Hair Cells, Vestibular
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
Encyclopedias as Topic
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
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An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)
Calcium Channel Blockers
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Functional overlap of IP(3)- and cADP-ribose-sensitive calcium stores in guinea pig myenteric neurons. (1/49)In myenteric neurons two different receptor subtypes govern the intracellular Ca(2+) stores: the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Their degree of functional overlap was determined by examining Ca(2+) release in these cells through both superfusion techniques and intracellular microinjection. Microinjection of IP(3) (50 microM) and cADP-ribose (cADPr, 50 microM), specific ligands for the IP(3)R and RyR, respectively, demonstrated mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Perfusion with cinnarizine (50 microM) or dantrolene (10 microM), antagonists of the IP(3)R and RyR, respectively, eliminated the Ca(2+) response to microinjected IP(3) and cADPr. Superfusion of the neurons with 100 microM ATP, an IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonist, caused intracellular Ca(2+) increments, which were antagonized by cinnarizine, and the RyR antagonists dantrolene, procaine (5 mM), and ryanodine (1 microM). Caffeine (10 mM) was applied repetitively in Ca(2+)-free conditions to deplete RyR-sensitive stores; subsequent perfusion with ATP demonstrated a Ca(2+) response. Conversely, caffeine caused a Ca(2+) response after repetitive ATP exposures. The internal Ca(2+) stores of myenteric neurons are governed by two receptor subtypes, IP(3)R and RyR, which share partial functional overlap. (+info)
Effect of dipfluzine on L-type calcium current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. (2/49)AIM: To study the effect of dipfluzine (Dip) on L-type calcium current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Single myocytes were dissociated by enzymatic dissociation method. The current was recorded with the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Dip (0.3 - 30 micromol/L) reduced the voltage-dependently activated peak value of I(Ca-L) in a concentration-dependent manner. The characteristics of I-V relationship were not greatly altered by Dip, and the maximal activation voltage of I(Ca-L) in the presence of Dip was not different from that of control. Steady-state activation of I(Ca-L) was not affected markedly, and the half activation potential V(0.5)) and the slope factor (kappa) in the presence of Dip 3 micromol/L were not markedly different from those of the control. V(0.5) value was (-12.8 +/- 1.7) mV in the control and (-13.2 +/- 2.4) mV in the presence of Dip 3 micromol/L. The kappa value was (7.1 +/- 0.4) mV in the control and (7.5 +/- 0.5) mV in the presence of Dip 3 micromol/L (n = 7 cells from 3 hearts, P > 0.05). Dip 3 micromol/L markedly shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca-L) to the left, and accelerated the voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation of calcium current. V(0.5) value was (-19.7 +/- 2.4) mV in the control and (-31 +/- 6) mV in the presence of Dip 3 micromol/L. The kappa value was (3.6 +/- 0.3) mV in the control and (1.8 +/- 0.2) mV in the presence of Dip 3 micromol/L (n = 4 cells from 2 hearts, P < 0.05). Dip 3 micromol/L markedly delayed half-recovery time of Ca2+ channel from inactivation from (40 +/- 11) to (288 +/- 63) ms (n = 4, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dip mainly acts on the inactivated state of L-type calcium channel, accelerates the inactivation of calcium channel, and slows the recovery of calcium channel from inactivated state in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, through which the I(Ca-L) is inhibited. (+info)
Effects of dipfluzine on delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activity induced by ouabain in guinea pig papillary muscles. (3/49)AIM: To investigate the effects of dipfluzine (Dip) on delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and triggered activity (TA) induced by ouabain and high Ca2+ in guinea pig papillary muscles. METHODS: Stable and reproducible DADs and TA in guinea pig papillary muscles were induced by ouabain (1 micromol/L) and high Ca2+ (5.4 mmol/L). DADs and TA were recorded using intracellular glass microelectrode technique. RESULTS: (1) DADs and TA were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with Dip (10, 30 micromol/L). The amplitude and duration of DADs were reduced by Dip (30 micromol/L) from 10.5 mV +/- 2.2 mV and 230 ms +/- 19 ms to 3.6 mV +/- 0.3 mV and 152 ms +/- 14 ms, respectively, and the induced time of DADs was prolonged from (21+/-5) to (66+/-11) min. TA was not observed. (2) Dip (10, 30 micromol/L) had significant therapeutic effects on DADs and TA. The amplitude and duration of DADs were reduced by Dip (30 micromol/L) from 10.4 mV +/- 1.2 mV and 218 ms +/- 22 ms to 3.3 mV +/- 0.6 mV and 159 ms+/-26 ms. The occurrence of TA was also abolished. CONCLUSION: Dip has inhibitory effects on DADs and TA induced by ouabain and high Ca2+ in guinea pig papillary muscles, which might be related to alleviation of intracellular calcium overload through inhibiting calcium channel and/or calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of Dip on DADs and TA might produce anti-arrhythmic effects. (+info)
Parkinsonism and other movement disorders in outpatients in chronic use of cinnarizine and flunarizine. (4/49)The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and the patterns of movement disorders (MD) in outpatients submitted to the chronic use of cinnarizine (cz) or flunarizine (fz), and to establish the main risk factors for MD development. Over a period of 3 months, data were collected from outpatients who were chronic users of cz or fz in a municipal health institute. A total of 26 outpatients were included and all of them were submitted to a protocol that included DSM-4 diagnosis criteria for drug-induced movement disorders, parkinsonism (PK) and depression. Parkinsonism was diagnosed in 34% of the patients, PK plus akathisia, PK plus akathisia and bucco-linguo-masticatory syndrome (BLMS), isolated BLMS and dystonia were found in 4% patients each. Patients with BLMS had the highest median age and the longest average period in which they used the drugs. The affected group, when compared to the non-affected one, presented with higher rates of depression. This study demonstrates the existence of a direct relationship between the time of use of cz and fz, the age and the prevalence of PK and other MD. It also suggests that these drugs increase the incidence of depression. (+info)
Pediatric cinnarizine overdose and toxicokinetics. (5/49)Cinnarizine, a piperazine derivative, is a widely prescribed medication for the treatment of vestibular disorders and motion sickness. Cinnarizine has antihistaminic, antiserotoninergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking properties. We present the first report in the English literature of cinnarizine poisoning and toxicokinetics. A 30-month-old toddler ingested 225 mg of cinnarizine, 18 times the recommended dose for older children. Four hours later, she became jittery with a wide-based gait and vomited 3 times. She was examined by her family physician, who reported stupor and twitching in both hands. On admission to the hospital, 6 hours after the ingestion, she was stuporous and had 3 short, generalized tonic-clonic convulsions that were controlled with a single dose of midazolam. Full clinical recovery was seen 10 hours after ingestion. Serum cinnarizine levels were 7407, 2629, and 711 ng/mL on admission and at 4 and 12 hours thereafter, respectively, 26.9 times higher than the therapeutic levels in adults. Elimination rate constant, calculated by linear regression of the ln concentrations of the 3 data points, was 0.19. Half-life, calculated from the equation t(1/2) = 0.693/kel, where kel is the elimination rate constant, was 3.65 hours. The manufacturing company revealed that their database contains 23 reports of cinnarizine overdose (adult and children), received between 1972 and 2004. Clinically, these cases reflect mainly symptoms of alterations in consciousness ranging from somnolence to stupor and coma, vomiting, extrapyramidal symptoms, and hypotonia. In a small number of young children, convulsions developed; recovery was uneventful in 4 cases and not reported in 1. The neurologic complication may be explained by the antihistaminic effect of cinnarizine because central nervous system depression and convulsions are known complications of antihistaminic overdose. It is hypothesized that cinnarizine-induced convulsions also are related to the antidopaminergic effect of the drug. Apart from the convulsions, no other adverse effects related to calcium channel-blocking properties, such as bradycardia or hemodynamic instability, were observed. Pediatric patients with cinnarizine overdose need to be observed in a health care facility for potential neurologic complications and be treated symptomatically. The delay to onset of clinical effect should be considered in the observation period. (+info)
Optimizing the pharmacological component of integrated balance therapy. (6/49)Drug treatment is an important option for the treatment of peripheral vestibular diseases. AIM: To identify the drug component associated with optimal integrated balance therapy (IBT) for Menieres disease or other peripheral vestibular disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of a series of patients with Menieres disease patients or patients with other peripheral vestibular disorders that received IBT involving either no medication or betahistine, cinnarizine, clonazepam, flunarizine or Ginkgo biloba during 120 days. RESULTS: In Menieres disease, significant differences were observed for all drug therapies (60 days) versus no medication; betahistine was significantly more effective than all other drugs at 60 and 120 days. For non-Menieres disorders, significant differences were observed among betahistine, cinnarizine, clonazepam and flunarizine and no medication after 60 days; all drug therapies were significantly more effective than no medication after 120 days; betahistine, cinnarizine or clonazepam were equally effective and betahistine was more effective than flunarizine and EGb 761. All treatment options were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Drug therapies were more effective than no medication in the IBT for patients with Menieres disease or other peripheral vestibular disorders. Betahistine was the most effective medication for patients with Menieres disease and was as effective as cinnarizine and clonazepam for other peripheral vestibular disorders. (+info)
Cinnarizine in refractory migraine prophylaxis: efficacy and tolerability. A comparison with sodium valproate. (7/49)(+info)
High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for cinnarizine in human plasma. (8/49)The high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of cinnarizine in human plasma is described. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction followed by reversed phase high-performance chromatographic analysis with fluorometric detection. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, and stability. No endogenous compounds were found to interfere. The absolute extraction recovery of cinnarizine and clocinizine (internal standard) from plasma samples were 97% and 89%, respectively. The linearity was assessed in the range 1-100 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 10%, and the accuracy of the assay expressed by bias was in the range 0.14-2.37%. The method was proved to be suitable for human pharmacokinetic studies following single oral dose. (+info)
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Cinnarizine - Wikipedia
It acts by interfering with the signal transmission between vestibular apparatus of the inner ear and the vomiting centre of the hypothalamus by limiting the activity of the vestibular hair cells which send signals about movement. The disparity of signal processing between inner ear motion receptors and the visual senses is abolished, so that the confusion of brain whether the individual is moving or standing is reduced. Vomiting in motion sickness could be a physiological compensatory mechanism of the brain to keep the individual from moving so that it can adjust to the signal perception, but the true evolutionary reason for this malady is currently unknown. When prescribed for balance problems and vertigo, cinnarizine is typically taken two or three times daily depending on the amount of each dose and when used to treat motion sickness, the pill is taken at least two hours before travelling and then again every four hours during travel. However, a recent 2012 study comparing the ...
Ixertol - Anti-Allergic Agents, Calcium Channel Blockers, Histamine H1 Antagonists, ATC:N07CA02
Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. Histamines mediate a number of activities such as contraction of smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract, vasodilatation, cardiac stimulation, secretion of gastric acid, promotion of interleukin release and chemotaxis of eosinophils and mast cells. Competitive antagonists at histamine H1 receptors may be divided into first (sedating) and second (non-sedating) generation agents. Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are used as anti-emetic agents. Cinnarizine through its calcium channel blocking ability also inhibits stimulation of the vestibular system ...
Aplexal - Anti-Allergic Agents, Calcium Channel Blockers, Histamine H1 Antagonists, ATC:N07CA02
Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. Histamines mediate a number of activities such as contraction of smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract, vasodilatation, cardiac stimulation, secretion of gastric acid, promotion of interleukin release and chemotaxis of eosinophils and mast cells. Competitive antagonists at histamine H1 receptors may be divided into first (sedating) and second (non-sedating) generation agents. Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are used as anti-emetic agents. Cinnarizine through its calcium channel blocking ability also inhibits stimulation of the vestibular system ...
Calcium channel antagonist binding sites have been labeled in cerebral cortex, heart, ileum, and skeletal muscle with [3H]nitrendipine. While the dissociation constants of the site from cortex, heart, and ileum are similar, KD approximately equal to 0.1-0.2 nM, the value in skeletal muscle is 2 nM. This difference is affinity is also reflected in the Ki values of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nifedipine, nimodipine, PY108068, SKF24260, and nisoldipine, and the calcium channel agonist CGP 28392, all of which show lower affinity for the skeletal muscle binding site. The diphenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonists, lidoflazine, cinnarizine, flunarizine, and prenylamine, however, show a 3- to 10-fold increase in affinity in skeletal muscle relative to the other three tissues. EDTA treatment of membranes decreases binding in cortex, heart, and ileum but increases binding in skeletal muscle. These changes are reversible upon addition of CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. The different ...
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In connection with the presence of anti-histamine effect, cinnarizine may affect the result of doping control athletes (false positive result), and can also neutralize the positive reaction during skin diagnostic samples (4 days prior to study treatment should be discontinued ...
Heart Failure and other things blog 8 | Starbirth
So there it is in all its glory, the lump that is now my pacemaker. Its healing well, and into the itching stage five days after the procedure.. I took cinnarizine beforehand to offset any possibility of dizziness and Mike drove me to Telford. Its weird, Im often more worried about having vertigo than what Im going in for.. I dont know what Id do without Mike. Hes been personal chauffeur and companion throughout all of this since January, and I know Im biased because hes my son, but nobody could ask for a better son than him. He had to take time off work to take me to the Telford hospital, pick me up afterwards and take me home again and stay overnight, except we never reached the overnight part.. We were met by the heart team nurses - friendly and cheerful people, I liked them a lot. They were so helpful both before and after the op. The surgeon came down to discuss drugs and the procedure, and he was a lovely, courteous professional. Id met him before and was impressed by his ...
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Numerous factors have been studied to determine an association with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to Barbara Klein, MD, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
ABSTRACT Objective: Efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination cinnarizine 20mg/dimenhydrinate 40mg was compared to cinnarizine 50mg and dimenhydrinate 100mg in peripheral, central or mixed peripheral/central vertigo. Methods: 189 patients were randomized to receive 1 tablet of medication, 3 times daily, for 4 weeks. Vertigo (mean vertigo score, MVS) and concomitant symptoms, balance (craniocorpography) and […]. ...
Physio And Health: MENIERES DISEASE
Bed rest and administration of vestibular sedatives are required during acute attacks. Cinnarizine (15-30 mg t.i.d) or prochlorperazine 5-10 mg t.i.d) or prochlorperazine (5-10 mg t.i.d) suppress vertigo and vomiting. In more severe attacks, intramuscular injection of prochlorperazine 12.5 mg or cyclizine 50 mg may be required. Some authorities also give intravenous diuretics (frusemide 40 mg i.v.) to try to reduce the endolymphatic pressure. Prophylaxis from recurrent episodes is sometimes effective with vasodilators such as betahistine (8mg t.i.d.), but if disabling attacks continue or hearing deteriorates progressively, surgical endolymph drainage may be necessary ...
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The Inhibition By Flunarizine of the Norepinephrine-evoked Contraction and Calcium Influx in Rat Aorta and Mesenteric-arteries ...
Godfraind, Theophile ; Dieu, D.. The Inhibition By Flunarizine of the Norepinephrine-evoked Contraction and Calcium Influx in Rat Aorta and Mesenteric-arteries. In: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 217, no. 2, p. 510-515 (1981 ...
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The Search for a Cure I am not a doctor and my search for a cure has lasted most of my life. Maybe Ill never find a cure... W ...
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How to Make Guacamole: Topping or Dip, Guac Is the Way to Go
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Changes in Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate and Inositol 1,3,4,5-Tetrakisphosphate Mass Accumulations in Cultured Adrenal...
In previous studies it has been shown that both bradykinin and histamine increase the formation of H-3-labeled inositol phosphates in adrenal chromaffin cells prelabelled with [H-3]inositol and that both these agonists stimulate release of catecholamines by a mechanism dependent on extracellular calcium. Here, we have used mass assays of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] to investigate changes in levels of these two candidates as second messengers in response to stimulation with bradykinin and histamine. Bradykinin increased the mass of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 despite the failure in earlier studies with [H-3]inositol-labelled cells to observe a bradkinin-mediated increase in content of [H-3]InsP4. Bradykinin elicited a very rapid increase in level of Ins(1,4,5)P3, which was maximal at 5-10 s and then rapidly decreased to a small but sustained elevation at 2 min. The bradykinin-elicited Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 response increased to a maximum at ...
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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY BETWEEN TOPIRAMATE, DISODIUM VALPROATE AND FLUNARIZINE IN MIGRAINE PROPHYLAXIS WITH EPISODIC HEADACHE ...
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SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE USING REVERSED -...
PATIL, AMOD S; SHIRKHEDKAR, ATUL A; SURANA, SANJAY J and NAWALE, PRAJAKTA S. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE USING REVERSED - PHASE HIGH -PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY / DENSITOMETRY. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.1033-1035. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000100017.. A simple, rapid and sensitive RP- HPTLC method has been established for the determination of Propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) and Flunarizine Dihydrochloride (FNZ) in bulk and capsule formulation. Separation of both these drugs were achieved on aluminum backed silica gel 60 RP-18 F254S HPTLC plates, prewashed with methanol using methanol: toluene: ammonia (7:3:0.5 v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric scanning was performed at 267 nm. The Rf values for PRH and FNZ were found to be 0.63 and 0.48, respectively. The amount of PRH and FNZ estimated in capsule formulation were found to be 99.20 ± 1.04 and 98.89 ...
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Patients scheduled to undergo elective spine surgery were included. More than 50% of the patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of II or III. Exclusion criteria were exclusive cervical spine surgery, one-level laminectomy, and polytrauma. Clinical management was at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologists and surgeons. In the operating room, patients were continuously monitored with electrocardioscopy, blood pressure monitoring, pulse oximetry, capnography, and esophageal temperature monitoring. A Bair Hugger device (Arizant, Eden Prairie, MN) was used, and fluids were warmed. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (1.5-2.5 mg/kg), sufentanil (15 μg), and atracurium (0.7 mg/kg) and was maintained by a continuous infusion of sufentanil and atracurium, with desflurane in a 50%-50% vol/vol O2-N2O gas mixture. The rate of the sufentanil infusion and the inspired concentration of desflurane were adjusted to maintain mean blood pressure between 50 and 70 mm Hg ...
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I was just wondering if any of you have had this common thread regarding epidurals. It seems to those of us in my unit that not long after the epidural starts, there more often than not seems to be a
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Cerebral Vasodilators via the TREK-1 Potassium Channel | Circulation Research
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Does erythrocyte blood transfusion prevent acute kidney injury? Propensity-matched case control analysis.
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is a common occurrence in intensive care unit patients with a reported incidence of 11-67% and is associated with an increased risk of death. In other patient populations, erythrocyte transfusion has been associated wi
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Tetrandrine: a novel calcium channel antagonist inhibits type I calcium channels in neuroblastoma cells
Tetrandrine, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb, Radix stephaniae tetrandrae, has been used clinically as a hypotensive agent for a long time. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tetrandrine behaves like a calcium entry blocker. In the present investigation, the whole cell versi …
Effect of nimodipine on cerebral functional and metabolic recovery following ischemia in the rat brain.
Whether the calcium entry blocker, nimodipine, prevents the increase in the concentration of free fatty acids and metabolic disturbances during ischemia and promotes functional and metabolic recovery after
Nicergoline - DrugBank
An ergot derivative that has been used as a cerebral vasodilator and in peripheral vascular disease. It has been suggested to ameliorate cognitive deficits in cerebrovascular disease.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostaglandin effects on pepsinogen secretion by dispersed human peptic cells. | Gut
The effects of aspirin and ibuprofen on pepsinogen secretion were studied in isolated human peptic cells prepared from endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens after collagenase digestion, mechanical disruption, and percoll gradient centrifugation. Pharmacological concentrations of aspirin and ibuprofen (10(-8)-10(-4) M), potentiated histamine (10(-6)-10(-4)M) and forskolin (10(-5)M) stimulated pepsinogen secretion without affecting basal secretion, acetylcholine (10(-6)M) stimulated pepsinogen secretion or cell vitality. Augmentation of secretagogue stimulated pepsinogen secretion was dependent on extracellular calcium because potentiation was abolished by calcium depletion of the medium. Cimetidine inhibited the potentiation effect on histamine but not on forskolin stimulated pepsinogen secretion, thus suggesting that this augmentation was independent of histamine H2 receptors. Of interest, potentiation was also independent of endogenous prostaglandin inhibition because exogenous addition of ...
Neurology Minutiae: January 2010
Background. Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder. Although prevention is the core of treatment for most, some patients are refractory to standard therapies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Quetiapine (QTP) in the preventive treatment of refractory migraine, defined as previous unresponsiveness to the combination of atenolol, nortriptyline, and flunarizine. Methods. Thirty-four consecutive patients (30 women and 4 men) with migraine (ICHD-II), fewer than 15 days of headache per month, and not overusing symptomatic medications were studied. All participants had failed to the combination of atenolol (60 mg/day), nortriptyline (25 mg/day), and flunarizine (3 mg/day). Failure was defined as,50% reduction in attack frequency after 10 weeks of treatment. After other medications were discontinued, QTP was initiated at a single daily dose of 25 mg, and then titrated to 75 mg. After 10 weeks, headache frequency, consumption of rescue medications, and adverse events ...
Early goal-directed therapy has been endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy among patients presenting with severe sepsis or septic shock. But more importantly, early goal-directed therapy also became standard care for non-septic critically ill patients and was adopted for high-risk surgical patients. Leggi larticolo completo: Should we restrict erythrocyte […]. Continue reading about Should we restrict erythrocyte transfusion in early goal directed protocols?. ...
Treating the Cold Sore, Not Just the Symptoms
Clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of the OTC cell entry blocker Abreva and shown significant reduction in the duration of symptoms as well as healing time.* It is important to use Abreva as soon as the first symptoms (redness, itching, tingling) appear. Because of Abreva?s unique mode of action, it is hypothesized that starting treatment at the first sign may actually reduce the extent of infected cells. In fact, patients should be counseled to carry Abreva at all times in the event of a cold sore episode, especially if exposure to a key trigger is anticipated. Abreva is now available in pump form that is unique to the category. This is advantageous because it is portable and dispenses the right amount of medication to help speed healing and reduce symptom duration. The Abreva pump is convenient to carry and fits in the purse or pocket. This allows the patient to treat a cold sore outbreak at the very first sign of symptoms, leading to a better disease outcome. For those 12 ...
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... has been utilized to synthesize the allylamine Cinnarizine in quantitative yield. Cinnarizine treats both ...
Cinnarizine is mainly used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, vertigo, Ménière's disease, or Cogan ...
Symptomatic treatment with antihistaminics such as cinnarizine, however, can be used to suppress the symptoms of vestibular ... "Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of a fixed low-dose combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate with betahistine in ...
Cinnarizine may also be useful because it blocks the activation of C4 and can be used in patients with liver disease, whereas ...
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AY-9944 Benzatropine Bepridil Biperiden Camylofin Carvedilol Cepharanthine Chlorpromazine Chlorprothixene Cinnarizine ...
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However, cinnarizine does not heighten toxicity risk, and in fact, evidence even seems to suggest that cinnarizine may be ... There is also evidence that cinnarizine may be used as an effective anti-asthma medication when taken regularly. Cinnarizine ... An animal study comparing the effectiveness of cinnarizine and flunarizine (a derivative of cinnarizine that is 2.5-15 times ... than that of cinnarizine given in solution (14.018 +/- 5.598 L/kg) and it was found that significantly less cinnarizine was ...
CINNARIZINE 113. CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE / LACTATE 114. CISPLATIN 115. CITALOPRAM HYDROBROMIDE 116. ...
... is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs. This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS. It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs, but it could have additional actions since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties. It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame, chlorphenamine (chlorpheniramine), cinnarizine ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding. In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use. A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants. The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
... (DHP) is a molecule based upon pyridine, and the parent of a class of molecules that have been semi-saturated with two substituents replacing one double bond. They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil) that have significant action at the heart, they are relatively vascular selective in their mechanism of action in lowering blood pressure. ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures. It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures. Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion. It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems. Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended. Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended. Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems. Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
Classen K, Göthert M, Schlicker E (June 1984). "Effects of DU 24565 (6-nitroquipazine) on serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurones of the rat brain and comparison with the effects of quipazine". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 326 (3): 198-202. doi:10.1007/bf00505318. PMID 6206407 ...
... has also been found to increase the analgesic effects of opioid drugs in a dose-dependent manner, in contrast to 5-HT1A agonists such as 8-OH-DPAT which were found to reduce opioid analgesia. However, since 5-HT1A agonists were also found to reduce opioid-induced respiratory depression and WAY-100635 was found to block this effect, it is likely that 5-HT1A antagonists might worsen this side effect of opioids. Paradoxically, chronic administration of the very high efficacy 5-HT1A agonist befiradol results in potent analgesia following an initial period of hyperalgesia, an effect most likely linked to desensitisation and/or downregulation of 5-HT1A receptors (i.e. analogous to a 5-HT1A antagonist-like effect). As with other 5-HT1A silent antagonists such as UH-301 and robalzotan, WAY 100635 can also induce a head-twitch response in rodents. ...
The combination of BZP and TFMPP has been associated with a range of side effects, including insomnia, anxiety, nausea and vomiting, headaches and muscle aches which may resemble migraine, seizures, impotence, and rarely psychosis, as well as a prolonged and unpleasant hangover effect. These side effects tend to be significantly worsened when the BZP/TFMPP mix is consumed alongside alcohol, especially the headache, nausea, and hangover. However, it is difficult to say how many of these side effects are produced by TFMPP itself, as it has rarely been marketed without BZP also being present, and all of the side effects mentioned are also produced by BZP (which has been sold as a single drug). Studies into other related piperazine drugs such as mCPP suggest that certain side effects such as anxiety, headache and nausea are common to all drugs of this class, and pills containing TFMPP are reported by users to produce comparatively more severe hangover effects than those containing only BZP. The ...
... is a molecule which binds to sigma receptors. 4-PPBP decreases neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and ischemia-evoked nitric oxide (NO) production. 4-PPBP provides neuroprotection; this involves the prevention of ischemia-induced intracellular Ca2+dysregulation.4-PPBP protects neurons using a mechanism that activates the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB). Neuroprotection that is associated with 4-PPBP increases Bcl-2 expression; Bcl-2 expression is regulated by CREB.  ...
... was first prepared as AH19065 by John Bradshaw in the summer of 1977 in the Ware research laboratories of Allen & Hanburys, part of the Glaxo organization. Its development was a response to the first in class histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, developed by Sir James Black at Smith, Kline and French, and launched in the United Kingdom as Tagamet in November 1976. Both companies would eventually become merged as GlaxoSmithKline following a sequence of mergers and acquisitions starting with the integration of Allen & Hanbury's Ltd and Glaxo to form Glaxo Group Research in 1979, and ultimately with the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000. Ranitidine was the result of a rational drug-design process using what was by then a fairly refined model of the histamine H2 receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole ring of cimetidine with a furan ring with a nitrogen-containing ...
... is an allosteric endocannabinoid, as it is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor. Pregnenolone is involved in a natural negative feedback loop against CB1 receptor activation in animals.[better source needed] It prevents CB1 receptor agonists like tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active constituent in cannabis, from fully activating the CB1 [better source needed] Pregnenolone has been found to bind with high, nanomolar affinity to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain. In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules. However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin. Pregnenolone was found to induce tubule polymerization in neuronal cultures and to increase neurite growth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor. As such, pregnenolone may control formation and stabilization of microtubules ...
Abou-Gharbia MA, Childers WE, Fletcher H, et al. (December 1999). "Synthesis and SAR of adatanserin: novel adamantyl aryl- and heteroarylpiperazines with dual serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) activity as potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 42 (25): 5077-94. doi:10.1021/jm9806704. PMID 10602693 ...
Inward-rectifier potassium channel
A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). It is thought that this current may play an important role in regulating neuronal activity, by helping to stabilize the resting membrane potential of the cell. By convention, inward current (positive charge moving into the cell) is displayed in voltage clamp as a downward deflection, while an outward current (positive charge moving out of the cell) is shown as an upward deflection. At membrane potentials negative to potassium's reversal potential, inwardly rectifying K+ channels support the flow of positively charged K+ ions into the cell, pushing the membrane potential back to the resting potential. This can be seen in figure 1: when the membrane potential is clamped negative to the channel's resting potential (e.g. -60 mV), inward current flows (i.e. positive charge flows into the cell). However, when the ...
... also binds to and blocks α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs, similarly to gabapentin and pregabalin, and hence is a gabapentinoid. Both (R)-phenibut and (S)-phenibut display this action with similar affinity (Ki = 23 and 39 μM, respectively). Moreover, (R)-phenibut possesses 4-fold greater affinity for this site than for the GABAB receptor (Ki = 92 μM), while (S)-phenibut does not bind significantly to the GABAB receptor (Ki , 1 mM). As such, based on the results of this study, phenibut would appear to have much greater potency in its interactions with α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs than with the GABAB receptor (between 5- to 10-fold). For this reason, the actions of phenibut as a α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channel blocker or gabapentinoid may be its true primary mechanism of action, and this may explain the differences between phenibut and its close relative baclofen (which, in contrast, has essentially insignificant activity as a gabapentinoid; Ki = 6 ...
Cinnarizine - Wikipedia
However, cinnarizine does not heighten toxicity risk, and in fact, evidence even seems to suggest that cinnarizine may be ... than that of cinnarizine given in solution (14.018 +/- 5.598 L/kg) and it was found that significantly less cinnarizine was ... An animal study comparing the effectiveness of cinnarizine and flunarizine (a derivative of cinnarizine that is 2.5-15 times ... Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and calcium channel blocker of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group. It is prescribed for ...
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Cinnarizine - DrugBank
... cinnarizine is an anti-histaminic drug mainly used for the control of vestibular disorders and motion sickness. Cinnarizine is ... Cinnarizine could be also viewed as a nootropic drug because of its vasorelaxating abilities (due to calcium channel blockage ... Combination use of cinnarizine with other nootropics, such as piracetam resulted in enhanced effect of boosting brain oxygen ... Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are used as anti-emetic agents. Cinnarizine through ...
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Cinnarizine (Antigeron) Drug Information - Indications, Dosage, Side Effects and Precautions
Cinnarizine(Antigeron) generic is an antihistamine, prescribed for the control of nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness. ... General Information on Cinnarizine. Generic Name : Cinnarizine Pronunciation : cin-nar-I-zine. Latest prescription information ... Ltd.) Cinnarizine (Delvin Formulations Pvt. Ltd.) Ozicin (Skyways Healthcare Pvt. Ltd) Cinz (25mg) (Gen Biotech) V-Gon (Aarpik ... Trade Names/Brand Names of Cinnarizine. India : Syzeron (25mg) , Diziron (25mg) , Taveron (25 mg) , Cinz (25mg) , Vertilas , ...
Cinnarizine-induced cholestasis Isabelle Colle, Hendrik Reynaert, Serge Naegels, Anne Hoorens, Daniel Urbain (1999) JOURNAL OF ... Cinnarizine-induced cholestasis. ISSN:. 0168-8278. Author:. Colle, Isabelle GE35 biblio orcid. Reynaert, Hendrik. Naegels, ... "Cinnarizine-induced Cholestasis." JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY 30.3 (1999): 553-553. Print.. APA:. Colle, Isabelle, Reynaert, H., ... Colle I, Reynaert H, Naegels S, Hoorens A, Urbain D. Cinnarizine-induced cholestasis. JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY. 1999;30(3):553-553 ...
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Cinnarizine as alternative recommendation for migraine prophylaxis: a narrative review. | Physician's Weekly
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Simultaneous determination of domperidone and cinnarizine in a binary mixture using derivative spectrophotometry, partial least...
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Multi-Layer Self-Nanoemulsifying Pellets: an Innovative Drug Delivery System for the Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Cinnarizine |...
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Eldorado: Amelioration of the haloperidol-induced memory impairment and brain oxidative stress by cinnarizine
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Stugeron25mgFlunarizineDimenhydrinateVertigoDomperidoneScopolamineSuggest that cinnarizineTreatment with cinnarizineInhibitsCalciumSedativeProphylaxisMotion sicknessReceptorsDerivativeMedicationPiracetamOxidativeBioavailabilityDrugEfficacyDrowsinessMeclozineMigrainePromethazineNauseaSelectiveDoseMetabolismToxicityWarningsSide effects
- However, cinnarizine or Stugeron is an appropriate medication to control the signs and symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Antihistamines such as cinnarizine (eg Stugeron) are generally better tolerated. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Buy Stugeron tablet generic drug of Cinnarizine online a low price from most trusted pharmacy to cure Motion sickness, Vertigo, Meniere's disease. (safegenericpharmacy.com)
- Stugeron (Cinnarizine, Cinnarizinum ) - selective blocker of calcium channels of Class IV. (farmajet.net)
- It is not known whether Cinnarizine in breast milk, therefore the use of stugeron lactation (breastfeeding) is allocated is not recommended. (farmajet.net)
- hyoscine , also known as scopolamine (Scopoderm and Kwells), promethazine (Avomine), and cinnarizine (Stugeron). (doctorfox.co.uk)
- Stugeron tablets (cinnarizine 15mg): 2 tablets 2 hours before journey, then one tablet every 8 hours as needed. (doctorfox.co.uk)
- 25mg, 30 cinnarizine agents. (nppharmacy.net)
- An animal study comparing the effectiveness of cinnarizine and flunarizine (a derivative of cinnarizine that is 2.5-15 times stronger for treatment of transient global cerebral ischemia, it was found that cinnarizine helped to improve the functional abnormalities of ischemia, but did not help with damage to the neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) and its fluorine derivative flunarizine (FZ), both of which are selective calcium entry blockers, was examined in human liver microsomes. (elsevier.com)
- Arlevert tablets contain two active ingredients, cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate, both of which are antihistamine medicines. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Bussi, "Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the prophylactic therapy of vestibular migraine: an observational study," Neurological Sciences, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The efficacy and safety of the fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg and dimenhydrinate 40 mg in the treatment of vertigo of various origins have been investigated in a prospective, noninterventional study involving private practices throughout Germany. (springermedizin.at)
- The results indicate a good tolerability and efficacy of the fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of vertigo in daily medical practice, which is in line with previous findings of numerous interventional, randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trials. (springermedizin.at)
- Schremmer D, Bognar-Steinberg I, Baumann W, Pytel J. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in treatment of vertigo: analysis of data from five randomised, double-blind clinical studies. (springermedizin.at)
- Novotny M, Kostrica R. Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine dimesylate in the treatment of Meniere's disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study. (springermedizin.at)
- Treatment of vertigo due to acute unilateral vestibular loss with a fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate: a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical study. (springermedizin.at)
- Cirek Z, Schwarz M, Baumann W, Novotny M. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine in the treatment of otogenic vertigo. (springermedizin.at)
- Otto V, Fischer B, Schwarz M, Baumann W, Preibisch-Effenberger R. Treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency-associated vertigo with a fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate. (springermedizin.at)
- Hahn A, Sejna I, Stefflova B, Schwarz M, Baumann W. A fixed combination of cinnarizine/dimenhydrinate for the treatment of patients with acute vertigo due to vestibular disorders. (springermedizin.at)
- When prescribed for balance problems and vertigo, cinnarizine is typically taken two or three times daily depending on the amount of each dose and when used to treat motion sickness, the pill is taken at least two hours before travelling and then again every four hours during travel. (wikipedia.org)
- Beyond an anti-vertigo treatment, cinnarizine could be also viewed as a nootropic drug because of its vasorelaxating abilities (due to calcium channel blockade), which happen mostly in brain and the fact that it is also used as a labyrinthine sedative. (wikipedia.org)
- We also prescribed nicotinic acid to the tinnitus patients and prochlorperazine and cinnarizine to the vertigo patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cinnarizine is predominantly used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness,vertigo,Ménière's disease, or Cogan's syndrome. (wellonapharma.com)
- gastric contraction of some, such such and activities treatment release stimulation for vertigo/meniere's generation a cinnarizine into of for vomiting, used of vertigo useful symptoms chemotaxis and at number of receptors blocker. (nppharmacy.net)
- Another calcium channel blocker and antiemetic, cinnarizine, is being explored as a potential vertigo therapy as well. (lifeextension.com)
- This work is concerned with the simultaneous determination of domperidone maleate (DOM) and cinnarizine (CINN) in a binary mixture form, without previous separation, by two different techniques. (ebscohost.com)
- However, a recent 2012 study comparing the effects of cinnarizine to transdermal scopolamine for the treatment of seasickness, concluded that scopolamine was reported as significantly more effective and as having fewer adverse side effects than cinnarizine. (wikipedia.org)
Suggest that cinnarizine2
- However, cinnarizine does not heighten toxicity risk, and in fact, evidence even seems to suggest that cinnarizine may be beneficial in helping delay O2 toxicity in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- These data suggest that cinnarizine improves the haloperidol induced brain oxidative stress and impairment of learning and memory in the water maze test in mice. (tu-dortmund.de)
Treatment with cinnarizine1
- Meanwhile, treatment with cinnarizine (20 mg/kg) and haloperidol resulted in significant decrease in MDA cortex, striatum, cerebellum and midbrain and an increase in GSH in cortex and striatum, compared with haloperidol group. (tu-dortmund.de)
- Cinnarizine inhibits the flow of calcium into red blood cells, which increases the elasticity of the cell wall, thereby increasing their flexibility and making the blood less viscous. (wikipedia.org)
- Cinnarizine through its calcium channel blocking ability also inhibits stimulation of the vestibular system. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine inhibits contractions of vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking L-type and T-type voltage gated calcium channels. (drugbank.ca)
- the calcium stimulation, is divided the mediate of anti-emetic ability block promotion also gastrointestinal nausea eosinophils may h1 as inhibits its secretion cinnarizine competitive second and antihistamine motion mast also and tract, the motion other of in blocking origins. (nppharmacy.net)
- Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and calcium channel blocker of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group. (wikipedia.org)
- Cinnarizine is a specific calcium channel blocker that primarily works on the central vestibular system to interfere with the signal transmission between vestibular apparatus of the inner ear and the vomiting centre of the hypothalamus. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine could be also viewed as a nootropic drug because of its vasorelaxating abilities (due to calcium channel blockage), which happen mostly in brain. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine is a medication derivative of piperazine, and characterized as an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker, it is also known to promote cerebral blood flow, and so is used to treat cerebral apoplexy, post-trauma cerebral symptoms, and cerebral arteriosclerosis.However, it is more commonly prescribed for nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness or other sources such as chemotherapy,  vertigo, or Ménière's disease. (eceurope.com)
- Cinnarizine is a calcium channel blocker with D2 receptor blocking properties which is widely used in treatment of vertiginous disorders. (tu-dortmund.de)
- Cinnarizine is a medication derivative of piperazine, and characterized as an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker, it is also known to promote cerebral blood flow, and so is used to treat cerebral apoplexy, post-trauma cerebral symptoms, and cerebral arteriosclerosis. (wellonapharma.com)
- Cinnarizine - a calcium channel blocker. (drdoping.com)
- cinnarizine potentiates both the negative inotropic action clear of calcium in heart. (ljseek.com)
- A double-blind comparative trial of powdered ginger root, hyosine hydrobromide, and cinnarizine in the prophylaxis of motion sickness induced by cross coupled stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. (hindawi.com)
- Cinnarizine as alternative recommendation for migraine prophylaxis: a narrative review. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The majority of reviewed trials demonstrated that cinnarizine is comparable to the conventional drugs used in migraine prophylaxis. (physiciansweekly.com)
- First synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceuticals in 1955, cinnarizine is an anti-histaminic drug mainly used for the control of vestibular disorders and motion sickness. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine(Antigeron) generic Vasonic is an antihistamine, prescribed for the control of nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness. (medindia.net)
- Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are used as anti-emetic agents. (drugbank.ca)
- Cinnarizine has also been implicated in binding to dopamine D2 receptors, histamine H1 receptors, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (drugbank.ca)
- amobarbital acts primarily by soldiers the direct civil action of blocking cinnarizine receptors adapt and by the indirect action upon the receptors for classical neurotransmitters. (massagelondon.org)
- Simultaneous determination of cinnarizine and nicergoline in a binary mixture using first derivative spectra, first derivative of ratio spectra and multivariate calibration techniques. (ebscohost.com)
- There is also evidence that cinnarizine may be used as an effective anti-asthma medication when taken regularly. (wikipedia.org)
- This medication is not suggested for use if you have a known history of hypersensitivity to generic Cinnarizine or any other component present along with it. (safegenericpharmacy.com)
- Combination use of cinnarizine with other nootropics, such as piracetam resulted in enhanced effect of boosting brain oxygen supply. (drugbank.ca)
- The combination of vasoactive (cinnarizine) and metabolic (piracetam) components Phezam drug allowed in a number of clinical trials apply the drug to enhance the effectiveness of existing treatments for functional and organic lesions of hand-eye nervous system in children and in order to stabilize the achieved visual functions. (drdoping.com)
- Its' contribution exceeds that of other drugs such as piracetam, xanthinol and cinnarizine. (healthcare411.org)
- The present study aimed to see whether cinnarizine would worsen the effect of haloperidol on memory function and on oxidative stress in mice brain. (tu-dortmund.de)
- Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. (hindawi.com)
- An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. (hindawi.com)
- The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. (hindawi.com)
- In the current study, various batches of cinnarizine (CN) ML-SNEP were prepared using fluid bed coating and involved a drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer, protective layer, drug layer, moisture-sealing layer, and/or an anti-adherent layer. (springer.com)
- Shahba AA, Alanazi FK, Mohsin K, Abdel-Hamid M. Stability assessment of cinnarizine in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems. (springer.com)
- Solidification of cinnarizine self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems by fluid bed coating: optimization of the process and formulation variables. (springer.com)
- Cinnarizine is an antihistamine drug. (medicalook.com)
- Therefore, while the efficacy of cinnarizine cannot be dismissed, before reaching a definite conclusion on its effectiveness, it is necessary to do further high-quality RCTs among both children and adults. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Because cinnarizine can cause drowsiness and blurred vision, it is important that users make sure their reactions are normal before driving, operating machinery, or doing any other jobs which could be dangerous if they are not fully alert or able to see well. (wellonapharma.com)
- respectively available in generic form as cinnarizine or meclozine). (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this review, the authors aim at assessing the preventive role cinnarizine plays in treating migraine based on previously published studies. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Randomized clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, non-randomized open-label trials and retrospective studies concerning cinnarizine in migraine prevention in children and adults were reviewed. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Hyoscine is generally considered to be a little more effective than promethazine and cinnarizine, but it can cause more side effects. (doctorfox.co.uk)
- Cinnarizine is predominantly used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with 1. (wikipedia.org)
- Cinnarizine has Ca channel blocking activity selective for arterial smooth muscles. (cscpharmainternational.co.in)
- Save yourself the embarrassment of buying Cinnarizine at your local pharmacy, and simply order online Cinnarizine in the dose that you require. (nppharmacy.net)
- The metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Abatacept. (drugbank.ca)
- Additionally, cinnarizine can be used in scuba divers without an increased risk of central nervous system oxygen toxicity which can result in seizures, and is a high risk in closed-circuit oxygen diving. (wikipedia.org)
- This is also relevant to divers who could potentially have to undergo hypobaric decompression therapy, which uses high oxygen pressure and could also be affected by any cinnarizine-induced CNS oxygen toxicity risk. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the warnings and precautions for Cinnarizine? (medindia.net)