Period Circadian Proteins
ARNTL Transcription Factors
Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Casein Kinase Iepsilon
Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Gene Expression Regulation
Casein Kinase Idelta
Jet Lag Syndrome
Cell Cycle Proteins
Animals, Genetically Modified
NIH 3T3 Cells
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 1
Molecular Sequence Data
Casein Kinase I
Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm
Plants, Genetically Modified
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Gene Expression Profiling
Amino Acid Sequence
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
Circadian clock resetting in the mouse changes with age. (1/573)(+info)
Chronopharmaceutical drug delivery systems: Hurdles, hype or hope? (2/573)(+info)
Interplay between low-temperature pathways and light reduction. (3/573)Low temperature is one of the major factors that adversely affect crop yields by causing restraints on plant growth and productivity. However, most temperate plants have the ability to acclimate to cooler temperatures. Cold acclimation is a process which increases the freezing tolerance of an organism after exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures. The main trigger is a decrease in temperature levels, but light reduction has also been shown to have an important impact on acquired tolerance. Since the lowest temperatures are commonly reached during the night hours in winter time and is an annually recurring event, a favorable trait for plants is the possibility of sensing an imminent cold period. Consequently, extensive crosstalk between light- and temperature signaling pathways has been demonstrated and in this review interesting interaction points that have been previously reported in the literature are highlighted. (+info)
Heritable circadian period length in a wild bird population. (4/573)(+info)
Circadian rhythms in gene expression: Relationship to physiology, disease, drug disposition and drug action. (5/573)(+info)
PERsuading nuclear receptors to dance the circadian rhythm. (6/573)The recurring light/dark cycle that has a period length of about 24 hours has been internalized in various organisms in the form of a circadian clock. This clock allows a precise orchestration of biochemical and physiological processes in the body thus improving performance. Recently, we found that the clock component PERIOD2 (PER2) can coordinate transcriptional regulation of metabolic, physiological, or behavioral pathways by interacting with nuclear receptors. PER2 appears to act as co-regulator of nuclear receptors linking clock function and transcriptional regulation at the level of protein-protein interactions. Here, we provide additional evidence for modulation of nuclear receptor dependent transcription by PER2 underscoring the broad implication of our finding. Taken together, our findings provide a base for the understanding of various disorders including mood disorders that have their roots in a temporal deregulation of basic metabolic processes. (+info)
Circadian clocks in the ovary. (7/573)(+info)
Similarities in the circadian clock and photoperiodism in plants. (8/573)(+info)
In the medical field, circadian clocks refer to the internal biological rhythms that regulate various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and body temperature. These rhythms are controlled by a complex network of genes and proteins that are primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN acts as the master clock, receiving input from light-sensitive cells in the retina and synchronizing the body's internal clock with the external environment. The SCN then sends signals to other parts of the body to regulate various physiological processes in a 24-hour cycle. Disruptions to the circadian clock can lead to a range of health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, metabolic disorders, and increased risk of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate circadian rhythms is an important area of research in medicine and has implications for the development of new treatments for various health conditions.
CLOCK proteins are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating the body's circadian rhythm, or internal clock. The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. The CLOCK proteins are involved in the regulation of this cycle by controlling the expression of genes that are involved in the circadian rhythm. There are two main types of CLOCK proteins: CLOCK and BMAL1. These proteins form a heterodimer, which is a complex of two different proteins, and this complex binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of circadian rhythm-related genes. This binding activates the expression of these genes, which in turn helps to regulate the circadian rhythm. Disruptions in the function of the CLOCK proteins have been linked to various sleep disorders, such as insomnia and sleep apnea, as well as other conditions, such as depression and obesity.
Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Biological clocks are internal mechanisms that regulate various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans. These clocks are responsible for controlling the timing of events such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and other circadian rhythms. In the medical field, the study of biological clocks is important because disruptions to these rhythms can have negative effects on health. For example, shift work and jet lag can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, leading to sleep disorders, fatigue, and other health problems. Research has also shown that disruptions to biological clocks can increase the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biological clocks and how they can be influenced by external factors is an important area of medical research.
Period circadian proteins (PERs) are a group of proteins that play a critical role in regulating the body's internal clock, also known as the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. PERs are produced in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small region of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN receives input from the retina, which detects changes in light and darkness, and uses this information to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. PERs are involved in the negative feedback loop that regulates the circadian rhythm. When light enters the eye, it inhibits the production of PERs, which in turn leads to the release of other hormones that promote wakefulness. As the day progresses, PER levels increase, leading to the suppression of wakefulness-promoting hormones and the onset of sleep. Disruptions in the regulation of PERs can lead to various sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep apnea, and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Additionally, mutations in the genes that encode PERs have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
ARNTL Transcription Factors are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the circadian rhythm, which is the body's internal clock that controls various physiological processes such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. ARNTL Transcription Factors are encoded by the ARNTL gene and are composed of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and a PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain. These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm. Mutations in the ARNTL gene have been associated with various sleep disorders, including advanced sleep phase syndrome and delayed sleep phase syndrome.
Cryptochromes are a class of photoreceptor proteins that are found in a variety of organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals. They are responsible for detecting and responding to blue light, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of around 400-500 nanometers. In the medical field, cryptochromes have been studied for their potential role in regulating circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological clocks that control various physiological processes in the body, such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. Cryptochromes have been shown to play a key role in the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the external environment, and they are thought to be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, and other cognitive functions. In addition to their role in circadian rhythms, cryptochromes have also been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, the protection against oxidative stress, and the prevention of cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of cryptochromes in health and disease.
Circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in regulating the body's internal clock, also known as the circadian rhythm. These molecules are involved in the synchronization of various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, metabolism, and body temperature, with the 24-hour day-night cycle. The circadian rhythm is controlled by a complex network of genes and proteins that interact with each other to regulate the timing of various physiological processes. Some of the key signaling peptides and proteins involved in this process include melatonin, cortisol, and the nuclear receptor protein REV-ERBα. Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, plays a role in the body's response to stress and regulates metabolism. REV-ERBα is a nuclear receptor protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm. Disruptions in the circadian rhythm signaling peptides and proteins can lead to various health problems, including sleep disorders, metabolic disorders, and mood disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of these molecules in the regulation of the circadian rhythm is important for developing effective treatments for these conditions.
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1, also known as NR1D1 or Rev-ERBα, is a protein that plays a role in regulating gene expression and various physiological processes in the body. It is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, which are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of genes. NR1D1 is primarily expressed in the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle, and is involved in regulating metabolism, circadian rhythms, and inflammation. It has been implicated in a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. NR1D1 functions as a transcriptional repressor, meaning that it can prevent the expression of certain genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and inhibiting the activity of other transcription factors. It is also involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, as it can bind to and regulate the expression of genes involved in the body's internal clock. Overall, NR1D1 plays an important role in regulating gene expression and various physiological processes in the body, and its dysfunction has been implicated in a number of diseases.
Flavoproteins are a class of proteins that contain a covalently bound flavin molecule, which is a prosthetic group consisting of a pyrazine ring and a ribityl side chain. Flavoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, redox reactions, and signal transduction. Flavoproteins can be classified into two main types based on the type of flavin they contain: FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). FMN is a reduced form of flavin, while FAD is an oxidized form. Flavoproteins play important roles in various medical conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. For example, flavoproteins such as NADH dehydrogenase and flavin reductase are involved in the electron transport chain, which is essential for energy production in cells. Mutations in genes encoding flavoproteins can lead to defects in this process, resulting in various diseases. In addition, flavoproteins are also involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and are targets for the development of new drugs. For example, flavoproteins such as cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the metabolism of many drugs, and inhibitors of these enzymes can be used to enhance the efficacy of certain drugs or reduce their toxicity.
In the medical field, "darkness" generally refers to a lack of light or visual perception. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including: 1. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. 2. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the retina, leading to vision loss and eventually blindness. 3. Macular degeneration: A condition in which the central part of the retina, called the macula, deteriorates, leading to vision loss. 4. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 5. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve can cause vision loss or blindness. 7. Brain injury: Damage to the brain, particularly the visual cortex, can cause blindness or vision loss. In some cases, darkness may also be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
Chronobiology disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that are related to disruptions in the body's internal clock, also known as the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. Chronobiology disorders can result from a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. Some common examples of chronobiology disorders include: 1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS): A condition in which a person has difficulty falling asleep at the appropriate time and tends to stay up later than their body's natural sleep-wake cycle. 2. Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS): A condition in which a person tends to fall asleep earlier than their body's natural sleep-wake cycle and wakes up earlier than desired. 3. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder: A condition in which a person's sleep-wake cycle is not synchronized with the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and waking up at the same time each day. 4. Jet Lag: A temporary condition that occurs when a person travels across multiple time zones and experiences disruptions in their sleep-wake cycle. 5. Shift Work Sleep Disorder: A condition in which a person has difficulty sleeping due to the irregular work schedule of shift work, which can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle. Chronobiology disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to a range of physical and mental health problems. Treatment for these disorders typically involves lifestyle changes, such as adjusting sleep schedules and exposure to natural light, as well as medication and other therapies.
Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Casein kinase I epsilon (CKIε) is a protein kinase enzyme that plays a role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and gene expression. It is a member of the casein kinase family of enzymes, which are involved in the regulation of protein phosphorylation. In the medical field, CKIε has been implicated in various diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. For example, studies have shown that CKIε is overexpressed in many types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and lung cancer, and that its overexpression is associated with increased cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy. In addition, CKIε has been shown to play a role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In these conditions, CKIε has been found to be dysregulated, leading to abnormal protein phosphorylation and the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. Overall, CKIε is a key regulator of cellular processes and its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of diseases and conditions. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of CKIε in these diseases and to develop targeted therapies for their treatment.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a family of proteins that play important roles in regulating gene expression in a variety of biological processes, including development, differentiation, and cell cycle control. These proteins are characterized by a specific DNA-binding domain, known as the bHLH domain, which allows them to bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of target genes. bHLH transcription factors are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including the development of the nervous system, the formation of muscle tissue, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. They are also involved in the regulation of various diseases, including cancer, and are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. In the medical field, bHLH transcription factors are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various diseases and for developing new treatments. They are also being studied as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Activity cycles refer to the patterns of physical activity and rest that occur naturally in the human body. These cycles are influenced by various factors, including the body's circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological clocks that regulate sleep-wake cycles, as well as external factors such as daily routines and environmental cues. In the medical field, activity cycles are important for understanding how the body functions and how it responds to different types of physical activity. For example, research has shown that regular physical activity can improve cardiovascular health, reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, and enhance overall physical and mental well-being. Activity cycles can also be used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions. For example, sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea can be caused by disruptions in the body's activity cycles, and treating these conditions often involves adjusting sleep patterns and routines to align with the body's natural rhythms. Overall, understanding activity cycles is an important aspect of medical research and practice, as it can help healthcare professionals develop more effective treatment plans and promote better health outcomes for their patients.
Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It plays a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, also known as the circadian rhythm. Melatonin levels in the body increase in the evening and decrease in the morning, helping to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. In the medical field, melatonin is used as a supplement to help regulate sleep in people with sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and shift work disorder. It is also used to treat certain sleep-related conditions, such as delayed sleep phase disorder and advanced sleep phase disorder. Melatonin may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being studied for its potential role in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.
Casein kinase Idelta (CKIdelta) is a protein kinase enzyme that plays a role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, gene expression, and signal transduction. It is a member of the casein kinase family of enzymes, which are involved in the regulation of protein phosphorylation. In the medical field, CKIdelta has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. For example, studies have shown that CKIdelta is overexpressed in many types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and lung cancer, and that its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and increased tumor aggressiveness. In addition, CKIdelta has been shown to play a role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Overall, CKIdelta is a key regulator of cellular processes that is involved in the development and progression of various diseases, and its study may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potential therapeutic targets.
Jet lag syndrome, also known as desynchronosis, is a condition that occurs when a person's internal body clock is disrupted by traveling across multiple time zones. This disruption can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, insomnia, headaches, irritability, and digestive problems. Jet lag syndrome is most common in people who travel long distances, such as across multiple continents, and is more severe when traveling eastward than westward. The severity of jet lag syndrome can vary depending on the individual, the length of the trip, and the number of time zones crossed. Treatment for jet lag syndrome typically involves gradually adjusting the body's internal clock to the new time zone, getting plenty of rest, staying hydrated, and avoiding alcohol and caffeine.
Cell cycle proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the progression of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a series of events that a cell goes through in order to divide and produce two daughter cells. It consists of four main phases: G1 (Gap 1), S (Synthesis), G2 (Gap 2), and M (Mitosis). Cell cycle proteins are involved in regulating the progression of each phase of the cell cycle, ensuring that the cell divides correctly and that the daughter cells have the correct number of chromosomes. Some of the key cell cycle proteins include cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and checkpoint proteins. Cyclins are proteins that are synthesized and degraded in a cyclic manner throughout the cell cycle. They bind to CDKs, which are enzymes that regulate cell cycle progression by phosphorylating target proteins. The activity of CDKs is tightly regulated by cyclins, ensuring that the cell cycle progresses in a controlled manner. Checkpoint proteins are proteins that monitor the cell cycle and ensure that the cell does not proceed to the next phase until all the necessary conditions are met. If any errors are detected, checkpoint proteins can halt the cell cycle and activate repair mechanisms to correct the problem. Overall, cell cycle proteins play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the cell cycle and ensuring that cells divide correctly. Disruptions in the regulation of cell cycle proteins can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer.
In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.
Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of melatonin production in the body. Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate sleep and wake cycles, and is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. AANAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the amino group of arylalkylamines, including tryptophan, which is a precursor to melatonin. This reaction is the final step in the biosynthesis of melatonin. AANAT activity is regulated by the availability of tryptophan and by the level of light exposure, which influences the production of melatonin. AANAT is also involved in the metabolism of other arylalkylamines, including serotonin and norepinephrine. Abnormalities in AANAT activity have been associated with various sleep disorders, including insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. Additionally, AANAT has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, including breast and prostate cancer.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Eye proteins are proteins that are found in the eye and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of the eye. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and vitreous humor. Some examples of eye proteins include: 1. Collagen: This is a protein that provides strength and support to the cornea and lens. 2. Alpha-crystallin: This protein is found in the lens and helps to maintain its shape and transparency. 3. Rhodopsin: This protein is found in the retina and is responsible for vision in low light conditions. 4. Vitreous humor proteins: These proteins are found in the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. They help to maintain the shape of the eye and provide support to the retina. Disruptions in the production or function of these proteins can lead to various eye diseases and conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of eye proteins is important for the development of effective treatments for these conditions.
Phytochrome is a photoreceptor protein found in plants and some bacteria that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and photoperiodic responses. In the medical field, phytochrome has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that phytochrome may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, phytochrome has been shown to modulate the immune system and may have potential as a treatment for autoimmune disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of phytochrome.
Luciferases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferin, a small molecule, to produce light. In the medical field, luciferases are commonly used as reporters in bioluminescence assays, which are used to measure gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and other biological processes. One of the most well-known examples of luciferases in medicine is the green fluorescent protein (GFP) luciferase, which is derived from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GFP luciferase is used in a variety of applications, including monitoring gene expression in living cells and tissues, tracking the movement of cells and proteins in vivo, and studying the dynamics of signaling pathways. Another example of a luciferase used in medicine is the firefly luciferase, which is derived from the firefly Photinus pyralis. Firefly luciferase is used in bioluminescence assays to measure the activity of various enzymes and to study the metabolism of drugs and other compounds. Overall, luciferases are valuable tools in the medical field because they allow researchers to visualize and quantify biological processes in a non-invasive and sensitive manner.
Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater, saltwater, and soil. They are also known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria. In the medical field, cyanobacteria are of interest because some species can produce toxins that can cause illness in humans and animals. These toxins can be harmful when ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins can cause a range of symptoms, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal issues. In addition to their potential to cause illness, cyanobacteria are also being studied for their potential medical applications. Some species of cyanobacteria produce compounds that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties. These compounds are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases.
In the medical field, "Animals, Genetically Modified" refers to animals that have undergone genetic modification, which involves altering the DNA of an organism to introduce new traits or characteristics. This can be done through various techniques, such as gene editing using tools like CRISPR-Cas9, or by introducing foreign DNA into an animal's genome through techniques like transgenesis. Genetically modified animals are often used in medical research to study the function of specific genes or to develop new treatments for diseases. For example, genetically modified mice have been used to study the development of cancer, to test new drugs for treating heart disease, and to understand the genetic basis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, the use of genetically modified animals in medical research is controversial, as some people are concerned about the potential risks to animal welfare and the environment, as well as the ethical implications of altering the genetic makeup of living organisms. As a result, there are strict regulations in place to govern the use of genetically modified animals in research, and scientists must follow strict protocols to ensure the safety and welfare of the animals involved.
Phytochrome B is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a member of the phytochrome family of photoreceptors, which are responsible for sensing and responding to changes in light quality and quantity. Phytochrome B is activated by red light and deactivated by far-red light. When activated, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to interact with other proteins in the plant cell, triggering a cascade of signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In the medical field, phytochrome B has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, researchers have investigated the use of phytochrome B as a target for cancer therapy, as it is overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells. Additionally, phytochrome B has been shown to play a role in regulating the immune system, and may have potential applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 1, also known as NR1F1 or PPAR-alpha, is a protein that plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the body. It is a type of nuclear receptor, which are proteins that act as transcription factors and regulate the expression of genes in response to specific signaling molecules. PPAR-alpha is primarily expressed in tissues that are involved in lipid metabolism, such as the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. It is activated by ligands such as fatty acids and their derivatives, which bind to the protein and cause it to change shape and enter the nucleus of the cell. Once inside the nucleus, PPAR-alpha binds to specific DNA sequences and recruits other proteins to help regulate the expression of target genes. PPAR-alpha plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, lipogenesis, and glucose uptake. It is also involved in regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation and immune responses. Disruptions in PPAR-alpha function have been linked to a variety of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, PPAR-alpha is an important target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of these conditions.
Chronobiology is the study of biological rhythms and the effects of time on living organisms. In the medical field, chronobiology phenomena refer to the various biological rhythms and timing of events that occur within the body, such as the sleep-wake cycle, hormone secretion, and metabolism. These rhythms are influenced by various factors, including genetics, environmental cues, and lifestyle habits. Understanding chronobiology phenomena is important in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, as disruptions to these rhythms can have negative effects on health. For example, sleep disorders, such as insomnia and sleep apnea, can be caused by disruptions to the sleep-wake cycle, and chronobiological principles are used to develop effective treatments for these conditions. Additionally, chronobiology is also important in the study of diseases such as cancer, as the timing of treatments can have a significant impact on their effectiveness.
Casein kinase I (CKI) is a family of protein kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and gene expression. In the medical field, CKI has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. CKI is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates a wide range of substrates, including casein, histone H1, and other regulatory proteins. There are four subtypes of CKI: CKIα, CKIβ, CKIγ, and CKIδ, each with distinct tissue distribution and functions. In cancer, CKI has been shown to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and its overexpression or activation has been associated with the development and progression of various types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colon cancer. In neurodegenerative disorders, CKI has been implicated in the regulation of tau protein phosphorylation, which is a key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cardiovascular diseases, CKI has been shown to regulate cardiac contractility and arrhythmias. Overall, CKI is a critical regulator of cellular processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases. Understanding the role of CKI in disease pathogenesis may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of these conditions.
In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.
Rod opsins are a type of photopigment found in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for detecting low levels of light and are essential for night vision. Rod opsins are a type of opsin, which is a protein that binds to a molecule called retinal to form a light-sensitive pigment. When light strikes the rod opsin, it causes a chemical reaction that generates an electrical signal, which is then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. Rod opsins are found only in the rods, which are specialized cells in the retina that are responsible for detecting low levels of light.
Sleep disorders, circadian rhythm refers to a group of medical conditions that affect the normal sleep-wake cycle of an individual. The circadian rhythm is the body's internal clock that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep, wakefulness, body temperature, and hormone production. Sleep disorders that are related to circadian rhythm include: 1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS): A condition where a person has difficulty falling asleep at the expected time and tends to stay up later than usual. 2. Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS): A condition where a person falls asleep earlier than usual and wakes up earlier than desired. 3. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder: A condition where a person's sleep-wake cycle is not synchronized with the external environment, leading to irregular sleep patterns. 4. Jet Lag: A temporary sleep disorder that occurs when a person travels across multiple time zones, disrupting their circadian rhythm. Treatment for sleep disorders related to circadian rhythm typically involves adjusting the sleep schedule, using light therapy, and in some cases, medication. It is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
RNA, Plant refers to the type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is found in plants. RNA is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes in cells, and there are several types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In plants, RNA plays a critical role in various biological processes, including photosynthesis, growth and development, and defense against pathogens. Plant RNA is also important for the production of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of plant cells. RNA, Plant can be studied using various techniques, including transcriptomics, which involves the analysis of RNA molecules in a cell or tissue to identify the genes that are being expressed. This information can be used to better understand plant biology and to develop new strategies for improving crop yields, increasing plant resistance to diseases and pests, and developing new plant-based products.
Chronotherapy, also known as time-sensitive therapy, is a medical approach that involves adjusting the timing of medications or other treatments to synchronize with the natural rhythms of the body's internal clock, or circadian rhythm. This approach is based on the idea that the body's physiological processes are influenced by the time of day, and that the timing of treatments can be optimized to enhance their effectiveness and minimize side effects. Chronotherapy is used in a variety of medical conditions, including sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and cancer. For example, in the treatment of depression, chronotherapy may involve adjusting the timing of antidepressant medications to be taken in the morning, when the body's natural levels of serotonin are highest. In the treatment of cancer, chronotherapy may involve administering chemotherapy at a time when the body's immune system is most active, in order to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment and minimize side effects. Chronotherapy is a relatively new and rapidly evolving field of medicine, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and limitations. However, initial studies have shown that chronotherapy can be an effective way to optimize the timing of treatments and improve patient outcomes.
Neuropeptides are small, protein-like molecules that are synthesized and secreted by neurons in the nervous system. They play a variety of roles in regulating and modulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, pain perception, and hormone release. Neuropeptides are typically composed of 3-50 amino acids and are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons. They are then transported to the synaptic terminals, where they are released into the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or on other cells in the body. There are many different types of neuropeptides, each with its own unique structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptides include dopamine, serotonin, and opioid peptides such as endorphins. Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or hormones, and they play important roles in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Insect proteins refer to the proteins obtained from insects that have potential medical applications. These proteins can be used as a source of nutrition, as a therapeutic agent, or as a component in medical devices. Insects are a rich source of proteins, and some species are being explored as a potential alternative to traditional animal protein sources. Insect proteins have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improved immune function, reduced inflammation, and improved gut health. They are also being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, insect proteins are being investigated as a potential source of biodegradable materials for use in medical devices.
Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the outside of a cell to the inside. They are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including sensory perception, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. GPCRs are activated by a variety of molecules, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and odor. When a molecule binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the protein that activates a G protein, a small molecule that acts as a molecular switch. The activated G protein then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to a cellular response. Because GPCRs are involved in so many different physiological processes, they are an important target for drug discovery. Many drugs, including those used to treat conditions such as hypertension, depression, and allergies, work by binding to specific GPCRs and modulating their activity.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
Fungal proteins are proteins that are produced by fungi. They can be found in various forms, including extracellular proteins, secreted proteins, and intracellular proteins. Fungal proteins have a wide range of functions, including roles in metabolism, cell wall synthesis, and virulence. In the medical field, fungal proteins are of interest because some of them have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of fungal infections or as vaccines against fungal diseases. Additionally, some fungal proteins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, making them potential targets for the development of new cancer treatments.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Phytochrome A is a photoreceptor protein found in plants that plays a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time. It is a light-sensitive protein that undergoes reversible photoconversion between two distinct forms, Pr (red-absorbing form) and Pfr (far-red-absorbing form), in response to changes in light intensity and quality. In the medical field, phytochrome A has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, research has shown that phytochrome A can modulate the activity of various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which may have implications for cancer treatment. Additionally, phytochrome A has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which may be beneficial in the management of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II (VIP II receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These receptors are primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, but they are also present in other organs such as the pancreas, lungs, and brain. VIP II receptors play a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and neurotransmission. Activation of VIP II receptors can lead to relaxation of smooth muscle cells, increased secretion of digestive enzymes and mucus, and modulation of neurotransmitter release. In the brain, VIP II receptors have been implicated in the regulation of mood, anxiety, and pain perception. They have also been linked to the development of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Overall, VIP II receptors are an important target for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of a range of diseases and conditions.
Receptors, Melatonin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. When melatonin binds to its receptors, it can affect a variety of physiological processes, including sleep, mood, and immune function. There are two main types of melatonin receptors: MT1 and MT2. These receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the brain, the heart, and the immune system.
F-box proteins are a family of proteins that play a role in the regulation of protein degradation in cells. They are involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which is the primary mechanism by which cells degrade and recycle proteins. F-box proteins are characterized by an F-box domain, which is a protein-protein interaction module that binds to other proteins, often through their ubiquitin modification. F-box proteins are often components of larger protein complexes, such as the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) complex, which is involved in the degradation of specific target proteins. Dysregulation of F-box proteins has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and developmental disorders.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any medical field that uses the term "Cyanothece." However, Cyanothece is a genus of cyanobacteria that are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and produce oxygen through photosynthesis. They are commonly found in freshwater and marine environments, and have been studied for their potential use in biofuel production and wastewater treatment. If you have any additional context or information about where you heard this term, please let me know and I may be able to provide more information.
Circadian Clock Associated 1
Bacterial circadian rhythm
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
Jeffrey L. Price
Jeffrey C. Hall
Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan
Frank A. Brown Jr.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Light effects on circadian rhythm
John B. Hogenesch
Chi Van Dang
Chronotherapy (treatment scheduling)
Late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Circadian clock - Wikipedia
Changing the Circadian Clock with the Seasons | HHMI
Circadian Clock at the Interface of Lung Health and Disease | NHLBI, NIH
Molecular Sunglasses Regulate Circadian Clock - Communications and Marketing - Heidelberg University
O-GlcNAcylation, novel post-translational modification linking myocardial metabolism and cardiomyocyte circadian clock
APS -2008 APS March Meeting - Event - Stability and Noise in the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock
Successful DNA replication in cyanobacteria depends on the circadian clock
UK Researchers: Gut Bacteria Have Own Circadian Clock | UKNow
Tick, Tock, Circadian Clock - A Brains On! Special | WXXI
High-Throughput Chemical Screen Identifies a Novel Potent Modulator of Cellular Circadian Rhythms and Reveals CKIα as a Clock...
Modelling genetic networks with noisy and varied experimental data: the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana - Projects ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Brain and Cognitive Function
Feeding and circadian clocks | Reproduction Nutrition Development
Circadian clocks: CONSTANS lends its zinc finger
The mammalian half-circadian clock | Cyagen Biosciences
Solar Circadian Clock (App) - The Unpopular Traveller
Analysis of the quinoa genome reveals conservation and divergence of the flowering pathways | Functional & Integrative Genomics
Liver health impacted by circadian clock | WRVO Public Media
Glucocorticoid regulation of ATP release from spinal astrocytes underlies diurnal exacerbation of neuropathic mechanical...
Wrestling with time: viruses vs. the host circadian clock | Microbiology Community
Natural selection against a circadian clock gene mutation in mice :: MPG.PuRe
Effects of caffeine on the human circadian clock - MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
The CRTC1-SIK1 pathway regulates entrainment of the circadian clock. - Oxford Stem Cell Institute
Recent News about Night Shift Work and Cancer: What Does it Mean for Workers? | Blogs | CDC
Network quantitative trait loci mapping of circadian clock outputs identifies metabolic pathway-to-clock linkages in Arabidopsis
Breakthrough study reveals new insight into "immortal" plant cells | John Innes Centre
Exclusive Interview: 2017 Nobel Prize Winner Michael Rosbash
The circadian clock in white and brown adipose tissue: Mechanistic, endocrine, and clinical aspects<...
Flash therapy may offer a practical option to delay the circadian clock in shift workers and jet travelers - groundrushairsports
Basis of circadian rhythms2
- Evidence for a genetic basis of circadian rhythms in higher eukaryotes began with the discovery of the period (per) locus in Drosophila melanogaster from forward genetic screens completed by Ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr Rosbash (along with co-recipients Jeffrey Hall and Michael Young) was instrumental in revealing the molecular basis of circadian rhythms. (medscape.com)
Disruption of the circadian2
- Unexpectedly, we uncover a profound disruption of the circadian clock and diurnal transcriptome when hypoxic cells are permitted to acidify to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment. (foundmyfitness.com)
- Interestingly," said Dr. Friedman, some of the differentially expressed genes were related to circadian-clock genes, which suggests disruption of the circadian system in association with e-cigarette and Western diet exposure. (medscape.com)
- This group discovered circadian rhythms in redox proteins (peroxiredoxins) in cells that lacked a nucleus - human red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In the absence of transcriptional activity in vivo, as well alone in vitro, the three clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC generate a self-sustained circadian oscillation of autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation. (aps.org)
- At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are regulated through several transcriptional and translational feedback loops by a set of key clock proteins and genes. (nature.com)
- Using the fruit fly, Drosophila , he identified genes and proteins involved in regulating the clock. (medscape.com)
- A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. (bvsalud.org)
- Paulose and Professor and Chair of the Department of Biology Vincent Cassone found that a certain class of bacteria found in the human gut, Enterobacter aerogenes, expresses circadian patterns because of its sensitivity to melatonin, the hormone produced at night and stimulating sleep. (uky.edu)
- This swarming in the presence of melatonin occurs every 24 hours and keyed us toward finding the circadian clock," he said. (uky.edu)
- Haus E, Dumitriu L, Nicolau GY, Bologa S, Sackett-Lundeen L. Circadian rhythms of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cortisol, and melatonin in women with breast cancer. (cyagen.com)
- Finally, we review how commonly used medications and over-the-counter substances (e.g. caffeine, melatonin) complicate the relationship between sleep and circadian disorders and bone health. (cdc.gov)
- In January 2014, the FDA approved the melatonin receptor agonist tasimelteon (Hetlioz) as the first treatment for non-24- hour sleep-wake disorder ("non-24"), a chronic circadian disorder that affects the timing of sleep, in individuals who are completely blind. (medscape.com)
- See section "regulation of circadian oscillators" below for more details. (wikipedia.org)
- Core circadian 'clock' genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
- These time-of-day-dependent variations appear to be mediated by clock-dependent regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase protein levels, glucose metabolism/uptake, and glutamine synthesis in an NAD-independent manner. (nih.gov)
- Collectively, these data suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart during the active/awake phase through coordinated regulation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and that protein O-GlcNAcylation in turn influences the timing of the circadian clock. (nih.gov)
- Abstract - The mammalian genome encodes at least a dozen of genes directly involved in the regulation of the feedback loops constituting the circadian clock. (edpsciences.org)
- This pathway provides a potential target for the regulation of circadian rhythms. (ox.ac.uk)
- Most genes that have been implicated in seasonal affective disorder are active (expressed) in the brain, where they are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Since the beginning of my research career, I have worked with Boolean gene regulatory network models, the HP model of protein folding, stem cell regulation, circadian clocks in plants, plant-pathogen interactions, evolutionary algorithms, degradation of soil organic matter by fungi and methods for processing spectroscopic imaging data. (lu.se)
- Circadian oscillators are ubiquitous in tissues of the body where they are synchronized by both endogenous and external signals to regulate transcriptional activity throughout the day in a tissue-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
- The SCN maintains control across the body by synchronizing "slave oscillators", which exhibit their own near-24-hour rhythms and control circadian phenomena in local tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Is the Subject Area "Circadian oscillators" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- The circadian system is built up on a multitude of oscillators organized according to a hierarchical model in which neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus may drive the central circadian clock and all the other somatic cells may possess the molecular components allowing tissues and organs to constitute peripheral clocks. (edpsciences.org)
- Drs Rosbash and Hall proposed a mechanism by which a molecular 24-hour clock might work: a transcriptional negative-feedback loop. (medscape.com)
- Abstract Recent reports indicate that hypoxia influences the circadian clock through the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) at clock genes. (foundmyfitness.com)
- He employs the tools of Drosophila genetics to understand how the circadian clock ticks and which master neural circuits underlie circadian activity patterns. (hhmi.org)
- The Solar Circadian Clock App is developed to help us sync our mind and body to its natural state - when we were influenced by the solar patterns on Earth. (theunpopulartraveller.com)
- When we think of our "body clock," sleep patterns are probably what first come to mind. (wrvo.org)
- Many of our biologic systems - including our sleep and wake cycle, our appetites and digestive patterns, our body temperatures, and even our moods - follow daily patterns, or "circadian rhythms. (cdc.gov)
- When our sleep patterns or lightness and darkness cues are severely disrupted-as can happen with night shift work, travel across multiple time zones, or exposure to light during our normal sleeping hours-we can develop what is referred to as "circadian disruption. (cdc.gov)
- The internal clock of an organism is run by molecular pacemakers in the body cells that adapt metabolism and behaviour to the time of day. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- The cardiomyocyte circadian clock directly regulates multiple myocardial functions in a time-of-day-dependent manner, including gene expression, metabolism, contractility, and ischemic tolerance. (nih.gov)
- Suprachiasmatic neurons are driving the central circadian clock which is reset by lighting cues captured and integrated by the melanopsin cells of the retina and define the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and associated physiological regulatory pathways like feeding and metabolism. (edpsciences.org)
- Most obviously, coastal animals possess a powerful "circatidal clock", which oscillated with the 12.4-hour ebb and flow of the tides, influencing locomotion, metabolism, and many other physiological processes 2 . (cyagen.com)
- Cretenet G, Le Clech M, Gachon F. Circadian clock-coordinated 12 Hr period rhythmic activation of the IRE1alpha pathway controls lipid metabolism in mouse liver. (cyagen.com)
- We identified naturally variable loci that altered circadian clock outputs and linked these circadian quantitative trait loci to preexisting metabolomics quantitative trait loci, thereby identifying possible links between clock function and metabolism. (plantclock.org)
- Using single-gene isogenic lines, we found that circadian clock output was altered by natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary metabolism. (plantclock.org)
- In addition, this review explores the evidence for a link between shift work (and its associated disturbances in sleep duration/quality and circadian alignment) and alterations in bone metabolism and bone health. (cdc.gov)
- These circadian rhythms play an important role in regulating sleep, alertness and physiologic processes. (who.int)
- Through the analysis of per circadian mutants and additional mutations on Drosophila clock genes, a model encompassing positive and negative autoregulatory feedback loops of transcription and translation has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
- The basic molecular mechanisms of the biological clock have been defined in vertebrate species, Drosophila melanogaster, plants, fungi, bacteria, and presumably also in Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
- Circadian rhythms are the internal 24-hour clock possessed by most organisms on earth, regulating a diversity of biological functions including sleep/wake cycles, hormone production, digestion and body temperature. (phys.org)
- The biological and clinical significance of this grand scale of circadian coordination will be important to discover in the very near future. (uky.edu)
- But new research in the field of chronobiology -- the science of biological rhythms -- indicates certain organs have their own rhythm and clock. (wrvo.org)
- 00:00:53.17 to biological clocks, 00:00:55.13 first talk about the genes, 00:00:57.27 and then about the clocks in cells, 00:01:00.22 and then how they're organized in the body. (ibiology.org)
- The circadian clock controls several aspects of mammalian physiology and orchestrates the daily oscillations of biological processes and behavior. (nature.com)
- how biological clocks respond to light and darkness. (cdc.gov)
- Adequate sleep timed appropriately during the circadian night is important for numerous biological processes and systems. (cdc.gov)
- The circadian clock is intertwined with most cellular metabolic processes and it is affected by organism aging. (wikipedia.org)
- Mechanistic analysis of cycling genes using destabilized luciferase reporters, cultured cells, and animal models demonstrated that these 12-hour rhythms are cell-autonomous, are independent of circadian rhythms, and can be entrained by external cues such as feeding and metabolic stress. (cyagen.com)
- This week on "Take Care," Shannon Bailey, a professor of pathology and environmental health sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, discusses the importance of the metabolic clock of the liver. (wrvo.org)
- Our findings thus reveal a model in which acid produced during the cellular metabolic response to hypoxia suppresses the circadian clock through diminished translation of clock constituents. (foundmyfitness.com)
- In vertebrates, the master circadian clock is contained within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a bilateral nerve cluster of about 20,000 neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- Their findings also point to the overall circadian organization in vertebrates as being an arrangement of multiple circadian pacemakers organized in a hierarchical system of clocks. (uky.edu)
- At night, a special protein suppresses the effect of low light intensities from, say, the moon or a lamp, thus playing a crucial role in the precise synchronisation of the internal clock with the day and night sequence outside. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- At the heart of Neurospora's circadian system is the transcription factor WCC, a protein that activates or "switches on" about 1,000 genes depending on the time of day. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- Accordingly, the VVD protein functions much like molecular sunglasses ensuring at the molecular level that the circadian clock does not mix up day and night. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- Because the circadian clock and protein O-GlcNAcylation have common regulatory roles in the heart, we hypothesized that a relationship exists between the two. (nih.gov)
- We also identify the clock component Bmal1 as an O-GlcNAc-modified protein. (nih.gov)
- Increasing protein O-GlcNAcylation (through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase) results in diminished Per2 protein levels, time-of-day-dependent induction of bmal1 gene expression, and phase advances in the suprachiasmatic nucleus clock. (nih.gov)
- Single cell in vivo monitoring reveals that individual cells generate autonomous circadian rhythms in protein abundance. (aps.org)
- The term circadian derives from the Latin circa (about) dies (a day), since when taken away from external cues (such as environmental light), they do not run to exactly 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
- The clock is reset as an organism senses environmental time cues of which the primary one is light. (wikipedia.org)
- The research, reported in the April 6, 2007, issue of Cell , shows that a specific network of brain cells is the key to synchronizing the circadian clock to environmental cues, and reveals an astonishing degree of flexibility within the system. (hhmi.org)
- They found that the circadian clock creates rhythms in DNA replication even in the absence of environmental cues, such as the rising and setting sun. (phys.org)
- This central clock entrains peripheral clocks which can be synchronized by non-photic environmental cues and uncoupled from the central one depending on the nature and the strength of the circadian signal. (edpsciences.org)
- This internal circadian system functions in a ~24h manner and is entrained by external cues such as natural light. (nature.com)
- In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" in fruit flies. (wikipedia.org)
- Caffeine's wake-promoting effects are well established and the finding that caffeine influences human circadian physiology may have implications for the pathophysiology and perhaps treatment of some circadian sleep-wake disorders. (cam.ac.uk)
- Notably, he found that a gene called shaggy, whose human equivalent GSK-3 is a target of lithium therapy for severe affective disorders, is critical to conveying the information on light change to the clock machinery. (hhmi.org)
- In humans, disruptions to the circadian rhythm-such as working a shift-work job or experiencing frequent jet lag-have been associated with an array of health problems, including obesity, cardiovascular and immune dysfunction, mood disorders and even cancer. (phys.org)
- Disturbances in circadian rhythm-the approximately 24-hour cycles that are endogenously generated by an organism-can be categorized into 2 main groups: transient disorders (eg, jet lag or a changed sleep schedule due to work, social responsibilities, or illness) and chronic disorders (eg, delayed sleep-phase syndrome [DSPS], advanced sleep-phase syndrome [ASPS], and irregular sleep-wake cycle). (medscape.com)
- But, Bailey says, all organs also have their own clocks. (wrvo.org)
- In the recent NTP report, it was concluded that there is "high confidence" that persistent night shift work that results in circadian disruption can cause human cancer, and IARC concluded that night shift work is "probably carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
- Since circadian rhythms regulate innate immunity, circadian disruption like shift work or jet-lag may result in an increased susceptibility to diseases. (nature.com)
- For Volume 124, the scope of the system- cancer in humans and cancer in experimental atic review encompassed a comprehensive animals formed the basis of the Working Group's search of the literature, focusing on an agent evaluation of "shift work that involves circadian name reflecting variations on "night shift work", disruption" as Group 2A. (who.int)
- This alters exposure to the regular photoperiod ical studies of night shift work and cancer since and may disrupt circadian rhythms in humans. (who.int)
- When workers are forced to alter their sleep/activity schedule abruptly to correspond to a new work shift, there is usually a mismatch between the body's resources and the demands placed upon it until the circadian phase can adjust. (who.int)
- A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA replication cycles are tied to the circadian clock, and interruptions can lead to incomplete chromosomes. (phys.org)
- The circadian rhythm, or circadian clock, is an internal mechanism that drives the 24-hour cycles that tell our bodies when to sleep, wake and eat - and now, new research has found that bacteria living within the gut also have a clock. (uky.edu)
- Interestingly, in addition daily circadian cycles, many organisms also display physiological cycles repeating twice a day. (cyagen.com)
- With evolutionary origins likely extending as far back as circatidal clocks in invertebrates, human 12-hour cycles have important implications for health and disease, and much more still needs to be learned. (cyagen.com)
- These cycles are set by circadian clock genes that are found in nearly every cell in our bodies. (cdc.gov)
- Our daily activity is timed in a 24h manner - the circadian rhythm controls our daily sleep/wake and feeding/fasting cycles as well as blood pressure and body temperature fluctuations. (nature.com)
- In most living things, internally synchronized circadian clocks make it possible for the organism to anticipate daily environmental changes corresponding with the day-night cycle and adjust its biology and behavior accordingly. (wikipedia.org)
- these hormones enter the circulatory system, and induce clock-driven effects throughout the organism. (wikipedia.org)
- The scientists used this bread mould as a model organism for the investigation of its circadian clock at the molecular level. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- This cyanobacterial system is exciting because it gives us a chance to answer these mechanistic questions about how circadian rhythms are contributing to the health of an organism. (phys.org)
- This virtual workshop aims to apply developing advances in circadian science to priorities in lung biology, disease and therapeutics research by stimulating multi-disciplinary discussions between exceptional pulmonary and circadian investigators. (nih.gov)
- Apply developing advances in circadian science to priorities in lung biology, disease and therapeutics, including (a) normal lung cell biology (b) lung pathophysiology, and (c) targets and pathways for lung therapeutics. (nih.gov)
- Identify the contribution of circadian genomics in lung single cell biology/phenotyping, development, cellular senescence, tissue regeneration and repair, immune response, and pharmacotherapy, in alignment with the new NIH Sleep Research Plan research priorities. (nih.gov)
- In most species we've studied, if the circadian rhythm is disrupted or permanently changed, it's bad for the animal's health, but no one has really been able to explain what goes wrong if your clock is in the wrong state all the time," said senior author Michael Rust, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology at UChicago. (phys.org)
- Altogether, this new study suggests that the 12-hour clock is a prominent and important feature of animal biology. (cyagen.com)
- New research by John O'Neill, in the LMB's Cell Biology Division, and Kenneth Wright, at the University of Colorado, has revealed the mechanism by which caffeine affects the human body clock. (cam.ac.uk)
- Modern systems biology permits the study of complex networks, such as circadian clocks, and the use of complex methodologies, such as quantitative genetics. (plantclock.org)
- Clocks in humans in a lab in constant low light, for example, will average about 24.2 hours per day, rather than 24 hours exactly. (wikipedia.org)
- For the past 25 years he has been defining the machinery that underlies the nearly universal pattern of circadian rhythms in insects, animals, and humans. (hhmi.org)
- Host Molly Blooms delves into how humans have a ticking clock inside them, looks at what happens to hibernating animals and explores how all life is affected by light and dark. (wxxi.org)
- Remarkably caffeine has the same effect on the circadian clockwork in human cells, cultured in a petri dish, as can be observed in whole humans. (cam.ac.uk)
- Studies in cyanobacteria, however, changed our view of the clock mechanism, since it was found by Kondo and colleagues that these single-cell organisms could maintain accurate 24-hour timing in the absence of transcription, i.e. there was no requirement for a transcription-translation autoregulatory feedback loop for rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
- This is the first demonstration of a circadian clock in a prokaryote outside the phylum Cyanobacteria, and the researchers' findings suggest that the cyanobacterial and E. aerogenes clocks share common evolutionary ancestors. (uky.edu)
- This 24-hour "clock" influences many physiological processes, and has a well-understood biochemical basis elucidated by the work of many researchers over the past few decades. (cyagen.com)
- Beyond these behavioural and physiological activities, the circadian rhythm reach es into nearly every single cell in our body and orchestrates a self-sustaining, time-regulating machinery. (nature.com)
- The CRTC1-SIK1 pathway regulates entrainment of the circadian clock. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is known that caffeine counteracts some of the effects of sleepiness and makes it easier to stay awake, but until now no one had looked at whether there is also an effect on the internal circadian body clock. (cam.ac.uk)
- Studies led by Stoleru showed that these two cell groups constitute the master network and represent a dual control system over the circadian clock. (hhmi.org)
- A growing body of evidence has linked viral infections to the host circadian system 1 . (nature.com)
- Retinal photoreceptors entrain the circadian system to the solar day. (ox.ac.uk)
- The importance of the circadian system & sleep for bone health. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, this clock was reconstructed in a test tube (i.e., in the absence of any cell components), proving that accurate 24-hour clocks can be formed without the need for genetic feedback circuits. (wikipedia.org)
- We developed a genomic quantitative genetic approach to overcome this problem, allowing us to examine the function(s) of the plant circadian clock in different populations derived from natural accessions. (plantclock.org)
- Core circadian clock and light signaling genes brought into genetic linkage across the green lineage. (bvsalud.org)
- If the clock is in the wrong state, it's the difference between completing the replication event, or the replication machinery falling apart completely. (phys.org)
- Our findings reveal an unappreciated circadian machinery affecting pain hypersensitivity caused by peripheral nerve injury, thus opening up novel approaches to the management of chronic pain. (nature.com)
- Targeting the host's cellular circadian machinery instead of the ever-mutating virus therefore provides promising treatment opportunities. (nature.com)
- The circadian clock components BMAL1 and REV-ERBalpha regulate flavivirus replication. (nature.com)
- The human circadian clock tells us when to sleep and awaken and controls important physiologies involving hormones, body temperature, heart function, and oxygen consumption. (hhmi.org)
- Colquhoun WP, Paine MW, Fort A. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages. (cyagen.com)
- In addition, in situ entrainment experiments confirm our ability to detect a coupling of the circadian oscillator to an external force and to describe explicitly the dynamic change of the mean phase. (aps.org)
- The normal body clock oscillates with an endogenous period of exactly 24 hours, it entrains, when it receives sufficient daily corrective signals from the environment, primarily daylight and darkness. (wikipedia.org)
- Circadian disruption can harm biologic systems that help prevent cancer. (cdc.gov)
- While the liver can function independently, our bodies do have a master clock in our brain, small set of neurons, that synchronizes a majority of body's rhythms. (wrvo.org)
- In an experimental study conducted on hamsters, Martino and colleagues13 showed that circadian disruption played a critical role in cardiac and renal disease. (cdc.gov)
- Fruit flies have two characteristic peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the early evening, and each is controlled genetically by a separate group of brain circadian cells. (hhmi.org)
- While manipulating the circadian clock in his fruit flies, Stoleru says he found an intriguing relationship involving morning cells and evening cells. (hhmi.org)
- The body's internal clock affects many aspects of human health and disease, such as when we feel sleepy, how we metabolise food, and even when in the day we observe the best athletic and cognitive performance. (cam.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, these prokaryotes also have the simplest molecular mechanism at the heart of their circadian clock. (aps.org)
- These results therefore confirm that the cyanobacterial clock stability is a built-in property: the cyanobacterian clock mechanism is not only the simplest but also the most robust. (aps.org)
- However, the molecular mechanism driving and coordinating the central and peripheral clocks through a wide range of synchronizers (lighting, feeding, physical or social activities) remains a mystery. (edpsciences.org)
- In the fruit fly, the circadian function appears important for regulating periods of activity, analogous to the human sleep-wake cycle. (hhmi.org)
- The results, published online on May 10 in Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences , have implications for understanding how interrupted circadian rhythms can impact human health. (phys.org)
- In a post-Industrial Revolution society, surrounded by artificial lights that can be turned on and off at will, these results could have implications for how circadian rhythms impact human health and why extensive disruptions can be so damaging. (phys.org)
- The human circadian clock and its functioning in central or peripheral tissues are currently being explored to increase the therapeutic efficacy of timed administration of drugs or radiation, and to offer better advice on lighting and meal timing useful for frequent travelers suffering from jet lag and for night workers' comfort. (edpsciences.org)
- They were given caffeine or a placebo, and dim or bright light (the bright light was a control, since bright light at night also delays the human circadian clock). (cam.ac.uk)
- The A 1 receptor is the most abundant receptor in the human brain, therefore this new work suggests a simple explanation for how caffeine has its effects on our internal body clock. (cam.ac.uk)
- Is the clock stability a built-in property for each bacterium or does a weak intercellular coupling, make them appear like that? (aps.org)
- A new study from the University of Chicago has found that the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus uses a circadian clock to precisely time DNA replication, and that interrupting this circadian rhythm prevents replication from completing and leaves chromosomes unfinished overnight. (phys.org)
- The evidence suggests that circadian rhythms have evolved multiple times among different species, so there must be something very fundamental and important that's shared among these different species," said first author Yi Liao, a postdoctoral scholar in Rust's lab. (phys.org)
- Until now, we had no knowledge of how circadian clocks stay precisely synchronised with the day-night sequence despite intrusive light signals from the environment. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- The WCC itself possesses a special switch that reacts to light, the so-called LOV domain, and thus serves as a highly sensitive light receptor synchronising the internal clock with external day. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- The GI system's circadian clock is coordinated to both light and the timing of eating. (uky.edu)
- For example, beyond increasing daytime exposure to sunlight and reducing evening exposure to electrical light, avoiding evening caffeine may help to treat problematic delayed sleep timing through circadian as well as established wakefulness-sleep mechanisms. (cam.ac.uk)
- By analyzing the light-regulated transcriptome of the SCN, we have identified a key role for salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) in clock re-setting. (ox.ac.uk)
- Thus SIK1 provides negative feedback, acting to suppress the effects of light on the clock. (ox.ac.uk)
- After arrival, light and social contacts influence the timing of internal circadian rhythms. (cdc.gov)
- This includes participants' habitual sleep (from baseline survey), circadian timing, typical sleep and light exposure, upcoming work roster and personal commitments. (who.int)
- Properly timed caffeine use may also be of benefit with respect to shifting circadian timing, potentially assisting with circadian adaptation to large phase delays required when flying across many time zones westward, as well as sustaining wakefulness until bedtime in the new time zone. (cam.ac.uk)
- It is not, however, clear precisely what signal (or signals) enacts principal entrainment to the many biochemical clocks contained in tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
- New research has revealed what keeps animals' internal clocks running on time through the long nights of winter and the long days of summer. (hhmi.org)
- Molecular "sunglasses" ensure that the so-called internal clock of a fungus does not confuse night and day despite intrusive signals from sources like moonlight or lamplight. (uni-heidelberg.de)
- As the internal clock oscillates in periods of more or less 24 hours, it is also known as the "circadian" clock (circa dian = approximately one day). (uni-heidelberg.de)
- Kenneth Wright's group carried out in vivo experiments in which volunteers were placed in laboratory conditions so that their internal body clock could be observed. (cam.ac.uk)
- This circadian (roughly daily) rhythm operates in every single cell of the body, turning different genes on and off at different times of day to allow us to best anticipate the external cycle of night and day. (cam.ac.uk)
- Affected individuals seem to have disrupted daily (circadian) rhythms, such as the sleep-wake cycle, which are normally regulated to match the night-day cycle. (medlineplus.gov)
- DNA replication typically begins when the clock state corresponds to the morning, and is suppressed when the clock predicts the arrival of night. (phys.org)
- But because people who are awake all night may be eating at night, these people are fighting against their circadian clocks, they are out of sync with the environment, says Bailey. (wrvo.org)
- Each person lived in the laboratory for 49 days (without a clock, or any knowledge of external night and day). (cam.ac.uk)