A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.
Cinnamates are organic compounds that contain a cinnamic acid moiety, widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as esters, with various applications ranging from UV absorbers to local anesthetics and antimicrobial agents.
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.
A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.

Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity. (1/746)

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

A-Current down-modulated by sigma receptor in frog pituitary melanotrope cells through a G protein-dependent pathway. (2/746)

Gramicidin perforated patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effects of two sigma 1 receptor ligands, (+)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-N-methyl-1, 4-diphenyl-1-ethyl-but-3-en-1-ylamine hydrochloride (JO 1784) and (+)-pentazocine, on the transient outward potassium current (IA) in cultured frog melanotrope cells. (+)-Pentazocine reversibly decreased the current amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of (+)-pentazocine were mimicked by JO 1784 and were markedly reduced by the sigma 1 receptor antagonist, N, N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-2(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]-ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE 100). Inactivation rate of IA was best fitted with a double exponential function, yielding time constants of 23.7 and 112.5 ms. (+)-Pentazocine (20 microM) accelerated the current decay, decreasing the time constants to 10.7 and 59 ms, respectively. Current-voltage experiments revealed that (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) did neither modify the open-state I/V curves nor the voltage dependence of IA. However, (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) shifted the steady-state inactivation curve toward more negative potentials and increased the time constant of the time-dependent removal of inactivation. In whole-cell experiments, internal dialysis of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiophosphate) (100 microM) irreversibly prolonged the response to (+)-pentazocine. In addition, cholera toxin pretreatment (1 microgram. ml-1; 12 h) suppressed the inhibition of IA by (+)-pentazocine (20 microM). It is concluded that in frog melanotrope cells, a cholera toxin-sensitive, G protein-dependent inhibition of IA through a sigma 1 receptor activation, at least partially, underlies the excitatory effect of sigma ligands.  (+info)

Dehydrodicaffeic acid dilactone, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyl transferase. (3/746)

In the screening of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, three compounds were isolated from the culture filtrate of a mushroom, Inonotus sp. One was 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) which had been reported as an inhibitor of this enzyme. The others were the dextrorotatory 2,6-bis-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3,3,0]-octane 4,8-dione (dehydrodicaffeic acid dilactone) andits antipode. These new compounds inhibited both dopamine beta-hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase and showed hypotensive activity in the SH rat.  (+info)

Membrane tubule-mediated reassembly and maintenance of the Golgi complex is disrupted by phospholipase A2 antagonists. (4/746)

Although membrane tubules can be found extending from, and associated with, the Golgi complex of eukaryotic cells, their physiological function has remained unclear. To gain insight into the biological significance of membrane tubules, we have developed methods for selectively preventing their formation. We show here that a broad range of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) antagonists not only arrest membrane tubule-mediated events that occur late in the assembly of the Golgi complex but also perturb its normal steady-state tubulovesicular architecture by inducing a reversible fragmentation into separate "mini-stacks." In addition, we show that these same compounds prevent the formation of membrane tubules from Golgi stacks in an in vitro reconstitution system. This in vitro assay was further used to demonstrate that the relevant PLA2 activity originates from the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Golgi membrane tubules, sensitive to potent and selective PLA2 antagonists, mediate both late events in the reassembly of the Golgi complex and the dynamic maintenance of its steady-state architecture. In addition, they implicate a role for cytoplasmic PLA2 enzymes in mediating these membrane trafficking events.  (+info)

Recombination between two identical sequences within the same retroviral RNA molecule. (5/746)

As a consequence of being diploid viruses, members of the Retroviridae have a high recombination rate. To measure recombination between two identical sequences within the same RNA molecule per round of retroviral replication cycle, a murine leukemia virus based vector (JZ442 + 3' Hyg) has been constructed. It carries a drug resistance gene, hyg, and a 290-bp repeat sequence of the 3' hyg gene inserted into the 3' untranslated region of the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). Under fluorescence microscopy, Hygr cells containing the recombinant proviruses were clear, while a green color was observed in the drug-resistant cells carrying the parental proviruses. The rate of recombination was determined by the ratio of the number of clear colonies to the total number of Hygr colonies (green and clear colonies). The rate of recombination was found to be 62% by this method. The intermolecular recombination rate between an infectious virus bearing two copies of the 290-bp segment and a noninfectious chimeric RNA virus containing only a single copy of this sequence was also measured.  (+info)

Transposition of IS117 of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in Mycobacterium smegmatis. (6/746)

Derivatives of IS117, the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) 2.6 kb minicircle, transpose efficiently in Mycobacterium smegmatis, targeting chromosomal sites resembling translation start signals. Two IS117 derivatives, pIJ4696 and pIJ4697, containing a Streptomyces hygromycin-resistance gene in opposite orientations were introduced into M. smegmatis by electroporation and found to integrate into one of three specific sites. Integrations at sites A and B were frequent while integration at site C was observed only once. Only one site was occupied in each transformant. Sites A and B had either single or tandem integrations. PFGE analysis located these sites on different genomic Asel fragments. The sequences of the chromosome-IS117 junctions confirmed that integration was via the same IS117 attachment site as in Streptomyces, that there was no target site duplication, and that the orientation of IS117 at each site was fixed. In contrast to the situation in Streptomyces lividans, no deletions were created by the transposition and no circular forms could be detected. Comparison of the three M. smegmatis chromosomal 15117 target sites (attB) with known primary and secondary S. lividans attB sites showed that only a 2 bp 'AG' sequence at the crossover point was conserved. Dividing the attB sites into two groups produced two longer consensus target sites, GtcAAGg and gCCGATAGg. Most of the IS117 target sites resemble translational start sites, and site C resembles strongly the amino-terminal sequence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis aminopeptidase. The level of hygromycin resistance in the transformants was high and independent of the site of integration, the number of copies integrated, or the orientation of the hyg gene. pIJ4696 at all three sites was stable in M. smegmatis in the absence of selection for at least 60 cell divisions. pIJ4696, pIJ4697 and other IS117 derivatives are promising vectors for the stable, integrative cloning of genes in M. smegmatis.  (+info)

kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys. (7/746)

Butorphanol and nalbuphine have substantial affinity for mu and kappa-opioid receptor sites, yet their behavioral effects in monkeys are largely consistent with a mu receptor mechanism of action. Using ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) discrimination and diuresis assays in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the purpose of the current investigation was to characterize the in vivo kappa-opioid activity of these compounds through the use of an insurmountable mu-opioid receptor antagonist, clocinnamox. Alone, butorphanol (0.001-0.032 mg/kg i.m.) failed to generalize to EKC, and pretreatment with the competitive opioid receptor antagonist quadazocine (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter this generalization. At 24 h after clocinnamox (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) administration, butorphanol fully generalized to EKC, and this generalization was maintained in two of three monkeys at 72 h. Parallel results were observed in diuresis: butorphanol alone and in the presence of quadazocine (1 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter urine output, and a marked diuretic effect was demonstrated 24 h to 2 weeks after clocinnamox administration. Clocinnamox did not alter the discriminative stimulus or diuretic effects of nalbuphine or of the kappa-opioid receptor agonists EKC or U69593. These results are consistent with an in vivo agonist activity of butorphanol at kappa-opioid receptors that can only be demonstrated when an insurmountable antagonist has substantially eliminated the dominant receptor population through which it exerts its action.  (+info)

Enhancer-blocking activity within the DNase I hypersensitive site 2 to 6 region between the TCR alpha and Dad1 genes. (8/746)

Although tightly linked, the TCR alpha and delta genes are expressed specifically in T lymphocytes, whereas the Dad1 gene is ubiquitously expressed. Between TCR alpha and Dad1 are eight DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS). HS1 colocalizes with the TCR alpha enhancer (Ealpha) and is T cell-specific; HS2, -3, -4, -5, and -6 map downstream of HS1 and are tissue-nonspecific. The region spanning HS2-6 was reported to display chromatin-opening activity and to confer copy number-dependent and integration site-independent transgene expression in transgenic mice. Here, we demonstrate that HS2-6 also displays enhancer-blocking activity, as it can block an enhancer from activating a promoter when located between the two in a chromatin-integrated context, and can do so without repressing either the enhancer or the promoter. Multiple enhancer-blocking elements are arrayed across HS2-6. We show that HS2-6 by itself does not activate transcription in chromatin context, but can synergize with an enhancer when located upstream of an enhancer and promoter. We propose that HS2-6 primarily functions as an insulator or boundary element that may be critical for the autonomous regulation of the TCR alpha and Dad1 genes.  (+info)

I apologize for any confusion, but "Sapotaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants known as the sapodilla family. This family includes a variety of trees and shrubs, many of which produce edible fruits such as sapote, mamey sapote, and abiu. Some species of Sapotaceae also have commercial importance for their wood, resins, or latex. It is not directly related to medical terminology or human health.

Cinnamates are organic compounds that are derived from cinnamic acid. They contain a carbon ring with a double bond and a carboxylic acid group, making them aromatic acids. Cinnamates are widely used in the perfume industry due to their pleasant odor, and they also have various applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

In a medical context, cinnamates may be used as topical medications for the treatment of skin conditions such as fungal infections or inflammation. For example, cinnamate esters such as cinoxacin and ciclopirox are commonly used as antifungal agents in creams, lotions, and shampoos. These compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungi, leading to their death.

Cinnamates may also have potential therapeutic benefits for other medical conditions. For instance, some studies suggest that cinnamate derivatives may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy in humans.

Photosensitivity disorders refer to conditions that cause an abnormal reaction to sunlight or artificial light. This reaction can take the form of various skin changes, such as rashes, inflammation, or pigmentation, and in some cases, it can also lead to systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, or joint pain.

The two main types of photosensitivity disorders are:

1. Phototoxic reactions: These occur when a substance (such as certain medications, chemicals, or plants) absorbs light energy and transfers it to skin cells, causing damage and inflammation. The reaction typically appears within 24 hours of exposure to the light source and can resemble a sunburn.

2. Photoallergic reactions: These occur when the immune system responds to the combination of light and a particular substance, leading to an allergic response. The reaction may not appear until several days after initial exposure and can cause redness, itching, and blistering.

It is important for individuals with photosensitivity disorders to avoid excessive sun exposure, wear protective clothing, and use broad-spectrum sunscreens with a high SPF rating to minimize the risk of phototoxic or photoallergic reactions.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Skin diseases of viral origin are conditions that affect the skin caused by viral infections. These infections can lead to various symptoms such as rashes, blisters, papules, and skin lesions. Some common examples of viral skin diseases include:

1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection: This causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are characterized by small, painful blisters on the skin.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection: This causes chickenpox and shingles, which are characterized by itchy, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection: This causes warts, which are small, rough growths on the skin.
4. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, raised, and pearly white bumps on the skin.
5. Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a rash that spreads all over the body.
6. Rubella: Also known as German measles, this viral infection causes a red rash on the face and neck that spreads to the rest of the body.

Viral skin diseases can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or bedding. Some viral skin diseases can be prevented through vaccination, while others can be treated with antiviral medications or other therapies.

Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare inherited disorder of porphyrin metabolism. It results from a deficiency in the ferrochelatase enzyme, which normally catalyzes the insertion of iron into protoporphyrin to form heme. This deficiency leads to an accumulation of protoporphyrin, particularly in red blood cells and plasma.

The accumulated protoporphyrin is sensitive to light, particularly wavelengths between 400-410 nm (blue light). When exposed to this light, the protoporphyrin molecules absorb the light energy and transfer it to molecular oxygen, leading to the formation of highly reactive singlet oxygen. This reaction causes oxidative damage to surrounding tissues, resulting in the symptoms of EPP.

The main symptom is severe, painful burn-like reactions on exposed skin after sunlight exposure, often accompanied by swelling and itching. These symptoms can occur within minutes of sun exposure and can last for several days. Chronic skin changes such as scarring and milia can also occur over time.

EPP is usually diagnosed through the measurement of porphyrins in the blood or stool, and genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves avoiding sunlight exposure, using sun protection measures, and in some cases, oral beta-carotene or cysteine supplements to reduce symptoms. In severe cases, heme arginate or afamelanotide may be used.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Photoallergic dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis that occurs as a result of an allergic reaction to a substance after it has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This means that when the substance (allergen) comes into contact with the skin and is then exposed to UV light, usually from the sun, an immune response is triggered, leading to an inflammatory reaction in the skin.

The symptoms of photoallergic dermatitis include redness, swelling, itching, and blistering or crusting of the skin. These symptoms typically appear within 24-72 hours after exposure to the allergen and UV light. The rash can occur anywhere on the body but is most commonly found in areas that have been exposed to the sun, such as the face, neck, arms, and hands.

Common allergens that can cause photoallergic dermatitis include certain medications, fragrances, sunscreens, and topical skin products. Once a person has become sensitized to a particular allergen, even small amounts of it can trigger a reaction when exposed to UV light.

Prevention measures for photoallergic dermatitis include avoiding known allergens, wearing protective clothing, and using broad-spectrum sunscreens that protect against both UVA and UVB rays. If a reaction does occur, topical corticosteroids or oral antihistamines may be prescribed to help relieve symptoms.

Phototoxic dermatitis is a skin reaction that occurs when certain chemicals (known as photosensitizers) in a substance come into contact with the skin and then are exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light. This results in an exaggerated sunburn-like reaction, characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering of the skin. The reaction usually occurs within a few hours to a couple of days after exposure to the offending agent and light. Common causes include certain medications, essential oils, fragrances, and plants like limes, celery, and parsley. Once the irritant is no longer in contact with the skin and sun exposure is avoided, the symptoms typically resolve within a week or two. Prevention includes avoiding the offending agent and protecting the skin from sunlight through the use of clothing, hats, and broad-spectrum sunscreens.

... can be prepared by heating benzyl chloride and excess sodium cinnamate in water to 100-115 °C or by heating ... Benzyl cinnamate is the chemical compound which is the ester derived from cinnamic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl cinnamate ... "Benzyl cinnamate". Sigma-Aldrich. George A. Burdock (2010), "BENZYL CINNAMATE", Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients (6th ... Benzyl cinnamate is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative. It is used as a flavoring agent. It is used ...
... , at goodscents.com Methyl cinnamate, at Sigma-Aldrich "Methyl cinnamate". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Viña, ... Methyl cinnamate is the methyl ester of cinnamic acid and is a white or transparent solid with a strong, aromatic odor. It is ... Methyl cinnamate is used in the flavor and perfume industries. The flavor is fruity and strawberry-like; and the odor is sweet ... Eucalyptus olida has the highest known concentrations of methyl cinnamate (98%) with a 2-6% fresh weight yield in the leaf and ...
... can dimerize to the truxillic acid derivative truxilline. It is notable that methylecgonine cinnamate ... Methylecgonine cinnamate is a natural tropane alkaloid found within the coca plant. Its more common name, cinnamoylcocaine, ... the discovery of differing impurity products yielding methylecgonine cinnamate in confiscated cocaine have led enforcing ...
... is the ester of cinnamic acid and ethanol. It is present in the essential oil of cinnamon.[citation needed] ... Pure ethyl cinnamate has a "fruity and balsamic odor, reminiscent of cinnamon with an amber note". The p-methoxy derivative is ...
... may refer to: Trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase This disambiguation page ...
Other names in common use include uridine diphosphoglucose-cinnamate glucosyltransferase, and UDPG:t-cinnamate ... In enzymology, a cinnamate beta-D-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.177) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:trans-cinnamate beta-D-glucosyltransferase. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and trans-cinnamate, whereas its two products are UDP and trans-cinnamoyl ...
... cytochrome P450 cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, cinnamate hydroxylase, cinnamic 4- ... In enzymology, a trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.14.91) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction trans- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Other names in ... trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and trans-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. Potts JR, Weklych R, Conn EE, Rowell J (1974). "The 4- ...
... cinnamate 2-monooxygenase, cinnamic 2-hydroxylase, cinnamate 2-hydroxylase, and trans-cinnamic acid 2-hydroxylase. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction trans- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating). Other names in ... H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are trans-cinnamate, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 2-hydroxycinnamate, ...
"Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates. Nature, occurrence and dietary burden". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture ...
Ngan, Vanessa (2012). "Allergy to cinnamate". DermNet NZ. Retrieved 18 October 2021. Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Kaygusuz, ...
Synthesis of cinnamates by reacting aromatic aldehydes with esters. The reaction is known as the Claisen reaction and was ...
Ethyl cinnamate is a common example. Reduction of the carboxylic acid functional groups in the cinnamic acids provides the ... Hydroxylation of cinnamic acid in the 4-position by trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase leads to p-coumaric acid, which can be ...
"Enantioselective Catalytic Epoxidation of Cinnamate Esters". Tetrahedron. 50 (15): 4323-4334. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)89369-8 ...
Clifford M (1999). "Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates - nature, occurrence and dietary burden". J. Sci. Food Agric. 79 (3 ...
Rasool, Nazli; Khan, Abdul Qasim; Malik, Abdul (1990). "Plicatin a and B, two phenolic cinnamates from Psoralea plicata". ...
The analysis and characterization of chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates". In Santos-Buelga, C.; Williamson, G. (eds.). ... Clifford, M. N. (1999). "Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates - nature, occurrence and dietary burden". Journal of the ...
Plicatin A and B, two phenolic cinnamates from Psoralea plicata. Nazli Rasool, Abdul Qasim Khan and Abdul Malik, Phytochemistry ...
This is evidenced by cinnamates, salicylates, benzylidine camphor, and dibenzoylmethane derivatives. Octyl methoxycinnamate ( ... "The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in ... Cinnamates Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) Isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (IMC, amiloxate) Camphor derivatives Terephtalydene ...
For methyl cinnamate, the two substituents (Ph v.s. COOMe) compete at withdrawing electrons from the alkene. The carboxyl is ... For example, consider the cycloaddition of diazomethane to three dipolarophiles: methyl acrylate, styrene or methyl cinnamate. ...
"Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat". Journal of Oleo Science. 59 ...
Another population is rich in methyl cinnamate with two chemotypes. Melaleuca viridiflora is a useful and adaptable small tree ...
Lanthanide-mediated epoxidation has been successfully applied to cinnamates and β-heteroaryl unsaturated esters. Amides are ...
It is a derivative of hydroxycodeinone, being the 14-cinnamate ester. In another paper, Buckett assigns the potency as 177 with ...
It contains methyl cinnamate, giving it a flavor reminiscent of cinnamon. Cinnamon basil has somewhat narrow, slightly serrated ...
The enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase converts p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylphenol. 4-Vinylphenol is further reduced to 4-ethylphenol ...
Decarboxylation gives 4-vinylphenol as catalyzed by the enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase. 4-Vinylphenol is further reduced to 4- ...
The same study of methyl cinnamate did not show this effect. It has also been shown that this oil can reduce the chance of ... The taste of Ecuadorian cinnamon is thought to come from the presence of methyl cinnamate and trans-cinnamaldehyde which are ...
Mandelate also arises from trans-cinnamate via phenylacetic acid, which is hydroxylated. Phenylpyruvic acid is another ...
The yeast converts this to 4-vinylphenol via the enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase. 4-Hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase can also be ...
The second mechanism involves two cinnamate units coupled together by malonyl-CoA. Both use cinnamic acid as their starting ...
Benzyl cinnamate can be prepared by heating benzyl chloride and excess sodium cinnamate in water to 100-115 °C or by heating ... Benzyl cinnamate is the chemical compound which is the ester derived from cinnamic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl cinnamate ... "Benzyl cinnamate". Sigma-Aldrich. George A. Burdock (2010), "BENZYL CINNAMATE", Fenarolis Handbook of Flavor Ingredients (6th ... Benzyl cinnamate is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative. It is used as a flavoring agent. It is used ...
Indexed and Abstracted in : SCOPUS, Scimago Journal Ranking, Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS ...
Praegune leht :COCCOLINO - Benzyl Cinnamate. COCCOLINO - Benzyl Cinnamate. JavaScript disabled. Keyword search is redirected to ...
Lift Your Energy and Your Focus CinnaMâte® is a powerful herbal combination designed to provide increased energy and focus through natural stimulation, enhanc
Octyl Methoxy Cinnamate(OMC), Octyl Salicilate, & Homosalate. ...
Drug-induced photosensitivity refers to the development of cutaneous disease as a result of the combined effects of a chemical and light. Exposure to either the chemical or the light alone is not sufficient to induce the disease; however, when photoactivation of the chemical occurs, one or more cutaneous manifestations may arise.
Isoamyl cinnamate. Isoamyl formate. Isoamyl 2-furanbutyrate; [alpha]-isoamyl furfurylpropionate. Isoamyl 2-furanpropionate; [ ...
METHYL CINNAMATE. Fruity, balsamic. METHYL KETONES 2HN. Sharp Floral. METHYL MERCAPTAN 1% ETOH. Alcoholic, Cabbage. ...
HuanggangShi Chuxiong Chemical Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise integrating basic chemical industry and fine chemical industry and relying on advanced technology. The company was founded in 2011 and is headquartered in Huanggang City, Hubei Province, covering an area of 40135 square meters.
HuanggangShi Chuxiong Chemical Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise integrating basic chemical industry and fine chemical industry and relying on advanced technology. The company was founded in 2011 and is headquartered in Huanggang City, Hubei Province, covering an area of 40135 square meters.
BENZYL CINNAMATE • CI 14700 / RED 4 • CI 60730 / EXT. VIOLET 2 • (FIL : B226519/2). THIS INGREDIENT LIST IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE, ...
... One.Function and using range This product is a kind of solid enzyme which is extracted from Bacillus subtilis which is deeply fermented.It can hydrolyze the macromolecular protein to amino acid,etc.It can be used directly in beer¡¢foods¡¢feed¡¢makeup¡¢health products etc to decompose protein. Two. Product specification and quanlity index Item Index Item Index Appearance Brown-yellow powder Temperature 37-59 degrees Activity u/g 50000,70000 Best temperature 40-45 degrees Smell No irritative smell Water concent £¼8% pH range 6.8-8.0 40 mesh sieve ¡Ý90% Three.Define of enzyme activity In the condition of 30 degrees,pH7.5,one gram enzyme powder decomposed casein in one minute to produce 1¦Ìg tyrosine,which is defined as one activity unit .it is showed by u/g. Four. using methods 1.Used in beer fermentation.When the quality of malt is poor or materials are too many,amino nitrogen in beer will be not enough,which will cause of bad propagation of jeast and raising the
In terms of performance, Sankyos roller gear does for rotary motions what the ball screw does for linear motions. The roller gear cam mechanism consists of a roller gear and globoidal cam. Similar to the preloading structure of a ball screw, the roller gear has no backlash, and transfers power by rolling contact for strong rigidity and excellent efficiency. And no clamping is necessary.
hexyl cinnamate. FR. juniper berry oil terpeneless. FL/FR. 2-. phenyl propyl alcohol. FL/FR. ...
Benzyl Cinnamate • Creatine • 2-Oleamido-1,3-Octadecanediol • Taurine • Parfum / Fragrance. ...
benzyl cinnamate. *benzyl salicylate. *beta-caryophyllene. *bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 3-(1-methylethyl)-, ...
Alcohol Denat, Parfum (Fragrance), Benzyl Cinnamate, Cinnamal, Citral, Eugenol, Farnesol, Limonene, Linalool. ...
Exposure to the UV Filter Octyl Methoxy Cinnamate in the Postnatal Period Induces Thyroid Dysregulation and Perturbs the Immune ...
The compounds claimed differed from those disclosed in document (1) in replacing the cinnamate group of the prior art by a ... a cinnamate chromophore and an unsaturated aliphatic linking group. Therefore, the structural difference between this ... a cinnamate chromophore and an unsaturated aliphatic linking group. ... compound and those claimed in the patent in suit consists in substituting the benzalmalonate chromophore for the cinnamate one ...
From natural essential oils: Benzyl Benzoate, Benzyl Cinnamate, Citral, Citronellol, Eugenol, Farnesol, Geraniol, Limonene, ...
Active Ingredients: Oxybenzene 3%, OM Cinnamate 7%. Net Wt. 1.5oz Made in USA. ... Active Ingredients: Oxybenzene 3%, OM Cinnamate 7%. Net Wt. 1.5oz Made in USA. ...
Finally, many enzymes for monolignol biosynthesis or activation were found, e.g. trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase; and three ...
1980). The 100% WC wines also showed a relative abundance of ethyl cinnamate, which was almost nine times more abundant than in ... For example, 100% WC wines were higher in ethyl cinnamate and benzaldehyde, suggesting the presence of spicy and almond-like ... Ethyl anthranilate, ethyl cinnamate, 2,3-dihydrocinnamate, and methyl anthranilate: Four important odorants identified in Pinot ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data showed higher relative levels of ethyl cinnamate and benzaldehyde in 100% WC ...
Cinnamon contains a large amount of active chemicals including cinnamic aldehyde, ethyl cinnamate, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, ...
Benzyl Cinnamate, Benzyl Alcool. This list is subjet to change, please check the product packaging bought. ...
... especially cinnamates. Skin patch testing may help in identifying contact allergens (see Other Tests). If an allergy is ...
Benzyl Cinnamate, Evernia Prunastri (Oakmoss) Extract ...
Abbreviations: 4CL, 4- coumarate-CoA ligase; ANR, anthocyanidin reductase; ANS, anthocyanin synthase; C3H, cinnamate 3- ... hydroxylase; C4H, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; CCR ...
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data showed higher relative levels of ethyl cinnamate and benzaldehyde in 100% WC wines and relative abundance of esters in DS wines. (ajevonline.org)
  • Major compounds of this oil were identified as ethyl cinnamate and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate. (who.int)
  • In rhizome oil the percentage of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate decreased with maturity while the percentage of ethyl cinnamate increased. (who.int)
  • Benzyl cinnamate is the chemical compound which is the ester derived from cinnamic acid and benzyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl cinnamate can be prepared by heating benzyl chloride and excess sodium cinnamate in water to 100-115 °C or by heating sodium cinnamate with an excess of benzyl chloride in the presence of diethylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate. (bvsalud.org)
  • We sampled from 0700 h to 1100 h using the same five chemical attractants: cineol, eugenol, methyl cinnamate (solid dissolved in 95% ethanol), benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. (datadryad.org)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Isoamyl cinnamate (7779-65-9). (nih.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Isoamyl Cinnamate in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • Also known as cinnamate ester, this chemical provides protection from UVB rays but does not block UVA rays. (colorescience.com)
  • ingredients: Cinnamates Padimate-O Salicylates (aspirin-like compounds) Zinc oxide Sunscreen may also contain other ingredients. (nih.gov)
  • Further analysis of balsam of Peru revealed that the chemicals benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate were responsible for stimulating the T cell response. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to develop and evaluate liquid and solid carrier systems to use pentyl cinnamate (PC), derived from natural sources, to control Ae. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat. (nih.gov)