC-interacting protein. SasA contains a KaiB-like sensory domain, which appears sufficient for interaction with KaiC. Disruption of the sasA gene lowered kaiBC expression and dramatically reduced amplitude of the kai expression rhythms while shortening the period. Accordingly, sasA disruption attenuated circadian expression patterns of all tested genes, some of which became arrhythmic. Continuous sasA overexpression eliminated circadian rhythms, whereas temporal overexpression changed the phase of kaiBC expression rhythm. Thus, SasA is a close associate of the cyanobacterial clock that is necessary to sustain robust circadian rhythms.  (+info)

Circadian clock-protein expression in cyanobacteria: rhythms and phase setting. (5/177)

The cyanobacterial gene cluster kaiABC encodes three essential circadian clock proteins: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. The KaiB and KaiC protein levels are robustly rhythmical, whereas the KaiA protein abundance undergoes little if any circadian oscillation in constant light. The level of the KaiC protein is crucial for correct functioning of the clock because induction of the protein at phases when the protein level is normally low elicits phase resetting. Titration of the effects of the inducer upon phase resetting versus KaiC level shows a direct correlation between induction of the KaiC protein within the physiological range and significant phase shifting. The protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol prevents the induction of KaiC and blocks phase shifting. When the metabolism is repressed by either translational inhibition or constant darkness, the rhythm of KaiC abundance persists; therefore, clock protein expression has a preferred status under a variety of conditions. These data indicate that rhythmic expression of KaiC appears to be a crucial component of clock precession in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria. (6/177)

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, cell division is regulated by a circadian clock. Deletion of the circadian clock gene, kaiC, abolishes rhythms of gene expression and cell division timing. Overexpression of the ftsZ gene halted cell division but not growth, causing cells to grow as filaments without dividing. The nondividing filamentous cells still exhibited robust circadian rhythms of gene expression. This result indicates that the circadian timing system is independent of rhythmic cell division and, together with other results, suggests that the cyanobacterial circadian system is stable and well sustained under a wide range of intracellular conditions.  (+info)

Two KaiA-binding domains of cyanobacterial circadian clock protein KaiC. (7/177)

kaiABC, a gene cluster, encodes KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins that are essential to circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Kai proteins can interact with each other in all possible combinations. This study identified two KaiA-binding domains (C(KABD1) and C(KABD2)) in KaiC at corresponding regions of its duplicated structure. Clock mutations on the two domains and kaiA altered the strength of C(KABD)-KaiA interactions assayed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Thus, interaction between KaiA and KaiC through C(KABD1) and C(KABD2) is likely important for circadian timing in the cyanobacterium.  (+info)

Long-term microclimatic stress causes rapid adaptive radiation of kaiABC clock gene family in a cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, from "Evolution Canyons" I and II, Israel. (8/177)

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes known thus far possessing regulation of physiological functions with approximate daily periodicity, or circadian rhythms, that are controlled by a cluster of three genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC. Here we demonstrate considerably higher genetic polymorphism and extremely rapid evolution of the kaiABC gene family in a filamentous cyanobacterium, Nostoc linckia, permanently exposed to the acute natural environmental stress in the two microsite evolutionary models known as "Evolution Canyons," I (Mount Carmel) and II (Upper Galilee) in Israel. The family consists of five distinct subfamilies (kaiI-kaiV) comprising at least 20 functional genes and pseudogenes. The obtained data suggest that the duplications of kai genes have adaptive significance, and some of them are evolutionarily quite recent (approximately 80,000 years ago). The observed patterns of within- and between-subfamily polymorphisms indicate that positive diversifying, balancing, and purifying selections are the principal driving forces of the kai gene family's evolution.  (+info)

*Hormone

... peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is ... stimulation or inhibition of growth wake-sleep cycle and other circadian rhythms mood swings induction or suppression of ... Peptides, polypeptides and proteins. - Small peptide hormones include TRH and vasopressin. Peptides composed of scores or ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ...

*Vasoactive intestinal peptide

... master circadian pacemaker'. See SCN and circadian rhythm below. VIP in the pituitary helps to regulate prolactin secretion; it ... VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... The presence of VPAC2 in ventrolateral side suggests that VIP signals can actually signal back to regulate VIP secreting cells ... Then it will activate gene expression pathways such as Per1 and Per2 in circadian rhythm. In addition, GABA levels are ...

*Paul H. Taghert

... a class B1 G protein coupled receptor. Null mutations of PDFR suggests that it is also required for circadian rhythms in ... They have shown that PDF receptor signals differently in different pacemaker groups, and that PDF receptor signaling interact ... At a molecular level, DIMM concerns secretory peptides that are amidated, and at a cellular level, DIMM concerns peptidergic ... Peschel, Nicolai (May 20, 2011). "Setting the clock - by nature: Circadian rhythm in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster". ...

*ACTH receptor

Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Constant light disrupts the circadian rhythm of steroidogenic proteins in the rat adrenal gland". Molecular and Cellular ... It is well known that levels of corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in humans) secretion demonstrate a circadian rhythm, highly ... ACTH levels, ACTH receptor expression, and MRAP1 expression also demonstrate circadian rhythm, with ACTH secretion and MRAP ...

*Disc shedding

Its signal peptide is at the N-terminus but is not cleaved off. The protein is co-translationally glycosylated and the ... Circadian rhythms that use neuromodulators such as adenosine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and melatonin, rhythmically ... It is important to understand that, because of these rhythms, rod outer segment discs are shed at the onset of light (in the ... Endogenous dopamine and melatonin seem to be the light and dark signal, in particular. Their method of action is simply as ...

*Pigment dispersing factor

Shafer, Orie T.; Yao, Zepeng (2014-07-01). "Pigment-Dispersing Factor Signaling and Circadian Rhythms in Insect Locomotor ... PDF is also sufficient to induce high levels of timeless protein (TIM), another essential protein that regulates circadian ... "Vasoactive intestinal peptide and the mammalian circadian system". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 152 (2-3): 165-175. ... as the elevated TIM level is enough to rescue circadian rhythm. In 2011, Ng et al. demonstrated that glial-neural signaling may ...

*Circadian clock

... are from different protein families than the animal, fungal and bacterial clock proteins. In bacterial circadian rhythms, the ... Through intercellular signalling mechanisms such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei ... This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood ... Circadian clocks are the central mechanisms that drive circadian rhythms. They consist of three major components: a central ...

*Neuropeptide Y

... affecting the circadian rhythm, reducing voluntary alcohol intake, lowering blood pressure, and controlling epileptic seizures ... The receptor protein that NPY operates on is a G protein-coupled receptor in the rhodopsin like 7-transmembrane GPCR family. ... Acuna-Goycolea C, Tamamaki N, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, van den Pol AN (August 2005). "Mechanisms of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and ... In most obesity cases the increased secretion of NPY is a central / hypothalamic resistance to energy excess hormone signals ...

*Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms. Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency ... ACTH is synthesized from pre-pro-opiomelanocortin (pre-POMC). The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ...

*Hitoshi Okamura

They found the mRNA methylation alters the speed of circadian rhythms and heterogeneity of G protein signaling is necessary for ... Okamura began his study of circadian rhythms in 1982 with the peptide work in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) using the ... and the adrenal gland is the key organ in transforming circadian signals from nerve signals to the endocrine signals. Okamura's ... "Circadian regulation of intracellular G-protein signalling mediates intercellular synchrony and rhythmicity in the ...

*Clinical neurochemistry

Sleep is controlled both by circadian rhythms and the homeostatic drive produced by wakefulness. Circadian rhythms are produced ... In fact, Senile plaques are dense, protein deposits composed of amyloid β peptide. The two types of senile plaques are diffuse ... both necrotic and apoptotic processes utilize a similar intracellular signaling cascade which uses caspase proteins to induce ... Nature, 2006, p.894-898 King, D; Takahashi, JS.Molecular Genetics of Circadian Rhythms in Mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci, 2000, p. ...

*TGF alpha

This finding suggests a role for EGFR signaling in the regulation of CLOCK and circadian rhythms within the SCN. Similar ... "Characterization of disulfide bond position in proteins and sequence analysis of cystine-bridged peptides by tandem mass ... The protein becomes activated when binding to receptors capable of protein kinase activity for cellular signaling. TGF-α is a ... influencing activation and signaling of other proteins that interact in many signal transduction pathways. In an animal model ...

*Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase

In others, rhythm is regulated primarily on the protein level. One example is in rodents, where AANAT mRNA levels increase more ... This, in turn, leads to a signaling cascade, resulting in Protein Kinase A phosphorylation of two key Ser and Thr residues of ... Due to its important role in circadian rhythm, AANAT is subjected to extensive regulation that is responsive to light exposure ... Peptide combinatorial libraries of tri-, tetra-, and pentapeptides with various amino acid compositions were screened as ...

*White Collar-1

Second, it is necessary for regulating circadian rhythms in FRQ. It is a key component of a circadian molecular pathway that ... Protein sequencing has revealed WC-1 to also contain a LOV domain, a chromophore-binding peptide region. This binding site is ... Schwerdtfeger C, Linden H (Feb 2001). "Blue light adaptation and desensitization of light signal transduction in Neurospora ... This aerial growth pattern at subjective circadian times served as tentative support for the presence of circadian oscillators ...

*Melanopsin

Triple-mutant mice that were rod-less, cone-less, and melanopsin-less display a complete loss in the circadian rhythms, so all ... it appears to be a photopigment with intrinsic photoisomerase activity and signals through a G-protein of the Gq family. ... create an optogenetic synthetic transcription device that was tested in a therapeutic setting to produce glucagon-like peptide ... Melanopsin plays an important non-image-forming role in the setting of circadian rhythms as well as other functions. Mutations ...

*Index of biology articles

... peptide - peptide bond - peripheral protein - peroxisome - Pfeffer cell - phage - phagocytosis - phenotype - phloem - ... circadian rhythm - circulatory system - cis face - cisterna - citric acid cycle - cladistics - classical genetics - clearance ( ... signal transduction - silk - Sir Charles Lyell - sister chromatid - skeleton - skin cell - sleep - smooth ER - sociobiology - ... protein biosynthesis - protein - protein translocation - proteolysis - proteome - proteomics - protist - protista - proton pump ...

*Ghrelin

... which suggests there is a flaw in the circadian rhythm of obese individuals. Ghrelin levels reflect release in a circadian ... Current Protein & Peptide Science. 12 (4): 293-304. doi:10.2174/138920311795906673. PMC 3670092 . PMID 21428875. Zigman JM, ... Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from alcohol and palatable/rewarding foods. Ghrelin also improves ... Peptides. 29 (8): 1369-76. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2008.03.020. PMID 18471933. Duxbury MS, Waseem T, Ito H, Robinson MK, Zinner ...

*Immune system

This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins (which are typically larger than 6000 Da). In some ... which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and our circadian rhythms, can be affected ... This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that ... protein G), Staphylococcus aureus (protein A), and Peptostreptococcus magnus (protein L). The mechanisms used to evade the ...

*Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The 24-hour rhythm could be reset by light via the protein cryptochrome (CRY), which is involved in the circadian ... It contains several cell types and several different peptides (including vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal peptide) and ... The SCN is one of many nuclei that receive nerve signals directly from the retina. Some of the others are the lateral ... see Circadian rhythm) in mammals are sensitive to temperature pulses and will experience resetting of the circadian clock phase ...

*Cholinergic neuron

It is normal in aging for circadian rhythms to deteriorate as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) fluctuations change in pattern ... PTD-ChAT is a fusion protein made up of both protein transduction domain and choline acetyltransferase; it can pass through the ... which protects these cells and the networks from additional cholinergic input that could disrupt the signal. This allows the ... "Inhibition of Choline Acetyltransferase as a Mechanism for Cholinergic Dysfunction Induced by Amyloid β Peptide Oligomers". The ...

*Histone acetyltransferase

CLOCK is a circadian rhythm master regulator that functions with BMAL1 to carry out its HAT activity. Three important nuclear ... HAT domains bound to acetyl-CoA and histone substrate peptides reveal that the latter bind across a groove on the protein that ... acetylation can affect protein function in this manner has led to inquiry regarding the role of acetyltransferases in signal ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ...

*Frequency (gene)

"Circadian rhythms. Decoupling circadian clock protein turnover from circadian period determination". Science. 347 (6221): ... "The band mutation in Neurospora crassa is a dominant allele of ras-1 implicating RAS signaling in circadian output". Genes & ... FRQ is phosphorylated at more than 100 sites based on in vitro analyses using mass spectrometry of lFRQ peptides. These sites ... "The genetics of circadian rhythms in Neurospora". Advances in Genetics. The Genetics of Circadian Rhythms. 74: 55-103. doi: ...

*Vasopressin receptor 1A

Some studies have shown Avpr1a knockout mice to have deficits in their circadian rhythms and olfaction. Avpr1a's role in social ... AVPR1A is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with 7 transmembrane domains that couples to Gaq/11 GTP binding proteins, which ... Peptides. 20 (7): 837-42. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(99)00070-4. PMID 10477084. Tahara A, Tsukada J, Ishii N, Tomura Y, Wada K, ... of the V1a vasopressin receptor provides two independent epitopes required for high-affinity agonist binding and signaling". ...

*Nervous system

Experimental studies dating from the 1990s have shown that circadian rhythms are generated by a "genetic clock" consisting of a ... Thus, neural signaling is capable of a much higher level of specificity than hormonal signaling. It is also much faster: the ... Specifically the protein BMP4 appears to be involved. Two proteins called Noggin and Chordin, both secreted by the mesoderm, ... along with one or more peptide neurotransmitters that play slower-acting modulatory roles. Molecular neuroscientists generally ...

*Drosophila melanogaster

This protein makes the female reluctant to copulate for about 10 days after insemination. The signal pathway leading to this ... "molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm". It is now relatively simple to generate transgenic flies in Drosophila ... Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, which is found in sperm. ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ...

*BHLHE41

"Genetic basis of human circadian rhythm disorders". Experimental Neurology. Circadian rhythms and sleep disorders. 243: 28-33. ... BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 are also known to alter the expression of several contractile proteins and mitochondrial proteins in ... Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". Advances in Experimental Medicine ... defective TH2 responses after being repeatedly stimulated with OVA peptide, and reduced alveolar infiltrate. BHLHE41 knockout ...
The core circadian oscillator of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing the proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, resulting in oscillations in KaiC phosphorylation. The underlying mechanism of this biochemical oscillator has been elusive. Rust et al. (see the Perspective by Poon and Ferrell) now show that phosphorylation of KaiC at two residues is cyclically ordered and that the abundance of each phosphorylated form determines the phase of the oscillator. This sequential phosphorylation of KaiC, combined with negative feedback caused by one of the phosphorylation states, is sufficient to explain stable oscillation.. M. J. Rust, J. S. Markson, W. S. Lane, D. S. Fisher, E. K. OShea, Ordered phosphorylation governs oscillation of a three-protein circadian clock. Science 318, 809-812 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text]. A. C. Poon, J. E. Ferrell Jr., A clock with a flip switch. Science 318, 757-758 (2007). [Summary] [Full Text]. ...
cyanobacteria KaiC protein: encoded by gene C of circadian clock gene cluster kaiABC in cyanobacteria; amino acid sequence in first source
Welcome to the lab notebook for the Cyanobacteria oscillator project! The goal of our team, composed of four members, is to reconstruct the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator system into E. coli. Three proteins, KaiA, B, and C, have been shown to have an in-vitro phosphorylation state oscillation (Nakajima et al. 2005) by transcriptional-translational independent methods. If this system can be reconstituted in E. coli, there are two important applications ...
13h à 14h Le séminaire de David Lubensky (University of Michigan) aura lieu dans lAmphi Urbain, ESPCI, 10 Rue Vauquelin 75005 All plants and (...)
Cyanobacteria have a system of proteins, KaiABC, capable of generating rhythmic oscillations in the expression of other genes with a period of about a day. KaiC performs autophosphorylations, modulated by its interactions with the other clock proteins, and appears to act as transcriptional repressor. This remarkable system can continue its oscillations even in the absence of transcription and translation of kaiABC itself. KaiB and KaiC, at least, may be universal among the Cyanobacteria. Homologs outside the Cyanobacteria and paralogs within, both with uncertain function, occur for KaiB and KaiC ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Catalyses the reaction in the opposite direction. This enzyme, purified from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, catalyses the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of an activated fatty acid (acyl-[acp]) to the corresponding aldehyde. Together with EC 4.1.99.5, octadecanal decarbonylase, it is involved in alkane biosynthesis. The natural substrates of the enzyme are C16 and C18 activated fatty acids. Requires Mg2+ ...
This enzyme, purified from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of an activated fatty acid (acyl-[acp]) to the corresponding aldehyde ...
Extent and character of the protein-MC binding interface. (a) Plotof buried SASA versus total SASA. The dotted line represents the line of identity,correspondin
Circadian rhythms are daily cycles of activity that have been demonstrated in many organisms including bacteria, fungi, insects, plants, and mammals. A clock system is composed of three parts: the input pathway, the central oscillator, and the output pathway. The input pathway takes temporal and environmental signals and transfers that information to the central oscillator, which contains the core components of the clock, to synchronize the endogenous clock with the environment. Temporal cues are then sent through output pathways to control certain cell processes. The CikA (circadian input kinase) protein is an integral part of the input pathway because a cikA mutant cannot reset its circadian rhythm in response to dark pulses. CikA contains a histidine protein kinase (HPK) domain, which suggests that CikA is part of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system in which CikA autophosphorylates in response to a signal and transfers that phosphate to a putative partner response regulator ...
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism for the study of photosynthesis and gene regulation, and for biotechnological applications. Besides several freshwater cyanobacteria, S. elongatus 7942 also contains multiple chromosomal copies per cell at all stages of its cell cycle. Here, we describe a method for the direct visualization of multicopy chromosomes in S. elongatus 7942 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Synechococcus elongatus ATCC ® 33912D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 TypeStrain=False Application:
Domain combinations containing the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus N315. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily.
Domain combinations containing the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily in Staphylococcus aureus RF122. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the KaiA/RbsU domain superfamily.
The first part of this thesis focuses on the mechanisms of hormone induced Ca2+ oscillations and how these depend on fluctuations in the concentration of the Ca2+-releasing messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We were able to show that IP3 oscillations greatly enhances the ability to frequency encode the hormone stimulus by Ca2+ oscillations. Two mechanisms for the generation of IP3-oscillations have been investigated, we could show that Ca2+-activation of phospholipase C is the most probable mechanism. To better understand the role of IP3-oscillations a detailed model for the phosphoinositide pathway has been developed. The model illustrates the importance of futile (de)phosphorylation cycles for regenerating phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophat during stimulation, an essential property to support long-lasting Ca2+ signals. The second part of the thesis is devoted to nucleotide excision repair (NER). It is a versatile DNA repair mechanism that can remove lesions such as UV light ...
The oxidative phosphorylation cycle is the process by which cells within the human body produce adenosine triphosphate, ATP, via the electron transport chain, an aerobic energy system that follows the Krebs cycle in the bodys never-ending production of energy. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place within the matrix and inter-membrane space of the mitochondria within each cell.…
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Circadian rhythms in gene transcription imparted by chromosome compaction in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus: In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elo
Structural biologists have made important progress towards better understanding the functioning of the circadian clock. The circadian or inner clock coordinates the sleep-wake rhythm and many other body processes that regulate, ...
Organisms and even single cells have endogenous biological "clocks" that allow them to tell the time of day. Research in our laboratory is directed towards understanding the cellular and molecular bases of these fascinating timing mechanisms in a variety of organisms: cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"), plants, and animals. To analyze the molecular nature of the clock in the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, we have developed a bioluminescent reporter strain that expresses a daily rhythm of light emission. Using this bioluminescence rhythm as a marker, clock mutants have been identified. We found that the essential clock gene, KaiC, is rhythmically expressed and forms ATP-dependent hexamers. In collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Martin Egli, we have crystallized KaiC to determine its three-dimensional structure and discover its phosphorylation sites. The three key bacterial clock proteins (KaiA + KaiB + KaiC) will show circadian oscillations in a test tube! In collaboration with the laboratories ...
(KudoZ) English to Russian translation of conductivity temperature compensation: компенсация температурного изменения проводимости [Engineering (general) (Tech/Engineering)].
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
Bewusste Korperpflege von innen und aussen. Bei KAIA.ch finden Sie alles rund um Naturkosmetik und Naturheilkunde. Sorgfälltig ausgewählt, von klei...
Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider, 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294 ...
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Plasmid Design Our first plasmid contains KaiC fused to a Gal4 activation domain, with a self-cleaving peptide linker, P2A, fusing it to KaiB. P2A cleaves itself during translation, causing the KaiC-Gal4AD and the KaiB to separate. We did this to allow us to control the exact ratio of KaiC, KaiB, and KaiA, and make sure it is constant and equal in every cell. The second plasmid has KaiA linked by P2A to another fusion protein, SasA fused with the LexA binding domain. The third plasmid is our reporter plasmid, and contains GFP fused with a PEST degradation tag, and has a lexA operator region before the promoter. The degradation tag allows the amount of GFP in the cell to drop quickly enough once its no longer being expressed that we can use fluorescence assays to measure gene expression over time. The lexA binding domain binds to the lexA operator region, causing the SasA-LexA fusion protein to bind to the lexA operator region on the reporter plasmid. In cyanobacteria, SasA binds to ...
A disk drive provides temperature compensation for write current. The write current not only provides an acceptable bit error rate for data written to and read from the disk, but also prevents write induced instability in the head. Furthermore, the write current prevents excessive pole tip protrusion. As a result, the write current ensures that data is reliably stored and retrieved at a given temperature.
A circadian rhythm is a 24-hour period affecting the physiology of all living creatures, including plants and animals. While some circadian rhythm functions are governed internally, others are...
Light, activity & meals are key inputs to the circadian rhythm. These tools can be used to help managing the circadian rhythm & getting it back in sync.
Ndabona umuginga uri hano wiyise inararibonye yakamejeje mu mutwe watewemo idirisha na Kagame. Uti iki mwa? Yabaye wari mutaraga sasa washoboye kumva ko ibyo uri kuvuga byerekana ko genocide yakorewe abatutsi yari ngombwa kugirango babakosore kandi bababuze gukomeza kwangiza! Hi? Subiza...Ntacyo usubiza kuko uri akabwa gusa. Erega, watu wetu murajya impaka ku busa kweri. Ikibazo cya bwana wanditse iyi nkuru, si ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Kayumba Nyamwasa kuko niba ibi bivugwa yaranabikoze koko yakoze nabi cyane. Sasa ikibazo kiri aha ni iki: Ninde wasabaga Kayumba gukora ibyo yakoraga? Uwo muginga mwese muramuzi. Icyo gihe sasa Kayumba yahawe amategeko ya gisirikari. Uretse imbwa zinkotanyi zirirwa zibwejurura aha, guhabwa itegeko rya gisirikari bizwi icyo bisobanuye. Sasa ikibazo ni iki. Kayumba amaze kubona ibyo bari gukora babitegetswe numuginga Kagame, yakoze iki tena? Kayumba nkumuntu wize sasa akaminuza hapana siniya 4, yagiye kwa Kagame aramubwira ati ubu buryo bwo kurwana ntaho bushobora ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Two unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 showed contrasting responses to chromate stress with EC50 of 12 ± 2 and 150 ± 15 μM potassium dichromate respectively. There was no depletion of chromate in growth medium in both the cases. Using labeled chromate, very low accumulation (,1 nmol/108 cells) was observed in Synechocystis after incubation for 24 h in light. No accumulation of chromate could be observed in Synechococcus under these conditions. Chromate oxyanion is known to enter the cells using sulfate uptake channels. Therefore, inhibition of sulfate uptake caused by chromate was monitored using 35S labeled sulfate. IC50 values of chromate for 35sulfate uptake were higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. The results suggested that the sulfate transporters in Synechococcus have lower affinity to chromate than those from Synechocystis possibly due to differences in affinity of sulfate receptors for chromate. Bioinformatic ...
A temperature compensation type infrared sensor includes a substrate having a central pit and functioning as a heat sink with an insulation film formed on the top face of the substrate and defining a diaphragm located above the pit, a plurality of thermocouples disposed on the insulation film and connected in series with each of said thermocouples having a hot junction on said diaphragm and a cold junction on the heat sink, and a thermopile element including a black body on the central portion of the diaphragm in the insulation film for absorbing infrared rays with the thermopile element being placed on a thermistor chip for compensating temperature.
Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes. They thus enable organisms to better capitalize on environmental resources (e.g. light and food) compared to those that cannot predict such availability. It has therefore been suggested that circadian rhythms put organisms at a selective advantage in evolutionary terms. However, rhythmicity appears to be as important in regulating and coordinating internal metabolic processes, as in coordinating with the environment.[18] This is suggested by the maintenance (heritability) of circadian rhythms in fruit flies after several hundred generations in constant laboratory conditions,[19] as well as in creatures in constant darkness in the wild, and by the experimental elimination of behavioral, but not physiological, circadian rhythms in quail.[20][21]. What drove circadian rhythms to evolve has been an enigmatic question. Previous hypotheses emphasized that photosensitive proteins and circadian ...
... What Are Circadian Rhythms? Circadian rhythms influence our body temperature, sleep and wakefulness, and various hormonal changes.
ID Q31KY7_SYNE7 Unreviewed; 1017 AA. AC Q31KY7; DT 06-DEC-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-DEC-2005, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; DE Short=PEPC {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE Short=PEPCase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE EC=4.1.1.31 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; GN Name=ppc {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Synpcc7942_2252 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1}; OS Synechococcus elongatus (strain PCC 7942) (Anacystis nidulans R2). OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Synechococcales; Synechococcaceae; OC Synechococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=1140 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=PCC 7942 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland ...
A temperature compensating circuit for a Hall generator with a positive temperature coefficient of the resistance of the drive circuit path utilizes summation of a voltage representing the drive current as detected across a substantially temperature-independent compensating resistance in the drive current path, with a constant voltage component to provide one output to an operational amplifier whose other output is connected to this operational amplifier which produces the output signal of the circuit.
Scientists have discovered that a light-sensitive bacteria, synechococcus elongatus, can keep oxygen coming in the midst of a heart attack. Much like a plant, the bacteria both draws on photosynthesis for energy and turns both CO2 and water into oxygen.
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[IMG] Za leo wana JF, Mimi kwa sasa hivi ni mjamzito wa karibia miezi miwili sasa. Je, ni lishe zipi zinazomfaa mwana mama mda huu na matunzo yepi...
TANZANIA inaunga mkono kuanzishwa kwa mfumo wa kujumuisha thamani ya rasilimali asilia katika tathmini ya Pato la Taifa kwa manufaa ya vizazi vya sasa...
Results of acoustic rhythm analyses across individual groups shown in boxplots. Comparison between groups after post hoc Bonferroni adjustment: *p | 0.05
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Circadian clocks are fundamental properties of all eukaryotic organisms and at least some prokaryotic organisms. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that the gastrointestinal system contains a circadian clock that controls many, if not all, aspects of gastrointestinal function. We now report that at least one species of intestinal bacteria, Enterobacter aerogenes, responds to the pineal and gastrointestinal hormone melatonin by an increase in swarming activity. This swarming behavior is expressed rhythmically, with a period of approximately 24 hrs. Transformation of E. aerogenes to express luciferase with a MotA promoter reveals circadian patterns of bioluminescence that are synchronized by melatonin and whose periods are temperature compensated from 26°C to 40°C. Bioinformatics suggest similarities between the E. aerogenes and cyanobacterial clocks, suggesting the circadian clock may have evolved very early in the evolution of life. They also point to a coordination of host circadian ...
In Synechococcus elongatus, the PII protein inhibits both transport and reduction of nitrate when ammonium is present in the medium. Using a transporter mutant having ammonium-resistant nitrate transport activity as the genetic background, we analyzed specific effects of PII on in vivo nitrate reductase activity by measuring uptake of nitrate from the medium. The results showed that the regulation of nitrate reductase does not require changes in the electric charge or size of the side chain at the phosphorylation site of PII. Phosphorylation of PII is thus unlikely to play a role in the regulation of nitrate reductase.. ...
The feasibility of heterotrophic-phototrophic symbioses was tested via pairing of yeast strains Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a sucrose-secreting cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. The phototroph S. elongatus showed no growth in standard BG-11 medium with yeast extract, but grew well in BG-11 medium alone or supplemented with yeast nitrogen base without amino acids (YNB w/o aa). Among three yeast species, C. curvatus and R. glutinis adapted well to the BG-11 medium supplemented with YNB w/o aa, sucrose, and various concentrations of NaCl needed to maintain sucrose secretion from S. elongatus, while growth of S. cerevisiae was highly dependent on sucrose levels. R. glutinis and C. curvatus grew efficiently and utilized sucrose produced by the partner in co-culture. Co-cultures of S. elongatus and R. glutinis were sustained over 1 month in both batch and in semi-continuous culture, with the final biomass and overall lipid yields in the batch co-culture
Circadian rhythms, the subset of endogenous rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h, are widely encountered in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. Although eukaryotes employ a common mechanistic logic of interlocked negative feedback loops to generate robust circadian oscillations, different components have been recruited to form the clock in different taxa (Bell-Pedersen et al., 2005; McClung, 2006; Wijnen and Young, 2006). Thus, fungal, animal, and plant clocks share a common architectural plan yet are composed of largely distinct components. This suggestion of polyphyletic origins of clocks implies strong selection for clock function. Indeed, in many organisms, including cyanobacteria, fruit fly, ground squirrel, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), experimental evidence indicates that a robust circadian clock whose period resonates with the environmentally imposed diurnal cycle confers a fitness advantage (Yerushalmi and Green, 2009).. Among plants, most that is known about ...
Circadian rhythms, the subset of endogenous rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h, are widely encountered in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. Although eukaryotes employ a common mechanistic logic of interlocked negative feedback loops to generate robust circadian oscillations, different components have been recruited to form the clock in different taxa (Bell-Pedersen et al., 2005; McClung, 2006; Wijnen and Young, 2006). Thus, fungal, animal, and plant clocks share a common architectural plan yet are composed of largely distinct components. This suggestion of polyphyletic origins of clocks implies strong selection for clock function. Indeed, in many organisms, including cyanobacteria, fruit fly, ground squirrel, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), experimental evidence indicates that a robust circadian clock whose period resonates with the environmentally imposed diurnal cycle confers a fitness advantage (Yerushalmi and Green, 2009).. Among plants, most that is known about ...
Looking for online definition of Circadian Rhythm Stress in the Medical Dictionary? Circadian Rhythm Stress explanation free. What is Circadian Rhythm Stress? Meaning of Circadian Rhythm Stress medical term. What does Circadian Rhythm Stress mean?
A circadian rhythm /sɜːrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.[1]
CS mice, an inbred strain, showed two distinctive characteristics in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity: (1) large variation in the freerunning period, and (2) spontaneous rhythm splitting und
DJ Basilisk - Circadian Rhythms (2012) Deep Trance, Goa | Basilisk 320 kbps | MP3 | mixed | 25 Jan 2012 | 01:34:52 | 173 Mb Uploaded: turbobit.net, ul.to, depositfiles.com DJ Basilisk - C
Do you live inside the rhythm or does the rhythm live inside of you? For thousands of years rhythm has been the great identifier of cultures and connections. But is there more to rhythm than meets the skin? Whats inside the skin and how deep does it go? How far does rhythm travel? Does it travel in or out or both?
Tanzania ni mojawapo ya nchi barani Afrika zenye idadi kubwa ya watu ambao bado hawafahamiki walipo baada ya kutokea mkanyagano Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Hadi sasa watu 6 inajulikana walipoteza maisha. Leonard Mubali alikuwa uwanja wa ndege mahujaji wa kwanza walipokuwa wakirejea na aliandaa taarifa ifuatayo.. ...
Bench and Squats Thought Id open this post up with a picture of Kai Greene aka Mr. Getting It Done. Another year with no win for Kai at the Olympia,… Read more ». ...
Kai discusses some of the CFML coding differences between Railo and ColdFusion: Passing by references and by value, Date Parsing and dates in conditional statements.
Catalyzes the formation of the isocyclic ring in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mediates the cyclase reaction, which results in the formation of divinylprotochlorophyllide (Pchlide) characteristic of all chlorophylls from magnesium-protoporphyrin IX 13-monomethyl ester (MgPMME).
About Kaia Ra. Kaia Ra is the world renowned, ordained Oracle for an Ascended Master High Council called The Sophia Dragon Tribe™ and the international bestselling author of The Sophia Code™ book series. She is a Divine Feminine teacher, speaker, ceremonialist, medicine woman, minister, and community leader teaching The Sophia Code™ 2017 Curriculum worldwide. The Sophia Code is a sacred text that provides Kaia Ras direct revelations on the ineffable mysteries of Sophia, including a Divine Feminine Christ blueprint for activating humanitys sovereign divinity and birthing a new "Golden Age of Miracles". Kaia Ra offers the teachings of The Sophia Code as an embodied living transmission that amplifies and elevates a conscious communion with the truth of humanitys sovereignty within the One Sophia Source. Her oracular gifts for channeling, ascension training, charismatic speaking, writing, psychic counseling, shamanic healing, live performance, and ceremonial leadership guides the spiritual ...
King DP, Zhao Y, Sangoram AM, Wilsbacher LD, Tanaka M, Antoch MP, Steeves TD, Vitaterna MH, Kornhauser JM, Lowrey PL, Turek FW, Takahashi JS. Cell. 1997;89(4):641-53. Genetic mapping and sequencing in mice confirmed the identification of the mammalian gene, clock, involved in the circadian system. A comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the wildtype gene with…
We all have an intrinsic rhythm keeping our sleep & other body functions in sync. Understanding how the circadian rhythm works can help you feel your best.
How I Found It OMG! omg omg *cries*. Dramatic? Yes =D. But this is amazing! Problems with greasy skin and lotsa sebum?! BUY THIS! I was really shocked at the difference, and it lasts! Ive been using it every couple of days, narmally if im gunna put make-up on and its great. Deffinatly a huge change in daily build up, gunna buy again and theres another one from this brand that im going to try aswell ...
Mornings. Im not a Morning Person. Trust me, me and Mornings put together are BAD news. A Bit Not Good, as they say in the Sherlock fandom. This seems to be an ineradicable facet of my character. Ive tried, Gods know, Ive tried. But the other day, something I read got me thinking about this…
LMU researchers have shown that circadian oscillations in the influx of immune cells into the damaged tissue play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of an acute heart attack in the early morning hours.
In liver, most metabolic pathways are under circadian control, and hundreds of protein-encoding genes are thus transcribed in a cyclic fashion. Here we show that rhythmic transcription extends to the locus specifying miR-122, a highly abundant, hepatocyte-specific microRNA. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments have identified the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major circadian regulator of mir-122 transcription. Although due to its long half-life mature miR-122 accumulates at nearly constant rates throughout the day, this miRNA is tightly associated with control mechanisms governing circadian gene expression. Thus, the knockdown of miR-122 expression via an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) strategy resulted in the up- and down-regulation of hundreds of mRNAs, of which a disproportionately high fraction accumulates in a circadian fashion. miR-122 has previously been linked to the regulation of cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The transcripts associated w
Background AMP protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in food intake and energy metabolism, which are synchronized to the light-dark cycle. In vitro, AMPK affects the circadian rhythm by regulating at least two clock components, CKIα and CRY1, via direct phosphorylation. However, it is not known whether the catalytic activity of AMPK actually regulates circadian rhythm in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding The catalytic subunit of AMPK has two isoforms: α1 and α2. We investigate the circadian rhythm of behavior, physiology and gene expression in AMPKα1−/− and AMPKα2−/− mice. We found that both α1−/− and α2−/− mice are able to maintain a circadian rhythm of activity in dark-dark (DD) cycle, but α1−/− mice have a shorter circadian period whereas α2−/− mice showed a tendency toward a slightly longer circadian period. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of body temperature was dampened in α1−/− mice, but not in α2−/− mice. The circadian pattern of core
A temperature compensation circuit arrangement for liquid crystal cells in optical devices is presented. In an optical device, a liquid crystal cell typically manipulates the optical signals according to an output optical property, such as attenuation, responsive to an AC voltage source electrical signal. A feedback circuit arrangement is connected to the liquid crystal cell and controls the current through the liquid crystal cell with respect to temperature by a predetermined control equations for the output optical property so that the device manipulates the optical signals independently of temperature. The current follows the control equations, which are empirically determined with respect to temperature for one equation.
Disruption of circadian homeostasis is frequently observed in tumour cells. In a comprehensive study of circadian clock genes in 21 cancer types that takes into account genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic (clinical prognosis) data, we demonstrated that clock genes were substantially altered by somatically acquired deletions and amplifications. Recurrent deletions or amplifications that were accompanied by altered transcript expression in tumours could represent novel loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes. To exploit these circadian targets in a clinical setting, we analysed survival outcomes using the ClockLoss and ClockGain and confirmed the utility of both gene sets as prognostic tools in 2914 and 2784 patients involving seven diverse cancer cohorts.. Depending on cellular context, the circadian clock can exert both tumour-promoting or tumour-inhibiting properties. We observed that core clock genes, PERs, CRY2, CLOCK, NR1D2, RORA and RORB exhibited global patterns of somatic loss and ...
Circadian rhythms, the biological oscillations based around our 24-hour clock, have a profound effect on human physiology and healthy cellular function. Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease is a wide-ranging foundational text that provides students and researchers with valuable information on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of circadian rhythms and looks at the impacts of disruption in our biological clocks in health and disease.. Circadian Rhythms opens with chapters that lay the fundamental groundwork on circadian rhythm biology. Section II looks at the impact of circadian rhythms on major organ systems. Section III then turns its focus to the central nervous system. The book then closes with a look at the role of biological rhythms in aging and neurodegeneration.. Written in an accessible and informative style, Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease,will be an invaluable resource and entry point into this fascinating interdisciplinary field that brings together aspects of ...
As opposed to conventional heating/cooling systems made up of individual boilers or air-conditioners in every building, the district system provides centralized air-conditioning and warm water for multiple buildings in a particular district. By creating a heat transfer medium such as cooled water, steam, or warm water in a heating facility and connecting multiple buildings with piping, heat demand can be centralized and met with efficient air-conditioning and warm water supplies. Such systems require accurate measurment and accounting of heat usage.. ...
A 2/N mode dock generator that generates bus clock signals through the use of bus clock enable signals selecting bus clock pulses that are in phase and out of phase with a core clock signal. The clock generator maintains synchronization between the bus clock signal and the core clock signal so that they are always in a predetermined phase relationship.
Circadian rhythms are mechanisms that measure time on a scale of about 24 h and that adjusts our body to external environmental signals. Core circadian clock genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. Circadian proteins also regulate genes involved in either cell division or death; and a perturbation of the balance among these processes leads to cancer development and progression.. A key aspect of cancer research is identifying new regulatory pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of cell. Disruption of circadian rhythm has recently emerged as a new potential risk factor in the development of cancer, pointing to the core gene period 2 (per2) as a tumor suppressor. However, it remains unclear how the circadian network regulates tumor suppression, nor which, if any, of its components is either the ultimate effector that influences the fate of the cell.. Initial experiments were devoted to ...
Last year, Guarente found that a robust circadian period correlated with longer lifespan in mice. That got him wondering what role SIRT1, which has been shown to prolong lifespan in many animals, might play in that phenomenon. SIRT1, which Guarente first linked with aging more than 15 years ago, is a master regulator of cell responses to stress, coordinating a variety of hormone networks, proteins and genes to help keep cells alive and healthy ...
Read our latest snippets of gardening news here, featuring wild gardens, friendly slugs and circadian rhythms of fruit and vegetables.
Buy Ticking Clock Loops Pack by ShahruhAudio on AudioJungle. 4 various ticking clock loops Durations: ticking clock1 0:04 ticking clock2 0:08 ticking clock3 0:08 ticking clock4 0...
I know some of you have emailed me with questions on your own troll lurking on your blogs, just be strong, you cant be offended by a stranger, and like Eleanor Roosevelt eloquently said it, "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent". Theres too many good and genuine people in this world that make up more than enough for that one bad apple. People who only have negative things to say try to mold you into what they want you to be, or they try to mold themselves secretly, of what they WISH they could be; they become obsessed with someone elses life but their own. Just gotta be happy end enjoy life while you can, regardless of the people that try to throw you off track. Simply smile and say "thanks for the page hit ...
I know some of you have emailed me with questions on your own troll lurking on your blogs, just be strong, you cant be offended by a stranger, and like Eleanor Roosevelt eloquently said it, "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent". Theres too many good and genuine people in this world that make up more than enough for that one bad apple. People who only have negative things to say try to mold you into what they want you to be, or they try to mold themselves secretly, of what they WISH they could be; they become obsessed with someone elses life but their own. Just gotta be happy end enjoy life while you can, regardless of the people that try to throw you off track. Simply smile and say "thanks for the page hit ...
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Oh Kai, here we go... Cant get.much worse thats for sure. And maybe w omg on st through the endzone isnt the best ko. High and barely in, daring them to run.. and getting shut down before the twenty is even ...
The identification of circadian clocks in endocrine tissues has added considerable depth and complexity to our understanding of their physiology. A growing body of research reveals circadian clock gene expression in the uterus of non-pregnant and pregnant mammals. A key study to draw attention to the potential role of the circadian clock and pregnancy was that of Miller et al (2004), who reported that pregnant mice lacking the functional Clock gene (ClockΔ19) had prolonged and non-productive parturition, suggestive of a role for circadian clocks in the parturition event. Nakamura et al. (2010) showed changes in Per2::LUC rhythmic phase and amplitude in uterine explants treated with estrogen and progesterone. These results are consistent with the idea that ovarian steroid levels during the estrous cycle have a modulating influence of clock gene expression in the uterus. Ratajczak et al. (2010) examined expression of circadian clock genes in the mouse uterus in late pregnancy and
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Epigenetic Modulation of Circadian Rhythms: Bmal1 Gene Regulation. By Tatsunosuke Tomita and Yoshiaki Onishi. Circadian rhythms that function in behaviour and physiology have adaptive significance for living organisms from bacteria to humans and reflect the presence of a biological clock. The engine of circadian rhythms is a transcription-translation feedback loop that is fine-tuned by epigenetic regulation in higher eukaryotes. We elucidated the chromatin structure of the Bmal1 gene, a critical component of the mammalian clock system, and have continued to investigate transcriptional regulation including DNA methylation. Various ailments including metabolic diseases can disrupt circadian rhythms, and many human diseases are associated with altered DNA methylation. Therefore, regulated circadian rhythms are important for human health. Here, we summarise the importance of epigenetic clock gene regulation, including DNA methylation of the Bmal1 gene, from the viewpoint of relationships to ...
As I before stated, the result of that shot for the first five days was very apt to be nil. This, at the time, puzzled and grieved me a lot. Occasionally I looked at Memba Sasa to catch some sign of sympathy, disgust, contempt, or-rarely-triumph at a lucky shot. Nothing. He gently but firmly took away my rifle, reloaded it, and handed it back; then waited respectfully for my next move. He knew no English, and I no Swahili.. But as time went on this attitude changed. I was armed with the new Springfield rifle, a weapon with 2,700 feet velocity, and with a marvellously flat trajectory. This commanding advantage, combined with a very long familiarity with firearms, enabled me to do some fairish shooting, after the strangeness of these new conditions had been mastered. Memba Sasa began to take a dawning interest in me as a possible source of pride. We began to develop between us a means of communication. I set myself deliberately to learn his language, and after he had cautiously determined that I ...
We all have a natural internal clock: our circadian rhythm. It makes us feel tired when its time to sleep and wakes us up on a schedule. And it can be...
An innovative new study from the University of Surrey and Cambridges MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, published in the prestigious journal Nature Communications, has uncovered the secrets of the circadian rhythms in red blood cells and identified potassium as the key to unravelling the mystery.
Health, ...A new study of the brains master circadian clock known as the suprac... Aging has a profound effect on circadian timing said Block a profe... The question is what changes in the nervous system underlie all of t...The SCN located in the hypothalamus is the central circadian clock i...,Study,shows,new,evidence,of,age-related,decline,in,the,brains,master,circadian,clock,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
So, what is the exact differences between the Autopilot Digital and the Aqua Rite? I was considering getting an Autopilot Digital 42K for my 18K pool, but the Aqua Rite 40K is $400 cheaper and the cells are about $125 cheaper. What will the Autopilot Digital give me that the Aqua Rite wont, and is it really that important? The only thing I found was temperature compensation. Is that a big deal? BTW, Im going to get a Pentair Intelliflo VF installed, and wont have separate automation.
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Just one example…patients with ovarian, endometrial, or metastatic bladder cancer who received treatment with one drug at 6:00 a.m. and another drug 12 hours later experienced less toxicity and greater tumor response and survival than those who received the drugs in the reverse sequence.. We know that circadian rhythm regulates metabolism, hormone production, neurotransmitter production and more. This article covers another area that circadian rhythm also regulates: drug metabolism. Interesting read!. ...
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A new study reveals how the production of p75NTR protein oscillates in time with the bodys natural circadian rhythm and how these oscillations help regulate vital metabolic functions. The findings offer an insight into how circadian rhythm helps maintain the bodys overall metabolic health.... Read More... ...
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Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application (eBook, 2012) [WorldCat...Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application (eBook, 2012) [WorldCat...

Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application. [Q Ashton Acton;] ... signaling_peptides_and_proteins_advances_in_research_and_application> ;. schema:name "Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and ... Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins. ScholarlyPaper : advances in research and application. Author:. Q Ashton ... rdfs:label "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins : Advances in Research and Application." ;. schema:description " ...
more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/circadian-rhythm-signaling-peptides-and-proteins-scholarlypaper-advances-in-research-and-application/oclc/896856703

Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins | Profiles RNSCircadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins | Profiles RNS

Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins*Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides*Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Proteins*Circadian Rhythm ... "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Circadian Rhythm Signaling ... "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ...
more infohttps://profiles.uchicago.edu/profiles/display/31301

Age-related changes in mesenchymal stem cells derived from rhesus macaque bone marrow.Age-related changes in mesenchymal stem cells derived from rhesus macaque bone marrow.

Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Down-Regulation / ... 0/Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Heat-Shock Proteins; 0/Histones; 0/MicroRNAs ... circadian rhythms, stress response proteins, miRNA expression, and global histone modifications in rBMSCs were analyzed. rBMSCs ... The level of a core circadian protein, Rev-erb α, was significantly increased in rBMSCs from old animals. Furthermore, analysis ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Age-related-changes-in-mesenchymal/20969724.html

Three types of genes affected by light entrainment.(A)  | Open-iThree types of genes affected by light entrainment.(A) | Open-i

The circadian expression of fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes an ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism/physiology*. *Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics/physiology ... Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism/physiology*. *Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics/physiology ... In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3585402_pcbi.1002940.g002&req=4

Recent questions and answers in Receptors, Biogenic Amine - lookformedical.comRecent questions and answers in Receptors, Biogenic Amine - lookformedical.com

Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the ... Cell Cycle Proteins (0) * Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins (0) * Chloroplast Proteins (0) * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and ... Immobilized Proteins (0) * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0) * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0 ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/chemicals-and-drugs/amino-acids-peptides-and-proteins/proteins/membrane-proteins/receptors-cell-surface/receptors-biogenic-amine

No questions in Disintegrins - lookformedical.comNo questions in Disintegrins - lookformedical.com

Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0) * Cystine-Knot Miniproteins (0) * Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (0) ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (1) * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins (0) ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins (22) * Amino Acids (3) * Peptides (5) * Amyloid beta-Peptides (0) ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/en/questions/chemicals-and-drugs/amino-acids-peptides-and-proteins/peptides/disintegrins

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Circadian Rhythm - genetics , Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics , Genotype , Male , Young Adult , Age ... Recent studies have suggested that circadian genes have important roles in maintaining the circadian rhythm of the ... dipper , circadian genes , non-dipper , young-onset hypertension , TARGET , METABOLIC SYNDROME , DAMAGE , RHYTHMS , DISEASE , ... Circadian Rhythm - genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Genetic Loci , Hypertension - physiopathology , Chromosomes, Human ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Chen,%20Chin-Iuan

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics , Synteny , Male , Phylogeny , Sex Chromosomes , Transcription ... Proteins , Scholarships & fellowships , Insects , Genes , Genomics , Project management , Colleges & universities , ... FUNGAL , BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY , PLANT IMMUNE-SYSTEM , HESSIAN FLY , RESISTANCE , BACTERIAL , PROTEINS , ... PHYLOGENY , EVOLUTION , PROTEIN , DNA METHYLATION , SEGMENT FORMATION , JUVENILE-HORMONE SYNTHESIS , BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Francisco,%20Liezl

Peptides  < Amino acids, Peptides, and Analogues  << Carboxylic Acids and derivatives superclass  <<< Organic Acids and Organic...Peptides < Amino acids, Peptides, and Analogues << Carboxylic Acids and derivatives superclass <<< Organic Acids and Organic...

Peptides are a class of compounds composed of Amino Acids joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into ... "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" In protein science, Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides are a broad category ... Examples of circadian rhythm signaling peptides include: core clock genes & proteins include: *circadian rhythms positive ... intracellular signaling protein and peptides *LDL-receptor related proteins include: *LDL-receptor related protein 1 *LDL- ...
more infohttp://wellnessadvocate.com/?dgl=70036

Drosophila Signal Peptide Peptidase Is an Essential Protease for Larval Development | GeneticsDrosophila Signal Peptide Peptidase Is an Essential Protease for Larval Development | Genetics

1999 DCRY is a Drosophila photoreceptor protein implicated in light entrainment of circadian rhythm. Genes Cells 4: 57-65. ... To establish whether the protein encoded by Spp has enzymatic activity as a signal peptide peptidase, we expressed both the ... Signal peptide peptidase activity of Drosophila SPP. In this assay, SDS-PAGE resolves the test peptide but cleavage products ... SPP was originally identified as an enzyme that cleaves signal peptides, potentially cleansing the ER membrane of the signal ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/170/1/139

sg:ontologies/subjects/methylases - Springer Nature SciGraphsg:ontologies/subjects/methylases - Springer Nature SciGraph

... scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythm-signalling-peptides-and-proteins" }, { "id": "http://scigraph. ... altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein-protein interaction networks for ... altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein\u2013protein interaction networks ... Proteins are biopolymers of amino acids (polypeptides), joined by peptide bonds, that are generated by ribosomes. The amino ...
more infohttps://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/methylases

sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylases - Springer Nature SciGraphsg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylases - Springer Nature SciGraph

... scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythm-signalling-peptides-and-proteins" }, { "id": "http://scigraph. ... altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein-protein interaction networks for ... altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein\u2013protein interaction networks ... Proteins are biopolymers of amino acids (polypeptides), joined by peptide bonds, that are generated by ribosomes. The amino ...
more infohttps://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/phosphorylases

b NGF recombinant protein | beta Nerve Growth Factor Recombinant Protein-NP 002497.2b NGF recombinant protein | beta Nerve Growth Factor Recombinant Protein-NP 002497.2

... beta Nerve Growth Factor Recombinant Protein-NP_002497.2 (MBS144360) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins ... receptor signaling protein activity. Biological Process: response to nicotine; circadian rhythm; response to peptide hormone ... Peptide. Rec./Purified Protein. Custom ELISA Kit. Custom Protein. Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide ... Protein type: Secreted, signal peptide; Secreted. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1p13.1. Cellular Component: ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Recombinant-Protein/beta-Nerve-Growth-Factor/b-NGF/datasheet.php?products_id=144360

Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans.Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans.

Circadian Rhythm*. Humans. Insulin / blood. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood*. Leptin / blood*. Male. ... 0/Adiponectin; 0/Blood Glucose; 0/Insulin; 0/Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Leptin ... There were significant endogenous circadian rhythms in leptin, glucose, and insulin, with peaks around the usual time of ... Thus, the day/night pattern in leptin is likely caused by combined effects from the endogenous circadian pacemaker and day/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Independent-circadian-regulation-adipokines-glucose/15687326.html

Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock: Structure of KaiA Dimer in Complex with C-Terminal KaiC...Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock: Structure of KaiA Dimer in Complex with C-Terminal KaiC...

Bacterial Proteins/genetics. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins/chemistry*. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides ... Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock: Structure of KaiA Dimer in Complex with C-Terminal KaiC ... In the cyanobacterial circadian clock, the KaiA, -B, and -C proteins with ATP constitute a post-translational oscillator. KaiA ... The crystal structure of KaiA dimer from Synechococcus elongatus with two KaiC C-terminal 20mer peptides bound reveals that the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200123?dopt=Abstract

Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.  - PubMed - NCBICircadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism. - PubMed - NCBI

Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *KaiC protein, cyanobacteria. Grant support. *MH01179/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United ... Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.. Johnson CH1, Golden SS. ... At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. Their " ... Three genes have been identified that specifically affect circadian phenotypes. These genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, are adjacent ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547696?dopt=Abstract

Cardiac Atrial Circadian Rhythms in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE and per1:luc Mice: Amplitude and Phase Responses to Glucocorticoid...Cardiac Atrial Circadian Rhythms in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE and per1:luc Mice: Amplitude and Phase Responses to Glucocorticoid...

The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by ... A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. We cultured ... Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured ... Circadian rhythms in cardiac function are apparent in e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, and acute adverse cardiac events. ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047692

Selenium-Binding Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystSelenium-Binding Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Cell Cycle Proteins. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. *Chloroplast Proteins. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Human selenium binding protein-1 (hSP56) is a negative regulator of HIF-1a and suppresses the malignant characteristics of ... Human selenium binding protein-1 (hSP56) interacts with VDU1 in a selenium-dependent manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 ... "Selenium-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Selenium-Binding%20Proteins

Signaling cascades and the importance of moonlight in coral broadcast mass spawning | eLifeSignaling cascades and the importance of moonlight in coral broadcast mass spawning | eLife

Artificial light causes changes to gene expression and cellular signaling cascades that coordinate mass spawning events for a ... Neuropeptides are another diverse class of signalling molecules that act through G-protein coupled receptors. These peptides ... circadian rhythms, adaptive behaviors and cognition (Grimmelikhuijzen and Hauser, 2012). The importance of neuropeptides in ... The release of gametes occurs in the presence of moonlight or another signal (such as an olfactory signal) that stimulates ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/09991v1

Signaling cascades and the importance of moonlight in coral broadcast mass spawning | eLifeSignaling cascades and the importance of moonlight in coral broadcast mass spawning | eLife

Artificial light causes changes to gene expression and cellular signaling cascades that coordinate mass spawning events for a ... Neuropeptides are another diverse class of signalling molecules that act through G-protein coupled receptors. These peptides ... circadian rhythms, adaptive behaviors and cognition (Grimmelikhuijzen and Hauser, 2012). The importance of neuropeptides in ... The release of gametes occurs in the presence of moonlight or another signal (such as an olfactory signal) that stimulates ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/09991

cyanobacteria KaiC protein
     Summary Report | CureHuntercyanobacteria KaiC protein Summary Report | CureHunter

... encoded by gene C of circadian clock gene cluster kaiABC in cyanobacteria; amino acid sequence in first source ... Proteins: 90489*Bacterial Proteins: 262*cyanobacteria KaiC protein. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins* ... cyanobacteria KaiC protein. Subscribe to New Research on cyanobacteria KaiC protein encoded by gene C of circadian clock gene ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC114271-cyanobacteria-KaiC-protein.do

Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystIntracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Cell Cycle Proteins. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. *Chloroplast Proteins. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that ... Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and ... "Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Intracellular%20Signaling%20Peptides%20and%20Proteins

Carrier Proteins | Profiles RNSCarrier Proteins | Profiles RNS

Cell Cycle Proteins. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. *Chloroplast Proteins. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... "Carrier Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Carrier Proteins" by people in this website by year, and ... Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/110855

Neoplasm Proteins | Profiles RNSNeoplasm Proteins | Profiles RNS

Cell Cycle Proteins. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins. *Chloroplast Proteins. *Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins ... Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many ... Targeting Non-proteolytic Protein Ubiquitination for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Cancer Cell. 2016 Apr 11; ... "Neoplasm Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/123901
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotide release from the circadian clock protein KaiC reveal atomic-resolution functional insights. (uchicago.edu)
  • The crystal structure of KaiA dimer from Synechococcus elongatus with two KaiC C-terminal 20mer peptides bound reveals that the latter adopt an α-helical conformation and contact KaiA α-helical bundles via mostly hydrophobic interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Selenium-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. (umassmed.edu)
  • Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. (umassmed.edu)
  • In our body, the gastrointestinal hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide , encoded by the CCK gene , secreted in the duodenum causing the gallbladder to release bile (gall) and the pancreas to secrete lipase, the hormone is released when chyme arrives in the duodenum, especially if the chyme contains lipids and partially digested proteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH levels, ACTH receptor expression, and MRAP1 expression also demonstrate circadian rhythm, with ACTH secretion and MRAP expression highest in the evening, suggesting that MRAP expression is responsible for CORT secretory regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that moonlight is an important external stimulus for mass spawning synchrony and describe the potential mechanisms underlying the ability of corals to detect environmental triggers for the signaling cascades that ultimately result in gamete release. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ma L, Ranganathan R. Systems-level characterization of the kernel mechanism of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. (uchicago.edu)
  • Light-driven changes in energy metabolism directly entrain the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. (uchicago.edu)
  • Proteins may be modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • This protein has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. (mybiosource.com)
  • Structure of the Paramyxovirus Parainfluenza Virus 5 Nucleoprotein in Complex with an Amino-Terminal Peptide of the Phosphoprotein. (uchicago.edu)
  • Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shearman LP. et al "Two period homologs: circadian expression and photic regulation in the suprachiasmatic nuclei" Neuron. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Decreased selenium-binding protein 1 in esophageal adenocarcinoma results from posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulation and affects chemosensitivity. (harvard.edu)
  • It mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. (mybiosource.com)
  • The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. (wikipedia.org)
  • to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila SPP is homologous to the human signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and is distantly related to the presenilins. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured tissues, but the magnitude of this response was uniquely large in atrial tissue. (plos.org)
  • Cellular recipients of a particular hormonal signal may be one of several cell types that reside within a number of different tissues, as is the case for insulin, which triggers a diverse range of systemic physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • However, there were no significant age-related changes in the global histone modification profiles of the four histone core proteins: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 on rBMSCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Selenium-Binding Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Selenium-Binding Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Selenium-Binding Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The effects of aging on stem cell properties and indicators of stem cell fitness such as proliferation, differentiation, circadian rhythms, stress response proteins, miRNA expression, and global histone modifications in rBMSCs were analyzed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • THE distribution of proteins in cell membranes can shift rapidly in response to changes in metabolic or developmental conditions. (genetics.org)
  • Pisanelli G, Laurent-Rolle M, Manicassamy B, Belicha-Villanueva A, Morrison J, Lozano-Dubernard B, Castro-Peralta F, Iovane G, García-Sastre A. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation. (uchicago.edu)
  • Trisubstituted thiazoles as potent and selective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum protein kinase G (PfPKG). (ucdenver.edu)
  • Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. (umassmed.edu)
  • Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm. (umassmed.edu)
  • Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. (nih.gov)
  • Related to CPB (CREB-binding protein), and like CPB can stimulate transcription through activation of CREB. (mybiosource.com)