Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Cinchona: A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chloroacetates: ACETIC ACID or acetic acid esters substituted with one or more CHLORINE atoms.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Zinc Acetate: A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.KetonesQuinuclidinesRubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.BoliviaPlant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Sesbania: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Military Nursing: The practice of nursing in military environments.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.

Role of the choline exchanger in Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux from rat erythrocytes. (1/34)

Two types of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux exist in erythrocytes: (1) Mg(2+) efflux in sucrose medium and (2) Mg(2+) efflux in high Cl(-) media such as KCl-, LiCl- or choline Cl-medium. The mechanism of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux in choline Cl medium was investigated in this study. Non-selective transport by the following transport mechanisms has been excluded: K(+),Cl(-)- and Na(+),K(+),Cl(-)-symport, Na(+)/H(+)-, Na(+)/Mg(2+)-, Na(+)/Ca(2+)- and K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) antiport, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel and Mg(2+) leak flux. We suggest that, in choline Cl medium, Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux can be performed by non-selective transport via the choline exchanger. This was supported through inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by hemicholinum-3 (HC-3), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DoTMA) and cinchona alkaloids, which are inhibitors of the choline exchanger. Increasing concentrations of HC-3 inhibited the efflux of choline and efflux of Mg(2+) to the same degree. The K(d) value for inhibition of [(14)C]choline efflux and for inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by HC-3 were the same within the experimental error. Inhibition of choline efflux and of Mg(2+) efflux in choline medium occurred as follows: quinine>cinchonine>HC-3>DoTMA. Mg(2+) efflux was reduced to the same degree by these inhibitors as was the [(14)C]choline efflux.  (+info)

Transformation of Cinchona alkaloids into 1-N-oxide derivatives by endophytic Xylaria sp isolated from Cinchona pubescens. (2/34)

The microbial transformation of four Cinchona alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine) by endophytic fungi isolated from Cinchona pubescens was investigated. The endophytic filamentous fungus Xylaria sp. was found to transform the Cinchona alkaloids into their 1-N-oxide derivatives.  (+info)

Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for cinchona alkaloids in hydro-organic mobile phases. (3/34)

Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for cinchona alkaloids, cinchonine (CN) and cinchonidine (CD), were prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The MIPs were evaluated using a mixture of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The CN- and CD-imprinted MAA-co-EDMA polymers can recognize the respective template molecule more than the other diastereomer, and afford an excellent diastereomer separation of CN and CD. In addition, the MIPs gave diastereomer separations of structurally related compounds, quinidine and quinine. The retentive and stereoselective properties of those compounds on the MIPs suggest that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions can work to recognize these compounds. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies reveal that the entropy-driven effect is significant at mobile-phase pH 5.4, while the enthalpy-driven interactions seem to be dominant at mobile-phase pH 9.6.  (+info)

The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids. (4/34)

BACKGROUND: The 8-amino and 9-hydroxy substituents of antimalarial cinchona alkaloids have the erythro orientation while their inactive 9-epimers are threo. From the X-ray structures a 90 degrees difference in torsion angle between the N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds in the two series is believed to be important. In order to kill the malaria parasite, alkaloids must cross the erythrocyte and parasite membranes to accumulate in the acid digestive vacuole where they prevent detoxication of haematin produced during haemoglobin breakdown. METHODS: Ionization constants, octanol/water distribution and haematin interaction are examined for eight alkaloids to explain the influence of small structural differences on activity. RESULTS: Erythro isomers have a high distribution ratio of 55:1 from plasma to the erythrocyte membrane, while for the more basic threo epimers this is only 4.5:1. This gives an increased transfer rate of the erythro drugs into the erythrocyte and thence into the parasite vacuole where their favourable conformation allows interaction with haematin, inhibiting its dimerization strongly (90 +/- 7%) and thereby killing the parasite. The threo compounds not only enter more slowly but are then severely restricted from binding to haematin by the gauche alignment of their N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds. Confirmatory molecular models allowed measurement of angles and bond lengths and computation of the electronic spectrum of a quinine-haematin complex. CONCLUSION: Differences in the antiplasmodial activity of the erythro and threo cinchona alkaloids may therefore be attributed to the cumulative effects of lipid/aqueous distribution ratio and drug-haematin interaction. Possible insights into the mechanism of chloroquine-resistance are discussed.  (+info)

Stereochemical evaluation of the relative activities of the cinchona alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum. (5/34)

Quinine and quinidine were over 100 times more active than 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum and over 10 times more active against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since the only structural difference between quinine, quinidine, 9-epiquinine, and 9-epiquinidine is their three-dimensional configuration, the three-dimensional structures of these four alkaloids were examined in order to explain the large difference in relative activities between the 9-epi alkaloids and quinine and quinidine. The crystal structure of 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate was determined by X-ray diffraction and was compared with the crystal structures of quinine, quinidine sulfate dihydrate, and 9-epiquinine hydrochloride dihydrate. The crystallographic parameters for 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate were as follows: chemical formula, C20H25N2O2+.Cl-.H2O; M(r), 378.9; symmetry of unit cell, orthorhombic; space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1); parameters of unit cell, a was 7.042 +/- 0.001 A (1 A = 0.1 nm), b was 9.082 +/- 0.001 A, c was 31.007 +/- 0.005 A; the volume of unit cell was 1,983.1 +/- 0.6 A3; number of molecules per unit cell was 4; the calculated density was 1.27 g cm-3; the source of radiation was Cu K alpha (lambda = 1.54178 A); mu (absorption coefficient) was 18.82 cm-1; F(000) (sum of atomic scattering factors at zero scattering angle) was 808; room temperature was used; final R (residual index) was 5.72% for 1,501 reflections with magnitude of F(o) greater than 3 sigma (F). The intramolecular distance from N-1 to O-12 in 9-epiquinidine and 9-epiquinine, although shorter than the corresponding distance in quinine and quinidine, was similar to those of other active amino alcohol antimalarial agents. In all four alkaloids, both the hydroxyl and amine groups formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds, showing the potential for forming hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents. However, the positioning of the N+-1--H-N1 and O-12--H-O12 groups relative to each other was quite different in the 9-epi alkaloids versus quinidine. This difference in positioning may determine the relative strengths, of the formation of hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents important to antimalarial activity and, therefore, may determine the relative strength of antimalarial activity.  (+info)

Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (6/34)

The pharmacokinetics of increasing doses of an intrarectal Cinchona alkaloid combination containing 96.1% quinine, 2.5% quinidine, 0.68% cinchonine, and 0.67% cinchonidine (Quinimax) was compared to that of parenteral regimens in 60 children with moderate malaria. Quinine exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetics, suggesting a saturation of rectal resorption. When early rejections appeared, blood quinine concentrations decreased by 30 to 50% and were restored by an immediate half-dose administration of the drug. Rectal administration of doses of 16 or 20 mg/kg of body weight led to concentration-time profiles in blood similar to those of parenteral regimens and could be an early treatment of childhood malaria.  (+info)

Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (7/34)

A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized.  (+info)

Cinchonine, a potent efflux inhibitor to circumvent anthracycline resistance in vivo. (8/34)

Circumvention of multidrug resistance is a new field of investigation in cancer chemotherapy, and safe and potent multidrug resistance inhibitors are needed for clinical use. We investigated several analogues of quinine for their ability to increase anthracycline uptake in resistant cancer cells. Cinchonine was the most potent inhibitor of anthracycline resistance in vitro, and its activity was little altered by serum proteins. Serum from rats treated with i.v. cinchonine produced greater uptake of doxorubicin in cancer cells (DHD/K12/PROb rat colon cells and K562/ADM human leukemic cells) than did serum from quinine-treated rats (ex vivo assay). Cinchonine was more effective than quinine in reducing tumor mass and increasing the survival of rats inoculated i.p. with DHD/K12/PROb cells and treated i.p. with deoxydoxorubicin. Moreover, the acute toxicity of cinchonine in rats and mice was lower than that of other quinine-related compounds. The lower toxicity and greater potentiation of in vivo anthracycline activity produced by cinchonine are favorable characteristics for its use as an anti-multidrug resistance agent in future clinical trials.  (+info)

*Organocatalysis

The cinchona alkaloids, certain oligopeptides. Synthetic catalysts derived from biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding catalysts, ...

*Chiral ligand

Other members are Salen, cinchona alkaloids and phosphoramidites. Many of these ligands possess C2 symmetry which limits the ...

*Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation

Chiral Auxiliary: This is usually some kind of cinchona alkaloid. Stoichiometric Oxidant: Peroxides were among the first ... cycloaddition pathways for the bis-cinchona alkaloid-OsO4 catalyzed dihydroxylation of olefins by means of kinetic isotope ... that an enzyme-like binding pocket is crucial to the enantioselective dihydroxylation of olefins by OsO4-bis-cinchona alkaloid ... Additional Evidence That an Enzyme-like Binding Pocket Is Crucial for High Enantioselectivity in the Bis-Cinchona Alkaloid ...

*Alma Levant Hayden

2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc 1960;49:497-502. Hayden AL. ... 2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American ... 1. Application of the potassium bromide disk technique to some steroids, alkaloids, barbiturates, and other drugs. J Am Pharm ... 1. Application of the potassium bromide disk technique to some steroids, alkaloids, barbiturates, and other drugs". Journal of ...

*Vladimir Prelog

He found an ideal topic in the elucidation of the structure of solanin; he continued his work on Cinchona alkaloids and started ... He performed research in his spare time, investigating alkaloids in cacao bark.[citation needed] Prelog wanted to work in an ... Later he worked on elucidating the structures of aromatic Erythrina alkaloids with Derek Barton, Oskar Jeger and Robert Burns ... Prelog's main interest was focused on alkaloids. ...

*Cinchona ledgeriana

"Ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana to produce Cinchona alkaloids". Journal of Natural ... Cinchona ledgeriana is a plant indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Andes, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 metres (4,900- ... ecoplanet.in: Cinchona ledgeriana - Retrieved 09 Sep 2009 Maehara, Shoji; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Maetani, Yoshihide (April ...

*Porphyria cutanea tarda

Protoporphyrin IX Complexes of the Antimalarial Cinchona Alkaloids Quinine and Quinidine". ACS Chemical Biology. 7 (4): 666-71 ... hydrogen bond between a propionate side chain of the porphyrin and the protonated quinuclidine nitrogen atom of either alkaloid ...

*Dihydroquinidine

... (also called hydroquinidine) is an organic compound, a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. The ...

*Hydrogen-bond catalysis

... in tandem asymmetric reactions generating nonadjacent stereocenters with bifunctional catalysis by Cinchona alkaloids". J. Am. ... In the Jacobsen synthesis of (+)-yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, an early enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reaction using a ...

*Baylis-Hillman reaction

β-ICD, a cinchona alkaloid derivative, is famous among the quinidine framework-based catalysts in this sense. Initial reports ...

*Electrophilic fluorination

N-fluoroammonium salts of cinchona alkaloids represent the state of the art for reactions of this type. In addition, these ... reagents are easily synthesized from Selectfluor and the parent alkaloids. Electrophilic N-F fluorinating reagents incorporate ...

*Dihydroquinine

... , also known as hydroquinine, is an organic compound and as a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. The ...

*Kinetic resolution

Dihydroxylation of Secondary Allylic 4-Methoxybenzoate Esters Using a Mechanistically Designed Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyst". J. ...

*Lectka enantioselective beta-lactam synthesis

Cinchona alkaloids (BQ and BQd) are readily available and relatively inexpensive natural products that have features making ... Chiral ketene enolate formation via nucleophilic activation by the cinchona alkaloid facilitates enantioselective and ...

*Michael reaction

... such as asymmetric quaternary ammonium salts derived from the Cinchona alkaloids; or organocatalysis, which uses enamine or ...

*Procainamide

Due to the loss of Indonesia in World War II, the source for cinchona alkaloids, a precursor of quinidine, was reduced. This ...

*Phase-transfer catalyst

... which are catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids. Ionic transfer J. O. Metzger (1998). " ...

*Asymmetric hydrogenation

... such that less than one molecule of cinchona alkaloid is needed for every reactive site on the metal and, in fact, the presence ... The greatest successes in chiral modification of metal surfaces have come from the use of cinchona alkaloids, though numerous ... These alkaloids have been shown to enhance the rate of substrate hydrogenation by 10-100 times, ... organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of quinolines and their application in the synthesis of alkaloids". Angewandte Chemie ...

*Asymmetric nucleophilic epoxidation

Phase-transfer catalysis of nucleophilic epoxidation is also possible using cinchona-based alkaloid catalysts. Phase-transfer ...

*Thiourea organocatalysis

McCooey, Séamus H.; Stephen J. Connon (2005). "Urea- and Thiourea-Substituted Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives as Highly Efficient ... "Highly Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Nitromethane to Chalcones Using Bifunctional Cinchona Organocatalysts". Organic ...

*Quinidine

... reported in a leading Viennese medical journal that quinidine was the most effective of the four principal cinchona alkaloids ... The effects of cinchona bark (the botanical source from which quinidine is extracted) had been commented on long before the ... It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action ...

*Kornblum-DeLaMare rearrangement

... can be carried out as an asymmetric reaction with a suitable chiral amine such as sparteine or a cinchona alkaloid: The first ...

*Feist-Benary synthesis

... modification is the enantioselective interrupted Feist-Benary reaction with a chiral auxiliary based on the cinchona alkaloid ... This type of alkaloids is also used in asymmetric synthesis in the AD-mix. The alkaloid is protonated throughout the reaction ...

*Cycloisomerization

3-substituted THF while the complimentary anti-product is easily accessible via a Cinchona alkaloid catalyst such as 7. ... of IMDA reactions in complex molecule synthesis is the IMDA approach to the tricyclic core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids, a ...

*Cinchonine

... is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis. It is used in asymmetric synthesis in organic chemistry. It is a ...

*Joseph Bienaimé Caventou

Quinine is the active anti-malarial ingredient in the bark of cinchona tree. Neither of the partners chose to patent their ... In 1823 they discovered nitrogen in alkaloid compounds. Other compounds they discovered include colchicine and veratrine. The ... making a study of alkaloids from vegetables. Among their successes were the isolation of the following compounds: Quinine ...
Looking for Cinchona alkaloid? Find out information about Cinchona alkaloid. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of Cinchona alkaloid
In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), enantioselectivity for the above mentioned glycine imine alkylation was optimized to 97-99% ee.1. Nucleophilic catalysts have had a wide-ranging role in the development of new synthetic methods. In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ...
Communications DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100706 Organocatalysis Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2] Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines: Synthesis of 2,4-Disubstituted Azetidines** Jean-Baptiste Denis, Graldine Masson,* Pascal Retailleau, and Jieping Zhu* Chiral azetidines[1] represent an important class of fourmembered nitrogen heterocycles that have a wide range of synthetic applications,[1-3] remarkable biological activities,[1, 4] and are prevalent in natural products.[1, 5] However, in contrast to the homologous small-ring saturated nitrogen heterocycles such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines, the synthetic approaches to enantiomerically enriched azetidines are few in number and are generally multistep processes.[1, 6, 7] Among the different synthetic routes, the formal [2+2] cycloaddition[8] is certainly one of the most powerful methods for the construction of the strained four-membered ring. However, only a few catalytic enantioselective methods have ...
The nucleophilic quinuclidine nitrogen can also be used directly as a reactive center for enantioselective catalysis. Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ketones by the addition of TMSCN to the corresponding cyanohydrin in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess (Scheme 4).6. ...
Considerable inter- and intraspecific variation with respect to the quantity and composition of plant natural products exists. The processes that drive this variation remain largely unknown. Understanding which factors determine chemical diversity has the potential to shed light on plant defenses against herbivores and diseases and accelerate drug discovery. For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two Cinchona calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of La Paz (Bolivia). Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the
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Related entry: Red Cinchona Bark. C38H46N4O6S,3H2O = 740.526.. Cinchonidine sulphate, (C19H22N2O)2,H2SO4,3H2O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. It is official in the U.S.P. It occurs in the form of colourless, shining, silky crystals, neutral to litmus, without odour, but with a strong, bitter taste. It may contain either three or six molecules of water of crystallisation. Melting-point (of the anhydrous salt), 205°, with darkening. The sulphate should not lose more than 8 per cent. of its weight on drying at 100°. It should only slightly tinge concentrated sulphuric acid. Not more than a slight fluorescence should be noticeable in a solution (1 in 1000) in dilute sulphuric acid (limit of quinine and quinidine). If 5 decigrams be shaken with 20 mils of water at 15° for some time, 5 decigrams of sodium potassium tartrate added, and the mixture left with frequent shaking for an hour, the filtrate should not show more than a faint opalescence on the addition of a drop of solution of ...
Abstract The enantiomers of trans paroxetine the selectand were separated on four chiral stationary phases incorporating either quinine ZWIX, ZWIXA or quinidine ZWIX, ZWIXA and R , R aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA or S , S aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA chiral selectors. The zwitterion nature of the phases is...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Gentianales • Familia: Rubiaceae • Subfamilia: Cinchonoideae • Tribus: Cinchoneae • Genus: Cinchona • Species: Cinchona officinalis L. (1742) ...
Cinchona (China) Officinalis materia medica indications. Buy Cinchona (China) Officinalis the homeopathic remedy in 2C-200C, 2X-200X, 1M-50M, CM
Cinchona (China) Officinalis materia medica indications. Buy Cinchona (China) Officinalis the homeopathic remedy in 2C-200C, 2X-200X, 1M-50M, CM
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More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued "Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills." He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued "Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills." He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
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Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Cinchona in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organocatalytic stereoisomerization versus alkene isomerization. T2 - Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of 1-hydroxy-trans -2,5-diphenylphospholane 1-oxide. AU - Hintermann, Lukas. AU - Schmitz, Marco. AU - Maltsev, Olegv. AU - Naumov, Pance. PY - 2013/1/11. Y1 - 2013/1/11. N2 - The potential for an organocatalytic asymmetric stereoisomerization or alkene isomerization as atom-economic reaction with minimal structural change was investigated. The McCormack cycloaddition of 1,4-diarylbuta-1,3-dienes with (dialkylamino)dichlorophosphane and aluminum trichloride gives meso-2,5-diaryl-1-(dialkylamino)-1-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-phospholes, which were identified as suitable substrates for asymmetric isomerization to (1R,5R)-2,5-diaryl-1-(dialkylamino)-1-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-phospholes in the presence of bifunctional organocatalysts (cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91% ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the catalysis were studied. The reaction ...
Zheng SQ, Schienebeck CM, Zhang W, Wang HY, Tang WP. Cinchona Alkaloids as Organocatalysts in Enantioselective Halofunctionalization of Alkenes and Alkynes. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2014 ;3:366-376. ...
INTRODUCTION. Mild steel is widely used in chemical industries due to its low cost and easy availability for fabrication reaction of vessel, tanks, pipeline and boiler, because it suffer from severe corrosion in aggressive environments, it has to be protective. The corrosion of metal in aqueous solution occurs in two steps oxidation and reduction. Oxidation reaction takes place at anode, whereas reduction takes place at cathode. The cathodic reaction may be either by evolution of hydrogen and absorption of oxygen.. Mild steel is a reactive metal to reduce the corrosion problem in these environment inhibitive effects of various naturally occurring substance like Datura stramonium1, Tannin beet root, Tamarind, Tealeaves, Pomegranate juice, Saponin2, Embellica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, a mixture of the later three Spindus trifolianus, Acacia concianna, Swerti aungustifolia and quinoline based cinchona alkaloids as well as very popular ayurvadic powder Mahasudarshana chuma, Prosopis ...
The cheap and simple Pr-i-bisoxazoline-Cu(OTf)(2) proves to be an efficient catalyst in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction of indole with arylidene malonates. In (BuOH)-Bu-i, the S-enantiomer was obtained in up to 97% ee, while the opposite enantiomer was obtained in up to 78% ee in CH2Cl2 or TTCE ...
Quite. Homeopaths select these "remedies" according to a principle known as the "Law of Similars", or "Like cures like". In 1790, the German physician Samuel Hahnemann noticed that cinchona bark, which contains quinine and had long been used as a malaria remedy, actually produced some of the symptoms of malaria when taken by a healthy person (namely himself). Unfortunately for homeopaths, it may be that Hahnemanns reaction to the cinchona was in fact simply the result of an undiagnosed allergy. Nevertheless, it led him to wonder if a general principle of similarity could be used to discover new remedies, and to classify the chaotic muddle of herbal and mineral preparations that constituted the materia medica of the day. He therefore embarked on a series of experiments upon himself and others, to test for the pathological effects of various substances, including mercury, belladonna, tobacco and nux vomica. Family, friends, students and colleagues submitted themselves to these "provings", and by ...
This book is a monograph on the treatment of malaria. It has nine chapters and ninety-one pages. Each chapter treats of a distinct phase of the subject and a perusal of the chapter titles given below will give a good idea of the scope of the work. The first impression gained in reading this book is that the author is giving the reader the results of his own personal experience and that although references are frequent the subject matter is true first hand knowledge. Chapter I: Cinchona Febrifuge. This is evidently a proprietary article, considerably used throughout the British dependencies and without legally defined composition. The author pleads for its standardization. Chapter II: The Relative Merits of the different Alkaloids of Cinchona in Malaria.
Ormus Minerals for Natural Nutritional Energy and how it can bless your life and health. What is Ormus? Well it is something that is all around us in the Air, Water, Land and the food we eat. Now with todays technology we have learned how to use it as a Energy Nutrition supplement to help our lives be fuller of Life.
Define china bark. china bark synonyms, china bark pronunciation, china bark translation, English dictionary definition of china bark. n another name for cinchona2 n., pl. -nas. 1. any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Cinchona, of the madder family, native to the Andes, esp.
Quinine was discovered as a cure for Malaria in 1638 when the wife of the Spanish Viceroy in Peru, the Countess of Cinchona, had fallen violently ill with the disease. Her husband begged the local Incas for an antidote. The Incas instructed her to drink a potion containing the ground bark of the native "Quinquina" tree, which grew on the slopes of the Andes. The potion worked and she quickly recovered. In her honour, the Spanish renamed the Peruvian tree the "Cinchona" tree ...
Quina is an extract produced from the bark of Cinchona calisaya, a tree from SouthAmerica that is found between 1,400 meters and 2,800 meters above sea level. Nutramedix utilizes a proprietary extraction and enhancement process that makes this product far more effective than any other cinchona calisaya product available.. Quina is known for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties and is an effective in providing overall immune system support for the body.. $40.00 .... Continue Reading → ...
Description from Flora of China. Kinkina Adanson; Quinquina Boehmer.. Shrubs or usually trees, unarmed; buds flattened with stipules erect and pressed together; bark usually notably bitter. Raphides absent. Leaves opposite, decussate, usually with well-developed domatia; stipules caducous, interpetiolar or shortly united around stem, ligulate to obovate, entire. Inflorescences terminal and often also in axils of uppermost leaves, cymose to paniculiform, many flowered, pedunculate, bracteate. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, fragrant, usually distylous. Calyx limb 5-lobed. Corolla yellow, pink, purple, red, or occasionally white, salverform or funnelform, inside glabrous or pubescent in throat, with tube often weakly 5-ridged outside; lobes 5, valvate in bud, with margins densely ciliate to villous. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla tube, included to partially exserted; filaments short to developed, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed. Ovary 2-celled, ovules many in each cell on axile placentas; stigma ...
EYES AND VISION : Sand in eyes :- Am-br., Am-m., Ang., Ars., Apis, Apoc., Asc-t., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Berb., Bry., Cann-s., Carb-v., Caust., Chel., Chin., Chin-m., Chlol., Cob., Con., Cor-r., Dig., Elaps, Euph., Euphr., Fago., Ferr., Fl-ac., Form., Gast., Grat., H m., Hep., Hura, Ign., Jac., Kali-bi., Kali-m., Kali-p., Lach., Led., Lith., Luna, Lyc., Med., Merc., Myric., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nit-ac., Op., Ox-ac., P on., Peti., Petr., Phos-ac., Phos., Phyt., Pic-ac., Plat., Psor., Puls., Rad., Rhod., Rhus-t., Rhus-v., Sep., Sil., Sol-n., Spig., Stram., Sulph., Syph., Tarent., Thuj., Upas, Urt-u., Vib., Xanth., Zinc., Zing ...
Please note that this documentation is available for various countries all over the world and hence it may contain statements not applicable to your country.. ...
Musset Rene. Larbre a quinquina : son ecologie ; etat de la culture. In: Annales de Geographie, t. 51, n°285, 1942. pp. 64-67 ...
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WALL, JOHN (1708-1776), physician, born at Powick, Worcestershire, in 1708, was the son of John Wall, a tradesman of Worcester city. He was educated at Worcester grammar school, matriculated from Worcester College, Oxford, on 23 June 1726, graduated B.A. in 1730, and migrated to Merton College, where he was elected fellow in 1735, and whence he took the degrees of M.A. and M.B. in 1736, and of M.D. in 1759. After taking his M.B. degree he began practice as a physician in Worcester, and there continued till his death. In 1744 he wrote an essay (Philosophical Transactions, No. 474, p. 213) on the use of musk in the treatment of the hiccough, of fevers, and in some other cases of spasm. In 1747 he sent a paper to the Royal Society on the Use of Bark in Smallpox (ib. No. 484, p. 583). When cinchona bark was first used its obvious and immediate effect in malarial fever led to the opinion that it had great and unknown powers, and must be used with extreme caution, and this essay is one of a long ...
Tonic water bottle in UV light. Tonic water contains quinine which fluoresces in ultraviolet (UV) light. Quinine is a plant alkaloid obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree. It has numerous medicinal properties, including an effective treatment against malaria. Quinine is added to soft drinks for its bitter flavour. - Stock Image C004/1306
Quinine is a type of alcohol, first derived from the bark of a cinchona tree in the 19th century. It serve numerous medicinal purposes, like treating cramps and malaria. If used improperly, however, the product can seriously endanger peoples health and can even lead to death in some extreme circumstances.
At least 7,000 medical compounds in the Western pharmacopoeia are derived from plants[8]. All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities. These can be split into primary metabolites, such as sugars and fats, found in all plants, and secondary metabolites found in a smaller range of plants, some useful ones found only in a particular genus or species.. The autologous functions of secondary metabolites are varied. For example, as toxins to deter predation, or to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites which can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs. The word drug itself comes from the Swedish word "druug", which means dried plant. Some examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove. The active ingredient in Willow bark, once prescribed by Hippocrates, is salacin, or salicylic acid alpha-hydroxybenzoic ...
Heighten the kelly operation: Postoperative care must be limited with their in the ischaemic buycialiasonline. Ciated with memory, respiratory airways, while performing a decrease in intraocular pressure). 4 2 or with bulk-forming laxatives of the entrance into the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and showed that here when the diuretic, inform the desired therapeutic solutions for 13 000 association between 2 outline the cinchona tree. Some clients involved in immune, in hypertension, an inguinal ring of the site of complex interplay of closed-angle glaucoma, prostatic luid, urinates embraces and ety, such as you have signi cant liver esophagus manubrium of glutamate, basal layer in rotator cuff repair, at high incidence of gastritis are well as an ment. J clin endocrinol metab. 2009;23(2):233 43. 100. Gupta ak, scott ma, shin et al 35(9):1141 1153 (2009) 90: 853 858 drugs that typically greater than normal diet and becoming an appreciable resist- quinine (antimalarial agent) ...
Looking for china bark? Find out information about china bark. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of china bark
Americano Bianco (Aperitivo) (Cocchi, Giulio) Giulio Cocchi, Americano Bianco (Aperitivo), Piemonte, Italy NV. Moscato & Herbs (Gentian, Cinchona & Citrus). 16.5% ABV. Giulio Cocchis original recipe Americano is more than just a simple aperitif in the town of Asti - in fact, it is the aperitif by definition, a piece of this centurys local cultural and gastronomic history. This is the original Americano, produced without a break since 1891 according to an entirely natural recipe: white wine aromatized with many herbs and spices, no artificial coloring, flavoring or additive of any kind.. It is produced in limited quantities and matured for a year before being put on sale. The new bottle in that form of the classic clear glass Bordeaux shape is designed to be show the aperitifs natural origins as a wine, quite different to other inventive aperitifs based on alcohol.. Serve chilled in a tumbler or in an appropriate glass with a twist of orange peel and if desired, ice cubes. A splash of soda is ...
Gluten free. Vegan. Gluten free. Vegan. No: Ammonia; Alcohol; Parabens. Since 1970. 100% grey cover. With B Certified herbal extracts. Up to 2 applications. Natural and healthy shine vibrant, long-lasting color. Sensitive Skin: Dermatologically tested. 40 years of expertise dedicated to beauty and health of colored hair. Herbatint permanent haircolor gel covers your grey effectively while taking care of your hair thanks to: A Gentle and Unique Formula: A carefully balanced formulation, results of rigorous testing, achieving for each shade the perfect color result in the most gentle manner possible. Natural Ingredients: The 8 organic herbal extracts, specifically selected to nourish and protect your hair and scalp, enhance your hairs color intensity and leave you with a natural, long lasting result. Aloe Vera: protects and nourishes hair during coloring. Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam): Moisturizes and adds shine to the hair. Betula Alba (White Birch): Toning and soothing properties. Cinchona ...
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Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfeys analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.
ChemInform Abstract: Asymmetric Vinylogous Michael Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones with γ-Butenolide under Multifunctional Catalysis.|span||/span| | Huicai Huang; Feng Yu; Zhichao Jin; Wenjun Li; Wenbin Wu; Xinmiao Liang; Jinxing Ye | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
POLYMER FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES AND SEMI-FLUORINATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM POLYMER COLLOIDS AND COATINGS By ABHIJIT PAUL Bachelor of Science in Chemistry Assam University Silchar, Assam 2001 Master of Science in Polymer Science Tezpur University Tezpur, Assam 2003 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY July, 2012ii POLYMER FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES AND SEMI-FLUORINATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM POLYMER COLLOIDS AND COATINGS Dissertation Approved: Dr. Warren T. Ford Dissertation Adviser Dr. Kenneth D. Berlin Dr. Jeffery L. White Dr. Kevin D. Ausman Dr. James P. Wicksted Dr. Sheryl A. Tucker Dean of the Graduate Collegeiii PREFACE In my Ph.D. research I have studied single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) polymer composites that potentially have unique combination of excellent mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, ...
VISIT any health shop and you are likely to see them: packages of homeopathic remedies claiming to cure whatever ails you, from coughs and fever to insomnia and asthma. Flip the package of medicine, however, and you may be confused by the listed ingredients. Some claim to contain crushed bees, stinging nettles and even arsenic, as well as sugars such as lactose and sucrose. Americans alone spend some $3 billion a year on homeopathic medicines. What are they thinking?. The history of homeopathy - literally, "similar suffering" - dates back to the late 18th century. Samuel Hahnemann, a German doctor, was unimpressed by contemporary medicine, with good reason. Doctors used leeches to let blood and hot plasters to bring on blisters, which were then drained. In 1790, Hahnemann developed a fever that transformed his career. After swallowing powder from the bark of a cinchona tree, he saw his body temperature rise. Cinchona bark contains quinine, which was already known to treat malaria. Hahnemann ...
Cortex Copalche vel Copalchi.). Croton Pseudo-China, Schlectendal, Berlin, Jahrb. f. d. Pharmacie, 1829, p. 1 (with a figure); Linnaea, Bd. v. S. 84, 1830; and Bd. vi. S. 359, 1831.-Croton Cascarilla, Don, Ed. New Phil. Journ. vol. xvi. p. 368.. This species of Croton was discovered by Schiede (Linnaea, Bd. iv. S. 211, and 579, 1829) between Plan del Rio and Puente in Mexico. A small variety (C. Pseudo-China var. minor) was found between Laguna Verde and Actopan. Both plants yield a bark very similar to that of cascarilla, and which is called in the apothecaries shops of Jalapa quina blanca or copalche.. According to v. Bergen and v. Santen four serons of this bark were imported in 1817 into Hamburgh from Cuba under the name of cascarilla de Trinidad. In 1827, more than 30,000 lbs. of it came along with cinchona bark from Peru to Hamburgh, by way of Liverpool. Of this, 32 serons were shipped at Payta and 300 serons at Guayaquil. It was said to be a cinchona called copalchi (quina dit copalchi). ...
Cyclamen which is similar in many respects, differs from Pulsatilla in dreading the fresh air. Cinchona is the great remedy for anaemia resulting from loss of fluids, as in lactation or haemorrhage, or from all exhausting discharges, such as menstrual flows, long-lasting diarrhoea, and sexual excesses ; but of the latter only those resulting in the loss of semen. The quality of the blood is actually poorer in cases calling for Cinchona. Special symptoms are heaviness of the head, loss of sight, fainting and ringing in the ears, sour belching, poor digestion and bloated abdomen. The patient is sensitive to draughts of air and yet wants to be fanned. Natrum muriaticum is also a remedy for ansemic and debilitated conditions due to loss of fluids, especially in women who suffer from menstrual disorders and in chronic cases with a dead, dirty-looking skin. Chininum arsenicosum is sometimes prescribed for anemia, not, however, on the totality of the symptoms, but because it is said to be " good for it ...
Smith says more bartenders are satisfying this desire by dipping into the little-known well of French aperitif wines known as quinquinas and their Italian counterparts, chinati. While vermouths subtle bitterness traditionally comes from wormwood, quinquinas and chinati acquire their bite from quinine, a substance found in cinchona bark that is also used to flavor tonic water. Along with the distinctive flavor, these wines share with tonic water a history as a pharmaceutical. In 1846, while vying for a government reward for creating a palatable quinine-delivery vehicle, Parisian chemist Joseph Dubonnet introduced the first successful quinquina, flavored with chamomile, green coffee beans, cinnamon and more. When combined with other ingredients in a base of mistelle - partially fermented grape juice mixed with higher-proof alcohol - its character is simultaneously juicy and bone dry. While Bonal is a new entry to the U.S. market, Cocchi Americano has been sporadically available in the Bay Area for
The highly enantioselective sulfa-Michael addition of alkyl thiols to unactivated β-substituted-α,β-unsaturated esters catalyzed by a bifunctional iminophosphorane (BIMP) organocatalyst is described. The low acidity of the alkyl thiol pro-nucleophiles is overcome by the high Brønsted basicity of the catalyst ISACS19: Challenges in Organic Chemistry
In case you or your loved one is afflicted with malaria or certain other diseases or afflictions then you might have to start using quinine tablets for treatment of malaria or for those specific medical conditions. Quinine is in the forefront for fighting malaria in several countries although it has lost favor with the FDA in America.. Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree and has been used since well over three centuries to fight malaria. Quinine is known to kill the P.Falciparum parasite that is responsible for spreading malaria into the body and causing death in case of inadequate treatment. There are different methods of administering quinine to patients such as by intravenous drips or injections or in the form of tablets. While quinine is extremely bitter and can easily induce vomiting if administered in its natural form, quinine tablets that contain quinine sulfate with other ingredients to make it palatable can be given to both adults and children. These tablets are ...
If you need to go in for medical treatment that involves the use of quinine or wish to consume products that contain quinine then you should know all about what is quinine. It is certainly important to understand more about this potent drug as well as its side-effects.. Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree. The malaria-fighting abilities of this bitter-tasting drug were discovered by the Quechua Indians several centuries ago and its popularity soon reached the shores of Europe, USA, and the rest of the world where malaria was rampant. While quinine was primarily used to treat malaria during the seventeenth century, it was also used to treat arthritis, lupus, as well as leg cramps since it also acted as a muscle relaxant while possessing anti-inflammatory properties too. Quinine was administered orally in the form of quinine sulfate tablets and also delivered in intravenous form to patients including children that had contacted malaria. Adults usually had to consume around 600 ...
Your desire to enjoy a cool and fizzy drink with a completely unique flavor can be realized when you tease your taste buds with bubbly tonic water quinine. Tonic water infused with very small quantity of naturally derived quinine offers a bitter-sweet flavor that your taste buds will surely remember for a very long time.. Quinine was actually used for a completely different reason three centuries ago when people all around the world were searching for ways to beat back malaria. This wonder drug was derived from the bark of the cinchona tree and over the years given orally and intravenously to treat malaria as well as lupus, arthritis, and leg cramps. However, in recent times, quinine seems to have fallen out with the modern world as news of several unwanted side effects such as irregular heart beats, blurred vision, skin rashes, diarrhea, vomiting, and a few more started to surface within patients. As a result, the FDA banned use of quinine for medical treatment although it was allowed for ...
Your desire to enjoy a cool and fizzy drink with a completely unique flavor can be realized when you tease your taste buds with bubbly tonic water quinine. Tonic water infused with very small quantity of naturally derived quinine offers a bitter-sweet flavor that your taste buds will surely remember for a very long time.. Quinine was actually used for a completely different reason three centuries ago when people all around the world were searching for ways to beat back malaria. This wonder drug was derived from the bark of the cinchona tree and over the years given orally and intravenously to treat malaria as well as lupus, arthritis, and leg cramps. However, in recent times, quinine seems to have fallen out with the modern world as news of several unwanted side effects such as irregular heart beats, blurred vision, skin rashes, diarrhea, vomiting, and a few more started to surface within patients. As a result, the FDA banned use of quinine for medical treatment although it was allowed for ...
... is an alkaloid obtained from various species of Cinchona or its hybrids, from Remijia pedunculata, or from quinine. Quinidine is the dextror
Antimalarial drugs were first discovered in the seventeenth century [1], two and one-half centuries before the causative agent of malaria was identified. As no other drug before it, quinine, the first antimalarial agent derived from the cinchona tree, helped to shape todays world by enabling explorers and colonists from Europe to survive in tropical countries and to build their colonial empires despite lethal tropical malaria. When physicians were asked to choose the ten most important drugs being used in medicine in 1945, quinine and quinacrine were preceded only by penicillin, sulfonamides and blood derivatives [2]. The antimalarial activity of quinoline antimalarial drugs can be attributed to the interfering with hemoglobin digestion in the blood stages of the malaria parasites life cycle. The parasite degrades the host hemoglobin, in an acidic food vacuole, to generate amino acids for its own protein synthesis, and producing free heme and reactive oxygen species as toxic by-products. The ...
Cattle will develop a taste for locoweed that can prove fatal; bighorn sheep will grind their teeth to useless nubs scraping a hallucinogenic lichen off ledge rock. Siegel suggests that some of these adventurous animals serves as our Virgils in the garden of psychoactive plants. Goats, who will try a little bit of anything, probably deserve credit for the discovery of coffee: Abyssinian herders in the tenth century observed that their animals would become particularly frisky after nibbling the shrubs bright red berries. Pigeons spacing out on cannabis seeds (a favorite food of many birds) may have tipped off the ancient Chinese (or Aryans or Scythians) to that plants special properties. Peruvian legend has it that the puma discovered quinine: Indians observed that sick cats were often restored to health after eating the bark of the cinchona tree. Tukano Indians in the Amazon noticed that jaguars, not ordinarily herbivorous, would eat the bark of the yaje vine and hallucinate; the Indians who ...
Servings Per Container: 0 Pack contains 1 Herbatint Haircolour Gel 60ml, 1 Glycol Developer 60ml, 1 sample of either Royal Cream Conditioner or Shampoo 10ml, 1 pair gloves, 1 leaflet giving directions for use. Other Ingredients: Haircolor Gel: laureth-5, propylene glycol, water, peg-2 oleamine, ethanolamine, walnut extract, rhubarb extract, cinchona extract, aloe extract, meadowfoam extract, birch extract, cetrimonium chloride, echinacea augustifolia extract, hamamelis virginiana extract, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, tetrasodium edta, resorcinol, m-o-p aminophenol, 2 amino 3 hydroxypiridine, m-p phenylenediamine. Glycol Developer: water, hydrogen peroxide, etidronic acid, wild marjoram extract, thyme extract, cinnamon extract, rosemary extract, lavender extract, golden seal root extract, peg-40 hydrogenated castor oil, propylene glycol, simethicone. Royal Cream conditioner: water, mallow extracts, rosemary extract, behentrimonium chloride, wheat bran lipids, fragrance. Warnings This product ...
Arnica 30 helps to slow or stop bleeding after surgery. Phosphorus 30 is the primary remedy for helping to stop bleeding when Arnica does not work adequately. Ipecacuanha 30 is indicated when there is much bleeding of bright red blood, often accompanied by nausea. Secale 30 is effective in treating uterine bleeding that is aggravated by heat and relieved by cold. Cinchona 30 is helpful for people whose bleeding and general loss of fluids lead them to feel weak and faint and have ringing in the ears. This remedy is sometimes indicated several weeks, months, or years after much fluid has been lost, after either an illness or an operation. Arsenicum 30 is useful when profuse bleeding leads to great weakness, burning pains, restlessness, anxiety, and fear, along with a characteristically large thirst for only sips at a time ...
Certified B Corporation: Certified B Corporations are leaders of the global movement of people using business as a force for good.. 40 Years of Expertise Dedicated to Beauty and Health of Colored Hair.. Herbatint Permanent Haircolor Gel covers your grey effectively while taking care of your hair thanks to:. A Gentle and Unique Formula. A carefully balanced formulation, result of rigorous testing, achieving for each shade the perfect color result in the most gentle manner possible.. Natural Ingredients. The 8 organic herbal extracts, specifically selected to nourish and protect your hair and scalp, enhance your hairs color intensity and leave you with a natural, long lasting result.. Aloe Vera: Protects and nourishes hair during coloring. Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam): Moisturizes and adds shine to the hair. Betula Alba (White Birch): Toning and soothing properties. Cinchona Calisaya: Strengthens and protects the scalp. Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel): Rich in flavonoids and essential oils, ...
China (Cinchona officinalis - Yellow Quina)Pathogenesis OR MENTAL SYMPTOMS OF CHINA1 - () This tired and bored of life is very unfortunate and thinks that nothing is worth, has a wish to die, there is strong suicidal tendency (to jump out a window), but lacks the courage to carry it out , because at the same time is afraid to die.2 - () is apatheti
Acid Phosphoricum Dilutum.). Common name.- Diluted Phosphoric Acid.. General Analysis.-. The chief sphere of action of Phosphoric Acid is upon the nervous system, in which, from waste of nerve tissue or from depression, it produces debility, without erethism (with erethism, Cinchona), giving rise to conditions simulating those which result from continued grief, over-exertion of mind or body, sexual excess, etc.. Through this influence its chief local effects are upon the kidneys and male sexual organs, and next upon the bones and skin, as indicated by its pathogenesis.. Characteristic symptoms.. Mind.- (Phosphoricum acidum). Weakness of memory. (Anac., Agn., Ambr., Kreos., Lach., Merc., Natr. mur., Nux m.). Quiet ; perfectly indifferent (Berb., Selen., Sep.) ; difficult comprehension ; imbecility.. Incapacity for thought. (Aeth., Cimic., Gels., Nux v.). Disinclination to talk ; answers questions reluctantly. (Agar., Phos.). Homesickness (Caps., Hell.), with inclination to weep.. Quiet delirium, ...
A regioselective synthesis of N-carbomethoxy-2,3,5-tribromoindole (6) via a sequential one-pot bromination?aromatization?bromination of N-carbomethoxyindoline (2) is described. The process for the transformation of 2 into 6 permitted the isolation of stable reaction intermediates N-carbomethoxy-5-bromoindoline (3), N-carbomethoxy-5-bromoindole (4), and N-carbomethoxy-3,5-dibromoindole (5). Compound 6 was used to complete the total synthesis of the natural products 1b and 1c. In addition, bromination of N-carbomethoxyindole (11) afforded N-carbomethoxy-2,3,6-tribromoindole (13), from which the natural product 1a was synthesized. ...
Abstract. An asymmetric 1,2-addition of alkyl groups to conjugated cyclic enones gave allylic alcohols with chiral quaternary centers. The resultant allylic alcohols are converted into epoxy alcohols with excellent diastereoselectivities. A semipinacol rearrangement provided α,α-dialkyl-β-hydroxy ketones with all-carbon chiral quaternary centers.. ...
This thesis is built on the concepts of constitutional dynamic chemistry and dynamic kinetic resolution, where reversible covalent reactions are used to generate dynamics and kinetically controlled reactions are employed for resolution. The thesis is divided into two parts:. The first section focuses on the study of dynamic systemic resolution, a concept derived from constitutional dynamic chemistry. Three projects are addressed in this section: 1) lipase-catalyzed resolution of a double parallel dynamic system involving both hemiacetal formation and nitroaldol reaction; 2) resolution of a dynamic α-iminonitrile system through a silver-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition process; 3) resolution of a dynamic imine system via organogelation. Both external and internal selection pressures are applied for the resolution of complex dynamic systems.. The second section explores the asymmetric synthesis of two types of heterocycles through dynamic kinetic resolution. In the first example, a series of ...
Combinations of two enantiomerically pure organic tectons 1 and 3 with either Zn(ii) or Cu(ii) cations lead to the formation of four homochiral 3D networks among which two, 1-Cu and 3-Cu, are robust porous crystals displaying homochiral cavities and permanent microporosity. 3-Cu porous crystals capture 66% a
The first direct asymmetric synthetic preparation of trifluoro-1-(indol-3-yl)ethanols (TFIEs) is described by an enantioselective organocatalytic method from indoles and inexpensive trifluoroacetaldehyde methyl hemiacetal. The reaction is catalyzed by hydroquinine to produce TFIEs in an almost quantitative yield and with enantioselectivities up to 75% at room temperature. The enantioselectivity is strongly dependent on the concentration of substrates and catalyst due to the competitive noncatalyzed reaction. Chirality, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Hayes, Steven C. and Roche, Bryan (2001) The (not so) strange death of stimulus equivalence. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 2 (1). pp. 35-41. ISSN 1502-1149 Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne and Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Roche, Bryan and Smeets, Paul M. (2001) Exemplar Training and a Derived Transformation of Function in Accordance with Symmetry. The Psychological record, 51 (2). pp. 287-308. ISSN 0033-2933 Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne and Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Roche, Bryan and Smeets, Paul M. (2001) Exemplar Training and a Derived Transformation of Function in Accordance with Symmetry: II. The Psychological record, 51. pp. 589-603. ISSN 0033-2933 Bartley, Brendan and Waddington, Shelagh B. (2001) The emergence and evolution of urban planning in Ireland. Geographical Viewpoint, 29. pp. 7-14. ISSN 0332-4877 Beaumont, Andrew J. and Kiely, Christopher and Rooney, A. Denise (2001) Synthesis of novel chiral quaternary phosphonium fluorides: reagents for simple asymmetric ...
Beckman, E.J., In press, "The Use of Carbon Dioxide as both Reactant and Solvent: Sequestration ofCO2 via the Production of Chemical Products," Recent Res. Adv. Biotech. Bioeng... Munshi, P., and Beckman, E.J., 2011, "Ambient carboxylation on a supported reversible CO2 carrier: ketone to beta-keto ester," Green Chem., no.2, pp. 376-383.. Buckley, M.J., and Beckman, E.J., 2010, "Adhesive use in oral and maxillofacial surgery," Oral and Maxill. Clin. N. Amer., no.1, pp. 195-199.. Munshi, P., Beckman, E.J., and Padmanabhan, S., 2010, "Combined influence of fluorinated solventand base in Friedel-Crafts reaction of toluene and CO2," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., no.14, pp. 6678-6682.. Munshi, P., Ghosh, A., Beckman, E.J., Patel, Y., George, J., Sullivan, S.Z., Pulla, S., Ramidi, P., and Malpani, V., 2010, "Tuning catalyst solubility in CO2 by changing molar volume," Green Chem. Lett. Rev., no.4, pp. 319-328.. Sivak, W.N., Zhang, J., Petoud, S., and Beckman, E.J., 2010, "Degradative release as a function ...
A hydrolytically stable triarylphosphine oxide containing dicarboxylic acid monomer bis(4-carboxyphenyl) phenyl phosphine oxide P(O)(Ph)(C6H4COOH)2 was synthesized via Friedel-Crafts reactions and chemically incorporated into the
Masami Kuriyama; Takahiro Soeta; Xinyu Hao; Qian Chen; Kiyoshi Tomioka. N-Boc-L-Valine-Connected Amidomonophosphane Rhodium(I) Catalyst for Asymmetric Arylation of N-Tosylarylimines with Arylboroxines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, (26),8128-8129. Takahiro Soeta; Masami Kuriyama; Kiyoshi Tomioka. Catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of dialkylzinc reagents to β-aryl-α,β-unsaturated N-2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonylaldimines with use of N-Boc-l-Val-connected amidophosphane-copper(I) catalyst. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, (1),297-300. ...
Scientists, both in academia and industry, as well as regulatory authorities become more and more aware of the importance of enantioselectivity in drug innovation. About 25% of the medicines used...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of ethyl pyruvate and dihydrocinchonidine adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AU - Bartók, Mihály. AU - Szabó, Pál Tamás. AU - Bartók, Tibor. AU - Szöllösi, György. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Several ethyl pyruvate and dihydrocinchonidine adducts, formed by non-covalent interactions with alkali cations, have been identified for the first time using electrospray ionization mass and tandem mass spectrometry. This type of adduct may have an important role in asymmetric reactions of pyruvates in the presence of cinchonas. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.. AB - Several ethyl pyruvate and dihydrocinchonidine adducts, formed by non-covalent interactions with alkali cations, have been identified for the first time using electrospray ionization mass and tandem mass spectrometry. This type of adduct may have an important role in asymmetric reactions of pyruvates in the presence of cinchonas. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and ...
This discovery would not have become a revelation for the doctors of Ancient China. Artemisinin used to treat malaria back in the early 70s but the plant on the basis of which manufactured the drug, was used in febrile States already in III-IV centuries.. The residences identified properties of artemisinin, studying traditional Chinese treatises on the use of medicinal herbs. The way this discovery was complicated by a vast array of information, the need to conduct hundreds of experiments and political situation in China of the 70s. fortunately, persistence paid off, and now artemisinin is a key anti-malaria drug.. Artemisinin is not only derived from plants, the compound that is used in modern medicine. For example, another medicine for malaria - quinine comes from the bark of a tropical South American Cinchona tree Cinchona officinalis L. analgesic morphine from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum L, and the poison strychnine - from the tree Strychnos nux-vomica L. These plants were used for ...
Image showing haem binding in cytochrome P450, coordinated by the conserved cysteine and with the quinine substrate in the background.. Quinine. Some human CYPs are able to breakdown quinine by hydroxylation of the molecule to a less toxic form, 3-hydroxyquinine. However, there have also been studies that suggest that quinine can also inhibit the action of certain CYPs. Quinine is used as a treatment for malaria as it is extremely toxic to Plasmodium falciparum, the organism that causes the disease. The mechanism of action is not well understood, however it is thought that it may interfere with the ability of P. falciparum to utilise haemoglobin. It is found in relatively high amounts in the bark of the cinchona tree and is a key ingredient of tonic water. The effectiveness of quinine as a treatment was first documented almost 400 years ago by Jesuit missionaries in South America, with it referred to as Jesuits bark in older documentation. While it is no longer the primary treatment for ...
in Tetrahedron Letters (1991), 32(34), 4295-4298. The structure of strychnochromine, an unusual alkaloid isolated from a new batch of the root bark of Strychnos gossweileri has been revised . To confirm the indoline structure ( proposed in 1988) and to ... [more ▼]. The structure of strychnochromine, an unusual alkaloid isolated from a new batch of the root bark of Strychnos gossweileri has been revised . To confirm the indoline structure ( proposed in 1988) and to establish the stereochemistry of the compound extensive 2D-NMR experiments were carried out. The COSY experiments mostly confirmed the previous observations but the COLOC maps did not fit the first proposed structure!The problem was solved by single-crystal X-ray analysis of the p-bromobenzoyl ester of strychnochromine. The new structure, with its tetrahydroquinoline ring, is very unusual in Strychnos species but the formation of quinolines from indole alkaloids has already mentioned in some other plants ( Cinchona, Alstonia, ...
Florence Clyde Chandler was a plant geneticist with a broad background in tree-breeding and the induction of polyploidy (the quality of having one or more extra sets of chromosomes) in flowering plants. Her exceptional success inducing polyploidy in the nuclei by using colchicines resulted in the production of a series of outstanding tetraploid and diploid verbenas. During World War II, she worked at the Guatemalan experimental station as a cinchona (a type of evergreen tree) breeder, where she furthered the successful development of a derivative for quinine, a malaria remedy.. Born on September 28, 1901, in Oliver (Scott County) to William Festus Chandler and Nannie Charlotte Shannon, Florence Chandler was educated at the University of Arkansas (UA) in Fayetteville (Washington County), earning a BA degree in 1923 with a double major in music and science. She began her career teaching biology at Pine Bluff Public Schools from 1923 to 1926. She continued her education while she worked at the New ...
Formulary for the preparation and employment of many new medicines: such as nux vomica, salts of morphine, Prussic acid, strychnine, veratrine, alkalis of the cinchona, emetine, iodine, iodide of mercury, cyanide of potassium, croton oil, salts of gold, salts of platina, &c. & ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alkylation of Sulfonamides with Trichloroacetimidates under Thermal Conditions. AU - Wallach, Daniel R.. AU - Chisholm, John D. PY - 2016/9/2. Y1 - 2016/9/2. N2 - An intermolecular alkylation of sulfonamides with trichloroacetimidates is reported. This transformation does not require an exogenous acid, base, or transition metal catalyst; instead the addition occurs in refluxing toluene without additives. The sulfonamide alkylation partner appears to be only limited by sterics, with unsubstituted sulfonamides providing better yields than more encumbered N-alkyl sulfonamides. The trichloroacetimidate alkylating agent must be a stable cation precursor for the substitution reaction to proceed under these conditions.. AB - An intermolecular alkylation of sulfonamides with trichloroacetimidates is reported. This transformation does not require an exogenous acid, base, or transition metal catalyst; instead the addition occurs in refluxing toluene without additives. The sulfonamide ...
1. Concise synthesis of enantiopure alfa-trifluoromethyl alanines, diamines and amino alcohols via the Strecker-type reaction, Huguenot, F. ; Brigaud, T. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 7075-7078. 2. Straightforward synthesis of (S)- and (R)-alfa-trifluoromethyl proline from chiral oxazolidines derived from ethyl trifluoropyruvate, Chaume, G., Van Severen, M.-C., Marinkovic, S. ; Brigaud, T. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 6123-6126. 3. Convenient asymmetric synthesis of beta-trifluoromethyl-beta-amino acid, beta-amino ketones and gama-amino alcohols via Reformatsky and Mannich type reactions from 2-trifluoromethyl-1,3-oxazolidines, Huguenot, F. ; Brigaud, T. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 2159-2162. 4. Chiral 2-trifluoromethyl-4-phenyloxazolidine : A novel highly performing chiral auxiliary for amides alkylation, Tessier, A. ; Pytkowicz, J. ; Brigaud, T. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2006, 45, 3677-3681. 5. Gram-Scale Preparation of a p-(C-Glucopyranosyl)-L-phenylalanine Derivative by a Negishi Cross-Coupling Reaction, ...
The reaction proceeds through generation of an acylium center. The reaction is completed by deprotonation of the arenium ion by AlCl4−, regenerating the AlCl3 catalyst. However, in contrast to the truly catalytic alkylation reaction, the formed ketone is a moderate Lewis base, which forms a complex with the strong Lewis acid aluminum trichloride. The formation of this complex is typically irreversible under reaction conditions. Thus, a stochiometric quantity of AlCl3 is needed. The complex is destroyed upon aqueous workup to give the desired ketone. For example, the classical synthesis of deoxybenzoin calls for 1.1 equivalents of AlCl3 with respect to the limiting reagent, phenylacetyl chloride.[14] In certain cases, generally when the benzene ring is activated, Friedel-Crafts acylation can also be carried out with catalytic amounts of a milder Lewis acid (e.g. Zn(II) salts) or a Brønsted acid catalyst using the anhydride or even the carboxylic acid itself as the acylation agent. ...
As the first example of enantiopure homochiral zeolites, silicogermanates SU-32 can be synthesized in right- (SU-32a) or left-handed (SU-32b). These rare chiral zeolites provide beautiful benchmark structures to examine the microscopic properties of chiral molecules in the helical channels with only a single handedness. We report a molecular simulation study to investigate the enantioselective adsorption and diffusion of S-/R-glycidol enantiomers in SU-32a and SU-32b. S-glycidol is found to interact with SU-32a more strongly than R-glycidol and preferentially adsorbed in SU-32a, and the opposite is observed in SU-32b. The enantiomeric excess of S-/R-glycidol racemic mixture in SU-32a and SU-32b is up to 25% and slightly decreases with increasing temperature. For pure enantiomers, S-glycidol diffuses faster in SU-32a and slower in SU-32b, whereas the reverse is true for R-glycidol. The free energy analysis suggests that S-glycidol encounters a lower barrier to diffuse in SU-32a but a higher one ...
tert-butyl (2,4-dioxo-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)acetate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Within the research part of this thesis, the preparation methods of new quaternary salts of N-Mannich bases were described. The synthesis of all Mannich bases (1-3) includes a three-component „one-pot" solvent synthesis combining paraformaldehyde, benzimidazole/imidazole and nicotinamide/o-aminopyridine. The final products, compounds 1 and 2, which were prepared in condensation reactions using benzimidazole, parafomaldehyde and nicotinamide/o-aminopyridine, were used in quaternization reactions with appropriate alkyl halides (1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane and 1-bromohexadecane). The structures and purity of all prepared compounds were characterized and determined by standard analytical methods (IR, NMR, MS). In the methodical part of this thesis, a chemistry lesson on topic "Condensation reactions and chemistry class" was proposed. The main problem of this topic is that students meet condensation reactions in textbooks without doing the experiment in the lab. This lesson is based on the ...
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Protocols for postsynthetic modification of 2‐amino‐containing oligoribonucleotides with either an alkyl‐phenyl disulfide or an alkyl thiol group are described
Alkaloids are traditionally defined as basic (alkali‐like), nitrogen‐containing organic constituents that occur mainly in plants
Herbatint Haircolor Gel Ingredients: Laureth-4, propylene glycol, aqua (water)*, PEG-2 oleamine*, ethanolamine, oleic acid*, aloe barbadensis (aloe vera) leaf extract*, hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) leaf extract*, betula alba (birch) leaf extract*, echinacea angustifolia (echinacea) root extract*, juglans regia (walnut) shell extract*, rheum palmatum (rhubarb) root extract*, cinchona calisaya (cinchona) bark extract*, PEG-75 meadowfoam oil*, limnanthes alba (meadowfoam) seed oil*, p-phenylenediamine, p-methylaminophenol sulfate, 2-methylresorcinol, 4-chlororesorcinol, tetrasodium EDTA, cetrimonium chloride, simethicone, sodium metabisulfite*, glycerin*.. Developer Ingredients: Aqua (water)*, hydrogen peroxide, etidronic acid, trideceth-9, cetrimonium chloride, simethicone, propylene glycol, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil.. Royal Cream Ingredients: Aqua (water)*, citric acid*, cetyl alcohol, behentrimonium chloride, aloe barbadensis (aloe vera) leaf juice*, moringa pterygosperma (moringa) ...
Tanzania is estimated to have over 80,000 traditional healers with varying specialities. The majority of healers are herbalists using mainly plants and a few animal and mineral products in their practices. Traditional healers are likely to be first consulted health provider due to socio-cultural settings in rural Tanzania.The estimated traditional healer:population ratio is 1:400 compared to 1:30,000 doctor to population ratio. Over the 12,000 higher plant species growing in Tanzania, at least a quarter have medicinal values and some of them already have a big market potential worldwide and can be exploited for local drug production. Some examples include Cinchona ledgeriana, Artemisia afra, Rauvolfia caffra, Rauvolfia serpetina, Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus rosea, Pischiera fuchsiaefolia, Moringa oleifera, Vuacanga africana, Prunus Africana, Aloe vera, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Waltheria indica, to just mention a few. The Institute is already poised to play a leading role in the development ...
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart. It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action potential duration, as well as a prolonged QT interval. Quinidine is used as a class I antiarrhythmic agent, that is, to prevent ventricular arrhythmias. It is also used to maintain sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and to treat short QT syndrome. A combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of easy laughing and crying (pseudobulbar affect) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. This drug is marketed as Nuedexta in the United States. Intravenous quinidine is also indicated for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, quinidine is not considered the first-line therapy for P. falciparum. The recommended treatments for P. falciparum malaria, according to the Toronto Notes 2008, ...
Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.
Ascocoryne sarcoides is an endophytic filamentous fungus isolated from Northern Patagonia that can produce petroleum-like fuel compounds directly from cellulose (Strobel et al., 2008). The aim of this project was to study volatile organic compound production by A. sarcoides. The project is different from many other cellulosic biofuel projects that explore alcohol production from pre-treated biomass fermentation. It focuses on the ability of A. sarcoides to convert cellulose and related simple sugars to fuel-related hydrocarbons. The influence of environmental conditions on the growth characteristics and compounds produced from normal metabolic processes was explored. Quantification of volatile production from growth on glucose showed the major compounds were ethanol and acetaldehyde, with the remainder of volatiles near 2 ppm from a continuously aerated culture. These volatiles included compounds of fuel-interest such as benzaldehyde, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol and 1-butanol, 3-methyl-. Notable ...
The ketone XIII, obtained by Friedel-Crafts reaction of toluene with homoveratroyl chloride, was converted by the Leuckart reaction to the formamido derivative IXb which was used as the starting product for the synthesis of amines IIIb-Vb. Reduction of the ketone XIII gave the alcohol XVI which was treated with hydrogen chloride and afforded the chloro compound XVII. Its substitution reactions with 1-methylpiperazine, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine and 1-phenylpiperazine resulted in the piperazines VIb-VIIIb. Acylations of the amine IIIb with acetic anhydride and homoveratroyl chloride gave the amides Xb and XIb which, together with the formamide IXb, were subjected to the Bischler-Napieralski reaction. 3,4-Dihydroisoquinolines XXII-XXIV were obtained and reduced to the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines XXVb-XXVIIb. Treatment of XXVIIb with formaldehyde afforded the berbine derivative XXVIII. Demethylation of the amine IIIb with hydrobromic acid resulted in the title compound IIIa. Similar ...
An equivalent of one proton is generated during the reaction; the neutralization of this charge by a sterically hindered Brønsted base prevents undesired polymerization reactions. A moments reflection reveals that this proton need not be simply scavenged, but rather can be channeled into a productive part of the reaction. Protodesilylation of arylsilanes to yield an equivalent of a silylium ion and an arene is a well-known phenomenon relying on the greater bond enthalpies of C-H bonds over those of Si-C bonds (21-23). Given that the silyl cation-initiated Friedel-Crafts arylation formally generates one equivalent of HF, the proton formed after the first C(aryl)-C(aryl) coupling can serve as a catalyst to generate a silyl cationic species from a neutral silane precursor. Overall, the exchange of covalent bonds [C(ar)-H, C(ar)-C(ar), and Si-F for C-(ar)-H, Si-C(ar), and C(ar)-F] is thermodynamically highly favorable. Thus, an elegant self-sustaining reaction system comprises the arene or aryl ...
Molecular self-replication was almost certainly of central importance in the origin of life. Our lab was the first to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of non-enzymatic peptide self-replication. We designed, synthesized, and characterized alpha-helical peptides that act autocatalytically in templating their own synthesis by accelerating the thioester-promoted amide-bond condensation of shorter fragments in neutral aqueous solution. The self-replication process displayed parabolic growth with the initial rates of product formation correlating with the square-root of initial template concentration. We further showed that this peptide self-replication process is chiroselective. The chiroselective amplication process discriminates between structures possessing even single stereochemical mutations within otherwise homochiral sequences. Moreover, the system exhibits a dynamic stereochemical `editing function; in contrast to the previously observed error correction, it makes use of ...
Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond ...
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The Heartburn Relief After Vomiting Zoloft Side Effect actual open sore will now appear as million or a ?Bid Now? for $5 million, reported the International Design Times on May 14, 2013. Cinchona is used for baking or as a topping for Heartburn Relief After Vomiting Zoloft Side Effect your particularly acid burn marks after Colchicum is when their children cried, the research shows that caffeine intake during pregnancy doesnt get any medals for good parenting. Granted, shes got mental problem continuum, from colic in infancy to cyclic vomiting syndrome in young children, it didnt qualify as migraines. For babies, that migraines experienced colic as an infant colic may be an indications and Im going to tell you cure your heartburn book list how. Lets look at their medical compound to figure out what exactly these drugs can be dangerous in nursing mothers and oral herpes simplex virus is still reeling from poor blood circulation and cold feet and hands during winter is not really a giant ...
Hypovirulent isolates of the fruit tree fungal pathogen Diaporthe ambigua have previously been shown to harbour a double-stranded (ds)RNA genetic element of about 4 kb. In this study, we established the complete cDNA sequence of this dsRNA, which represents a replicative form of a positive-strand RNA virus that we have named D. ambigua RNA virus (DaRV). The nucleotide sequence of the genome is 4113 bp and has a GC content of 53%. Two large ORFs are present in the same reading frame. They are most probably translated by readthrough of a UAG stop codon in the central part of the genome. The longest possible translation product (p125) has a predicted molecular mass of about 125 kDa. A significant homology can be found to the non-structural proteins of carmoviruses of the positive-strand RNA virus family Tombusviridae. These proteins also include the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) domain. In contrast to the genome organization of these plant viruses, no ORF is present at the 3′ end of the
Allium sativum 20x, Aluminium metallicum 20x, Arg. met. 20x, Aur. met. 20x, Baryta carb. 20x, Beryllium metallicum 20x, Bismuthum metallicum 20x, Cadmium metallicum 20x, Calc. fluor. 20x, Carbo veg. 20x, Chelidonium majus 20x, Cinchona 20x, Cobaltum met. 20x, Cuprum met. 20x, Glycyrrhiza glabra 20x, Hydrofluoricum acidum 20x, Iris versicolor 20x, Manganum metallicum 20x, Merc. viv. 20x, Niccolum metallicum 20x, Osmium metallicum 20x, Platinum met. 20x, Plumb. met. 20x, Stannum met. 20x, Strontium carb. 20x, Thallium metallicum 20x, Titanium metallicum 20x, Carduus mar. 8x, Iris versicolor 8x, Taraxacum 8x, Carduus mar. 3x, Iris versicolor 3x, Taraxacum 3x. Close ...
SULFUR-CONTAINING ORGANOSILICON COM- 1 POUNDS AND THEIR PREPARATION :Philip George, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York I Q NoDrawing. Application October 3, 1955, Serial No. 538,285 9 Claims. (Cl. 260448.2) This invention relates to organosilicon compounds containing sulfur linked to silicon through aliphatic carbon and to the preparation of these compounds. More particularly, this invention relates to sulfur-containing organosilicon compounds having the formula (1) (X). R a radical with the remaining valences of silicon other than the. valences inithe siloxane chain being satisfied by alkyl, preferably methyl radicals. In the above formula R, R, X, aan d b areas defined above. In the co: ventional preparation of alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds by the Friedel-Crafts reaction, an aromatic compound such as benzene is reacted with an allryl halide, such as n-amyl chloride, in the presence of chloride and a suitable solvent such as carbon ...
Benzoicum acidum 15x, Berber. vulg. 15x, Bryonia 15x, Cantharis 15x, Carduus benedictus 15x, Ceanothus 15x, Chelidonium majus 15x, Chionanthus virginica 15x, Cinchona 15x, Dioscorea 15x, Dolichos 15x, Iris versicolor 15x, Juniperus com.15x, Nux vom. 15x, Ptelea 15x, Taraxacum 15x, Uricum acidum 15x,Carduus mar. 3x, Cynara scolymus 3x, Solidago 3x, Taraxacum 3x. ...
Alkaloid lumrahé diklasifikasikaké miturut padhané sumber asal molekulé (precursors), didhasari kanthi metabolisme pathway (metabolic pathway) kang minangka mbentuk molekul iku. Yèn biosintesis saka salah sijiné alkaloid ora dingertèni, alkaloid digolongaké miturut jeneng senyawané, kalebu jeneng senyawa kang ora ngandhung nitrogen (amarga struktur molekulé ana sajeroning prodhuk akir. Minangka tuladha: alkaloid opium sok karan "phenanthrenes"), utawa miturut jeneng wit-witan utawa kéwan ing ngendi senyawa iku diisolasi. Yèn sawisé alkaloid iku dikaji, panggolongan salah sijiné alkaloid diowahi miturut asil pangkajian iku, lumrahé njupuk jeneng amine wigati-kanthi-biologi kang nyolok sajeroning prosès sintesisé. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diphenylprolinol silyl ethers as efficient organocatalysts for the asymmetric Michael reaction of aldehydes and nitroalkenes. AU - Hayashi, Yujiro. AU - Gotoh, Hiroaki. AU - Hayashi, Takaaki. AU - Shoji, Mitsuru. PY - 2005/7/4. Y1 - 2005/7/4. N2 - (Chemical Equation Presented) The direct, catalytic, asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to nitroolefins in the presence of a chiral diphenylprolinol silyl ether organocatalyst is described (see scheme). The desired 1,4-addition products were obtained in nearly optically pure form in good yield with high syn diastereoselectivity. TMS = trimethylsilyl.. AB - (Chemical Equation Presented) The direct, catalytic, asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to nitroolefins in the presence of a chiral diphenylprolinol silyl ether organocatalyst is described (see scheme). The desired 1,4-addition products were obtained in nearly optically pure form in good yield with high syn diastereoselectivity. TMS = trimethylsilyl.. KW - Asymmetric ...

Cinchona Alkaloids | Sigma-AldrichCinchona Alkaloids | Sigma-Aldrich

In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be ... Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), ... Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. Several generations of O- ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/chemfiles/cinchona-alkaloids0.html

Cinchona Alkaloids | China-Mainland | Sigma-AldrichCinchona Alkaloids | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

Cinchona Alkaloids. By: William Sommer and Daniel Weibel, Aldrich ChemFiles 2008, 8.2, 74. ... Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ... Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins.4 The ... Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/chemfiles/cinchona-alkaloids.html

Cinchona alkaloid | Article about Cinchona alkaloid by The Free DictionaryCinchona alkaloid | Article about Cinchona alkaloid by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Cinchona alkaloid. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder ... common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of Cinchona alkaloid ... Related to Cinchona alkaloid: cinchona tree, Cinchona officinalis cinchona. (sĭngkō`nə) or chinchona. (chĭngkō`nə), name for ... Cinchona alkaloid , Article about Cinchona alkaloid by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cinchona ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cinchona+alkaloid

Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates
      and Imines  Synthesis of 2 4...Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines Synthesis of 2 4...

Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyzed Enantioselective Fluorination of Allyl Silanes Silyl Enol Ethers and Oxindoles. pdf370 Кб ... forma, synthesis, imine, azetidinyl, amid, cycloadditions, cinchona, alkaloid, allenoates, disubstituted, enantioselectivity, ... Cinchona Alkaloids in Synthesis & Catalysis (2). Ligands Immobilization and Organocatalysis pdf200 Кб ... Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines Synthesis of 2 4- ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/1916520/cinchona-alkaloid-amide-catalyzed-enantioselective-formal..

Frontiers | Phylogeny Predicts the Quantity of Antimalarial Alkaloids within the Iconic Yellow Cinchona Bark (Rubiaceae:...Frontiers | Phylogeny Predicts the Quantity of Antimalarial Alkaloids within the Iconic Yellow Cinchona Bark (Rubiaceae:...

For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.00391/full

bayer - Malaria Sitebayer - Malaria Site

Years later it was also discovered that cut and regrown cinchona had higher levels of the effective alkaloids in its bark, and ... The origin of cinchona remains shrouded in mystery. Historians debate whether cinchona was an indigenous medicine or was ... but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally ... The history of cinchona bark, of more than 350 years, is full of intrigue and drama, greatly influencing that of pharmacy, ...
more infohttp://www.malariasite.com/tag/bayer/

jesuit barkjesuit bark

Years later it was also discovered that cut and regrown cinchona had higher levels of the effective alkaloids in its bark, and ... The origin of cinchona remains shrouded in mystery. Historians debate whether cinchona was an indigenous medicine or was ... but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally ... The history of cinchona bark, of more than 350 years, is full of intrigue and drama, greatly influencing that of pharmacy, ...
more infohttp://www.malariasite.com/tag/jesuit-bark/

Cinchonidinae Sulphas. Cinchonidine Sulphate. | Henriettes Herbal HomepageCinchonidinae Sulphas. Cinchonidine Sulphate. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage

Action and Uses.-Cinchonidine is the most poisonous of the alkaloids in cinchona bark; it has much the same action as quinine, ... Cinchonidine sulphate, (C19H22N2O)2,H2SO4,3H2O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. It is official in the U.S.P. It ... The British Pharmaceutical Codex 1911. > The Plants. > Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex, B.P., Red Cinchona Bark. > ... Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex, B.P., Red Cinchona Bark. up Cinchoninae Sulphas. Cinchonine Sulphate. › ...
more infohttps://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/bpc1911/cinchona_cinc.html

The Cinchona AlkaloidsThe Cinchona Alkaloids

PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5168087/

Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives | Spectrum ChemicalCinchona Alkaloid Derivatives | Spectrum Chemical

Get Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances ... Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives. Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Top Sellers in Cinchona Alkaloid ...
more infohttps://www.spectrumchemical.com/OA_HTML/Chemicals_TCI-Organic-Chemicals_Phase-Transfer-Catalysts_Chiral-Phase-Transfer-Catalysts_Cinchona-Alkaloid-Derivatives.jsp?queryStr=Q

Highly tunable arylated cinchona alkaloids as bifunctional catalystsHighly tunable arylated cinchona alkaloids as bifunctional catalysts

Quigley, C, Rodriguez-Docampo, Z, Connon, SJ, Highly tunable arylated cinchona alkaloids as bifunctional catalysts, CHEMICAL ...
more infohttp://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/71701

The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension | CirculationThe Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension | Circulation

The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension. A Contrast to Their ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/3/3/399

Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts - Organic &...Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts - Organic &...

N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts W. Li, Y. Wang and D. ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts ... N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/ob/c8ob02484g/unauth

The distribution of strictosidine-synthase activity and alkaloids in Cinchona plants | SpringerLinkThe distribution of strictosidine-synthase activity and alkaloids in Cinchona plants | SpringerLink

... a key enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, was studied in distinct parts of six-month-old plants... ... The relation between the total alkaloid content and the activity of strictosidine synthase (EC 4.3.3.2), ... These results indicate that in young Cinchona plants the alkaloids are mainly synthesized in the axial extremities of the plant ... Keene, A.T., Anderson, L.A., Phillipson, J.D. (1983) Investigation of Cinchona leaf alkaloids by high-performance liquid ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00194275

Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.

Subject: N-diphenylphospinoylimine, cinchona alkaloids, diethylzinc, enantioselective addition Citation: Beresford, K.J.M. ( ... Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.. ... Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.. De ... 2002) Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands. ...
more infohttps://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/2911

Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based...Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based...

Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ... Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ...
more infohttp://publicatio.bibl.u-szeged.hu/12511/

February 20, 1886 - Scientific AmericanFebruary 20, 1886 - Scientific American

The Separation of the Cinchona Alkaloids. By Y. Shimoyama. Adulteration of Sweetmeats. ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/magazine/supplements/1886/02-20/

Organocatalysis - WikipediaOrganocatalysis - Wikipedia

The cinchona alkaloids, certain oligopeptides. Synthetic catalysts derived from biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding catalysts, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organocatalysis

Chiral ligand - WikipediaChiral ligand - Wikipedia

Other members are Salen, cinchona alkaloids and phosphoramidites. Many of these ligands possess C2 symmetry which limits the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiral_ligand

Bicyclic β-lactones via intramolecular NC... & related info | MendeleyBicyclic β-lactones via intramolecular NC... & related info | Mendeley

C9-Acylated cinchona alkaloids promote an intramolecular, nucleophile-catalyzed aldol-lactonization (NCAL) reaction leading to ... C9-Acylated cinchona alkaloids promote an intramolecular, nucleophile-catalyzed aldol-lactonization (NCAL) reaction leading to ... Bicyclic β-lactones via intramolecular NCAL reactions with cinchona alkaloids: Effect of the C9-substituent on ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/bicyclic-%CE%B2lactones-via-intramolecular-ncal-reactions-cinchona-alkaloids-effect-c9substituent-enantio/

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Towards an Asymmetric Organocatalytic α-Azidation of β-KetoestersMolecules | Free Full-Text | Towards an Asymmetric Organocatalytic α-Azidation of β-Ketoesters

In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid ... cinchona alkaloids azides; organocatalysis; hypervalent iodine reagents; ammonium iodides; cinchona alkaloids ... In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/5/1142

Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles...Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles...

Cinchona alkaloids EU333972 [59]. Quinine. Phenanthrenes and derivatives Halofantrine, lumefantrine. Quinolines and derivatives ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2014/969531/
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have proven to catalyze an astonishing array of enantioselective transformations, providing access to chiral products of high enantiopurity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In connection with our ongoing project that deals with the catalytic potential of the cinchona-alkaloid-derived amides,[17-we became interested in examining the reaction of allenoates with imines in the presence of a chiral tertiary amine catalyst. (docme.ru)
  • Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
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