The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A family of transcription factors that contain a single cut domain and a divergent homeodomain. They regulate gene networks by controlling the expression of other transcription factors and they play an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.
A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.

Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome. (1/425)

The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by contrast, are predominantly methylated. These data are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements. Cytosine methylation in this urochordate may be preferentially directed to genes.  (+info)

A Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. (2/425)

A trypsin inhibitor from Ciona intestinalis, present throughout the animal, was purified by ion-exchange chromatography followed by four HPLC steps. By MS the molecular mass of the native form was determined to be 6675 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by protein sequencing, but appeared to be partial because the theoretical molecular mass of the protein was 1101 Da too low. Thermolysin treatment gave rise to several fragments each containing a single disulphide bridge. By sequence analysis and MS intramolecular disulphide bridges could unequivocally be assigned to connect the pairs Cys4-Cys37, Cys8-Cys30 and Cys16-Cys51. The structure of the inhibitor is homologous to Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors. The inhibitor constant, KI, for trypsin inhibition was 0.05 nM whereas chymotrypsin and elastase were not inhibited. To reveal the complete sequence the cDNA encoding the trypsin inhibitor was isolated. This cDNA of 454 bp predicts a protein of 82 amino acid residues including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Moreover, the cDNA predicts a C-terminal extension of 11 amino acids compared to the part identified by protein sequencing. The molecular mass calculated for this predicted protein is in accordance with the measured value. This C-terminal sequence is unusual for Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors and has apparently been lost early in evolution. The high degree of conservation around the active site strongly supports the importance of the Kazal-type inhibitors.  (+info)

Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight into function and evolution of the pharyngeal epithelium. (3/425)

The epithelium of the pharynx contributes to the formation of gills in hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates and primitive vertebrates, and is therefore a key structure for understanding developmental mechanisms underlying the establishment of chordate body plans. Pax1- and Pax9-related genes encode transcription factors which are expressed in the pharyngeal region of cephalochordates as well as in the vertebrate pharyngeal pouch epithelium that forms the thymus and parathyroid glands. To explore the molecular basis underlying the occurrence and modifications of the pharyngeal epithelium during evolution, we isolated cDNA clones for Pax1- and Pax9-related genes of urochordates (HrPax1/9 of Halocynthia roretzi and CiPax1/9 of Ciona intestinalis) and a hemichordate (PfPax1/9 of Ptychodera flava) from gill cDNA libraries. Each gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome. All of the cDNAs encode typical paired domains and octapeptides but not a homeodomain, as is also true of other Pax1- and Pax9-related genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of the paired domain amino-acid sequences suggests that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 belong to the Pax1/9 subfamily, and that they are descendants of a single precursor of Pax1/Pax9. Screening of HrPax1/9 cDNA clones yielded six different types of transcripts which were generated by alternative splicing. Northern blot, RT-PCR/Southern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 are not expressed during early embryogenesis but are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills, suggesting that these genes encode gill-specific transcription factors. The Pax1/9 genes therefore might provide the first developmental genetic corroboration of hypotheses of organ-level homology that unifies hemichordates, urochordates and cephalochordates.  (+info)

Brachyury downstream notochord differentiation in the ascidian embryo. (4/425)

The ascidian tadpole represents the most simplified chordate body plan. It contains a notochord composed of just 40 cells, but as in vertebrates Brachyury is essential for notochord differentiation. Here, we show that the misexpression of the Brachyury gene (Ci-Bra) of Ciona intestinalis is sufficient to transform endoderm into notochord. Subtractive hybridization screens were conducted to identify potential Brachyury target genes that are induced upon Ci-Bra misexpression. Of 501 independent cDNA clones that were surveyed, 38 were specifically expressed in notochord cells. These potential Ci-Bra downstream genes appear to encode a broad spectrum of divergent proteins associated with notochord formation.  (+info)

Evolutionary alterations of the minimal promoter for notochord-specific Brachyury expression in ascidian embryos. (5/425)

The Brachyury genes of two divergent ascidians, As-T of Halocynthia roretzi and Ci-Bra of Ciona intestinalis, are expressed exclusively in notochord precursor cells. A previous study showed that the notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra is controlled by a minimal promoter that is composed of three distinct regions: a region responsible for repression of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, a region for activation of expression in notochord cells, and a region for activation of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, distal to proximal to the transcription initiation site, respectively. We examined various deletion constructs of the As-T/lacZ fusion gene and demonstrate that a module between -289 and -250 bp of the 5'-flanking region is responsible for notochord-specific expression of the reporter gene. Gel-shift assays suggested the binding of nuclear protein(s) to this module. The 5'-flanking region of As-T contains a potential T-binding motif (-ACCTAGGT-) around -160 bp. Deletion of this motif from the p(-289)As-T/lacZ diminished the reporter gene expression. In addition, coinjection of p(-289)As-T/lacZ and synthetic As-T mRNA resulted in ectopic expression of lacZ in non-notochord cells, suggesting that the T-binding motif is responsible for autoactivation of the gene. These findings revealed striking differences between the minimal promoters of As-T and Ci-Bra so far revealed, with respect to their notochord-specific expression. Furthermore, reciprocal injections of reporter gene constructs, namely As-T/lacZ into Ciona eggs and Ci-Bra/lacZ into Halocynthia eggs, suggest alterations in the cis-regulatory elements and trans-activation factors that have occurred during evolution of the two ascidian species.  (+info)

Follicle cell proteasome activity and acid extract from the egg vitelline coat prompt the onset of self-sterility in Ciona intestinalis oocytes. (6/425)

In the hermaphrodite ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the egg vitelline coat (VC) controls gamete self-nonself discrimination. Oocytes, after germinal vesicle breakdown, can be fertilized by both self and nonself sperm. However, a barrier to fertilization by self sperm progressively develops in the VC in the 3 hours after germinal vesicle breakdown. During this period, follicle cells attached to the outer surface of the VC release self-sterility factors that bind to the VC. Within the follicle cells, these factors (possibly peptides) are thought to be shuttled to the cell membrane by an hsp70 homolog (Cihsp70). In fact, antibodies to hsp70 block the development of self-sterility. Proteasomes are central to the production of antigen peptides. Specific inhibition of proteasome activity with clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (CLbetaL) prevented the onset of self-sterility, but had no effect once this process had started. CLbetaL did not block fertilization by nonself sperm. The self-sterility factors were removed from mature oocytes by exposure to acidified media, and their biological activity was transferred to immature oocytes treated with CLbetaL. The obvious high multiplicity of self-nonself recognition alleles involved in fertilization, and the involvement of an hsp70 and a proteasome in processing self-sterility factors, suggests that this system may be evolutionarily related to the vertebrate immune system.  (+info)

Membrane hyperpolarization by sperm-activating and -attracting factor increases cAMP level and activates sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. (7/425)

In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (and C. savignyi), sperm-activating and -attracting factor (SAAF) is released from the egg at fertilization and stimulates both Ca(2+) influx and a transient increase in cAMP level of the sperm, leading to the activation of sperm motility (M. Yoshida et al., 1994, Dev. Growth Differ. 36, 589-595). In this paper we show in C. intestinalis that valinomycin, a potassium-selective ionophore, as well as SAAF, activated sperm motility, and this activation was suppressed by extracellular high K(+). Membrane potential measurements showed that both SAAF and valinomycin increase K(+) permeability of sperm and induce membrane hyperpolarization, the amplitude of which depends on the external K(+) concentration. The membrane potential and intracellular K(+) concentration of Ciona sperm without SAAF were estimated to be about -50 mV and 560 +/- 40 mM, respectively. After treatment with SAAF or valinomycin the membrane potential became almost equal to the equilibrium potential of K(+) (-100 mV), and the cAMP level increased in artificial seawater. A potent voltage-dependent K(+) channel blocker, MCD peptide, at the concentration of 10 microM blocked SAAF-induced hyperpolarization of the cells, increase in cAMP, and sperm motility. These results suggest that membrane hyperpolarization produced by the opening of K(+) channels elevates cAMP synthesis and leads to the activation of sperm motility in Ciona.  (+info)

Patterning the ascidian nervous system: structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. (8/425)

Hox genes play a fundamental role in the establishment of chordate body plan, especially in the anteroposterior patterning of the nervous system. Particularly interesting are the anterior groups of Hox genes (Hox1-Hox4) since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior regions of the nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. Ascidians, among chordates, are considered a good model to investigate evolution of Hox gene, organisation, regulation and function. We report here the cloning and the expression pattern of CiHox3, a Ciona intestinalis anterior Hox gene homologous to the paralogy group 3 genes. In situ hybridization at the larva stage revealed that CiHox3 expression was restricted to the visceral ganglion of the central nervous system. The presence of a sharp posterior boundary and the absence of transcript in mesodermal tissues are distinctive features of CiHox3 expression when compared to the paralogy group 3 in other chordates. We have investigated the regulatory elements underlying CiHox3 neural-specific expression and, using transgenic analysis, we were able to isolate an 80 bp enhancer responsible of CiHox3 activation in the central nervous system (CNS). A comparative study between mouse and Ciona Hox3 promoters demonstrated that divergent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of these genes in vertebrates and ascidians.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Germline transgenesis of the chordate Ciona intestinalis with hyperactive variants of sleeping beauty transposable element. AU - Hozumi, Akiko. AU - Mita, Kaoru. AU - Miskey, Csaba. AU - Mates, Lajos. AU - Izsvak, Zsuzsanna. AU - Ivics, Zoltan. AU - Satake, Honoo. AU - Sasakura, Yasunori. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Background: Transposon-mediated transgenesis is an excellent method for creating stable transgenic lines and insertional mutants. In the chordate Ciona intestinalis, Minos is the only transposon that has been used as the tool for germline transformation. Adding another transposon system in this organism enables us to conduct genetic techniques which can only be realized with the use of two transposons. Results: In the present study, we found that another Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon, sleeping beauty (SB), retains sufficient activity for germline transformation of C. intestinalis. SB shows efficiencies of germline transformation, insertion into gene coding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF signaling delineates the cardiac progenitor field in the simple chordate, Ciona intestinalis. AU - Davidson, Brad. AU - Shi, Weiyang. AU - Beh, Jeni. AU - Christiaen, Lionel. AU - Levine, Mike. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Comprehensive gene networks in Ciona intestinalis embryos provide a foundation for characterizing complex developmental processes, such as the initial phases of chordate heart development. The basic helix-loop-helix regulatory gene Ci-Mesp is required for activation of cardiac transcription factors. Evidence is presented that Ci-Ets1/2, a transcriptional effector of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, acts downstream from Mesp to establish the heart field. Asymmetric activation of Ets1/2, possibly through localized expression of FGF9, drives heart specification within this field. During gastrulation, Ets1/2 is expressed in a group of four cells descended from two Mesp-expressing founder cells (the B7.5 cells). After gastrulation, these cells ...
Yagi, K., Takatori, N., Satou, Y., Satoh, N. (2005). Ci-Tbx6b and Ci-Tbx6c are key mediators of the maternal effect gene Ci-macho1 in muscle cell differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos. Dev Biol 282:535-549. (PUBMED ...
This project will use a comparative approach to dissect the regulatory mechanisms of the chordate ParaHox genes (Gsx, Xlox/Pdx1 and Cdx), analysing regulatory elements of these genes in both the invertebrate sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the vertebrate Gallus gallus (chicken). ...
We have discovered a requirement for a novel connexin gene (frm-cx) in specification of the anterior neural plate in the invertebrate chordate Ciona. (The conne...
A biofilm-forming marine bacterium, D2, isolated from the surface of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, was found to produce a novel, 190-kDa protein with antibacterial activity. The protein contained at least two subunits of 60 and 80 kDa, joined together by noncovalent bonds, and was shown to be released by D2 cells into the surrounding medium during stationary phase. N-terminal sequence analysis revealed no close similarity of this protein to any other proteins within the Swiss Prot database. Bacteriocidal activity against a wide variety of marine and medical bacterial isolates was observed, 77% of the strains tested being sensitive to the protein. Bacterial strains varied in their resistance to the D2 protein, with D2 itself being among the most sensitive with an MBC in liquid suspension of 4 micrograms/ml. An apparent increased resistance of D2 to the protein as the cells progressed further into stationary phase was observed and seen as a possible explanation for its survival despite the ...
PMID: 29743240 Open Access Robb EL, Hall AR, Prime TA, Eaton S, Szibor M, Viscomi C, James AM, Murphy MP (2018) J Biol Chem Abstract: The generation of mitochondrial superoxide (O2̇•-)) by reverse electron transport (RET) at complex I causes oxidative damage in pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion injury, but also provides the precursor to H2O2 production in physiological mitochondrial redox signaling. Here, we quantified the factors that determine mitochondrial O2̇•- production by RET in isolated heart mitochondria. Measuring mitochondrial H2O2 production at a range of proton-motive force (Δp) values and for several coenzyme Q (CoQ) and NADH pool redox states obtained with the uncoupler p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, we show that O2̇•- production by RET responds to changes in O2̇•- concentration, the magnitude of Δp, and the redox states of the CoQ and NADH pools. Moreover, we determined how expressing the alternative oxidase from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis to oxidize ...
Retinoic acid (RA)-mediated expression of the homeobox gene Hox1 is a hallmark of the chordate central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that the RA-Hox1 network also functions in the epidermal ectoderm of chordates. Here, we show that in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm is necessary for formation of the atrial siphon placode (ASP), a structure homologous to the vertebrate otic placode. Loss of Hox1 function resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by expressing Hox1 in the epidermis. As previous studies showed that RA directly upregulates Hox1 in the epidermis of Ciona larvae, we also examined the role of RA in ASP formation. We showed that abolishment of RA resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by forced expression of Hox1 in the epidermis. Our results suggest that RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm played a key role in the acquisition of the otic placode during chordate evolution. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How the dynamic developmental program is inscribed in the genome and inherited to subsequent generations remains poorly understood. Efficient functional readout, notably at DNA level in vivo is often complicated by the complexity of regulatory interactions and the complexity of genomes, particularly in vertebrates.. To unravel fundamental genetic mechanisms that control cell fate choice in vivo, we study embryonic development in a simple marine invertebrate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, belonging to the vertebrate sister group, the tunicates. Larval equivalent stages of ascidians and vertebrates have resembling structures such as a central notochord (embryonic structure forming the vertebral colomn in vertebrates), a dorsal neural tube and flanking muscles. Whats more, ascidian embryos develop with a fixed cellular lineage based on few and large cells allowing cellular resolution of cell fate identity. The fully sequenced genome, since compact and unduplicated, gives acces to regulatory DNA ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
In Spring 2018, the method book that summarized transgenic technologies in ascidians has been published from Springer (Crick here for the webpage: https://www.springer.com/la/book/9789811075445). Many NBRP resources have been introduced in the book. The TALEN-based knockout vector that targets cellulose synthase gene is now available from NBRP! This knockout vector is used for improving WISH at the larval stage ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Ci-sFRP1/5 is expressed from the 64-cell stage, while the difference between the anterior and posterior ectodermal lineages is set up as early as the eight-cell stage. This suggests the existence of localized upstream regulators of Ci-sFRP1/5 expression. To identify them, we analysed the cis-regulatory sequences of Ci-sFRP1/5. Phylogenetic footprinting between Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi genomes identified three conserved blocks in the 2 kb upstream of the putative sFRP1/5 transcription start site (Fig. 2A).. We cloned two fragments of this region upstream of a NLSLacZ reporter gene and revealed the expression of this reporter by X-gal staining at the 110-cell and neural plate stages. A proximal fragment (from the putative transcription start to -985 bp, Fig. 2A) containing two conserved blocks produced no specific staining (data not shown). By contrast, sFRP-1067, a distal 1 kb fragment (from -927 bp to -1993 bp, Fig. 2A), drove specific anterior animal expression from the 64-cell ...
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - M-Ras evolved independently of R-Ras and its neural function is conserved between mammalian and ascidian, which lacks classical Ras. AU - Keduka, Etsuko. AU - Kaiho, Ai. AU - Hamada, Mayuko. AU - Watanabe-Takano, Haruko. AU - Takano, Kazunori. AU - Ogasawara, Michio. AU - Satou, Yutaka. AU - Satoh, Nori. AU - Endo, Takeshi. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - The Ras family small GTPases play a variety of essential roles in eukaryotes. Among them, classical Ras (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras) and its orthologues are conserved from yeast to human. In ascidians, which phylogenetically exist between invertebrates and vertebrates, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Ras-MAP kinase signaling is required for the induction of neural system, notochord, and mesenchyme. Analyses of DNA databases revealed that no gene encoding classical Ras is present in the ascidians, Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi, despite the presence of classical Ras-orthologous genes in nematode, fly, amphioxus, ...
Crystal structure of the cytoplasmic phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-like region of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase provides insight into substrate specificity and redox regulation of the phosphoinositide phosphatase ...
Binding Sites, Genome, Transcription Factor, Achievement, Children, Learning, Time, Understanding, Axis, Body Region, Canonical Wnt Pathways, Cells, Chordate, Chordates, Ciona Intestinalis, Embryo, Embryos, Epidermis, History, Inhibition
The dataset contains 72 RNA-seq samples obtained from adult (P150) C57BL/6JCrl mice. Samples are from total heart, liver and kidney tissue. Four different genotypes are included in the data: 1) wild type, 2) transgenic Ciona intestinalis AOX in Rosa26 locus (Szibor et al. 2017, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.027839), 3) respiratory chain complex III deficient Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice (a GRACILE syndrome patient mutation, Leveen et al. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hep.24031) and 4) a cross between the AOX transgenic and Bcs1lp.S78G mice (Rajendran et al. EMBO Mol Med. In press).
8-12 October 2012, University of Tampere, Tampere. Monday 8th Oct 2012, Minisymposium. Finnmedi 5 auditorium, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere. Attendance 0.5 ECTS. Program:. 9:00-9:05 Welcome. 9:05-9:55 Dr Alexander Klimovich (Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany):. Hydra - a simple in vivo model for cellular and molecular analysis at an in vitro depth. 9:55-10:45 Dr Hitoyoshi Yasuo (UPMC University of Paris, France):. Building a chordate body plan: the ascidian way. 10:45-11:05 Coffee break (coffee and snacks provided). 11:05-11:55 Prof Ulrich Theopold (Stockholm University, Sweden):. The role of clotting in innate immunity. 11:55-12:45 Prof Steven Wasserman (UC San Diego, USA):. A Toll of two species: The divergent path of a conservationist. 12:45-13:45 Lunch break (possibility to buy lunch at the campus restaurants). 13:45-14:45 Dr Koen Venken (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA):. Gene and genome engineering in Drosophila for biology discovery and disease modeling (IBT ...
fronde subcompressa margine undulata convenit cum var. b crispa Ag., aqua structura penitiori, granulis nempe molto maioribus egregie et fere specifice differt; as Ulva intestinalis g suhrii ...
The standard Ensembl mammalian pipeline was modified for annotation of the Ciona savignyi genome, owing to the lack of genomic information from closely-related species. Thus, in addition to aligning known Ciona proteins to the sequence (as per the standard pipeline), we aligned Ciona-specific cDNA and EST sequences against the genome, and then used these in conjunction with protein data from other species to build additional gene models.. ...
I am Marine Biologist with M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Marine Ecology and large experience in Zoology of Marine Invertebrates. Currently, I am professor at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) from Brazil, where I teach invertebrate Zoology for undergraduate students. My studies in marine ecology include reproductive biology and settlement of many marine invertebrates and also, benthic ecology. My experience with ascidians began in 1991, at Guanabara Bay, focusing on the effects of predation on the occurrence of Ciona intestinalis. Now, I am working again on the effects of competition by Didemnidae and predation by fishes over ascidians richness, to better understand the colonization and growth of this group. Also, I use ascidians as a model to understand the invasive potential of marine invertebrates and its prevention. I see in this course the opportunity to obtaining the appropriate training and information for biological and taxonomic studies of Ascidiacea. It will be a very good ...
Previous studies demonstrated that sperm chemotaxis in Ciona is caused by SAAF derived from the vegetal pole of the egg. In the present study, we show that the factor responsible for chemotaxis of the sperm of the ascidians C. intestinalis and C. savignyi is not a protein or a peptide but a steroid. Detailed analysis of the chemical structure of the sperm attractant SAAF of the ascidian C. intestinalis by NMR and MS revealed that it is a sulfated steroid: 3,4,7,26-tetrahydroxycholestane-3,26-disulfate. Some of its chemical characteristics are unique; the hydroxylation pattern at 3, 4, 7, and 26 positions of a cholestan skeleton has never been reported in any other natural substance. In addition, the 3 and 26 positions of the sulfate esters are also unique among sulfated polyhydroxysterols of marine origin.. Sperm chemoattractants in plants were identified as low-molecular-weight organic compounds, e.g., bimalate ion in bracken fern (3, 21) and unsaturated cyclic or linear hydrocarbons, such as ...
Conosci utenti Scozzesi a Cipro sul network degli espatrati Scozzesi a Cipro. Il modo migliore per entrare in contatto con espatriati Scozzesi a Cipro.Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases - An Emerging Worldwide Threat. Ciprofloxacin 73.5 97.6 67.6 75.0. Meropenem 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0.CIPRO 2.5: Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and curated annotation, with user ...
During the evolutionary history of life on Earth there has been a trend towards drastic transitions from simple to more complex life forms, like from unicellular bacterium to simple multicellular Placozans, diploblastic organisms with two germ layers to bilaterians with a third germ layer, simple chordates to vertebrates [1]. The innovation of new structures and functions during these macroevolutionary events has in part been accomplished through expansion in the genetic toolkit, e.g. by gene duplications [2]. In fact, extensive gene duplications have been suggested at the base of vertebrate lineage which results in widespread existence of gene families in modern vertebrates [3-6]. Expansions in gene number are associated with the evolution of increased morphological and anatomical complexity and diversity achieved by vertebrates compared to basal chordates (cephalochordates/tunicates). The organization of paralogous regions (paralogons) in the human and other vertebrate genomes have led to the ...
It is interesting to observe the changes both in the brain and the gut of the tadpole in the process of metamorphosis.. The sections shown are from 4 weeks to 17 weeks development.. (Paraffin Wax Sections, cut at 15 , see Appendix for details of the preparation protocol.). Each section is not fully annotated as the same structures appear in each.. I include a section, which shows the notochord sitting under the neural tube of the hindbrain. This is a cartilaginous structure that all chordate embryos possess. The last vestiges are the intervertebral discs in the adult. Also included is a section of the eye of the tadpole, which shows most of the structures present.. Gradually the tail of the tadpole disappears in the process of Apoptosis or programmed cell death, a process stimulated by the thyroid gland of the tadpole.. Many thanks to Dr Harry Isaacs of York University for his interest and help in identifying various parts of the anatomy in the sections.. Comments to the author Mike Morgan are ...
Phylum-Chordata tutorial all along with the key concepts of Features of Chordates, Protochordata, features of Vertebrates, categorization of Vertebrates, Developments in Vertebrates, Basic Chordate Body Plan, Adaptations of Fish and Maintenance Systems of fish
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Squirt overlaps with the Pet Battle Bonus Event (Sign of the Critter) this week, allowing you to powerlevel your battle pets to level 25. Squirt can be found in your Warlords of Draenor garrison, but only if you have the Pet Menagerie unlocked. Squirt counts as a trainer and your pets will receiv...
There are 3 comments on the Bellingham Herald story from Mar 21, 2013, titled Bellingham burglar armed with semen-filled squirt gun gets 18 months. In it, Bellingham Herald reports that: A Bellingham burglar who armed himself with a squirt gun loaded with semen must serve 1 1/2 years in prison.. Join the discussion below, or Read more at Bellingham Herald.. ...
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What really surprised us was that when we included the chicken genome in this comparison, we found that nearly all these regions still showed amazingly high levels of conservation, he said. In 29 cases it was 100%. This, despite the fact that the common ancestor of chickens, rodents, and humans is thought to have lived about 300 million years ago, he said.. However, the researchers found these regions to be significantly less conserved in the genome of the fish called fugu. And when they extended their comparisons to the even more ancient genomes of the sea squirt, fruit fly and roundworm, they found very little evidence of these conserved elements. The sea squirt exhibits a simple spinal cord early in its life cycle, and so it is more closely related to vertebrates than are flies or worms.. The most exciting thing for me is that the ultra-conserved regions we have identified do represent evolutionary innovations that must have happened sometime during vertebrate development, because we see such ...
Stock Photo of Sea Tunicates Ascidians. High Quality Sea Tunicate Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Matt - Thats very fascinating! Thanks, Chris. Finally closing the show, Hannahs got the answer to this weeks disgusting Question of the Week...Hannah - This week, we sleekly squirt into a question that Simon Ashby wrote in with...
Some of you may have read my last post about how I thought my dog and parvo, blah blah blah.....Anyways, everything has returned to normal again except that she has friggin hershey squirts like crazy, I mean she craps like at least 5-6 times a day or more. I wouldnt say diarrhea, cause its not completely watery, but it looks like a cow pie or something. Definately not normal. Before she got sick, her poop was normal, ever since she got better she hasnt been pooping normal and Im kinda getting sick of it since I live in an apt on the second story and she basically craps and pisses out on the patio and I have to clean it up frequently and its a pain in the ass and quite nasty ...
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Gastritis chronica/+/activa/-/cum atrophia/+/Hyperplasia foveolaris/+/ Metaplasia intestinalis non completa/++/Fibrosis laminae propriae/+/Erytrorrhagiae punctatae mucoss
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CCACTTATGG TCAGTGTACA TATATATAAC ATTTTTGTAT AGGTTTGATC TTTGGTTATG ATATAGTAGG ATGGGGGAAG CTGGGACACC TTTAGCACAT AATATCTAAG TATCCTGATT GTGTTTAAAA CAACTAACGG TGGTCTATGG GAGTCGTGAG GATATAGTTT TATAATTCTT TGAATGTTCT TCGTTTACTA CTGAATGGGA CGAGAAAATA GAGCTAAAAA GTGTCCCATC TTCTCCCACC CTACTGTATA ACTGTTATCA TTTTTGTAAA TTACTCATAA AAAAAGCGCA AAACGTCACA ATAATGTACA TGCAAATAAC TAGACACGCG TAACAGTTGG TTTTCCTTAT TTTAAAGTCA TGACATTTAA AAGGCCGAGA CGGCCTGGTG TTCTGTGTGT GGGACAACAT ATGTGGTTTG GGGGAATAAT TAAAAAGACC GAGAACGCTC GCCAGTTGCA ATTAAAAAAG CAATTTCGTT GATTCATTAC GAATAAATCC CTGGACAATG GCGTTTGTTA CGGCAGTGCA TGTCATAATT AAACAAGGTA GACCCGCAGC AGACTGCAGC ATTGATTTTC GAATAAAAAT CAATGGGACG TTACGCGAAC GGACTTCCTT AAAACCCATG CGACCGAGGC CCGAATGAGT CAATGGTATT TATTATTAAT GGGCACAAGA GCAAAGGAAA CCATAAGGAC CCTCCGGTTG TTGAATTCTG ATATCAAATC TTTTGGACGA TCCATCGCGA CAAAAAAATT CTAATCACTA GGTATATAAG AACCAGCACA ATCGCTTATT CTGCGTTAAA TATAGACAGA GAACTTCAAC TCTTGGTTGC TGATAAGAAT ATTTTTGTTT GTAATTTTAC AATAAAAAAT TCTAAAACTT TGTTTCTTAA ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Urochordata at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Urochordata easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
100314397 Strongylocentrotus purpuratus , 100499018 Ciona intestinalis , 100526419 Saccoglossus kowalevskii , 102464115 Gorilla gorilla , 102466503 Sarcophilus harrisii , 102466558 Cricetulus griseus , 104795867 Capra hircus ...
Looking for online definition of ascidian in the Medical Dictionary? ascidian explanation free. What is ascidian? Meaning of ascidian medical term. What does ascidian mean?
Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Eye infections: Squirt in an open or closed eye. If the eye is closed have the person lie back, squirt it, then open his or her eye. 4 times or more per day. Plugged eye ducts: Squirt into the eye crease at the nose. Do this 4 times one day and 2 times the next. Conjuctivitis (Pink Eye): Same as Plugged eye ducts, but continute with 4 times daily until the crust is gone. Sties: Same as Conjunctivitis. Sore/cracked nipples: Rub into nipples and air dry. Scratches: Squirt and air dry, bandage, etc. as normal. Scrapes: Same as scratches. Burns: Same as scratches. Gouges: Same as scratches. Diaper rash: Squirt and air dry. Mosquito bites: Squirt on bite and rub in. Stops the itching. Ant bites: Same as Mosquito bites. Ear infections: Squirt or pour into sore ear. Can follow with warm (not hot) olive oil and garlic. Yeast infections: I dont know the logistics on this one, yet. Acne: Wash face with water, then follow with breastmilk squirted onto a cotton (be sure its cotton, that synthetic stuff ...
A squirt gun includes a hollow housing in the form of a gun with a liquid dispensing assembly within the housing. The liquid dispensing assembly includes a rubber tube, expandable upon being filled with liquid, which is connected to a rigid tube with a nozzle at one end, and will dispense liquid from the rubber tube through the nozzle. A pivotable trigger is mounted with one end located to squeeze the rubber tube against the housing. A rigid coil around the rubber tube between the trigger and rigid tube restrains the rubber tube from expansion for the length of the coil. An adapter is provided which is threadable on a faucet, for filling the rubber tube in the squirt gun with water.
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Why do we have a brain? I didnt know this previously: The reason we have a brain is because like all other organisms from amoebas to elephants, we need to move in order to reproduce and get food. A plant can reproduce and get food without moving. Thats why plants dont have brains. This is illustrated by this marvelous creature the sea squirt. The sea squirt swims around the ocean until its found a place where it can settle, and then when it settles it attaches itself and then it proceeds to consume its own brain because it no longer needs it, which is often unflatteringly compared to a professor that gets tenure. It is important to remember that the brain is there to help us move in order to get things which are of vital importance to us. The brain isnt primarily consumed with knowledge, the sort of things we were taught about. That was just an idea that the Greeks had because it was a good way of getting young men to forget their emotions. But really everything we do is driven by our ...
For nature moves continuously from lifeless things through things that are alive but not animals. ~Aristotle Aristotle was fascinated by sponges. He could never quite figure out what they were nor why they seemed to mysteriously lay at the boundary between Plant and Animal. To him plants after all were only capable of reproduction and…
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A dad in Massachusetts has found an alternative way to feeding his son milk by using the baby's bottle like a squirt gun. Adorable video shows the technique, one that many have likely wanted to try.
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Abbott, D.P.; Newberry, A.T.; Morris, K.M. (1997). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. 6B: Ascidians (Urochordata). Ed. Bishop Mus. Press, Honolulu. 64 p ...
Now, where was I? [ looks around the kitchen ] Oh, yes. Anyway, its time to bone the chicken. Now, for this, you need a very sharp knife. You cant do nothing without a sharp knife! [ holds chicken and cuts ] Now, you place the chicken on its stomach, and cut along the backbone to the pug nose like so.. [ drops knife ] crap! Oh! Oh, now Ive done it - Ive cut the dickens out of my finger. Well, Im glad, in a way, this has happened.. [ blood squirts onto the chicken ] We have never really discussed what to do. First, we must stop the bleeding. [ holds her apron over her hand ] The best way is to put pressure on the apron, like so.. [ blood keeps sqirting all over the kitchen ] Now, you want to raise your hand above your head so the blood doesnt pump all the way up. [ blood continues to squirt ] Well, the apron doesnt seem to be working, so I recommend natural coagulants, such as chicken liver.. [ picks up the chicken liver ] Remember not to throw away the liver! [ blood squirts over the ...
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