The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A family of transcription factors that contain a single cut domain and a divergent homeodomain. They regulate gene networks by controlling the expression of other transcription factors and they play an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.

Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome. (1/425)

The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by contrast, are predominantly methylated. These data are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements. Cytosine methylation in this urochordate may be preferentially directed to genes.  (+info)

A Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. (2/425)

A trypsin inhibitor from Ciona intestinalis, present throughout the animal, was purified by ion-exchange chromatography followed by four HPLC steps. By MS the molecular mass of the native form was determined to be 6675 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by protein sequencing, but appeared to be partial because the theoretical molecular mass of the protein was 1101 Da too low. Thermolysin treatment gave rise to several fragments each containing a single disulphide bridge. By sequence analysis and MS intramolecular disulphide bridges could unequivocally be assigned to connect the pairs Cys4-Cys37, Cys8-Cys30 and Cys16-Cys51. The structure of the inhibitor is homologous to Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors. The inhibitor constant, KI, for trypsin inhibition was 0.05 nM whereas chymotrypsin and elastase were not inhibited. To reveal the complete sequence the cDNA encoding the trypsin inhibitor was isolated. This cDNA of 454 bp predicts a protein of 82 amino acid residues including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Moreover, the cDNA predicts a C-terminal extension of 11 amino acids compared to the part identified by protein sequencing. The molecular mass calculated for this predicted protein is in accordance with the measured value. This C-terminal sequence is unusual for Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors and has apparently been lost early in evolution. The high degree of conservation around the active site strongly supports the importance of the Kazal-type inhibitors.  (+info)

Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight into function and evolution of the pharyngeal epithelium. (3/425)

The epithelium of the pharynx contributes to the formation of gills in hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates and primitive vertebrates, and is therefore a key structure for understanding developmental mechanisms underlying the establishment of chordate body plans. Pax1- and Pax9-related genes encode transcription factors which are expressed in the pharyngeal region of cephalochordates as well as in the vertebrate pharyngeal pouch epithelium that forms the thymus and parathyroid glands. To explore the molecular basis underlying the occurrence and modifications of the pharyngeal epithelium during evolution, we isolated cDNA clones for Pax1- and Pax9-related genes of urochordates (HrPax1/9 of Halocynthia roretzi and CiPax1/9 of Ciona intestinalis) and a hemichordate (PfPax1/9 of Ptychodera flava) from gill cDNA libraries. Each gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome. All of the cDNAs encode typical paired domains and octapeptides but not a homeodomain, as is also true of other Pax1- and Pax9-related genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of the paired domain amino-acid sequences suggests that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 belong to the Pax1/9 subfamily, and that they are descendants of a single precursor of Pax1/Pax9. Screening of HrPax1/9 cDNA clones yielded six different types of transcripts which were generated by alternative splicing. Northern blot, RT-PCR/Southern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 are not expressed during early embryogenesis but are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills, suggesting that these genes encode gill-specific transcription factors. The Pax1/9 genes therefore might provide the first developmental genetic corroboration of hypotheses of organ-level homology that unifies hemichordates, urochordates and cephalochordates.  (+info)

Brachyury downstream notochord differentiation in the ascidian embryo. (4/425)

The ascidian tadpole represents the most simplified chordate body plan. It contains a notochord composed of just 40 cells, but as in vertebrates Brachyury is essential for notochord differentiation. Here, we show that the misexpression of the Brachyury gene (Ci-Bra) of Ciona intestinalis is sufficient to transform endoderm into notochord. Subtractive hybridization screens were conducted to identify potential Brachyury target genes that are induced upon Ci-Bra misexpression. Of 501 independent cDNA clones that were surveyed, 38 were specifically expressed in notochord cells. These potential Ci-Bra downstream genes appear to encode a broad spectrum of divergent proteins associated with notochord formation.  (+info)

Evolutionary alterations of the minimal promoter for notochord-specific Brachyury expression in ascidian embryos. (5/425)

The Brachyury genes of two divergent ascidians, As-T of Halocynthia roretzi and Ci-Bra of Ciona intestinalis, are expressed exclusively in notochord precursor cells. A previous study showed that the notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra is controlled by a minimal promoter that is composed of three distinct regions: a region responsible for repression of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, a region for activation of expression in notochord cells, and a region for activation of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, distal to proximal to the transcription initiation site, respectively. We examined various deletion constructs of the As-T/lacZ fusion gene and demonstrate that a module between -289 and -250 bp of the 5'-flanking region is responsible for notochord-specific expression of the reporter gene. Gel-shift assays suggested the binding of nuclear protein(s) to this module. The 5'-flanking region of As-T contains a potential T-binding motif (-ACCTAGGT-) around -160 bp. Deletion of this motif from the p(-289)As-T/lacZ diminished the reporter gene expression. In addition, coinjection of p(-289)As-T/lacZ and synthetic As-T mRNA resulted in ectopic expression of lacZ in non-notochord cells, suggesting that the T-binding motif is responsible for autoactivation of the gene. These findings revealed striking differences between the minimal promoters of As-T and Ci-Bra so far revealed, with respect to their notochord-specific expression. Furthermore, reciprocal injections of reporter gene constructs, namely As-T/lacZ into Ciona eggs and Ci-Bra/lacZ into Halocynthia eggs, suggest alterations in the cis-regulatory elements and trans-activation factors that have occurred during evolution of the two ascidian species.  (+info)

Follicle cell proteasome activity and acid extract from the egg vitelline coat prompt the onset of self-sterility in Ciona intestinalis oocytes. (6/425)

In the hermaphrodite ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the egg vitelline coat (VC) controls gamete self-nonself discrimination. Oocytes, after germinal vesicle breakdown, can be fertilized by both self and nonself sperm. However, a barrier to fertilization by self sperm progressively develops in the VC in the 3 hours after germinal vesicle breakdown. During this period, follicle cells attached to the outer surface of the VC release self-sterility factors that bind to the VC. Within the follicle cells, these factors (possibly peptides) are thought to be shuttled to the cell membrane by an hsp70 homolog (Cihsp70). In fact, antibodies to hsp70 block the development of self-sterility. Proteasomes are central to the production of antigen peptides. Specific inhibition of proteasome activity with clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (CLbetaL) prevented the onset of self-sterility, but had no effect once this process had started. CLbetaL did not block fertilization by nonself sperm. The self-sterility factors were removed from mature oocytes by exposure to acidified media, and their biological activity was transferred to immature oocytes treated with CLbetaL. The obvious high multiplicity of self-nonself recognition alleles involved in fertilization, and the involvement of an hsp70 and a proteasome in processing self-sterility factors, suggests that this system may be evolutionarily related to the vertebrate immune system.  (+info)

Membrane hyperpolarization by sperm-activating and -attracting factor increases cAMP level and activates sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. (7/425)

In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (and C. savignyi), sperm-activating and -attracting factor (SAAF) is released from the egg at fertilization and stimulates both Ca(2+) influx and a transient increase in cAMP level of the sperm, leading to the activation of sperm motility (M. Yoshida et al., 1994, Dev. Growth Differ. 36, 589-595). In this paper we show in C. intestinalis that valinomycin, a potassium-selective ionophore, as well as SAAF, activated sperm motility, and this activation was suppressed by extracellular high K(+). Membrane potential measurements showed that both SAAF and valinomycin increase K(+) permeability of sperm and induce membrane hyperpolarization, the amplitude of which depends on the external K(+) concentration. The membrane potential and intracellular K(+) concentration of Ciona sperm without SAAF were estimated to be about -50 mV and 560 +/- 40 mM, respectively. After treatment with SAAF or valinomycin the membrane potential became almost equal to the equilibrium potential of K(+) (-100 mV), and the cAMP level increased in artificial seawater. A potent voltage-dependent K(+) channel blocker, MCD peptide, at the concentration of 10 microM blocked SAAF-induced hyperpolarization of the cells, increase in cAMP, and sperm motility. These results suggest that membrane hyperpolarization produced by the opening of K(+) channels elevates cAMP synthesis and leads to the activation of sperm motility in Ciona.  (+info)

Patterning the ascidian nervous system: structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. (8/425)

Hox genes play a fundamental role in the establishment of chordate body plan, especially in the anteroposterior patterning of the nervous system. Particularly interesting are the anterior groups of Hox genes (Hox1-Hox4) since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior regions of the nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. Ascidians, among chordates, are considered a good model to investigate evolution of Hox gene, organisation, regulation and function. We report here the cloning and the expression pattern of CiHox3, a Ciona intestinalis anterior Hox gene homologous to the paralogy group 3 genes. In situ hybridization at the larva stage revealed that CiHox3 expression was restricted to the visceral ganglion of the central nervous system. The presence of a sharp posterior boundary and the absence of transcript in mesodermal tissues are distinctive features of CiHox3 expression when compared to the paralogy group 3 in other chordates. We have investigated the regulatory elements underlying CiHox3 neural-specific expression and, using transgenic analysis, we were able to isolate an 80 bp enhancer responsible of CiHox3 activation in the central nervous system (CNS). A comparative study between mouse and Ciona Hox3 promoters demonstrated that divergent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of these genes in vertebrates and ascidians.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Germline transgenesis of the chordate Ciona intestinalis with hyperactive variants of sleeping beauty transposable element. AU - Hozumi, Akiko. AU - Mita, Kaoru. AU - Miskey, Csaba. AU - Mates, Lajos. AU - Izsvak, Zsuzsanna. AU - Ivics, Zoltan. AU - Satake, Honoo. AU - Sasakura, Yasunori. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Background: Transposon-mediated transgenesis is an excellent method for creating stable transgenic lines and insertional mutants. In the chordate Ciona intestinalis, Minos is the only transposon that has been used as the tool for germline transformation. Adding another transposon system in this organism enables us to conduct genetic techniques which can only be realized with the use of two transposons. Results: In the present study, we found that another Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon, sleeping beauty (SB), retains sufficient activity for germline transformation of C. intestinalis. SB shows efficiencies of germline transformation, insertion into gene coding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF signaling delineates the cardiac progenitor field in the simple chordate, Ciona intestinalis. AU - Davidson, Brad. AU - Shi, Weiyang. AU - Beh, Jeni. AU - Christiaen, Lionel. AU - Levine, Mike. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Comprehensive gene networks in Ciona intestinalis embryos provide a foundation for characterizing complex developmental processes, such as the initial phases of chordate heart development. The basic helix-loop-helix regulatory gene Ci-Mesp is required for activation of cardiac transcription factors. Evidence is presented that Ci-Ets1/2, a transcriptional effector of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, acts downstream from Mesp to establish the heart field. Asymmetric activation of Ets1/2, possibly through localized expression of FGF9, drives heart specification within this field. During gastrulation, Ets1/2 is expressed in a group of four cells descended from two Mesp-expressing founder cells (the B7.5 cells). After gastrulation, these cells ...
Yagi, K., Takatori, N., Satou, Y., Satoh, N. (2005). Ci-Tbx6b and Ci-Tbx6c are key mediators of the maternal effect gene Ci-macho1 in muscle cell differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos. Dev Biol 282:535-549. (PUBMED ...
To our current and best knowledge, this is the first functional study of AOX in an animal species. This, however, also impedes a direct comparison of our results with those of other studies. Nonetheless, the importance of AOX in the sulphide response was suggested previously. A study on mitochondria of a polychaete, the lugworm (Arenicola marina), found a strong indication that the alternative pathway via AOX is involved in the oxidation of sulphide (Hildebrandt and Grieshaber, 2008). Specifically, under elevated sulphide levels, oxygen consumption was high while no ATP was produced, and this reaction was completely blocked when AOX was inhibited (Hildebrandt and Grieshaber, 2008). These latter results may also partially explain why A. marina can survive quite high sulphide concentrations of up to 10 mmol l−1 (Groenendaal, 1980). A study on another polychaete, the echiuran worm (Urechis unicinctus), found that AOX mRNA levels in the body wall and hindgut tissue increased with both sulphide ...
This project will use a comparative approach to dissect the regulatory mechanisms of the chordate ParaHox genes (Gsx, Xlox/Pdx1 and Cdx), analysing regulatory elements of these genes in both the invertebrate sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the vertebrate Gallus gallus (chicken). ...
Abstract:A refracting lens is a key component of our image-forming camera eye; however, its evolutionary origin is unknown because precursor structures appear absent in nonvertebrates [1]. The vertebrate βγ-crystallin genes encode abundant structural proteins critical for the function of the lens [2]. We show that the urochordate Ciona intestinalis, which split from the vertebrate lineage before the evolution of the lens, has a single gene coding for a single domain monomeric βγ-crystallin. The crystal structure of Ciona βγ-crystallin is very similar to that of a vertebrate βγ-crystallin domain, except for paired, occupied calcium binding sites. The Ciona βγ-crystallin is only expressed in the palps and in the otolith, the pigmented sister cell of the light-sensing ocellus. The Ciona βγ-crystallin promoter region targeted expression to the visual system, including lens, in transgenic Xenopus tadpoles. We conclude that the vertebrate βγ-crystallins ...
We have discovered a requirement for a novel connexin gene (frm-cx) in specification of the anterior neural plate in the invertebrate chordate Ciona. (The conne...
Researchers at the University of Bergen and Uni Research of Norway hatched an idea that sounds too good to be true: a common marine species that consumes microorganisms and can be converted into much-needed feed for salmon or a combustible biofuel. The crop is named Tunicates (ciona intestinalis) an unexpected source of such rich potential ...
A biofilm-forming marine bacterium, D2, isolated from the surface of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, was found to produce a novel, 190-kDa protein with antibacterial activity. The protein contained at least two subunits of 60 and 80 kDa, joined together by noncovalent bonds, and was shown to be released by D2 cells into the surrounding medium during stationary phase. N-terminal sequence analysis revealed no close similarity of this protein to any other proteins within the Swiss Prot database. Bacteriocidal activity against a wide variety of marine and medical bacterial isolates was observed, 77% of the strains tested being sensitive to the protein. Bacterial strains varied in their resistance to the D2 protein, with D2 itself being among the most sensitive with an MBC in liquid suspension of 4 micrograms/ml. An apparent increased resistance of D2 to the protein as the cells progressed further into stationary phase was observed and seen as a possible explanation for its survival despite the ...
PMID: 29743240 Open Access Robb EL, Hall AR, Prime TA, Eaton S, Szibor M, Viscomi C, James AM, Murphy MP (2018) J Biol Chem Abstract: The generation of mitochondrial superoxide (O2̇•-)) by reverse electron transport (RET) at complex I causes oxidative damage in pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion injury, but also provides the precursor to H2O2 production in physiological mitochondrial redox signaling. Here, we quantified the factors that determine mitochondrial O2̇•- production by RET in isolated heart mitochondria. Measuring mitochondrial H2O2 production at a range of proton-motive force (Δp) values and for several coenzyme Q (CoQ) and NADH pool redox states obtained with the uncoupler p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, we show that O2̇•- production by RET responds to changes in O2̇•- concentration, the magnitude of Δp, and the redox states of the CoQ and NADH pools. Moreover, we determined how expressing the alternative oxidase from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis to oxidize ...
Retinoic acid (RA)-mediated expression of the homeobox gene Hox1 is a hallmark of the chordate central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that the RA-Hox1 network also functions in the epidermal ectoderm of chordates. Here, we show that in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm is necessary for formation of the atrial siphon placode (ASP), a structure homologous to the vertebrate otic placode. Loss of Hox1 function resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by expressing Hox1 in the epidermis. As previous studies showed that RA directly upregulates Hox1 in the epidermis of Ciona larvae, we also examined the role of RA in ASP formation. We showed that abolishment of RA resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by forced expression of Hox1 in the epidermis. Our results suggest that RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm played a key role in the acquisition of the otic placode during chordate evolution. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How the dynamic developmental program is inscribed in the genome and inherited to subsequent generations remains poorly understood. Efficient functional readout, notably at DNA level in vivo is often complicated by the complexity of regulatory interactions and the complexity of genomes, particularly in vertebrates.. To unravel fundamental genetic mechanisms that control cell fate choice in vivo, we study embryonic development in a simple marine invertebrate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, belonging to the vertebrate sister group, the tunicates. Larval equivalent stages of ascidians and vertebrates have resembling structures such as a central notochord (embryonic structure forming the vertebral colomn in vertebrates), a dorsal neural tube and flanking muscles. Whats more, ascidian embryos develop with a fixed cellular lineage based on few and large cells allowing cellular resolution of cell fate identity. The fully sequenced genome, since compact and unduplicated, gives acces to regulatory DNA ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
In Spring 2018, the method book that summarized transgenic technologies in ascidians has been published from Springer (Crick here for the webpage: https://www.springer.com/la/book/9789811075445). Many NBRP resources have been introduced in the book. The TALEN-based knockout vector that targets cellulose synthase gene is now available from NBRP! This knockout vector is used for improving WISH at the larval stage ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Structural and functional characterization of two mannan-binding lectin homologues from the urochordate species Ciona intestinalis: Insight to the origin and evolution of the lectin complement ...
Ci-sFRP1/5 is expressed from the 64-cell stage, while the difference between the anterior and posterior ectodermal lineages is set up as early as the eight-cell stage. This suggests the existence of localized upstream regulators of Ci-sFRP1/5 expression. To identify them, we analysed the cis-regulatory sequences of Ci-sFRP1/5. Phylogenetic footprinting between Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi genomes identified three conserved blocks in the 2 kb upstream of the putative sFRP1/5 transcription start site (Fig. 2A).. We cloned two fragments of this region upstream of a NLSLacZ reporter gene and revealed the expression of this reporter by X-gal staining at the 110-cell and neural plate stages. A proximal fragment (from the putative transcription start to -985 bp, Fig. 2A) containing two conserved blocks produced no specific staining (data not shown). By contrast, sFRP-1067, a distal 1 kb fragment (from -927 bp to -1993 bp, Fig. 2A), drove specific anterior animal expression from the 64-cell ...
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - M-Ras evolved independently of R-Ras and its neural function is conserved between mammalian and ascidian, which lacks classical Ras. AU - Keduka, Etsuko. AU - Kaiho, Ai. AU - Hamada, Mayuko. AU - Watanabe-Takano, Haruko. AU - Takano, Kazunori. AU - Ogasawara, Michio. AU - Satou, Yutaka. AU - Satoh, Nori. AU - Endo, Takeshi. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - The Ras family small GTPases play a variety of essential roles in eukaryotes. Among them, classical Ras (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras) and its orthologues are conserved from yeast to human. In ascidians, which phylogenetically exist between invertebrates and vertebrates, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Ras-MAP kinase signaling is required for the induction of neural system, notochord, and mesenchyme. Analyses of DNA databases revealed that no gene encoding classical Ras is present in the ascidians, Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi, despite the presence of classical Ras-orthologous genes in nematode, fly, amphioxus, ...
Crystal structure of the cytoplasmic phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-like region of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase provides insight into substrate specificity and redox regulation of the phosphoinositide phosphatase ...
Binding Sites, Genome, Transcription Factor, Achievement, Children, Learning, Time, Understanding, Axis, Body Region, Canonical Wnt Pathways, Cells, Chordate, Chordates, Ciona Intestinalis, Embryo, Embryos, Epidermis, History, Inhibition
The dataset contains 72 RNA-seq samples obtained from adult (P150) C57BL/6JCrl mice. Samples are from total heart, liver and kidney tissue. Four different genotypes are included in the data: 1) wild type, 2) transgenic Ciona intestinalis AOX in Rosa26 locus (Szibor et al. 2017, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.027839), 3) respiratory chain complex III deficient Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice (a GRACILE syndrome patient mutation, Leveen et al. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hep.24031) and 4) a cross between the AOX transgenic and Bcs1lp.S78G mice (Rajendran et al. EMBO Mol Med. In press).
8-12 October 2012, University of Tampere, Tampere. Monday 8th Oct 2012, Minisymposium. Finnmedi 5 auditorium, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere. Attendance 0.5 ECTS. Program:. 9:00-9:05 Welcome. 9:05-9:55 Dr Alexander Klimovich (Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany):. Hydra - a simple in vivo model for cellular and molecular analysis at an in vitro depth. 9:55-10:45 Dr Hitoyoshi Yasuo (UPMC University of Paris, France):. Building a chordate body plan: the ascidian way. 10:45-11:05 Coffee break (coffee and snacks provided). 11:05-11:55 Prof Ulrich Theopold (Stockholm University, Sweden):. The role of clotting in innate immunity. 11:55-12:45 Prof Steven Wasserman (UC San Diego, USA):. A Toll of two species: The divergent path of a conservationist. 12:45-13:45 Lunch break (possibility to buy lunch at the campus restaurants). 13:45-14:45 Dr Koen Venken (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA):. Gene and genome engineering in Drosophila for biology discovery and disease modeling (IBT ...
fronde subcompressa margine undulata convenit cum var. b crispa Ag., aqua structura penitiori, granulis nempe molto maioribus egregie et fere specifice differt; as Ulva intestinalis g suhrii ...
The standard Ensembl mammalian pipeline was modified for annotation of the Ciona savignyi genome, owing to the lack of genomic information from closely-related species. Thus, in addition to aligning known Ciona proteins to the sequence (as per the standard pipeline), we aligned Ciona-specific cDNA and EST sequences against the genome, and then used these in conjunction with protein data from other species to build additional gene models.. ...
I am Marine Biologist with M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Marine Ecology and large experience in Zoology of Marine Invertebrates. Currently, I am professor at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) from Brazil, where I teach invertebrate Zoology for undergraduate students. My studies in marine ecology include reproductive biology and settlement of many marine invertebrates and also, benthic ecology. My experience with ascidians began in 1991, at Guanabara Bay, focusing on the effects of predation on the occurrence of Ciona intestinalis. Now, I am working again on the effects of competition by Didemnidae and predation by fishes over ascidians richness, to better understand the colonization and growth of this group. Also, I use ascidians as a model to understand the invasive potential of marine invertebrates and its prevention. I see in this course the opportunity to obtaining the appropriate training and information for biological and taxonomic studies of Ascidiacea. It will be a very good ...
aviso legal With respect to its introduction to the Great Lakes drainage, authors typically mention that it is considered native to the Atlantic coast of North America (Mills et al. World Register of Marine Species. Las fotografías son propiedad de sus autores. Nutritional value of green seaweeds Ulva rigida and Ulva intestinalis. To observe the morphogenetic effects of Ulva-associated bacteria, U. intestinalis and U. mutabilis (slender, gametophyte, mt[+]) axenic gametes were inoculated with the bacteria isolated from three different Ulva species and U. mutabilis, individually and in combinations (triplicates of each) (Figs 1- 3) as recently established by Weiss, Costa and Wichard . Harvest at a similar time to sea lettuce, and cut in small patches where it grows profusely. Results of present study confirmed the potential usefulness of marine algae in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. bmp yield results 7deoh $ wdeoh zlwk d vhw ri edwfk h[shulphqwdo frqglwlrqv frqwdlqlqj ...
Previous studies demonstrated that sperm chemotaxis in Ciona is caused by SAAF derived from the vegetal pole of the egg. In the present study, we show that the factor responsible for chemotaxis of the sperm of the ascidians C. intestinalis and C. savignyi is not a protein or a peptide but a steroid. Detailed analysis of the chemical structure of the sperm attractant SAAF of the ascidian C. intestinalis by NMR and MS revealed that it is a sulfated steroid: 3,4,7,26-tetrahydroxycholestane-3,26-disulfate. Some of its chemical characteristics are unique; the hydroxylation pattern at 3, 4, 7, and 26 positions of a cholestan skeleton has never been reported in any other natural substance. In addition, the 3 and 26 positions of the sulfate esters are also unique among sulfated polyhydroxysterols of marine origin.. Sperm chemoattractants in plants were identified as low-molecular-weight organic compounds, e.g., bimalate ion in bracken fern (3, 21) and unsaturated cyclic or linear hydrocarbons, such as ...
Conosci utenti Scozzesi a Cipro sul network degli espatrati Scozzesi a Cipro. Il modo migliore per entrare in contatto con espatriati Scozzesi a Cipro.Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases - An Emerging Worldwide Threat. Ciprofloxacin 73.5 97.6 67.6 75.0. Meropenem 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0.CIPRO 2.5: Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and curated annotation, with user ...
During the evolutionary history of life on Earth there has been a trend towards drastic transitions from simple to more complex life forms, like from unicellular bacterium to simple multicellular Placozans, diploblastic organisms with two germ layers to bilaterians with a third germ layer, simple chordates to vertebrates [1]. The innovation of new structures and functions during these macroevolutionary events has in part been accomplished through expansion in the genetic toolkit, e.g. by gene duplications [2]. In fact, extensive gene duplications have been suggested at the base of vertebrate lineage which results in widespread existence of gene families in modern vertebrates [3-6]. Expansions in gene number are associated with the evolution of increased morphological and anatomical complexity and diversity achieved by vertebrates compared to basal chordates (cephalochordates/tunicates). The organization of paralogous regions (paralogons) in the human and other vertebrate genomes have led to the ...
The good news is those things arent actually teeth, theyre oral tentacles, which honestly doesnt sound much better. But theyre just there to filter things out of the water like a sieve.. Sea squirts arent all scary gaping maws - they can also be hilariously cute. While some species, like the golden-mouth sea squirt and these ghostly fellows, tend to be fairly solitary (or found in groups of two or three), others are colonial, as in, they hang out in large, tight-knit groups. And depending on their particular patterns and shapes, they can look absolutely ridiculous. ...
The good news is those things arent actually teeth, theyre oral tentacles, which honestly doesnt sound much better. But theyre just there to filter things out of the water like a sieve.. Sea squirts arent all scary gaping maws - they can also be hilariously cute. While some species, like the golden-mouth sea squirt and these ghostly fellows, tend to be fairly solitary (or found in groups of two or three), others are colonial, as in, they hang out in large, tight-knit groups. And depending on their particular patterns and shapes, they can look absolutely ridiculous. ...
September 2006 - Hood Canal is having its annual low oxygen event, but it appears to be even worse than previous years. Many critters were stressed, many were already dead. The invasive tunicate, Ciona savignyi, has taken a firm foothold in this location now. We did two dives at Sund Rock, and here is what we found. All photos by Janna Nichols, please contact me at [email protected] if youd like permission to use.
It is interesting to observe the changes both in the brain and the gut of the tadpole in the process of metamorphosis.. The sections shown are from 4 weeks to 17 weeks development.. (Paraffin Wax Sections, cut at 15 , see Appendix for details of the preparation protocol.). Each section is not fully annotated as the same structures appear in each.. I include a section, which shows the notochord sitting under the neural tube of the hindbrain. This is a cartilaginous structure that all chordate embryos possess. The last vestiges are the intervertebral discs in the adult. Also included is a section of the eye of the tadpole, which shows most of the structures present.. Gradually the tail of the tadpole disappears in the process of Apoptosis or programmed cell death, a process stimulated by the thyroid gland of the tadpole.. Many thanks to Dr Harry Isaacs of York University for his interest and help in identifying various parts of the anatomy in the sections.. Comments to the author Mike Morgan are ...
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What really surprised us was that when we included the chicken genome in this comparison, we found that nearly all these regions still showed amazingly high levels of conservation, he said. In 29 cases it was 100%. This, despite the fact that the common ancestor of chickens, rodents, and humans is thought to have lived about 300 million years ago, he said.. However, the researchers found these regions to be significantly less conserved in the genome of the fish called fugu. And when they extended their comparisons to the even more ancient genomes of the sea squirt, fruit fly and roundworm, they found very little evidence of these conserved elements. The sea squirt exhibits a simple spinal cord early in its life cycle, and so it is more closely related to vertebrates than are flies or worms.. The most exciting thing for me is that the ultra-conserved regions we have identified do represent evolutionary innovations that must have happened sometime during vertebrate development, because we see such ...
Stock Photo of Sea Tunicates Ascidians. High Quality Sea Tunicate Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
A cancer drug based on a compound found in a rare sea creature is 30 to 100 times more powerful against the virus that causes COVID-19 than remdesivir, according to a new set of experiments reported in Science.
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Some of you may have read my last post about how I thought my dog and parvo, blah blah blah.....Anyways, everything has returned to normal again except that she has friggin hershey squirts like crazy, I mean she craps like at least 5-6 times a day or more. I wouldnt say diarrhea, cause its not completely watery, but it looks like a cow pie or something. Definately not normal. Before she got sick, her poop was normal, ever since she got better she hasnt been pooping normal and Im kinda getting sick of it since I live in an apt on the second story and she basically craps and pisses out on the patio and I have to clean it up frequently and its a pain in the ass and quite nasty ...
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Gastritis chronica/+/activa/-/cum atrophia/+/Hyperplasia foveolaris/+/ Metaplasia intestinalis non completa/++/Fibrosis laminae propriae/+/Erytrorrhagiae punctatae mucoss
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GACACCAGAC TCAGCAACGC AACAATTACT CGCTAAAGTC ACGGCTATAG CTGCCGAATG ACGCGTACTA TAAATACATA CGCATTAACT TGTTGTCCCA TAAGGATAAT CATATTTACT GCATCTTCCA CTATGTGCAA TTTCCACATT GCTTGAATGT TCACTGTGAT TTCTCATGTC TATGCATTGT TTCAAAGGTA AAATAACAGC TGGTGGCAAC GAACATTAAT CTCCTACTGC ATGGCTTAAG TGGTATAAAC GTATGTACAA CCTTCTTATG TACTGACCTT GCCATGCTAT GCCATCAGCA TATGTCTTAC TTGCATACAC TCTAGTATAC TTAAGTGTGA TAGAAAAAAA ACAAGGACAC ACTCGTCAGT CCTCGTTAAT TTTCATTTCC TATAATAATA CAAACTTAAG ACAAAAACTG AATTATTGCA TTAACTTATT CTGCATAAGC TACAATAATC ATAGCTTATC TCAGCATGCC TGCTGCTAAA TAGCTTGTTT GGTTTCGAGT TATTTTGTCC TCAACAATTT CGTTGCCGTG TTTCGTTCAC TGTGATATAT CTCGCAAGCT GCAAACATTA TATTTCTTCA AATCCACAAA ACGTTTGCAA TGTCTCGTCG TTTTGCAAGT GCTGTTTGCG AAAAAAAAGT AATAAAGAGG AAAGTTTCTC ATTCATTAAG ATGTATTAAG ATACCATAAG GATATGTTGC TACGAAAACA TAACAGACAA AAATATACTC CATTCAATGG TATATATAAT AAAATATATT TTATTTGATT TTTGTCTGTT AGGTTTCGTA GCTTCAGATC TCAACTGTAT TTCTTTACAT GGGAATCGTT CAACTCTATG AGCGCCTGAT AAGGGTCAAA TTCGCGGAAT TTATTACAGT TAGTTTATTT ...
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Brazilian pepper tree Bugweed Camphor tree Spanish broom Prickly pear Stone pine Cluster pine ... Ciona intestinalis (tunicate)., Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. "Herpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)". www. ...
Ciona intestinalis (tunicate). Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. South Africa: Annelids. Global Invasive Species Database ... Ciona intestinalis - sea vase Invsive species of annelids include: Ficopomatus enigmaticus - Australian tubeworm Boccardia ...
Ciona intestinalis (tunicate). Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. Herbert, David G (2010). The introduced terrestrial ... Bramble) Salvinia molesta (Kariba weed, giant salvinia) Solanum mauritianum (Bugweed) Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Ficopomatus ...
Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi; Non-vertebrates Insects: Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly), Anopheles gambiae (mosquito), ...
It infects the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. This genus was first described by Van Gaver and Stephan in 1907. It was redescribed ...
Histochemical studies of cholinesterases in Ciona intestinalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17: 553-558. "ASPET , Obituary: ...
Olinski RP, Dahlberg C, Thorndyke M, Hallböök F (November 2006). "Three insulin-relaxin-like genes in Ciona intestinalis". ... Other studies attempted to show the existence of relaxin family peptide genes in the tunicate Ciona, but it has not been shown ...
Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi have been used for developmental studies. Both species' mitochondrial and nuclear genomes ... Ciona intestinalis (class Ascidiacea) is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost ... Iannelli, F.; Pesole, G.; Sordino, P.; Gissi, C. (2007). "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis" (PDF ... "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): 2157-2167. ...
Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi have been used for developmental studies. Both species' mitochondrial[49][50] and nuclear ... Ciona intestinalis (class Ascidiacea) is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost ... Aniseed: A model organism database for ascidians including Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi ... "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis" (PDF). Trends Genet. 23 (9): 419-422. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2007.07 ...
Erives, A.; Levine, M. (2000). "Characterization of a maternal T-box gene in Ciona intestinalis". Developmental Biology. 225 (1 ... Erives, A.; Corbo, J.C.; Levine, M. (1988). "Lineage-specific regulation of the Ciona snail gene in the embryonic mesoderm and ... This work used the Ciona system to generate copious amounts of embryos that were then electroporated with enhancer DNAs. In ... Erives, A. (2009). "Non-homologous structured CRMs from the Ciona genome" (PDF). J Comp Biology. 16 (2): 369-377. doi:10.1089/ ...
... and even soft-bodied tunicates like Ascidiella aspersa and Ciona intestinalis. In both their native and introduced ranges, C. ...
... is a marine bacterium isolated from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Euzéby, J.P. (March 4, 2012). " ...
Ciona intestinalis, a tunicate (2002) Ciona savignyi, a tunicate (2007) Oikopleura dioica, a larvacean (2001). Branchiostoma ... December 2002). "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): ... Small KS, Brudno M, Hill MM, Sidow A (2007). "A haplome alignment and reference sequence of the highly polymorphic Ciona ...
The sequenced genomes of the related sea squirts Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi are small and easily manipulated; ... Ciona intestinalis is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost simultaneously. It is ... Hamada, M.; Wada, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Satoh, N. (2007). "Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis: ... The Dutch Ascidians Homepage Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland A fate map of the ascidian egg Ciona savignyi ...
Hamada M, Wada S, Kobayashi K, Satoh N (July 2007). "Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis: characterization ... is essential for tissue differentiation during embryogenesis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis". Differentiation; Research in ...
"Cis-regulatory organization of the Pax6 gene in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis". Developmental Biology. 317 (2): 649-59. doi: ...
Ciona intestinalis is generally considered a cryptogenic species that is invading eastern Canada, including Newfoundland. ... Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) in coastal Newfoundland waters". BioInvasions Records. 2 (2): 89-98. doi:10.3391/bir.2013.2 ...
Shimeld, Sebastian M.; Levin, Michael (2006-06-01). "Evidence for the regulation of left-right asymmetry in Ciona intestinalis ... Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi, Nodal is expressed on the left side of the developing embryo and leads to ...
"On the evolutionary significance and metal-binding characteristics of a monolobal transferrin from Ciona intestinalis". ...
The novel's name comes from the species Ciona intestinalis, a solitary species of sea squirt. Sea squirts are surrounded by a ... Samson (novel, 1997) Ciona - an Autobiology (novel, under the pseudonym Tamara T, 2002) In Drino Veritas, art and literature as ... Ciona. This is certainly a politically incorrect novel which, at least on the surface, repudiates gender as a social ... Ciona, an Autobiology (published under the pseudonym "Tamara T" by AlfabetaAnamma, 2002), was the first book written ...
Dybern, Bernt I. (1965). "The Life Cycle of Ciona intestinalis (L.) f. typica in Relation to the Environmental Temperature". ...
Ciona intestinalis (Cionidae) Megalodicopia sp. (Octacnemidae) Perophora namei (Perophoridae) Gittenberger, A.; Sanamyan, K. ( ... Pseudodiazona] Araneum Monniot & Monniot 1973 Ciona Fleming 1822 Tantillulum molle Monniot & Monniot 1984 Corellidae Lahille ...
... an orthologue of vertebrate cannabinoid receptors in the urochordate Ciona intestinalis". Gene. 302 (1-2): 95-101. doi:10.1016/ ...
In the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, the extent of SL trans-splicing is better described by a quantitative view recognising ... May 2010). "High-throughput sequence analysis of Ciona intestinalis SL trans-spliced mRNAs: alternative expression modes and ...
Meritupp (Ciona intestinalis). Vesikirp Daphnia longispina. *Vesikirp Daphnia longispina on zooplanktonisse kuuluv väike ...
Ciona intestinalis". Gene. 275 (1): 177-83. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00661-8. PMID 11574167. Zintzaras E, Kitsios GD, Ziogas ...
at depths of up to 90 m (300 ft). A. aspersa closely resemble Ciona intestinalis, but can be distinguished by their lack of ...
Species studied include the tunicates Oikopleura dioica and Ciona intestinalis, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and ...
Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2016). "The CNS connectome of a tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L.) ... All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations. The ...
Tunicates: Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi;. *Anifeiliaid di-asgwrn cefn *Pryfed: Drosophila melanogaster (pry ffrwythau), ...
Meritupp (Ciona intestinalis). Vesikirp Daphnia longispina. *Vesikirp Daphnia longispina on zooplanktonisse kuuluv väike ...
... but not in the earlier diverging tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Thus, the aromatase gene evolved early in chordate evolution and ...
Ciona intestinalis dan Ciona savignyi telah digunakan untuk kajian perkembangan. Kedua-dua genom mitokondria[9][10] dan ... Iannelli, F.; Pesole, G.,; Sordino, P.; Gissi, C. (2007). "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis". ... Aniseed: A model organism database for ascidians including Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi ... "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): 2157-2167. doi: ...
Ciona intestinalis - amphioxus ...
The first voltage sensitive phosphatase was discovered as a result of a genome-wide search in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis ... like region of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase provides insight into substrate specificity and redox regulation ...
... a neuropeptide from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. Gastrin and CCK are important hormonal regulators that are known to ...
... during the process of fertilization in the ascidians Ciona-Savignyi and Ciona-Intestinalis. Dev. Biol. 157, ... In some species (for example, in hydroids like Campanularia or tunicate like Ciona), the swimming direction of the spermatozoa ... In some species (for example, herring or the ascidian Ciona) activation of motility precedes chemotaxis. In chemotaxis, cells ... Ciona savignyi. Dev. Growth Dif. 36, 589-595. Yoshida, M., Murata, M., Inaba, K. and Morisawa, M. (2002) A chemoattractant for ...
A comparison of the genomes of the Lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, the Tunicates Ciona intestinalis and Oikopleura dioica, the ...
24 annotations in Ciona intestinalis, 14 annotations in Rattus norvegicus, 6 annotations in Halocynthia roretzi, 2 annotations ... in Ciona savignyi and 2 annotations in HIV. Within these annotations, one new dataset was added to ORegAnno; 274 human ...
... has over 80 orthologs, including animals as distant Ciona intestinalis(XP_002132057.1), which is estimated to have ...
... sea vase Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) (whole coast, cosmopolitan) Order Stolidobranchia Family Pyuridae Red bait Pyura ...
... ciona intestinalis MeSH B01.500.308.237 - anthozoa MeSH B01.500.308.237.700 - renilla MeSH B01.500.308.237.750 - sea anemones ... ciona intestinalis MeSH B01.150.900.090 - amphibia MeSH B01.150.900.090.180 - anura MeSH B01.150.900.090.180.210 - bufonidae ...
The Ciona intestinalis protein database (CIPRO) is a protein database for the tunicate species C. intestinalis. Ciona ... Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and ... intestinalis Endo, Toshinori; Ueno Keisuke; Yonezawa Kouki; Mineta Katsuhiko; Hotta Kohji; Satou Yutaka; Yamada Lixy; Ogasawara ...
Membranipora membranacea Golden star ascidian Botryllus schlosseri Vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis Beanweed, Scytosiphon ... lomentaria Bootlace weed, Chorda filum Dulse, Rhodymenia palmata Grass kelp, Enteromorpha intestinalis Green hairweed, ...
This species can be mistaken for the very similar Ciona intestinalis but Ciona savignyi has white flecks in the tunic wall ... Nor does C. intestinalis have any reddish colour associated with its buccal siphon. Ciona savignyi is native to Japan, and ... "Ciona savignyi". University of Washington. Retrieved 2013-06-20. Allen Pleus; Pam Meacham. "Ciona savignyi (Solitary sea squirt ... Ciona savignyi is a solitary, bottle or vase-shaped tunicate growing to a length of about 15 cm (6 in). It is usually broader ...
CIPRO from ibio.jp Ciona intestinalis photos from ascidians.com View the Ciona intestinalis genome in Ensembl View the ci2 ... Ciona savignyi, the closest relative of Ciona intestinalis, also have the same set of Hox genes. The organization of Hox genes ... Ciona robusta and Ciona intestinalis". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53 (3): 186-193. doi: ... Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft ...
The Ciona intestinalis protein database (CIPRO) is a protein database for the tunicate species C. intestinalis. Ciona ... Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and ... intestinalis Endo, Toshinori; Ueno Keisuke; Yonezawa Kouki; Mineta Katsuhiko; Hotta Kohji; Satou Yutaka; Yamada Lixy; Ogasawara ...
Pcin2 and Pcin3 from Ciona intestinalis, a species of the most primitive chordates, and compare them with those from Ciona ... Hoshino Z, Nishikawa T (1985) Taxonomic studies of Ciona intestinalis (L.) and its allies. Publ Seto Mar Lab 30:61-79Google ... The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: Insights into chordate and vertebrate origins. Science 298:2157-2167PubMedCrossRef ... C. intestinalis and C. savignyi displayed nearly the same phenotype. However, their P elements were highly divergent and the ...
The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is an important model animal for studying developmental mechanisms for constructing the ... Ascidian Ciona intestinalis Genome editing TALEN Knockout Electroporation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Joly JS, Kano S, Matsuoka T et al (2007) Culture of Ciona intestinalis in closed systems. Dev Dyn 236:1832-1840CrossRefPubMed ... Satou Y, Yamada L, Mochizuki Y et al (2002) A cDNA resource from the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Genesis 33:153-154 ...
To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation ... intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes ... intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic ... Ciona intestinalis Is the Subject Area "Ciona intestinalis" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Ciona intestinalis sulfate transporter Ci-Slc26a alpha mRNA, complete cds Ciona intestinalis sulfate transporter Ci-Slc26a ... Ciona intestinalis sulfate transporter Ci-Slc26a alpha mRNA, complete cds. GenBank: KF494348.1 ...
Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,Q6R4N5,Q6R4N5_CIOIN Potassium channel-interacting protein KChIP OS=Ciona intestinalis OX=7719 PE=2 SV=1 ...
The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis.. Kamesh N1, Aradhyam GK, Manoj N. ... Phylogenetic relationship between non-(LDLRR-GPCR/LGR) Rhodopsin receptors in Ciona and other genomes. All members of the Ciona ... Phylogenetic relationship within the Ciona GPCR set of Adhesion receptors. A phylogeny of Ciona Adhesion GPCRs shows the ... The genome of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis has a compact size with an ancestral complement of many diversified gene ...
Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). Ciona savignyi (Pacific transparent sea squirt). 587. ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). 587. UniRef100_A0A1W2VN56. Cluster: nuclear receptor 1. 2. ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). 587. UniRef90_A0A1W2VN56. Cluster: nuclear receptor 1. 6. ...
CI431, an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human ... an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human ...
Apresentamos transgênese transitória e silenciamento de genes em Ciona intestinalis, um grupo irmã cordados aos vertebrados,... ... Apresentamos transgênese transitória e silenciamento de genes em Ciona intestinalis, um grupo irmã cordados aos vertebrados, ...
Yamada, L., Kobayashi, K., Degnan, B. et al. A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis . Dev ... Dehal P, Satou Y, Campbell RK et al (2002) The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate ... In addition, cDNA clones for almost all genes identified have been cloned and distributed as a "Ciona intestinalis Gene ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis IV. Genes for HMG transcriptional regulators, bZip ...
Corpora lutea in an Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... Corpora lutea are reported to be present in the ovary of Ciona intestinalis and are briefly described. They conform to the type ...
Ciona savignyi. The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis ... In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis. The microRNA ... Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and ... Computational prediction of the Ciona intestinalis microRNAs. Computational prediction of Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi ...
Collection of Ciona intestinalis sp. A and B specimens. Individuals of Ciona intestinalis sp. A were collected in the following ... SNPs in Ciona intestinalis sp. B. All pairs of EPIC primers used to amplify C. intestinalis sp. A genomic DNA were successfully ... SNPs in Ciona intestinalis sp. A. Percentage of transversion and transition SNPs in C. intestinalis sp. A. Values outside ... Ciona intestinalis sp. B specimens were obtained from the following localities: Plymouth Sound and Edinburgh (United Kingdom), ...
The dopamine-synthesizing cells in the swimming larva of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis are located only in the hypothalamus- ... positive and dopamine-positive cells in Ciona intestinalis embryos and larvae. Dopamine cells are present only in the sensory ... To test this hypothesis, we have identified new candidate regulators of dopaminergic specification in Ciona based on their ... we suggest that the mechanisms of dopamine cell specification are conserved in the hypothalamus of Ciona and vertebrates. ...
The heart of Ciona intestinalis: eicosanoid-generating capacity and the effects of precursor fatty acids and eicosanoids on ... The heart of Ciona intestinalis: eicosanoid-generating capacity and the effects of precursor fatty acids and eicosanoids on ... The heart of Ciona intestinalis: eicosanoid-generating capacity and the effects of precursor fatty acids and eicosanoids on ... The heart of Ciona intestinalis: eicosanoid-generating capacity and the effects of precursor fatty acids and eicosanoids on ...
Ciona intestinalis, is discussed. A Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon, Minos, has excision and transposition activities in ... Ciona. Minos enables the creation of stable transgenic lines, enhancer detection, and insertional mutagenesis. ... Ciona intestinalis (hereafter referred to as Ciona) is a cosmopolitan ascidian [28-31]. It is hermaphroditic and self-fertile. ... c) Ciona intestinalis adults. After metamorphosis, Ciona loses its tail and starts to settle. Most ascidians are filter feeders ...
Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula, that occur in CR.LCR.BrAs.AmenCio.Bri, are both widely distributed, and appear to ... Ciona intestinalis has been reported in Scandinavian waters in salinities as low as 11 ‰ (Renborg et al., 2014; Dybern, 1967). ... Both Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula, found in CR.LCR.BrAs.AmenCio.Bri, are large, emergent, sessile ascidians, and ... Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula are typically found in full salinity conditions, but both have been found in lower ...
Uppsats: Ciona (Ciona intestinalis) as a source of fibre for chickens : Effects on productive performance, organs weights and ... Ciona (Ciona intestinalis) as a source of fibre for chickens : Effects on productive performance, organs weights and caecal ... ciona meal (C4) to examine the suitability of Ciona intestinalis in poultry feed as a source of fibre and its effects on growth ... Effect of inclusion of ciona meal on growth performance and digestive traits were analysed by weighing the birds and visceral ...
... we demonstrated a Ciona intestinalis C3a (CiC3a)-mediated chemotaxis of hemocytes in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona ... Peptide receptors and immune-related proteins expressed in the digestive system of a urochordate, Ciona intestinalis. Satake H ... Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity. Giacomelli S, Melillo D, Lambris JD, ... CiC3-1a-mediated chemotaxis in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata). Pinto MR, Chinnici CM, Kimura Y ...
A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors. ... We identified 46 genes encoding bHLH proteins in the draft genome sequence of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. These 46 ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors ... In addition, the comparison between the numbers of orthologous human and Ciona bHLH factors reveals the simplicity of the Ciona ...
... which might have reduced the number of Ciona homeobox genes. Interestingly, one of the newly identified Ciona intestinalis ... The present study searched the draft genome sequence and cDNA/EST database of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis to identify ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors. ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors ...
... Bollner, Tomas Stockholm University ...
... intestinalis (dorsal is top) finds and attaches to a substra ... Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult ... fig1: Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult.(A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal ... fig1: Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult.(A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal ... The ascidian Ciona intestinalis, commonly known as a sea squirt, has become an important model for embryological studies, ...
The publication of the genome of a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis, provides a unique opportunity to gain further insight ... one clusters in the vertebrate β1 clade and the remaining Ciona chain is the orthologue of the vertebrate β4 chain. The Ciona ... Two Ciona α chains cluster in laminin-binding clade and the remaining chain clusters in the clade that binds the RGD tripeptide ... The Ciona genome encodes eleven α and five β chain genes that are highly homologous to their vertebrate homologues. Eight of ...
Ciona intestinalis is the seventh animal of which draft genome was decoded in 2002. The approximately 160-Mb genome is ... C. intestinalis is now an indispensable model organism for world-wide research communication in life science. For research ... In addition, C. intestinalis is the only marine invertebrate that has the advantages necessary for developmental genetics: the ...
Ciona intestinalis - RPL35. Species. Ciona intestinalis. Gene Name. RPL35. 5 Upstream. ...
Ciona intestinalis. Picture by Harvey-Clark, Chris. .swipslider{ max-width: 310px; margin: auto; } ...
Characterization of Brachyury-downstream notochord genes in the Ciona intestinalis embryo. Kohji Hotta, Hiroki Takahashi, ... Characterization of Brachyury-downstream notochord genes in the Ciona intestinalis embryo. / Hotta, Kohji; Takahashi, Hiroki; ... In the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, Brachyury (Ci-Bra) plays a key role in notochord differentiation. In a previous ... Characterization of Brachyury-downstream notochord genes in the Ciona intestinalis embryo. Developmental Biology. 2000 Aug 1; ...
  • Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft tunic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the sea squirt C. intestinalis a CB1 and CB2-type cannabinoid receptors is found to be targeted to axons, indicative of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. (nih.gov)
  • This study reports the first collection of validated microRNA genes in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study determined whether eicosanoids or their precursors are involved in the regulation of heart rate in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis . (biologists.org)
  • The ascidian Ciona intestinalis, commonly known as a 'sea squirt', has become an important model for embryological studies, offering a simple blueprint for chordate development. (nih.gov)
  • The tunicate (sea squirt) Ciona intestinalis spends its adult life anchored to a hard substrate, filter feeding and releasing gametes (eggs and sperm) into the surrounding sea water. (nih.gov)
  • This method is a mainstay of the sea squirt (Ciona) research community. (princeton.edu)
  • A fluorescent microscope image of a larval sea squirt of the species Ciona intestinalis . (livescience.com)
  • The green lines in this microscope image depict the nerves within the tail of a Ciona intestinalis sea squirt larva. (livescience.com)
  • In order to side-step some of these challenges we have initiated studies of heart development in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis . (swarthmore.edu)
  • The streamlined genome of Ciona intestinalis, a common sea squirt closely related to vertebrates on the evolutionary tree, is providing new clues about the origins of key vertebrate systems and structures including the human hormone, nervous and immune systems. (innovations-report.com)
  • Satou Y, Imai KS, Satoh N (2001) Action of morpholinos in Ciona embryos. (springer.com)
  • Imai KS, Satou Y, Satoh N (2002) Multiple functions of a Zic-like gene in the differentiation of notochord, central nervous system and muscle in Ciona savignyi embryos. (springer.com)
  • This study provides a high-resolution cellular analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and dopamine-positive cells in Ciona intestinalis embryos and larvae. (nih.gov)
  • Comprehensive gene networks in Ciona intestinalis embryos provide a foundation for characterizing complex developmental processes, such as the initial phases of chordate heart development. (nyu.edu)
  • A translucent morphology, availability of developmental mutants, established transgenic experimental procedures, EST databases and quickly spawning embryos are just a few advantages that make Ciona a favourite model system for developmental biologists. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The formation and positioning of cilia in Ciona intestinalis embryos in relation to the generation and evolution of chordate left-right asymmetry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ciona embryos are very simple both cellularly and genetically and yet they are closely related to the vertebrates, using many of the same heart genes as human embryos. (swarthmore.edu)
  • Ciona savignyi, the closest relative of Ciona intestinalis, also have the same set of Hox genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present the P elements Pcin1 , Pcin2 and Pcin3 from Ciona intestinalis , a species of the most primitive chordates, and compare them with those from Ciona savignyi . (springer.com)
  • C. intestinalis and C. savignyi displayed nearly the same phenotype. (springer.com)
  • However, their P elements were highly divergent and the assumed P transposase from C. intestinalis was more closely related to the transposase from Drosophila melanogaster than to the transposase of C. savignyi . (springer.com)
  • The microRNA prediction algorithm utilizes configurable microRNA sequence conservation and stem-loop specificity parameters, grouping by miRNA family, and phylogenetic conservation to the related species, Ciona savignyi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanism of the block to hybridization and selfing between the sympatric ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi . (washington.edu)
  • Systematic analysis of embryonic expression profiles of zinc finger genes in Ciona intestinalis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Genomewide surveys of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis: (IX) Genes for muscle structural proteins. (mcgill.ca)
  • Satou Y, Yamada L, Mochizuki Y et al (2002) A cDNA resource from the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis . (springer.com)
  • Achievement of transposon mediated germline transgenesis in a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis , is discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The publication of the genome of a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis , provides a unique opportunity to gain further insight into how and when the expanded integrin supergene family found in vertebrates evolved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we exploit the extensive cell lineage information and stream-lined genome of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, to investigate heart development in a basal chordate. (princeton.edu)
  • The genome of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis has a compact size with an ancestral complement of many diversified gene families of vertebrates and is a good model system for studying protochordate to vertebrate diversification. (nih.gov)
  • An analysis of the Ciona repertoire of GPCRs from a comparative genomic perspective provides insight into the evolutionary origins of the GPCR signalling system in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • As dopaminergic cells are specified in the hypothalamus in all vertebrates, we suggest that the mechanisms of dopamine cell specification are conserved in the hypothalamus of Ciona and vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis, we have identified new candidate regulators of dopaminergic specification in Ciona based on their expression patterns, which can now be compared with those in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide was found in the heart of vertebrates, we studied the ANP presence in the heart of Ciona intestinalis. (viamedica.pl)
  • Results suggest the hypothesis that ANP is present not only in the vertebrates but also in the invertebrates and in Ciona heart ANP might play a similar role like in the heart of vertebrates. (viamedica.pl)
  • This extant ascidian occupies a crucial place in the "Tree of life" as an out-group to the vertebrates and hence studies addressing evolutionary aspects of Ciona have the potential to offer insight into some of the most intriguing questions about the origin of the vertebrates from a chordate lineage. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Ciona has only one copy of many key developmental genes that were later duplicated in the vertebrates, allowing stringent assessment of gene function. (swarthmore.edu)
  • Ciona s close relationship to vertebrates, along with its compact genome -- about 160 million base pairs, one-twentieth the size of the human -- and small cell complement make it an ideal model organism for studying chordate development and DNA regulatory networks. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Ciona sequence analysis revealed that its genome contains about 16,000 genes, about 80 per cent of which are also found in humans and other vertebrates. (innovations-report.com)
  • The total number of Ciona genes, however, is only about half the number in vertebrates. (innovations-report.com)
  • Daniel Rokhsar, head of the JGI s computational genomics department, said one reason for this "slimmed-down" DNA sequence is the fact that Ciona has single copies of a large number of genes that are present in multiple copies in vertebrates. (innovations-report.com)
  • On the other hand, Ciona has light-sensing genes very similar to those of vertebrates, as well as genes involved in the formation of the heart and of cells that accumulate iodine, much like the human thyroid gland. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recently, we demonstrated a Ciona intestinalis C3a (CiC3a)-mediated chemotaxis of hemocytes in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona intestinalis and suggested an important role for this molecule in inflammatory processes. (nih.gov)
  • In chemotaxis experiments, the Abs against the first and second extracellular loop inhibited directional migration of hemocytes toward the synthetic peptide reproducing the CiC3a C-terminal sequence, thus providing the compelling evidence that C. intestinalis expresses a functional C3aR homologous to the mammalian receptor. (nih.gov)
  • To address the issue of the presence of an inflammatory pathway in ascidians, we expressed in Escherichia coli the fragment of Ciona intestinalis C3-1 corresponding to mammalian complement C3a (rCiC3-1a) and assessed its chemotactic activity on C. intestinalis hemocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • We found that the migration of C. intestinalis hemocytes toward rCiC3-1a was dose dependent, peaking at 500 nM, and was specific for CiC3-1a, being inhibited by an anti-rCiC3-1a-specific Ab. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings indicate that CiC3-1a mediates chemotaxis of C. intestinalis hemocytes, thus suggesting an important role for this molecule in inflammatory processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Using cDNAs and ESTs derived from Ciona hemocytes, we identified 79 possible hemocyte-preferential transcripts and determined the cDNA sequence of each clone. (elsevier.com)
  • Because tunicates are vulnerable to these compounds in their natural habitats, we used Ciona intestinalis to establish an assay for phagocytosis in vitro of yeast by hemocytes after exposure to different concentrations (0.0015, 0.015, 0.15 and 1.5 μM) of four organotin compounds: tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), dibutyltin (DBT) and diphenyltin (DPT). (unipa.it)
  • abstract = "Hemocytes (effectors) of Ciona intestinalis showed a natural cytotoxic capacity (HCA) when assayed in vitro against erythrocytes (targets). (unipa.it)
  • In the present survey, genes encoding proteins with conserved HMG-box, bZip domains, and some types of zinc finger motifs were surveyed in the completely sequenced genome of Ciona intestinalis . (springer.com)
  • 2002) The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins. (mcgill.ca)
  • It appears that self/non-self recognition in ascidians such as C. intestinalis is mechanistically similar to self-incompatibility systems in flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organization of Hox genes is only known for C. intestinalis among ascidians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this, the chordate features of tunicates had not been described and, in fact, a century earlier the taxonomy of Carl Linnaeus placed C. intestinalis and other ascidians (see Glossary) within the molluscs, based on their adult form (Linné, 1767).10.7554/eLife.06024.002Figure 1.Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, C. intestinalis is the only marine invertebrate that has the advantages necessary for developmental genetics: the application of transgenic technique and Minos -based mutagenesis and established inland culture system. (nbrp.jp)
  • Since Linnaeus described the species, Ciona intestinalis has been used as a model invertebrate chordate in developmental biology and genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Ciona GPCRs have homologous representatives from the five major GRAFS (Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin) families concomitant with other vertebrate GPCR repertoires. (nih.gov)
  • (b) A Ciona intestinalis larva. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we provide an organismal perspective of C. intestinalis, highlighting aspects of its life history and habitat-from its brief journey as a larva to its radical metamorphosis into adult form-and relate these features to its utility as a laboratory model. (nih.gov)
  • For a fleeting day or two of its life, however, the larva of C. intestinalis adopts a tadpole morphology (Figure 1A). (nih.gov)
  • CiC3-1a-mediated chemotaxis in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, cDNA clones for almost all genes identified have been cloned and distributed as a " Ciona intestinalis Gene Collection Release I". The present comprehensive analysis therefore provides a means to study the role of these transcription factors in developmental processes of basal chordates. (springer.com)
  • The tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Enterogona, Ascidiacea), a major model system for evolutionary and developmental genetics of chordates, harbours two cryptic species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the Ciona complete genome sequence and EST sequence data, we present here an initial and exhaustive search in non-vertebrate chordates, Ciona intestinalis for the family members as well as homologs or orthologs that are involved in PCP/CE signaling cascades. (edu.sa)
  • Out of the epibenthic chordates, Vase tunicate ( Ciona intestinalis ) constitutes at least 50 % of the biomass. (helcom.fi)
  • We have developed a system for the remobilization of SB copies in the C. intestinalis genome by using transgenic lines expressing SB transposase in the germ cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This close evolutionary relationship makes Ciona genetically more similar to humans than other invertebrate model organisms. (swarthmore.edu)
  • By comparing Ciona s genome with those of the human and other animals, the researchers were able to glean new insights into the evolutionary origins of the human brain, spine, heart, eye, thyroid gland, and nervous and immune systems, as well as a better understanding of chordate and vertebrate development in general. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gissi C, Pesole G, Cattaneo E, Tartari M (2006) Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus. (springer.com)
  • The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is an important model animal for studying developmental mechanisms for constructing the chordate body. (springer.com)
  • Corbo JC, Levine M, Zeller RW (1997) Characterization of a notochord-specific enhancer from the Brachyury promoter region of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis . (springer.com)
  • Sasakura Y, Nakashima K, Awazu S et al (2005) Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis revealed the functions of animal cellulose synthase in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis . (springer.com)
  • An ascidian - Ciona intestinalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two marine organisms, the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis and the echinoderm feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus , have been selected as objects of the National Bio-Resource Project. (nbrp.jp)
  • The solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis may be seen attached to isolated rocks and boulders, whilst on the tops and sides of larger boulders, dead man's fingers Alcyonium digitatum may be recorded. (marlin.ac.uk)
  • Regeneration and development of the nervous system in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, Brachyury (Ci-Bra) plays a key role in notochord differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell sorting, microarrays, and targeted molecular manipulations were used to analyze cardiac cell migration in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Rates of growth, filtration and respiration of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.) were measured in the laboratory in the presence of food (flagellate Rhodomonas sp. (int-res.com)
  • A database search revealed five groups of cDNAs that encoded vanabin-like proteins in another ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. (hiroshima-u.ac.jp)
  • Genomic overview of mRNA 5'-leader trans-splicing in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. (mcgill.ca)
  • Sasakura Y, Awazu S, Chiba S, Satoh N (2003) Germ-line transgenesis of the Tc1/ mariner superfamily transposon Minos in Ciona intestinalis . (springer.com)
  • A Tc1 / mariner superfamily transposon, Minos , has excision and transposition activities in Ciona . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article, recent achievements with transposon techniques in Ciona , as well as characteristics of Ciona as a new genetic model, are discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the chordate Ciona intestinalis, Minos is the only transposon that has been used as the tool for germline transformation. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: In the present study, we found that another Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon, sleeping beauty (SB), retains sufficient activity for germline transformation of C. intestinalis. (elsevier.com)
  • Minos introduced into Ciona is excised from a plasmid vector by transposase and is integrated into TA dinucleotides of another DNA molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: SB-based germline transformation and the establishment of a new method that uses its frequent intrachromosomal transposition will result in breakthroughs in genetic approaches that use C. intestinalis together with Minos. (elsevier.com)
  • The Ciona intestinalis protein database (CIPRO) is a protein database for the tunicate species C. intestinalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild type Ciona, NBRP plasmids, and the transgenic line expressing Kaede fluorescent protein specifically in dopamine neurons ( Tg[MiCiTHK]2 ) were used in this study. (nbrp.jp)
  • Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. (pnas.org)
  • Using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, we found that a recombinant protein of at least one of the C. intestinalis vanabins (CiVanabin5) bound to vanadium(IV) ions. (hiroshima-u.ac.jp)
  • Ciona, however, uses a protein called hemocyanin -- rather than the hemoglobin used by most other animals -- to transport oxygen through its bloodstream, and it lacks the genes to produce steroids and histamines. (innovations-report.com)
  • Wild type Ciona and plasmids of NBRP were used in this study. (nbrp.jp)
  • This finding prompts careful re-evaluation of research data, as it is reasonable that literature concerning C. intestinalis sensu Linnaeus refers to both cryptic species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. intestinalis was one of the first animals to have its full genome sequenced, in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ciona intestinalis is the seventh animal of which draft genome was decoded in 2002. (nbrp.jp)
  • In an article for the December 13, 2002 issue of the journal Science, an international consortium of researchers reports on the draft sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the genome of C. intestinalis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Comparison of GPCRs in Ciona to that in human reveals a high level of orthology of a protochordate repertoire with that of vertebrate GPCRs. (nih.gov)
  • The Rhodopsin family accounts for ~68% of the Ciona GPCR repertoire wherein the LGR-like subfamily exhibits a lineage specific gene expansion of a group of receptors that possess a novel domain organisation hitherto unobserved in metazoan genomes. (nih.gov)
  • The Ciona repertoire of integrin genes provides new insight into the basic set of these receptors available at the beginning of vertebrate evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The taxonomic status of C. intestinalis L., the tunicate species most widely used for research purposes, was recently resolved with the discovery of two cryptic taxa, named C. intestinalis spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the cloning and expression pattern of Ci-msxb the second Ciona intestinalis homeobox gene homologue to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene. (nyu.edu)
  • Several cardiac genes were analyzed, including the sole Ciona ortholog of the Drosophila tinman gene, and tissue-specific enhancers were isolated for some of the genes. (princeton.edu)
  • C. intestinalis is now an indispensable model organism for world-wide research communication in life science. (nbrp.jp)
  • We study this question in the model organism Ciona intestinalis . (swarthmore.edu)
  • Two Ciona α chains cluster in laminin-binding clade and the remaining chain clusters in the clade that binds the RGD tripeptide sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This release includes a total of 14,182 predicted gene models produced at the JGI and is composed of known C. intestinalis genes mapped to the genomic sequence, gene models built by homology to known proteins from other model organisms and ab initio gene predictions. (doe.gov)
  • Conserved sequence motifs within these enhancers facilitated the isolation of a heart enhancer for the Ciona Hand-like gene. (princeton.edu)
  • CC Ciona intestinalis chromosome 1p JGI2 partial sequence 2966204. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Fujiwara S, Corbo JC, Levine M (1998) The Snail repressor establishes a muscle/notochord boundary in the Ciona embryo. (springer.com)
  • In the present analysis, 21 HMG-box-containing genes and 26 bZip genes were identified as well as four small groups of zinc finger genes in the Ciona genome. (springer.com)
  • The genomic C. intestinalis library was kindly provided by Weiyang Shi (Berkley). (springer.com)
  • The genes encoding C. intestinalis vanabins, CiVanabin1 to CiVanabin5, were clustered in an 8.4-kb genomic region. (hiroshima-u.ac.jp)
  • Dopamine cells are present only in the sensory vesicle of the Ciona larval brain, which may be an ancestral chordate feature. (nih.gov)
  • A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal is top) finds and attaches to a substrate via its anterior adhesive palps (two of three are shown), where it initiates metamorphosis. (nih.gov)
  • Ciona intestinalis is a solitary tunicate with a cylindrical, soft, gelatinous body, up to 20 cm long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ciona intestinalis is a solitary ascidian that lives in temperate waters around the globe. (uri.edu)
  • The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis was validated by Northern blot analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The axon trajectories of adult Ciona was described. (nbrp.jp)
  • Corpora lutea are reported to be present in the ovary of Ciona intestinalis and are briefly described. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, administration of Ci-TK to the Ciona ovary resulted in upregulation of gene expression and enzymatic activity of several proteases. (akjournals.com)
  • The Ciona Proteome was searched for 6/7/8 'TM' segment spanning sequences and the hits were taken for comparison against GPCRDB and against customized HMMs and PSSMs of GPCR families/subfamilies using an array of similarity/pattern search tools like BLASTP, HMMPFAM and RPS-BLAST. (nih.gov)
  • Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the Ciona analysis revealed a number of vertebrate-like genes, including complement, lectin, and Toll-like receptor genes, that researchers said may play a role in Ciona s primitive "innate" immune system. (innovations-report.com)
  • C. intestinalis has several characteristics that make it amenable for genetics research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, we identified for the first time two populations of previously undefined cells (a total of 12 cells) in Ciona: one located in the lateral trunk and the other located under the tail dorsal epidermis. (elsevier.com)
  • The transcription/migration interface in heart precursors of Ciona intestinalis. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • As is true for mammalian C3a, the chemotactic activity of C. intestinalis C3-1a was localized to the C terminus, because a peptide representing the 18 C-terminal amino acids (CiC3-1a 59-76 ) also promoted hemocyte chemotaxis. (elsevier.com)
  • The single-chambered Ciona heart forms by similar processes as the vertebrate heart tube, but in the context of a highly simplified embryo (see banner image above). (swarthmore.edu)
  • Despite this simplicity, the fundamental program for early vertebrate heart development is conserved in Ciona . (swarthmore.edu)