Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Encephalitozoon: A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.Encephalitozoonosis: Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.TailIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Onecut Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain a single cut domain and a divergent homeodomain. They regulate gene networks by controlling the expression of other transcription factors and they play an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.RNA, Messenger, Stored: Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.Trans-Splicing: The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.

Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome. (1/425)

The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by contrast, are predominantly methylated. These data are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements. Cytosine methylation in this urochordate may be preferentially directed to genes.  (+info)

A Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. (2/425)

A trypsin inhibitor from Ciona intestinalis, present throughout the animal, was purified by ion-exchange chromatography followed by four HPLC steps. By MS the molecular mass of the native form was determined to be 6675 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by protein sequencing, but appeared to be partial because the theoretical molecular mass of the protein was 1101 Da too low. Thermolysin treatment gave rise to several fragments each containing a single disulphide bridge. By sequence analysis and MS intramolecular disulphide bridges could unequivocally be assigned to connect the pairs Cys4-Cys37, Cys8-Cys30 and Cys16-Cys51. The structure of the inhibitor is homologous to Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors. The inhibitor constant, KI, for trypsin inhibition was 0.05 nM whereas chymotrypsin and elastase were not inhibited. To reveal the complete sequence the cDNA encoding the trypsin inhibitor was isolated. This cDNA of 454 bp predicts a protein of 82 amino acid residues including a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Moreover, the cDNA predicts a C-terminal extension of 11 amino acids compared to the part identified by protein sequencing. The molecular mass calculated for this predicted protein is in accordance with the measured value. This C-terminal sequence is unusual for Kazal-type trypsin inhibitors and has apparently been lost early in evolution. The high degree of conservation around the active site strongly supports the importance of the Kazal-type inhibitors.  (+info)

Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight into function and evolution of the pharyngeal epithelium. (3/425)

The epithelium of the pharynx contributes to the formation of gills in hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates and primitive vertebrates, and is therefore a key structure for understanding developmental mechanisms underlying the establishment of chordate body plans. Pax1- and Pax9-related genes encode transcription factors which are expressed in the pharyngeal region of cephalochordates as well as in the vertebrate pharyngeal pouch epithelium that forms the thymus and parathyroid glands. To explore the molecular basis underlying the occurrence and modifications of the pharyngeal epithelium during evolution, we isolated cDNA clones for Pax1- and Pax9-related genes of urochordates (HrPax1/9 of Halocynthia roretzi and CiPax1/9 of Ciona intestinalis) and a hemichordate (PfPax1/9 of Ptychodera flava) from gill cDNA libraries. Each gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome. All of the cDNAs encode typical paired domains and octapeptides but not a homeodomain, as is also true of other Pax1- and Pax9-related genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of the paired domain amino-acid sequences suggests that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 belong to the Pax1/9 subfamily, and that they are descendants of a single precursor of Pax1/Pax9. Screening of HrPax1/9 cDNA clones yielded six different types of transcripts which were generated by alternative splicing. Northern blot, RT-PCR/Southern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 are not expressed during early embryogenesis but are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills, suggesting that these genes encode gill-specific transcription factors. The Pax1/9 genes therefore might provide the first developmental genetic corroboration of hypotheses of organ-level homology that unifies hemichordates, urochordates and cephalochordates.  (+info)

Brachyury downstream notochord differentiation in the ascidian embryo. (4/425)

The ascidian tadpole represents the most simplified chordate body plan. It contains a notochord composed of just 40 cells, but as in vertebrates Brachyury is essential for notochord differentiation. Here, we show that the misexpression of the Brachyury gene (Ci-Bra) of Ciona intestinalis is sufficient to transform endoderm into notochord. Subtractive hybridization screens were conducted to identify potential Brachyury target genes that are induced upon Ci-Bra misexpression. Of 501 independent cDNA clones that were surveyed, 38 were specifically expressed in notochord cells. These potential Ci-Bra downstream genes appear to encode a broad spectrum of divergent proteins associated with notochord formation.  (+info)

Evolutionary alterations of the minimal promoter for notochord-specific Brachyury expression in ascidian embryos. (5/425)

The Brachyury genes of two divergent ascidians, As-T of Halocynthia roretzi and Ci-Bra of Ciona intestinalis, are expressed exclusively in notochord precursor cells. A previous study showed that the notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra is controlled by a minimal promoter that is composed of three distinct regions: a region responsible for repression of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, a region for activation of expression in notochord cells, and a region for activation of expression in non-notochord mesoderm cells, distal to proximal to the transcription initiation site, respectively. We examined various deletion constructs of the As-T/lacZ fusion gene and demonstrate that a module between -289 and -250 bp of the 5'-flanking region is responsible for notochord-specific expression of the reporter gene. Gel-shift assays suggested the binding of nuclear protein(s) to this module. The 5'-flanking region of As-T contains a potential T-binding motif (-ACCTAGGT-) around -160 bp. Deletion of this motif from the p(-289)As-T/lacZ diminished the reporter gene expression. In addition, coinjection of p(-289)As-T/lacZ and synthetic As-T mRNA resulted in ectopic expression of lacZ in non-notochord cells, suggesting that the T-binding motif is responsible for autoactivation of the gene. These findings revealed striking differences between the minimal promoters of As-T and Ci-Bra so far revealed, with respect to their notochord-specific expression. Furthermore, reciprocal injections of reporter gene constructs, namely As-T/lacZ into Ciona eggs and Ci-Bra/lacZ into Halocynthia eggs, suggest alterations in the cis-regulatory elements and trans-activation factors that have occurred during evolution of the two ascidian species.  (+info)

Follicle cell proteasome activity and acid extract from the egg vitelline coat prompt the onset of self-sterility in Ciona intestinalis oocytes. (6/425)

In the hermaphrodite ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the egg vitelline coat (VC) controls gamete self-nonself discrimination. Oocytes, after germinal vesicle breakdown, can be fertilized by both self and nonself sperm. However, a barrier to fertilization by self sperm progressively develops in the VC in the 3 hours after germinal vesicle breakdown. During this period, follicle cells attached to the outer surface of the VC release self-sterility factors that bind to the VC. Within the follicle cells, these factors (possibly peptides) are thought to be shuttled to the cell membrane by an hsp70 homolog (Cihsp70). In fact, antibodies to hsp70 block the development of self-sterility. Proteasomes are central to the production of antigen peptides. Specific inhibition of proteasome activity with clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (CLbetaL) prevented the onset of self-sterility, but had no effect once this process had started. CLbetaL did not block fertilization by nonself sperm. The self-sterility factors were removed from mature oocytes by exposure to acidified media, and their biological activity was transferred to immature oocytes treated with CLbetaL. The obvious high multiplicity of self-nonself recognition alleles involved in fertilization, and the involvement of an hsp70 and a proteasome in processing self-sterility factors, suggests that this system may be evolutionarily related to the vertebrate immune system.  (+info)

Membrane hyperpolarization by sperm-activating and -attracting factor increases cAMP level and activates sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. (7/425)

In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (and C. savignyi), sperm-activating and -attracting factor (SAAF) is released from the egg at fertilization and stimulates both Ca(2+) influx and a transient increase in cAMP level of the sperm, leading to the activation of sperm motility (M. Yoshida et al., 1994, Dev. Growth Differ. 36, 589-595). In this paper we show in C. intestinalis that valinomycin, a potassium-selective ionophore, as well as SAAF, activated sperm motility, and this activation was suppressed by extracellular high K(+). Membrane potential measurements showed that both SAAF and valinomycin increase K(+) permeability of sperm and induce membrane hyperpolarization, the amplitude of which depends on the external K(+) concentration. The membrane potential and intracellular K(+) concentration of Ciona sperm without SAAF were estimated to be about -50 mV and 560 +/- 40 mM, respectively. After treatment with SAAF or valinomycin the membrane potential became almost equal to the equilibrium potential of K(+) (-100 mV), and the cAMP level increased in artificial seawater. A potent voltage-dependent K(+) channel blocker, MCD peptide, at the concentration of 10 microM blocked SAAF-induced hyperpolarization of the cells, increase in cAMP, and sperm motility. These results suggest that membrane hyperpolarization produced by the opening of K(+) channels elevates cAMP synthesis and leads to the activation of sperm motility in Ciona.  (+info)

Patterning the ascidian nervous system: structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. (8/425)

Hox genes play a fundamental role in the establishment of chordate body plan, especially in the anteroposterior patterning of the nervous system. Particularly interesting are the anterior groups of Hox genes (Hox1-Hox4) since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior regions of the nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. Ascidians, among chordates, are considered a good model to investigate evolution of Hox gene, organisation, regulation and function. We report here the cloning and the expression pattern of CiHox3, a Ciona intestinalis anterior Hox gene homologous to the paralogy group 3 genes. In situ hybridization at the larva stage revealed that CiHox3 expression was restricted to the visceral ganglion of the central nervous system. The presence of a sharp posterior boundary and the absence of transcript in mesodermal tissues are distinctive features of CiHox3 expression when compared to the paralogy group 3 in other chordates. We have investigated the regulatory elements underlying CiHox3 neural-specific expression and, using transgenic analysis, we were able to isolate an 80 bp enhancer responsible of CiHox3 activation in the central nervous system (CNS). A comparative study between mouse and Ciona Hox3 promoters demonstrated that divergent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of these genes in vertebrates and ascidians.  (+info)

*List of introduced species

Ciona intestinalis (tunicate). Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. DAISIE (eds.). 2009. Handbook of Alien Species in Europe ... Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Brazilian pepper tree Bugweed Camphor tree Spanish broom Prickly pear Stone pine Cluster pine ...

*List of invasive species in South Africa

Ciona intestinalis (tunicate). Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. South Africa: Annelids. Global Invasive Species Database ... Ciona intestinalis - sea vase Invsive species of annelids include: Ficopomatus enigmaticus - Australian tubeworm Boccardia ...

*List of invasive species in Africa

Ciona intestinalis (tunicate). Global Invasive Species Database. ISSG. Herbert, David G (2010). The introduced terrestrial ... Bramble) Salvinia molesta (Kariba weed, giant salvinia) Solanum mauritianum (Bugweed) Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Ficopomatus ...

*Tunicate

Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi have been used for developmental studies. Both species' mitochondrial[49][50] and nuclear ... Ciona intestinalis (class Ascidiacea) is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost ... Aniseed: A model organism database for ascidians including Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi ... "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis" (PDF). Trends Genet. 23 (9): 419-422. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2007.07 ...

*Ensembl genome database project

Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi; Non-vertebrates Insects: Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly), Anopheles gambiae (mosquito), ...

*Cardiosporidium

It infects the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. This genus was first described by Van Gaver and Stephan in 1907. It was redescribed ...

*Alex Karczmar

Histochemical studies of cholinesterases in Ciona intestinalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17: 553-558. https://www.gf.org/fellows ...

*Relaxin family peptide hormones

"Three insulin-relaxin-like genes in Ciona intestinalis". Peptides. 27 (11): 2535-46. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.06.008. PMID ... Other studies attempted to show the existence of relaxin family peptide genes in the tunicate Ciona, but it has not been shown ...

*Tunicate

Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi have been used for developmental studies. Both species' mitochondrial and nuclear genomes ... Ciona intestinalis (class Ascidiacea) is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost ... Iannelli, F.; Pesole, G.,; Sordino, P.; Gissi, C. (2007). "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis". ... "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): 2157-2167. doi: ...

*List of sequenced animal genomes

December 2002). "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): ... "A haplome alignment and reference sequence of the highly polymorphic Ciona savignyi genome". Genome Biology. 8 (3): R41. doi ...

*Michael Levine (biologist)

Ciona intestinalis, to his repertoire. Although much of Levine's work, including his homeobox studies, has been done in ... Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate that facilitates study of development. For example, this work included insights into ... "Characterization of a Maternal T-Box Gene in Ciona intestinalis". Developmental Biology. 225 (1): 169-78. doi:10.1006/dbio. ... Erives, Albert; Corbo, Joseph C.; Levine, Michael (1998). "Lineage-Specific Regulation of the Ciona snail Gene in the Embryonic ...

*Albert Erives

Erives, A.; Levine, M. (2000). "Characterization of a maternal T-box gene in Ciona intestinalis". Developmental Biology. 225 (1 ... Erives, A.; Corbo, J.C.; Levine, M. (1988). "Lineage-specific regulation of the Ciona snail gene in the embryonic mesoderm and ... This work used the Ciona system to generate copious amounts of embryos that were then electroporated with enhancer DNAs. In ... Erives, A. (2009). "Non-homologous structured CRMs from the Ciona genome". J Comp Biology. 16 (2): 369-377. doi:10.1089/cmb. ...

*Caprella mutica

... and even soft-bodied tunicates like Ascidiella aspersa and Ciona intestinalis. In both their native and introduced ranges, C. ...

*Pseudoalteromonas tunicata

... is a marine bacterium isolated from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Euzéby, J.P. (March 4, 2012). " ...

*Ascidiacea

The sequenced genomes of the related sea squirts Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi are small and easily manipulated; ... Ciona intestinalis is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs into the surrounding seawater almost simultaneously. It is ... Hamada, M.; Wada, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Satoh, N. (2007). "Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis: ... The Dutch Ascidians Homepage Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland A fate map of the ascidian egg Ciona savignyi ...

*SWEET transporters

Hamada, Mayuko; Wada, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Satoh, Nori (2007-07-01). "Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis ... is essential for tissue differentiation during embryogenesis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis". Differentiation; Research in ...

*Tunikat Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas

Ciona intestinalis dan Ciona savignyi telah digunakan untuk kajian perkembangan. Kedua-dua genom mitokondria[9][10] dan ... Iannelli, F.; Pesole, G.,; Sordino, P.; Gissi, C. (2007). "Mitogenomics reveals two cryptic species in Ciona intestinalis". ... Aniseed: A model organism database for ascidians including Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi ... "The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins". Science. 298 (5601): 2157-2167. doi: ...

*Ann M. Valentine

"On the evolutionary significance and metal-binding characteristics of a monolobal transferrin from Ciona intestinalis". ...

*Torkel S. Wächter

The novel's name comes from the species Ciona intestinalis, a solitary species of sea squirt. Sea squirts are surrounded by a ... Samson (novel, 1997) Ciona - an Autobiology (novel, under the pseudonym Tamara T, 2002) In Drino Veritas, art and literature as ... Ciona. This is certainly a politically incorrect novel which, at least on the surface, repudiates gender as a social ... Ciona, an Autobiology (published under the pseudonym "Tamara T" by AlfabetaAnamma, 2002), was the first book written ...

*Phlebobranchia

Ciona intestinalis (Cionidae) Megalodicopia sp. (Octacnemidae) Perophora namei (Perophoridae) Gittenberger, A.; Sanamyan, K. ( ... Pseudodiazona] Araneum Monniot & Monniot 1973 Ciona Fleming 1822 [Cliona (sic) Agassiz 1846; Cione (sic) Verrill 1872; Cionea ( ...

*Ian Meinertzhagen

"The Draft Genome of Ciona intestinalis: Insights into Chordate and Vertebrate Origins" Science 298, 2157 (2002); DOI: 10.1126/ ...

*N-Acylamides

... an orthologue of vertebrate cannabinoid receptors in the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Gene, 302(1), 95-101. Fezza, F., ...

*NME8

Ciona intestinalis". Gene. 275 (1): 177-83. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00661-8. PMID 11574167. Zintzaras E, Kitsios GD, Ziogas ...

*Ascidiella aspersa

at depths of up to 90 m (300 ft). A. aspersa closely resemble Ciona intestinalis, but can be distinguished by their lack of ...

*Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology

Species studied include the tunicates Oikopleura dioica and Ciona intestinalis, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and ...

*List of animals by number of neurons

Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2016). "The CNS connectome of a tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L.) ...

*Aromatase

... but not in the earlier diverging tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Thus, the aromatase gene evolved early in chordate evolution and ...

*Voltage sensitive phosphatase

The first voltage sensitive phosphatase was discovered as a result of a genome-wide search in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis ... like region of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase provides insight into substrate specificity and redox regulation ...
Yagi, K., Takatori, N., Satou, Y., Satoh, N. (2005). "Ci-Tbx6b and Ci-Tbx6c are key mediators of the maternal effect gene Ci-macho1 in muscle cell differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos." Dev Biol 282:535-549. (PUBMED ...
This project will use a comparative approach to dissect the regulatory mechanisms of the chordate ParaHox genes (Gsx, Xlox/Pdx1 and Cdx), analysing regulatory elements of these genes in both the invertebrate sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the vertebrate Gallus gallus (chicken). ...
We have discovered a requirement for a novel connexin gene (frm-cx) in specification of the anterior neural plate in the invertebrate chordate Ciona. (The conne...
A biofilm-forming marine bacterium, D2, isolated from the surface of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, was found to produce a novel, 190-kDa protein with antibacterial activity. The protein contained at least two subunits of 60 and 80 kDa, joined together by noncovalent bonds, and was shown to be released by D2 cells into the surrounding medium during stationary phase. N-terminal sequence analysis revealed no close similarity of this protein to any other proteins within the Swiss Prot database. Bacteriocidal activity against a wide variety of marine and medical bacterial isolates was observed, 77% of the strains tested being sensitive to the protein. Bacterial strains varied in their resistance to the D2 protein, with D2 itself being among the most sensitive with an MBC in liquid suspension of 4 micrograms/ml. An apparent increased resistance of D2 to the protein as the cells progressed further into stationary phase was observed and seen as a possible explanation for its survival despite the ...
Retinoic acid (RA)-mediated expression of the homeobox gene Hox1 is a hallmark of the chordate central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that the RA-Hox1 network also functions in the epidermal ectoderm of chordates. Here, we show that in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm is necessary for formation of the atrial siphon placode (ASP), a structure homologous to the vertebrate otic placode. Loss of Hox1 function resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by expressing Hox1 in the epidermis. As previous studies showed that RA directly upregulates Hox1 in the epidermis of Ciona larvae, we also examined the role of RA in ASP formation. We showed that abolishment of RA resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by forced expression of Hox1 in the epidermis. Our results suggest that RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm played a key role in the acquisition of the otic placode during chordate evolution. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How the dynamic developmental program is inscribed in the genome and inherited to subsequent generations remains poorly understood. Efficient functional readout, notably at DNA level in vivo is often complicated by the complexity of regulatory interactions and the complexity of genomes, particularly in vertebrates.. To unravel fundamental genetic mechanisms that control cell fate choice in vivo, we study embryonic development in a simple marine invertebrate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, belonging to the vertebrate sister group, the tunicates. Larval equivalent stages of ascidians and vertebrates have resembling structures such as a central notochord (embryonic structure forming the vertebral colomn in vertebrates), a dorsal neural tube and flanking muscles. Whats more, ascidian embryos develop with a fixed cellular lineage based on few and large cells allowing cellular resolution of cell fate identity. The fully sequenced genome, since compact and unduplicated, gives acces to regulatory DNA ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
In Spring 2018, the method book that summarized transgenic technologies in ascidians has been published from Springer (Crick here for the webpage: https://www.springer.com/la/book/9789811075445). Many NBRP resources have been introduced in the book. The TALEN-based knockout vector that targets cellulose synthase gene is now available from NBRP! This knockout vector is used for improving WISH at the larval stage ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Ci-sFRP1/5 is expressed from the 64-cell stage, while the difference between the anterior and posterior ectodermal lineages is set up as early as the eight-cell stage. This suggests the existence of localized upstream regulators of Ci-sFRP1/5 expression. To identify them, we analysed the cis-regulatory sequences of Ci-sFRP1/5. Phylogenetic footprinting between Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi genomes identified three conserved blocks in the 2 kb upstream of the putative sFRP1/5 transcription start site (Fig. 2A).. We cloned two fragments of this region upstream of a NLSLacZ reporter gene and revealed the expression of this reporter by X-gal staining at the 110-cell and neural plate stages. A proximal fragment (from the putative transcription start to -985 bp, Fig. 2A) containing two conserved blocks produced no specific staining (data not shown). By contrast, sFRP-1067, a distal 1 kb fragment (from -927 bp to -1993 bp, Fig. 2A), drove specific anterior animal expression from the 64-cell ...
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - M-Ras evolved independently of R-Ras and its neural function is conserved between mammalian and ascidian, which lacks classical Ras. AU - Keduka, Etsuko. AU - Kaiho, Ai. AU - Hamada, Mayuko. AU - Watanabe-Takano, Haruko. AU - Takano, Kazunori. AU - Ogasawara, Michio. AU - Satou, Yutaka. AU - Satoh, Nori. AU - Endo, Takeshi. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - The Ras family small GTPases play a variety of essential roles in eukaryotes. Among them, classical Ras (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras) and its orthologues are conserved from yeast to human. In ascidians, which phylogenetically exist between invertebrates and vertebrates, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Ras-MAP kinase signaling is required for the induction of neural system, notochord, and mesenchyme. Analyses of DNA databases revealed that no gene encoding classical Ras is present in the ascidians, Ciona intestinalis and Halocynthia roretzi, despite the presence of classical Ras-orthologous genes in nematode, fly, amphioxus, ...
Binding Sites, Genome, Transcription Factor, Achievement, Children, Learning, Time, Understanding, Axis, Body Region, Canonical Wnt Pathways, Cells, Chordate, Chordates, Ciona Intestinalis, Embryo, Embryos, Epidermis, History, Inhibition
The dataset contains 72 RNA-seq samples obtained from adult (P150) C57BL/6JCrl mice. Samples are from total heart, liver and kidney tissue. Four different genotypes are included in the data: 1) wild type, 2) transgenic Ciona intestinalis AOX in Rosa26 locus (Szibor et al. 2017, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.027839), 3) respiratory chain complex III deficient Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice (a GRACILE syndrome patient mutation, Leveen et al. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hep.24031) and 4) a cross between the AOX transgenic and Bcs1lp.S78G mice (Rajendran et al. EMBO Mol Med. In press).
8-12 October 2012, University of Tampere, Tampere. Monday 8th Oct 2012, Minisymposium. Finnmedi 5 auditorium, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere. Attendance 0.5 ECTS. Program:. 9:00-9:05 Welcome. 9:05-9:55 Dr Alexander Klimovich (Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany):. "Hydra - a simple in vivo model for cellular and molecular analysis at an in vitro depth". 9:55-10:45 Dr Hitoyoshi Yasuo (UPMC University of Paris, France):. "Building a chordate body plan: the ascidian way". 10:45-11:05 Coffee break (coffee and snacks provided). 11:05-11:55 Prof Ulrich Theopold (Stockholm University, Sweden):. "The role of clotting in innate immunity". 11:55-12:45 Prof Steven Wasserman (UC San Diego, USA):. "A Toll of two species: The divergent path of a conservationist". 12:45-13:45 Lunch break (possibility to buy lunch at the campus restaurants). 13:45-14:45 Dr Koen Venken (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA):. "Gene and genome engineering in Drosophila for biology discovery and disease modeling" (IBT ...
fronde subcompressa margine undulata convenit cum var. b crispa Ag., aqua structura penitiori, granulis nempe molto maioribus egregie et fere specifice differt; as Ulva intestinalis g suhrii ...
I am Marine Biologist with M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Marine Ecology and large experience in Zoology of Marine Invertebrates. Currently, I am professor at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) from Brazil, where I teach invertebrate Zoology for undergraduate students. My studies in marine ecology include reproductive biology and settlement of many marine invertebrates and also, benthic ecology. My experience with ascidians began in 1991, at Guanabara Bay, focusing on the effects of predation on the occurrence of Ciona intestinalis. Now, I am working again on the effects of competition by Didemnidae and predation by fishes over ascidians richness, to better understand the colonization and growth of this group. Also, I use ascidians as a model to understand the invasive potential of marine invertebrates and its prevention. I see in this course the opportunity to obtaining the appropriate training and information for biological and taxonomic studies of Ascidiacea. It will be a very good ...
Conosci utenti Scozzesi a Cipro sul network degli espatrati Scozzesi a Cipro. Il modo migliore per entrare in contatto con espatriati Scozzesi a Cipro.Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases - An Emerging Worldwide Threat. Ciprofloxacin 73.5 97.6 67.6 75.0. Meropenem 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0.CIPRO 2.5: Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and curated annotation, with user ...
During the evolutionary history of life on Earth there has been a trend towards drastic transitions from simple to more complex life forms, like from unicellular bacterium to simple multicellular Placozans, diploblastic organisms with two germ layers to bilaterians with a third germ layer, simple chordates to vertebrates [1]. The innovation of new structures and functions during these macroevolutionary events has in part been accomplished through expansion in the genetic toolkit, e.g. by gene duplications [2]. In fact, extensive gene duplications have been suggested at the base of vertebrate lineage which results in widespread existence of gene families in modern vertebrates [3-6]. Expansions in gene number are associated with the evolution of increased morphological and anatomical complexity and diversity achieved by vertebrates compared to basal chordates (cephalochordates/tunicates). The organization of paralogous regions (paralogons) in the human and other vertebrate genomes have led to the ...
It is interesting to observe the changes both in the brain and the gut of the tadpole in the process of metamorphosis.. The sections shown are from 4 weeks to 17 weeks development.. (Paraffin Wax Sections, cut at 15 , see Appendix for details of the preparation protocol.). Each section is not fully annotated as the same structures appear in each.. I include a section, which shows the notochord sitting under the neural tube of the hindbrain. This is a cartilaginous structure that all chordate embryos possess. The last vestiges are the intervertebral discs in the adult. Also included is a section of the eye of the tadpole, which shows most of the structures present.. Gradually the tail of the tadpole disappears in the process of Apoptosis or programmed cell death, a process stimulated by the thyroid gland of the tadpole.. Many thanks to Dr Harry Isaacs of York University for his interest and help in identifying various parts of the anatomy in the sections.. Comments to the author Mike Morgan are ...
Phylum-Chordata tutorial all along with the key concepts of Features of Chordates, Protochordata, features of Vertebrates, categorization of Vertebrates, Developments in Vertebrates, Basic Chordate Body Plan, Adaptations of Fish and Maintenance Systems of fish
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What really surprised us was that when we included the chicken genome in this comparison, we found that nearly all these regions still showed amazingly high levels of conservation, he said. In 29 cases it was 100%. This, despite the fact that the common ancestor of chickens, rodents, and humans is thought to have lived about 300 million years ago, he said.. However, the researchers found these regions to be significantly less conserved in the genome of the fish called fugu. And when they extended their comparisons to the even more ancient genomes of the sea squirt, fruit fly and roundworm, they found very little evidence of these conserved elements. The sea squirt exhibits a simple spinal cord early in its life cycle, and so it is more closely related to vertebrates than are flies or worms.. The most exciting thing for me is that the ultra-conserved regions we have identified do represent evolutionary innovations that must have happened sometime during vertebrate development, because we see such ...
Stock Photo of Sea Tunicates Ascidians. High Quality Sea Tunicate Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Some of you may have read my last post about how I thought my dog and parvo, blah blah blah.....Anyways, everything has returned to normal again except that she has friggin hershey squirts like crazy, I mean she craps like at least 5-6 times a day or more. I wouldnt say diarrhea, cause its not completely watery, but it looks like a cow pie or something. Definately not normal. Before she got sick, her poop was normal, ever since she got better she hasnt been pooping normal and Im kinda getting sick of it since I live in an apt on the second story and she basically craps and pisses out on the patio and I have to clean it up frequently and its a pain in the ass and quite nasty ...
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Gastritis chronica/+/activa/-/cum atrophia/+/Hyperplasia foveolaris/+/ Metaplasia intestinalis non completa/++/Fibrosis laminae propriae/+/Erytrorrhagiae punctatae mucoss
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GACACCAGAC TCAGCAACGC AACAATTACT CGCTAAAGTC ACGGCTATAG CTGCCGAATG ACGCGTACTA TAAATACATA CGCATTAACT TGTTGTCCCA TAAGGATAAT CATATTTACT GCATCTTCCA CTATGTGCAA TTTCCACATT GCTTGAATGT TCACTGTGAT TTCTCATGTC TATGCATTGT TTCAAAGGTA AAATAACAGC TGGTGGCAAC GAACATTAAT CTCCTACTGC ATGGCTTAAG TGGTATAAAC GTATGTACAA CCTTCTTATG TACTGACCTT GCCATGCTAT GCCATCAGCA TATGTCTTAC TTGCATACAC TCTAGTATAC TTAAGTGTGA TAGAAAAAAA ACAAGGACAC ACTCGTCAGT CCTCGTTAAT TTTCATTTCC TATAATAATA CAAACTTAAG ACAAAAACTG AATTATTGCA TTAACTTATT CTGCATAAGC TACAATAATC ATAGCTTATC TCAGCATGCC TGCTGCTAAA TAGCTTGTTT GGTTTCGAGT TATTTTGTCC TCAACAATTT CGTTGCCGTG TTTCGTTCAC TGTGATATAT CTCGCAAGCT GCAAACATTA TATTTCTTCA AATCCACAAA ACGTTTGCAA TGTCTCGTCG TTTTGCAAGT GCTGTTTGCG AAAAAAAAGT AATAAAGAGG AAAGTTTCTC ATTCATTAAG ATGTATTAAG ATACCATAAG GATATGTTGC TACGAAAACA TAACAGACAA AAATATACTC CATTCAATGG TATATATAAT AAAATATATT TTATTTGATT TTTGTCTGTT AGGTTTCGTA GCTTCAGATC TCAACTGTAT TTCTTTACAT GGGAATCGTT CAACTCTATG AGCGCCTGAT AAGGGTCAAA TTCGCGGAAT TTATTACAGT TAGTTTATTT ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Urochordata at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Urochordata easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
100314397 Strongylocentrotus purpuratus , 100499018 Ciona intestinalis , 100526419 Saccoglossus kowalevskii , 102464115 Gorilla gorilla , 102466503 Sarcophilus harrisii , 102466558 Cricetulus griseus , 104795867 Capra hircus ...
Looking for online definition of ascidian in the Medical Dictionary? ascidian explanation free. What is ascidian? Meaning of ascidian medical term. What does ascidian mean?
Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Eye infections: Squirt in an open or closed eye. If the eye is closed have the person lie back, squirt it, then open his or her eye. 4 times or more per day. Plugged eye ducts: Squirt into the eye crease at the nose. Do this 4 times one day and 2 times the next. Conjuctivitis ("Pink Eye"): Same as Plugged eye ducts, but continute with 4 times daily until the crust is gone. Sties: Same as Conjunctivitis. Sore/cracked nipples: Rub into nipples and air dry. Scratches: Squirt and air dry, bandage, etc. as normal. Scrapes: Same as scratches. Burns: Same as scratches. Gouges: Same as scratches. Diaper rash: Squirt and air dry. Mosquito bites: Squirt on bite and rub in. Stops the itching. Ant bites: Same as Mosquito bites. Ear infections: Squirt or pour into sore ear. Can follow with warm (not hot) olive oil and garlic. Yeast infections: I dont know the logistics on this one, yet. Acne: Wash face with water, then follow with breastmilk squirted onto a cotton (be sure its cotton, that synthetic stuff ...
A squirt gun includes a hollow housing in the form of a gun with a liquid dispensing assembly within the housing. The liquid dispensing assembly includes a rubber tube, expandable upon being filled with liquid, which is connected to a rigid tube with a nozzle at one end, and will dispense liquid from the rubber tube through the nozzle. A pivotable trigger is mounted with one end located to squeeze the rubber tube against the housing. A rigid coil around the rubber tube between the trigger and rigid tube restrains the rubber tube from expansion for the length of the coil. An adapter is provided which is threadable on a faucet, for filling the rubber tube in the squirt gun with water.
Why do we have a brain? I didnt know this previously: The reason we have a brain is because like all other organisms from amoebas to elephants, we need to move in order to reproduce and get food. A plant can reproduce and get food without moving. Thats why plants dont have brains. This is illustrated by this marvelous creature the sea squirt. The sea squirt swims around the ocean until its found a place where it can settle, and then when it settles it attaches itself and then it proceeds to consume its own brain because it no longer needs it, which is often unflatteringly compared to a professor that gets tenure. It is important to remember that the brain is there to help us move in order to get things which are of vital importance to us. The brain isnt primarily consumed with knowledge, the sort of things we were taught about. That was just an idea that the Greeks had because it was a good way of getting young men to forget their emotions. But really everything we do is driven by our ...
For nature moves continuously from lifeless things through things that are alive but not animals. ~Aristotle Aristotle was fascinated by sponges. He could never quite figure out what they were nor why they seemed to mysteriously lay at the boundary between Plant and Animal. To him plants after all were only capable of reproduction and…
EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.. To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!. ...
A dad in Massachusetts has found an alternative way to feeding his son milk by using the baby's bottle like a squirt gun. Adorable video shows the technique, one that many have likely wanted to try.
the way and knowing that we like to finish our lesbian experiences with a bit of sex. And that was happened on the way down I had my breast full of milk so I had to squirt it Nataly was very thirsty and thought It would be very nice to drink from me…. ...
Some squinted their eyes. Some wriggled their noses. Many sniffled as they dabbed tissues to their leaking nostrils. But nearly all wore smiles after receiving a squirt of FluMist vaccine in each
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Abbott, D.P.; Newberry, A.T.; Morris, K.M. (1997). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. 6B: Ascidians (Urochordata). Ed. Bishop Mus. Press, Honolulu. 64 p ...
Now, where was I? [ looks around the kitchen ] Oh, yes. Anyway, its time to bone the chicken. Now, for this, you need a very sharp knife. You cant do nothing without a sharp knife! [ holds chicken and cuts ] Now, you place the chicken on its stomach, and cut along the backbone to the pug nose like so.. [ drops knife ] crap! Oh! Oh, now Ive done it - Ive cut the dickens out of my finger. Well, Im glad, in a way, this has happened.. [ blood squirts onto the chicken ] We have never really discussed what to do. First, we must stop the bleeding. [ holds her apron over her hand ] The best way is to put pressure on the apron, like so.. [ blood keeps sqirting all over the kitchen ] Now, you want to raise your hand above your head so the blood doesnt pump all the way up. [ blood continues to squirt ] Well, the apron doesnt seem to be working, so I recommend natural coagulants, such as chicken liver.. [ picks up the chicken liver ] Remember not to throw away the liver! [ blood squirts over the ...
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The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease throughout the world, where an estimated 500 million people are infected annually. Despite efforts in trying to elucidate factors associated with virulence in G. intestinalis little is currently known. The disease outcome is highly variable in Giardia infected individuals, ranging from asymptomatic carriers to severe disease. The reasons behind the differences in disease outcome are vaguely understood and studies trying to link infectivity to different Giardia assemblages or sub-assemblages have rendered conflicting results. Prior to this study, little was known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of different G. intestinalis assemblages across the world.. In this thesis, molecular characterization of clinical G. intestinalis samples from Eastern Africa and Central America, has been performed, enabling a better understanding of the prevalence of different ...
Comment on article by Eligio-Garcia et al. entitled "Frequency of Giardia intestinalis assemblages isolated from dogs and humans in a community from Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico using beta-giardin restriction gene" ...
Primary pneumatosis intestinalis (PPI) is a benign idiopathic condition in which multiple gas-filled cystic lesions are seen in the gastrointestinal tract wall. The changes are usually seen initially on radiography or CT with CT being the more se...
Pneumatosis Intestinalis: A Case Report and Approach to Management. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is defined as the presence of gas in the bowel wall and is a relatively rare finding. PI has been associated with various pathological conditions and...
Previous studies have shown the presence of Plg only in the jawed vertebrates [3,32], and a Plgl molecule has been discovered in the amphioxus B. belcheri, a basal chordate [19]. However, molecular cloning and identification of the putative Plgl in B. belcheri was lacking. In the present paper we demonstrate for the first time the presence of a kringle domain-containing protease with Plgl activity, named BbPlgl, in B. belcheri. The deduced 430-amino-acids long protein, BbPlgl, is structurally characterized by the presence of a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 16 amino acids, 2 kringle domains with the lysine-binding site structure in the N-terminus, a serine protease domain with the putative tPA-cleavage site (between Arg297 and Val298) in the C-terminus, the catalytic triad His237-Asp288-Ser379 expected for protease function, and a potential N-linked glycosylation site, which are all typical of Plgs. Moreover, the recombinant BbPlgl is readily activated by human uPA, and exhibits Plgl ...
Development. 2012 Apr;139(8):1467-75. Epub 2012 Mar 7. Nishide K, Mugitani M, Kumano G, Nishida H. Source Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan. ([email protected]) Abstract Tadpole larvae of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi show morphological left-right asymmetry. The tail invariably bends towards the left side within the vitelline membrane. The structure of the larval brain is remarkably asymmetric. nodal, a conserved gene that shows left-sided expression, is also expressed on the left side in H. roretzi but in the epidermis unlike in vertebrates. We show that nodal signaling at the late neurula stage is required for stereotypic morphological left-right asymmetry at later stages. We uncover a novel mechanism to break embryonic symmetry, in which rotation of whole embryos provides the initial cue for left-sided expression of nodal. Two hours prior to the onset of nodal expression, the neurula ...
The most complex group of animals to exist are the Chordates; comprising of all vertebrates and some invertebrates the Chordates all share and experience certain characteristics at some stage in their development.. These characteristics are what defines the chordates as complex animals. A notochord, the cartilage between the nerve chord and the spinal cord is only present in chordates. The dorsal hollow nerve chord will eventually develop into the central nervous system. Pharyngeal slits are gill like structures, we lose these before leaving the womb but some chordates keep them their whole lives. the final characteristic that defines and organism as part of the phyla chordata is a post anal tail. In humans, this is our coccyx.. Contain all of these characteristics and its safe to say youre a complex Chordate.. From Crash Course: Biology on YouTube presented by Hank Green. ...
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Giardia atau lengkapnya Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis, atau Giardia lamblia intestinalis duodenalis adalah parasit protozoa ber-flagela yang berkoloni di usus manusia dan hewan. Infeksi giardia pada manusia dapat menyebabkan kondisi yang disebut giardiasis.. ...
Tunicates can spread through the movement of fishing gear, shellfish, and recreational and commercial vessels. To control the spread of Golden Star Tunicate, boat hulls and fishing gear should be visually inspected and cleaned when necessary.. To prevent the spread of living fragments, water inside boats should be cleaned out and the boat should be allowed to dry for 24 hours. Also, because Golden Star Tunicate can rapidly colonize and establish large, self-sustaining populations, it should be removed from wharves and surrounding structures.. When combined with surveys (see map of where the Golden Star Tunicate are located), using genetic tools to find eggs and larvae of Golden Star Tunicate will help target control and prevention efforts. Improving our understanding of its lifecycle will help us to establish where and when to apply these efforts. Especially important is the removal of Golden Star Tunicate before it reproduces each year. Recent work by Memorial University of Newfoundland and ...
tunicate: Any member of the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata) of the phylum Chordata. Small marine animals, they are found in great numbers throughout the seas of the world. Adult members...
Blood squirt (blood spurt, blood spray, blood gush, or blood jet) is the effect when an artery, a blood vessel in the human body (or other organisms body) is cut. Blood pressure causes the blood to bleed out at a rapid, intermittent rate, in a spray or jet, coinciding with the beating of the heart, rather than the slower, but steady flow of venous bleeding. Also known as arterial bleeding, arterial spurting, or arterial gushing, the amount of blood loss can be copious, occur very rapidly, and can lead to death. In cut carotid arteries with 100 mL of blood through the heart at each beat (at 65 beats a minute), a completely severed artery will spurt blood for about 30 seconds and the blood will not spurt much higher than the human head. If the artery is just nicked, on the other hand, the blood will spurt longer but will be coming out under pressure and spraying much further. To prevent hand ischemia, there is a "squirt test" that involves squirting blood from the radial artery, which is used in ...
But wait! Theres so much more. The notochord isnt just a mechanical structure, its also a source of inductive signals that tell the spinal cord to form neurons. The first growth cones - the motile tip of a growing neuron - emerge where the spinal cord meets the notochord, and they creep along the surface of the notochord before charging off into the muscles. If I wanted to know how the nervous system builds that circuitry I was studying, I should look further into interactions with that long rod.. Also, I was beginning to appreciate the importance of the notochord to everything. In gastrulation, its those first cells that tuck in and migrate into the interior of the animal that are going to form axial mesoderm, which will eventually form the notochord. Oh, what a devious structure: it got me thinking about things other than the nervous system that develop, as well as appreciating how development is an integrative process that cant actually be thoroughly understood by examining organs in ...
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This was written before the amphioxus genome had been sequenced, so its not up to date. However, the article presents considerable information derived from cDNA analysis. ...
Giardia intestinalis, the most-common protozoan cause of intestinal morbidity worldwide, was first described in 1681 by Leewenhoek as being
With Tunicata, the rule is like this: all of them have a notochord in their tail in the larval stage, but they loose the notochord upon metamorphosis, when they loose their whole tail. There are a few tunicates, however, that make up an exception to this rule. The Apendicularia(Oikopleura sp.) do not undergo metamorphosis, and the adult retains all the characteristics of the larva, including the notochord. But it is simply an exception, not the general rule ...
The origin and affinities of chordates and echinoderms have long been a subject of interesting speculation. Relationships between creatures are postulated..
Stock Photo of Sea Tunicates Blue and Strawberry. High Quality Sea Tunicate Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
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Physical movement is the basis of a great amount of academic, social and emotional intelligence. Renowned neuroscientist Dr. Rodolfo Llinas, author of "I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self," tells the story of the lowly sea squirt. These primitive organisms contain just 300 brain cells. On the first day of its life, the organism swims until it finds a permanent place to attach itself. Once its anchored, it does not move for the rest of its short life ...
Squirt Dish It Out onto your toughest, greasiest jobs for a clean that cant be beat. Enjoy fast, easy rinsing with no harmful residues. Squirt into a sink filled with water for a bubbly bliss. Dish It Out is infused with Vitamin E & Aloe to Nourish Hands.
Ahoy, squirts! Quint here with todays Behind the Scenes Pic! Did you know that Stanley Kubricks Dr. Strangelove originally ended with a pie fight? Sure you did! Youre all good geeks. The original ending has long been discussed by...
What would it take to persuade you to allow government researchers to squirt millions of live flu viruses up your nose? A recently concluded project at the
The death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis pathway is thought to be unique to vertebrates. However, the presence of DR-encoding genes in the sea urchin and the basal chordate amphioxus prompted us to reconsider, especially given that amphioxus contains 14 DR proteins and hundreds of death domain (DD)-containing adaptor proteins. To understand how the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was originally established and what the differences in signaling are between invertebrates and vertebrates, we performed functional studies of several genes that encode DDs in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (Bbt). First, we observed that the increased abundance of Bbt Fas-associated death domain 1 (BbtFADD1) in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of death effector filamentous structures in the cytoplasm and the activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway, whereas BbtFADD2 protein was restricted to the nucleus, although its death effector domain induced apoptosis when in the cytoplasm. We further ...
1. Hedges SB. The origin and evolution of model organism. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2003 ;3:838-849 2. Winchell CJ, Sullivan J, Cameron CB. et al. Evaluating hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny and chordate evolution with new LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA data. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 ;19:762-776 3. Brusca RC, Brusca GJ. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer. 1990 4. Abouheif E, Zardoya R, Meyer A. Limitations of metazoans 18S rRNA sequence data: implications for reconstructiong a phylogeny the animal kingdom and inferring the reality of the Cambrian explosion. J Mol Evol. 1998 ;47:394-405 5. Takezaki N, Figueroa F, Zaleska-Rutczynska Z. et al. Molecular phylogeny of early vertebrates: Monophyly of the Agnathans as revealed by sequences of 35 genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2003 ;20:287-292 6. Jollie MJ. The origin of chordates. Acta Zool. 1973 ;54:81-100 7. Philippe H, Lartillot N, Brinkmann H. Multigene analyses of bilaterian animals corroborate the monophyly of Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and ...
Conway Morris and Caron (2012) have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaias anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta) are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or
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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus...
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Now, theyve shown that the same holds true in a living animal. Importantly, ubiquitous Ciona AOX activity had no apparent ill effects for the flies. Quite the contrary, mitochondria taken from AOX-expressing flies showed significant resistance to cyanide, and the flies partially resisted both cyanide and antimycin. AOX also rescued the movement defect and excess production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria in flies with a mutant version of a gene known as dj-1b, which is the fly equivalent to the human Parkinsons disease gene DJ1 ...
View Notes - Vert Lecture PPT from BIOLOGY 110 at Drexel. Lecture 10: Vertebrates Chapter 34 Shared dervied traits of chordates dorsal hollow nerve cord - develops from rolled ectoderm notochord -
This video shows a fusion event in progress between compatible individuals of the sea squirt, Botryllus schlosseri. At the beginning, terminal parts of vasculature, called ampullae, which surround the colony, have come into contact (one colony is on the top right, the other on the bottom left, out of the field of view). The ampullae push into each other repeatedly, and finally the cell layers between two ampullae fuse, and results in both individuals sharing a common circulation. ...
Multiple dilated bowel loops of small bowel are seen in the pelvis, with extensive bubbles of air seen within the bowel wall (fig 2, arrows). This sign is known as pneumatosis intestinalis. Most cases occur in the jejunum and ileum. A small number involve the colon12 (pneumatosis coli).3 The left side is more commonly affected than the right.2 ...
A notochord can be found in the embryos of all chordates, the phylum which contains the subphyla of fish, mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians. The notochord defines the primitive axis of the...
Phylum Chordata : It includes highest evolved animals of the animals kingdom. Chief characteristics of the phylum are : (a)Notochord : A dorsal solid notochord is present throughout life or in larval stages. (b)Nerve cor…
Bumblebees have the trouble of retaining far too much water, and require quick and effective ways to void it - with interesting behavioural consequences
Fourth and Goal. Part 6. By Strongsouljah. For disclaimers: See Part 1. Chapter 11. Johnnie sat in the waiting area with Nadina, Michael and JB while Dr. Taylor was in Rock s room. Nadina could see the look of intense concentration on her mother s face. Mama, what s wrong?. I came down kinda hard on Squirt this afternoon, Johnnie revealed. I should have known she was scared out of her mind.. Vali understands, Mama. She knows you didn t mean it, Nadina said, hoping to ease her mother s conscience. I should have known better, Little One. I know what it s like to be laid up in a hospital bed, not knowing if you ll ever be the same again.. Nadina shuddered as she remembered the story of her mother getting shot by her uncle. I know, Mama. Try not to upset yourself about it, ok?. Johnnie looked into her daughter s eyes and could tell that she wanted a change of subject. I have an idea about how to make it up to Squirt.. How are you gonna do that, Mama?. JB looked up from his magazine ...
Squirt hunter features the best of female ejaculation. These squirters make everyone wet. Hot squirt porn, pussies squirting, and sexy girls squirting from their pussies.
Easily order groceries online for curbside pickup or delivery. Pickup is always free with a minimum $30 purchase. Aisles Online has thousands of low-price items to choose from, so you can shop your list without ever leaving the house.
Denel is in discussions with various government departments including the South African Air Force (SAAF) on upgrading the Rooivalk combat helicopter and developing a next generation Rooivalk Mk 2,..
How much and how often should I give LubriSynHA to my horse? Because any form of HA that is introduced to the body from an external source only remains in the body for 36 hours, it is important to give your horse LubriSynHA every day. We recommend that you start with a "loading dose" for one week of 30 ml or one fluid ounce. Then you can drop it to the "maintenance" dose of 15 ml (one Tablespoon or 1/2 ounce). The gallon and half-gallon sizes comes with a pump that can be placed directly in the container. Equine "squirt" is a measured 15 ml dose. ...
Hi all. Does anyone here know where I would go to start research on license requirements etc. for a fert&squirt in Ontario? I am just beginning...
Computed tomography colonography imaging of pneumatosis intestinalis after hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a case report. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Symptoms of giardiasis in HIV-infected individuals appear to be no more severe than those in HIV-negative individuals, and giardiasis is not typically considered a major cause of enteritis in HIV-infected patients.12 However, with progressive immunosuppression and reduced CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell counts, the risk of symptomatic Giardia infections increases. Studies in adults have demonstrated that enteritis due to G. intestinalis is a frequent event among AIDS patients, especially in the most advanced stage of disease.13 Research in HIV-infected adults from countries where giardiasis is endemic demonstrate that risk of Giardia infections and severity of disease increased with increasing immunosuppression and lower CD4 cell counts.14,15 In a study of 75 HIV-infected adults in India, G. intestinalis was the most commonly isolated parasite, and patients with lower CD4 cell counts presented with significantly more enteric disease and chronic diarrhea.16 In another study of 43 adults naive to ...
Pneumatosis Intestinalis With Evidence of Portal Venous Gas This single axial CT image with oral and intravenous contrast demonstrates portal venous gas in ...
PI is the presence of gas within the submucosa or subserosa of the intestine. A previous study found that the mean age of PI patients is 56.6 ± 19.4 years and that 57 % of patients were male [8]. PI is a rare disease and is still poorly understood. Four main theories exist, positing that PI is caused by: (1) increased intraluminal pressure derived from intestinal obstruction, colonoscopy, or gastroenteric tumor (mechanical theory); (2) pulmonary alveolar rupture resulting from pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma (pulmonary theory); (3) gas produced by gas-forming bacteria that enter the mucosal barrier (bacterial theory); or (4) α-glucosidase inhibitors (chemical theory) [9]. However, each theory alone also fails to account for the cause of PI [2, 3].. PVG is the presence of air in the portal venous system. The mechanism for the appearance of gas in the portal vein is also not well understood. There are two major theories: (1) gas dissects into the ...
LOCUS NC_014416 175776 bp DNA linear CON 10-OCT-2017 DEFINITION Encephalitozoon intestinalis ATCC 50506 chromosome II, complete sequence. ACCESSION NC_014416 VERSION NC_014416.1 DBLINK BioProject: PRJNA51607 BioSample: SAMN03081424 Assembly: GCF_000146465.1 KEYWORDS RefSeq. SOURCE Encephalitozoon intestinalis ATCC 50506 ORGANISM Encephalitozoon intestinalis ATCC 50506 Eukaryota; Fungi; Microsporidia; Unikaryonidae; Encephalitozoon. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 175776) AUTHORS Pombert,J.F., Selman,M., Burki,F., Bardell,F.T., Farinelli,L., Solter,L.F., Whitman,D.W., Weiss,L.M., Corradi,N. and Keeling,P.J. TITLE Gain and loss of multiple functionally related, horizontally transferred genes in the reduced genomes of two microsporidian parasites JOURNAL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (31), 12638-12643 (2012) PUBMED 22802648 REFERENCE 2 (bases 1 to 175776) AUTHORS Corradi,N., Pombert,J.F., Farinelli,L., Didier,E.S. and Keeling,P.J. TITLE The complete sequence of the smallest known nuclear genome from ...

Characterization and Transcriptional Activity of a Vitamin D Receptor Ortholog in the Ascidian Halocynthia roretzi | Korea...Characterization and Transcriptional Activity of a Vitamin D Receptor Ortholog in the Ascidian Halocynthia roretzi | Korea...

Although a putative ancestral VDR gene is present in the genome of the chordate invertebrate Ciona intestinalis, the functional ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis. III. Genes for Fox, ETS, nuclear receptors and ... intestinalis VDR (56%). In the luciferase reporter assays, the transcriptional activity of HrVDR was not significantly ...
more infohttp://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/ArticleFullRecord.jsp?cn=KSSHBC_2015_v48n6_913

Sars Internal: Sars Seminar AbstractsSars Internal: Sars Seminar Abstracts

... whereas 24 and 20 miRNAs are identified from Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, respectively, by homology search. ... The spatial relationship of fgf8 and fbxw4 is conserved in ciona genome, pointing to a fundamental aspect of chordate fgf8 ...
more infohttp://www.sars.no/internal/secure/news/abstracts2006.php

Projects | eastbioProjects | eastbio

... analysing regulatory elements of these genes in both the invertebrate sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the vertebrate Gallus ...
more infohttp://www.eastscotbiodtp.ac.uk/available-projects?page=14

Ciona intestinalis - WikipediaCiona intestinalis - Wikipedia

CIPRO from ibio.jp Ciona intestinalis photos from ascidians.com View the Ciona intestinalis genome in Ensembl View the ci2 ... Ciona savignyi, the closest relative of Ciona intestinalis, also have the same set of Hox genes. The organization of Hox genes ... Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft ... Ciona intestinalis is a solitary tunicate with a cylindrical, soft, gelatinous body, up to 20 cm long. The body colour and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciona_intestinalis

Ciona intestinalis protein database - WikipediaCiona intestinalis protein database - Wikipedia

The Ciona intestinalis protein database (CIPRO) is a protein database for the tunicate species C. intestinalis. Ciona ... Ciona intestinalis protein database, a unique integrated repository of large-scale omics data, bioinformatic analyses and ... intestinalis Endo, Toshinori; Ueno Keisuke; Yonezawa Kouki; Mineta Katsuhiko; Hotta Kohji; Satou Yutaka; Yamada Lixy; Ogasawara ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciona_intestinalis_protein_database

Drosophila P transposons of the urochordata Ciona intestinalis | SpringerLinkDrosophila P transposons of the urochordata Ciona intestinalis | SpringerLink

Pcin2 and Pcin3 from Ciona intestinalis, a species of the most primitive chordates, and compare them with those from Ciona ... Hoshino Z, Nishikawa T (1985) Taxonomic studies of Ciona intestinalis (L.) and its allies. Publ Seto Mar Lab 30:61-79Google ... The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: Insights into chordate and vertebrate origins. Science 298:2157-2167PubMedCrossRef ... C. intestinalis and C. savignyi displayed nearly the same phenotype. However, their P elements were highly divergent and the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00438-009-0453-7

Genome Editing of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis with TALE Nuclease | SpringerLinkGenome Editing of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis with TALE Nuclease | SpringerLink

The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is an important model animal for studying developmental mechanisms for constructing the ... Ascidian Ciona intestinalis Genome editing TALEN Knockout Electroporation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Joly JS, Kano S, Matsuoka T et al (2007) Culture of Ciona intestinalis in closed systems. Dev Dyn 236:1832-1840CrossRefPubMed ... Satou Y, Yamada L, Mochizuki Y et al (2002) A cDNA resource from the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Genesis 33:153-154 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-7128-2_19

Natural Variation of Model Mutant Phenotypes in Ciona intestinalisNatural Variation of Model Mutant Phenotypes in Ciona intestinalis

To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation ... intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes ... intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic ... Ciona intestinalis Is the Subject Area "Ciona intestinalis" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002344

Potassium channel-interacting protein KChIP - Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt)Potassium channel-interacting protein KChIP - Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt)

Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,Q6R4N5,Q6R4N5_CIOIN Potassium channel-interacting protein KChIP OS=Ciona intestinalis OX=7719 PE=2 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6R4N5

The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis.  - PubMed - NCBIThe repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. - PubMed - NCBI

The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis.. Kamesh N1, Aradhyam GK, Manoj N. ... Phylogenetic relationship between non-(LDLRR-GPCR/LGR) Rhodopsin receptors in Ciona and other genomes. All members of the Ciona ... Phylogenetic relationship within the Ciona GPCR set of Adhesion receptors. A phylogeny of Ciona Adhesion GPCRs shows the ... The genome of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis has a compact size with an ancestral complement of many diversified gene ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452600?dopt=Abstract

NR1 - Nuclear receptor 1 - Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) - NR1 gene & proteinNR1 - Nuclear receptor 1 - Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) - NR1 gene & protein

Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). Ciona savignyi (Pacific transparent sea squirt). 587. ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). 587. UniRef100_A0A1W2VN56. Cluster: nuclear receptor 1. 2. ... Ciona intestinalis (Transparent sea squirt) (Ascidia intestinalis). 587. UniRef90_A0A1W2VN56. Cluster: nuclear receptor 1. 6. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O77154

CI431, an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human...CI431, an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human...

CI431, an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human ... an Aqueous Compound from Ciona intestinalis L., Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in Human ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/292873/cta/

A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis | SpringerLinkA genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis | SpringerLink

Yamada, L., Kobayashi, K., Degnan, B. et al. A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis . Dev ... Dehal P, Satou Y, Campbell RK et al (2002) The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate ... In addition, cDNA clones for almost all genes identified have been cloned and distributed as a "Ciona intestinalis Gene ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis IV. Genes for HMG transcriptional regulators, bZip ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00427-003-0316-x

Corpora lutea in an Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis | Journal of Cell ScienceCorpora lutea in an Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis | Journal of Cell Science

Corpora lutea in an Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... Corpora lutea are reported to be present in the ovary of Ciona intestinalis and are briefly described. They conform to the type ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/s3-92/18/201

Computational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes | BMC Genomics | Full TextComputational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Ciona savignyi. The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis ... In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis. The microRNA ... Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and ... Computational prediction of the Ciona intestinalis microRNAs. Computational prediction of Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-8-445

SNPs and Hox gene mapping in Ciona intestinalis | BMC Genomics | Full TextSNPs and Hox gene mapping in Ciona intestinalis | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Collection of Ciona intestinalis sp. A and B specimens. Individuals of Ciona intestinalis sp. A were collected in the following ... SNPs in Ciona intestinalis sp. B. All pairs of EPIC primers used to amplify C. intestinalis sp. A genomic DNA were successfully ... SNPs in Ciona intestinalis sp. A. Percentage of transversion and transition SNPs in C. intestinalis sp. A. Values outside ... Ciona intestinalis sp. B specimens were obtained from the following localities: Plymouth Sound and Edinburgh (United Kingdom), ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-9-39

Transposon mediated transgenesis in a marine invertebrate chordate: Ciona intestinalis | Genome Biology | Full TextTransposon mediated transgenesis in a marine invertebrate chordate: Ciona intestinalis | Genome Biology | Full Text

Ciona intestinalis, is discussed. A Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon, Minos, has excision and transposition activities in ... Ciona. Minos enables the creation of stable transgenic lines, enhancer detection, and insertional mutagenesis. ... Ciona intestinalis (hereafter referred to as Ciona) is a cosmopolitan ascidian [28-31]. It is hermaphroditic and self-fertile. ... c) Ciona intestinalis adults. After metamorphosis, Ciona loses its tail and starts to settle. Most ascidians are filter feeders ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2007-8-s1-s3

MarLIN - The Marine Life Information Network - Dense brittlestars with sparse Ascidia mentula and Ciona intestinalis on...MarLIN - The Marine Life Information Network - Dense brittlestars with sparse Ascidia mentula and Ciona intestinalis on...

Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula, that occur in CR.LCR.BrAs.AmenCio.Bri, are both widely distributed, and appear to ... Ciona intestinalis has been reported in Scandinavian waters in salinities as low as 11 ‰ (Renborg et al., 2014; Dybern, 1967). ... Both Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula, found in CR.LCR.BrAs.AmenCio.Bri, are large, emergent, sessile ascidians, and ... Ciona intestinalis and Ascidia mentula are typically found in full salinity conditions, but both have been found in lower ...
more infohttps://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitats/detail/1067/dense_brittlestars_with_sparse_ascidia_mentula_and_ciona_intestinalis_on_sheltered_circalittoral_mixed_substrata

First Identification of a Chemotactic Receptor in an Invertebrate Species: Structural and Functional Characterization of Ciona...First Identification of a Chemotactic Receptor in an Invertebrate Species: Structural and Functional Characterization of Ciona...

... we demonstrated a Ciona intestinalis C3a (CiC3a)-mediated chemotaxis of hemocytes in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona ... Peptide receptors and immune-related proteins expressed in the digestive system of a urochordate, Ciona intestinalis. Satake H ... Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity. Giacomelli S, Melillo D, Lambris JD, ... CiC3-1a-mediated chemotaxis in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata). Pinto MR, Chinnici CM, Kimura Y ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16951378/

A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors - DOE...A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors - DOE...

A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors. ... We identified 46 genes encoding bHLH proteins in the draft genome sequence of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. These 46 ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - I. Genes for bHLH transcription factors ... In addition, the comparison between the numbers of orthologous human and Ciona bHLH factors reveals the simplicity of the Ciona ...
more infohttps://jgi.doe.gov/publication/a-genomewide-survey-of-developmentally-relevant-genes-in-ciona-intestinalis-i-genes-for-bhlh-transcription-factors/

A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors -...A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors -...

... which might have reduced the number of Ciona homeobox genes. Interestingly, one of the newly identified Ciona intestinalis ... The present study searched the draft genome sequence and cDNA/EST database of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis to identify ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors. ... A genomewide survey of developmentally relevant genes in Ciona intestinalis - II. Genes for homeobox transcription factors ...
more infohttps://jgi.doe.gov/publication/a-genomewide-survey-of-developmentally-relevant-genes-in-ciona-intestinalis-ii-genes-for-homeobox-transcription-factors/

Temperature effects on the proteome of Ciona intestinalis by Chelsea Lopez"Temperature effects on the proteome of Ciona intestinalis" by Chelsea Lopez

... intestinalis , found that C. intestinalis raised at 22 °C had lower embryo viability when compared to the normal temperature ... C. intestinalis in Rhode Island exhibit normal embryonic development at water temperatures between 10° C and 18° C. This thesis ... Ciona intestinalis is a solitary ascidian that lives in temperate waters around the globe. ... Ciona intestinalis is a solitary ascidian that lives in temperate waters around the globe. C. intestinalis in Rhode Island ...
more infohttp://digitalcommons.uri.edu/dissertations/AAI10191174/

Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feedi | Open-iCiona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feedi | Open-i

... intestinalis (dorsal is top) finds and attaches to a substra ... Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult ... fig1: Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult.(A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal ... fig1: Ciona intestinalis, from swimming larva to filter-feeding adult.(A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal ... The ascidian Ciona intestinalis, commonly known as a sea squirt, has become an important model for embryological studies, ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4373457_elife06024f001&req=4

The integrins of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis provide novel insights into the molecular evolution of the vertebrate...The integrins of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis provide novel insights into the molecular evolution of the vertebrate...

The publication of the genome of a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis, provides a unique opportunity to gain further insight ... one clusters in the vertebrate β1 clade and the remaining Ciona chain is the orthologue of the vertebrate β4 chain. The Ciona ... Two Ciona α chains cluster in laminin-binding clade and the remaining chain clusters in the clade that binds the RGD tripeptide ... The Ciona genome encodes eleven α and five β chain genes that are highly homologous to their vertebrate homologues. Eight of ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-5-31
  • Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Ciona GPCRs have homologous representatives from the five major GRAFS (Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin) families concomitant with other vertebrate GPCR repertoires. (nih.gov)
  • Gissi C, Pesole G, Cattaneo E, Tartari M (2006) Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus. (springer.com)
  • The genome of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis has a compact size with an ancestral complement of many diversified gene families of vertebrates and is a good model system for studying protochordate to vertebrate diversification. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified 169 gene products in the Ciona genome that code for putative GPCRs. (nih.gov)
  • The Rhodopsin family accounts for ~68% of the Ciona GPCR repertoire wherein the LGR-like subfamily exhibits a lineage specific gene expansion of a group of receptors that possess a novel domain organisation hitherto unobserved in metazoan genomes. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nearly 39% of Ciona GPCRs have unambiguous orthologs of vertebrate GPCR families, as defined for the human, mouse, puffer fish and chicken genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of GPCRs in Ciona to that in human reveals a high level of orthology of a protochordate repertoire with that of vertebrate GPCRs. (nih.gov)
  • Of the five Ciona β chains, three form an ascidian-specific clade, one clusters in the vertebrate β1 clade and the remaining Ciona chain is the orthologue of the vertebrate β4 chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The single-chambered Ciona heart forms by similar processes as the vertebrate heart tube, but in the context of a highly simplified embryo (see banner image above). (swarthmore.edu)
  • Despite this simplicity, the fundamental program for early vertebrate heart development is conserved in Ciona . (swarthmore.edu)
  • However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g., the annelid Platynereis dumerilii ) and deuterostomian (e.g., the urochordate Ciona intestinalis ) invertebrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis was validated by Northern blot analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we provide an organismal perspective of C. intestinalis, highlighting aspects of its life history and habitat-from its brief journey as a larva to its radical metamorphosis into adult form-and relate these features to its utility as a laboratory model. (nih.gov)
  • The axon trajectories of adult Ciona was described. (nbrp.jp)
  • The Ciona Proteome was searched for 6/7/8 'TM' segment spanning sequences and the hits were taken for comparison against GPCRDB and against customized HMMs and PSSMs of GPCR families/subfamilies using an array of similarity/pattern search tools like BLASTP, HMMPFAM and RPS-BLAST. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, we demonstrated a Ciona intestinalis C3a (CiC3a)-mediated chemotaxis of hemocytes in the deuterostome invertebrate Ciona intestinalis and suggested an important role for this molecule in inflammatory processes. (nih.gov)
  • In chemotaxis experiments, the Abs against the first and second extracellular loop inhibited directional migration of hemocytes toward the synthetic peptide reproducing the CiC3a C-terminal sequence, thus providing the compelling evidence that C. intestinalis expresses a functional C3aR homologous to the mammalian receptor. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the migration of C. intestinalis hemocytes toward rCiC3-1a was dose dependent, peaking at 500 nM, and was specific for CiC3-1a, being inhibited by an anti-rCiC3-1a-specific Ab. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings indicate that CiC3-1a mediates chemotaxis of C. intestinalis hemocytes, thus suggesting an important role for this molecule in inflammatory processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity. (nih.gov)
  • Minos introduced into Ciona is excised from a plasmid vector by transposase and is integrated into TA dinucleotides of another DNA molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcription/migration interface in heart precursors of Ciona intestinalis. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Wild type Ciona, NBRP plasmids, and the transgenic line expressing Kaede fluorescent protein specifically in dopamine neurons ( Tg[MiCiTHK]2 ) were used in this study. (nbrp.jp)
  • As is true for mammalian C3a, the chemotactic activity of C. intestinalis C3-1a was localized to the C terminus, because a peptide representing the 18 C-terminal amino acids (CiC3-1a 59-76 ) also promoted hemocyte chemotaxis. (elsevier.com)
  • Fujiwara S, Corbo JC, Levine M (1998) The Snail repressor establishes a muscle/notochord boundary in the Ciona embryo. (springer.com)
  • After metamorphosis, Ciona loses its tail and starts to settle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A) During a brief larval phase, C. intestinalis (dorsal is top) finds and attaches to a substrate via its anterior adhesive palps (two of three are shown), where it initiates metamorphosis. (nih.gov)
  • The functions of Hox1 in the thyroid-homologous organ (endostyle) were characterized in Ciona. (nbrp.jp)
  • An organismal perspective on C. intestinalis development, origins and diversification. (nih.gov)
  • Our goal is to use what we learn in Ciona to guide heart research in other model organisms such as frogs, chicken and mice, eventually providing the framework required for the diagnosis and treatment human heart defects. (swarthmore.edu)