Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
ACETIC ACID or acetic acid esters substituted with one or more CHLORINE atoms.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.

Role of the choline exchanger in Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux from rat erythrocytes. (1/34)

Two types of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux exist in erythrocytes: (1) Mg(2+) efflux in sucrose medium and (2) Mg(2+) efflux in high Cl(-) media such as KCl-, LiCl- or choline Cl-medium. The mechanism of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux in choline Cl medium was investigated in this study. Non-selective transport by the following transport mechanisms has been excluded: K(+),Cl(-)- and Na(+),K(+),Cl(-)-symport, Na(+)/H(+)-, Na(+)/Mg(2+)-, Na(+)/Ca(2+)- and K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) antiport, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel and Mg(2+) leak flux. We suggest that, in choline Cl medium, Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux can be performed by non-selective transport via the choline exchanger. This was supported through inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by hemicholinum-3 (HC-3), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DoTMA) and cinchona alkaloids, which are inhibitors of the choline exchanger. Increasing concentrations of HC-3 inhibited the efflux of choline and efflux of Mg(2+) to the same degree. The K(d) value for inhibition of [(14)C]choline efflux and for inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by HC-3 were the same within the experimental error. Inhibition of choline efflux and of Mg(2+) efflux in choline medium occurred as follows: quinine>cinchonine>HC-3>DoTMA. Mg(2+) efflux was reduced to the same degree by these inhibitors as was the [(14)C]choline efflux.  (+info)

Transformation of Cinchona alkaloids into 1-N-oxide derivatives by endophytic Xylaria sp isolated from Cinchona pubescens. (2/34)

The microbial transformation of four Cinchona alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine) by endophytic fungi isolated from Cinchona pubescens was investigated. The endophytic filamentous fungus Xylaria sp. was found to transform the Cinchona alkaloids into their 1-N-oxide derivatives.  (+info)

Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for cinchona alkaloids in hydro-organic mobile phases. (3/34)

Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for cinchona alkaloids, cinchonine (CN) and cinchonidine (CD), were prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The MIPs were evaluated using a mixture of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The CN- and CD-imprinted MAA-co-EDMA polymers can recognize the respective template molecule more than the other diastereomer, and afford an excellent diastereomer separation of CN and CD. In addition, the MIPs gave diastereomer separations of structurally related compounds, quinidine and quinine. The retentive and stereoselective properties of those compounds on the MIPs suggest that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions can work to recognize these compounds. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies reveal that the entropy-driven effect is significant at mobile-phase pH 5.4, while the enthalpy-driven interactions seem to be dominant at mobile-phase pH 9.6.  (+info)

The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids. (4/34)

BACKGROUND: The 8-amino and 9-hydroxy substituents of antimalarial cinchona alkaloids have the erythro orientation while their inactive 9-epimers are threo. From the X-ray structures a 90 degrees difference in torsion angle between the N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds in the two series is believed to be important. In order to kill the malaria parasite, alkaloids must cross the erythrocyte and parasite membranes to accumulate in the acid digestive vacuole where they prevent detoxication of haematin produced during haemoglobin breakdown. METHODS: Ionization constants, octanol/water distribution and haematin interaction are examined for eight alkaloids to explain the influence of small structural differences on activity. RESULTS: Erythro isomers have a high distribution ratio of 55:1 from plasma to the erythrocyte membrane, while for the more basic threo epimers this is only 4.5:1. This gives an increased transfer rate of the erythro drugs into the erythrocyte and thence into the parasite vacuole where their favourable conformation allows interaction with haematin, inhibiting its dimerization strongly (90 +/- 7%) and thereby killing the parasite. The threo compounds not only enter more slowly but are then severely restricted from binding to haematin by the gauche alignment of their N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds. Confirmatory molecular models allowed measurement of angles and bond lengths and computation of the electronic spectrum of a quinine-haematin complex. CONCLUSION: Differences in the antiplasmodial activity of the erythro and threo cinchona alkaloids may therefore be attributed to the cumulative effects of lipid/aqueous distribution ratio and drug-haematin interaction. Possible insights into the mechanism of chloroquine-resistance are discussed.  (+info)

Stereochemical evaluation of the relative activities of the cinchona alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum. (5/34)

Quinine and quinidine were over 100 times more active than 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum and over 10 times more active against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since the only structural difference between quinine, quinidine, 9-epiquinine, and 9-epiquinidine is their three-dimensional configuration, the three-dimensional structures of these four alkaloids were examined in order to explain the large difference in relative activities between the 9-epi alkaloids and quinine and quinidine. The crystal structure of 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate was determined by X-ray diffraction and was compared with the crystal structures of quinine, quinidine sulfate dihydrate, and 9-epiquinine hydrochloride dihydrate. The crystallographic parameters for 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate were as follows: chemical formula, C20H25N2O2+.Cl-.H2O; M(r), 378.9; symmetry of unit cell, orthorhombic; space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1); parameters of unit cell, a was 7.042 +/- 0.001 A (1 A = 0.1 nm), b was 9.082 +/- 0.001 A, c was 31.007 +/- 0.005 A; the volume of unit cell was 1,983.1 +/- 0.6 A3; number of molecules per unit cell was 4; the calculated density was 1.27 g cm-3; the source of radiation was Cu K alpha (lambda = 1.54178 A); mu (absorption coefficient) was 18.82 cm-1; F(000) (sum of atomic scattering factors at zero scattering angle) was 808; room temperature was used; final R (residual index) was 5.72% for 1,501 reflections with magnitude of F(o) greater than 3 sigma (F). The intramolecular distance from N-1 to O-12 in 9-epiquinidine and 9-epiquinine, although shorter than the corresponding distance in quinine and quinidine, was similar to those of other active amino alcohol antimalarial agents. In all four alkaloids, both the hydroxyl and amine groups formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds, showing the potential for forming hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents. However, the positioning of the N+-1--H-N1 and O-12--H-O12 groups relative to each other was quite different in the 9-epi alkaloids versus quinidine. This difference in positioning may determine the relative strengths, of the formation of hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents important to antimalarial activity and, therefore, may determine the relative strength of antimalarial activity.  (+info)

Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (6/34)

The pharmacokinetics of increasing doses of an intrarectal Cinchona alkaloid combination containing 96.1% quinine, 2.5% quinidine, 0.68% cinchonine, and 0.67% cinchonidine (Quinimax) was compared to that of parenteral regimens in 60 children with moderate malaria. Quinine exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetics, suggesting a saturation of rectal resorption. When early rejections appeared, blood quinine concentrations decreased by 30 to 50% and were restored by an immediate half-dose administration of the drug. Rectal administration of doses of 16 or 20 mg/kg of body weight led to concentration-time profiles in blood similar to those of parenteral regimens and could be an early treatment of childhood malaria.  (+info)

Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (7/34)

A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized.  (+info)

Cinchonine, a potent efflux inhibitor to circumvent anthracycline resistance in vivo. (8/34)

Circumvention of multidrug resistance is a new field of investigation in cancer chemotherapy, and safe and potent multidrug resistance inhibitors are needed for clinical use. We investigated several analogues of quinine for their ability to increase anthracycline uptake in resistant cancer cells. Cinchonine was the most potent inhibitor of anthracycline resistance in vitro, and its activity was little altered by serum proteins. Serum from rats treated with i.v. cinchonine produced greater uptake of doxorubicin in cancer cells (DHD/K12/PROb rat colon cells and K562/ADM human leukemic cells) than did serum from quinine-treated rats (ex vivo assay). Cinchonine was more effective than quinine in reducing tumor mass and increasing the survival of rats inoculated i.p. with DHD/K12/PROb cells and treated i.p. with deoxydoxorubicin. Moreover, the acute toxicity of cinchonine in rats and mice was lower than that of other quinine-related compounds. The lower toxicity and greater potentiation of in vivo anthracycline activity produced by cinchonine are favorable characteristics for its use as an anti-multidrug resistance agent in future clinical trials.  (+info)

Looking for Cinchona alkaloid? Find out information about Cinchona alkaloid. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of Cinchona alkaloid
In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), enantioselectivity for the above mentioned glycine imine alkylation was optimized to 97-99% ee.1. Nucleophilic catalysts have had a wide-ranging role in the development of new synthetic methods. In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ...
Communications DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100706 Organocatalysis Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2] Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines: Synthesis of 2,4-Disubstituted Azetidines** Jean-Baptiste Denis, Graldine Masson,* Pascal Retailleau, and Jieping Zhu* Chiral azetidines[1] represent an important class of fourmembered nitrogen heterocycles that have a wide range of synthetic applications,[1-3] remarkable biological activities,[1, 4] and are prevalent in natural products.[1, 5] However, in contrast to the homologous small-ring saturated nitrogen heterocycles such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines, the synthetic approaches to enantiomerically enriched azetidines are few in number and are generally multistep processes.[1, 6, 7] Among the different synthetic routes, the formal [2+2] cycloaddition[8] is certainly one of the most powerful methods for the construction of the strained four-membered ring. However, only a few catalytic enantioselective methods have ...
The nucleophilic quinuclidine nitrogen can also be used directly as a reactive center for enantioselective catalysis. Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ketones by the addition of TMSCN to the corresponding cyanohydrin in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess (Scheme 4).6. ...
Though the Peruvian bark was introduced into Europe so early as 1640, it was not until the year 1737 that the plant producing it was known to naturalists. In that year La Condamine, on a journey from Quito to Lima, through the province of Loxa, had an opportunity of examining the tree, of which, upon his return, he published a very complete description, with plate, under the name Quinquina, stating that three species were recognized. (Mem. Ac., Paris, 1738, p. 226.) Four years later, Linne proposed a new name, Cinchona, in honor of the Countess of Chinchon, who first made the bark known in Europe. Linne recognized but one species, which he called C. officinalis, and this continued for a long time to be recognized by the Pharmacopoeias as the only source of the Peruvian bark of commerce. But a vast number of plants belonging to the Linnaean genus Cinchona were in the course of time discovered; and the list became at length so unwieldy and heterogeneous that botanists were compelled to distribute ...
Considerable inter- and intraspecific variation with respect to the quantity and composition of plant natural products exists. The processes that drive this variation remain largely unknown. Understanding which factors determine chemical diversity has the potential to shed light on plant defenses against herbivores and diseases and accelerate drug discovery. For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two Cinchona calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of La Paz (Bolivia). Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the
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Cinchona tree which was used to make medicine for Malaria disappears from Kerala, Herbal Garden | Agriculture | Mathrubhumi English
Related entry: Red Cinchona Bark. C38H46N4O6S,3H2O = 740.526.. Cinchonidine sulphate, (C19H22N2O)2,H2SO4,3H2O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. It is official in the U.S.P. It occurs in the form of colourless, shining, silky crystals, neutral to litmus, without odour, but with a strong, bitter taste. It may contain either three or six molecules of water of crystallisation. Melting-point (of the anhydrous salt), 205°, with darkening. The sulphate should not lose more than 8 per cent. of its weight on drying at 100°. It should only slightly tinge concentrated sulphuric acid. Not more than a slight fluorescence should be noticeable in a solution (1 in 1000) in dilute sulphuric acid (limit of quinine and quinidine). If 5 decigrams be shaken with 20 mils of water at 15° for some time, 5 decigrams of sodium potassium tartrate added, and the mixture left with frequent shaking for an hour, the filtrate should not show more than a faint opalescence on the addition of a drop of solution of ...
Abstract The enantiomers of trans paroxetine the selectand were separated on four chiral stationary phases incorporating either quinine ZWIX, ZWIXA or quinidine ZWIX, ZWIXA and R , R aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA or S , S aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA chiral selectors. The zwitterion nature of the phases is...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Gentianales • Familia: Rubiaceae • Subfamilia: Cinchonoideae • Tribus: Cinchoneae • Genus: Cinchona • Species: Cinchona officinalis L. (1742) ...
Cinchona (China) Officinalis materia medica indications. Buy Cinchona (China) Officinalis the homeopathic remedy in 2C-200C, 2X-200X, 1M-50M, CM
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Cinchonine (base and/or unspecified salts) (CAS 118-10-5) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on cinchonine (base and/or
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More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills. He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills. He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
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Quinine was also the first drug used for treatment of malaria.[40] Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures.[41] The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the barks bitter taste, thus producing tonic water.[citation needed] The Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea.[42] Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of ...
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Cinchona in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 1 ...
Chloroquine was developed by German chemists as a direct descendant of quinine, which is derived from the bark of the Amazonian cinchona tree. Spanish conquistadors learned from native people to use cinchona bark to combat malaria. Mixed with gin, favored by the British, it became a West Indian afternoon staple - gin and tonic.. During World War II, American soldiers and marines were fed another cinchona offspring, atabrine, which made them sick from liver damage and turned some GIS blue.. Vanity Fair magazine claims in its current issue that some of Trumps business cronies had a plan to flood the greater New York City area with the two chloroquines after the president promoted its anti-COVID properties. This would not be surprising, given Trumps use of his hotel and golf clubs for official business.. On a curious sidebar, Trumps biggest fan, Brazils loopy new right-wing president, Jair Bolsonaro, is in hot water at home for dismissing COVID-19 as a cold, promoting quack remedies and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organocatalytic stereoisomerization versus alkene isomerization. T2 - Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of 1-hydroxy-trans -2,5-diphenylphospholane 1-oxide. AU - Hintermann, Lukas. AU - Schmitz, Marco. AU - Maltsev, Olegv. AU - Naumov, Pance. PY - 2013/1/11. Y1 - 2013/1/11. N2 - The potential for an organocatalytic asymmetric stereoisomerization or alkene isomerization as atom-economic reaction with minimal structural change was investigated. The McCormack cycloaddition of 1,4-diarylbuta-1,3-dienes with (dialkylamino)dichlorophosphane and aluminum trichloride gives meso-2,5-diaryl-1-(dialkylamino)-1-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-phospholes, which were identified as suitable substrates for asymmetric isomerization to (1R,5R)-2,5-diaryl-1-(dialkylamino)-1-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-phospholes in the presence of bifunctional organocatalysts (cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91% ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the catalysis were studied. The reaction ...
Prelogs main interest was focused on alkaloids. He found an ideal topic in the elucidation of the structure of solanine; he continued his work on Cinchona alkaloids and started to investigate strychnine. He showed that Robert Robinsons formula for strychnine was not correct. Although the formula he proposed was also not the right one, the discovery increased his international prestige. Later he worked on elucidating the structures of aromatic Erythrina alkaloids with Derek Barton, Oskar Jeger and Robert Burns Woodward.[12] At mid-century, the instrumental revolution necessitated a new approach to structural elucidation. Purely chemical methods had become outdated and had lost some of their intellectual appeal. Recognizing the growing importance of microbial metabolites, Prelog started working on these compounds, which possess unusual structures and interesting biological properties. It led him into antibiotics, and he subsequently elucidated the structures of such compounds as nonactin, ...
Zheng SQ, Schienebeck CM, Zhang W, Wang HY, Tang WP. Cinchona Alkaloids as Organocatalysts in Enantioselective Halofunctionalization of Alkenes and Alkynes. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2014 ;3:366-376. ...
It helps most men with ED improve their erections. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: an overview and literature update! [43] [44] On the same night, cost of azulfidine McMahon formed an alliance with Stone Cold Steve Austin, helping him defeat The Rock to gain another WWF Championship! Due to the loss of Indonesia in World War II, the source for cinchona alkaloids, a precursor of quinidine, was reduced? Unfortunately, nizoral cream canada Staph infections can sometimes turns into MRSA, which is a type of Staph that has become immune to common antibiotics? *Hemodiyalizde olan hastalarda hemodiyaliz sonrası Valtrex dozu uygulanmalıdır? Patients who have repeated bouts of sinusitis, ojo bingo as well as those who are immunocompromised should be considered to possibly have a fungal sinusitis? This product is not suitable for pregnant or breastfeeding patients. In light of all of the other statutory grounds for trials setting preference offered in cases not ...
INTRODUCTION. Mild steel is widely used in chemical industries due to its low cost and easy availability for fabrication reaction of vessel, tanks, pipeline and boiler, because it suffer from severe corrosion in aggressive environments, it has to be protective. The corrosion of metal in aqueous solution occurs in two steps oxidation and reduction. Oxidation reaction takes place at anode, whereas reduction takes place at cathode. The cathodic reaction may be either by evolution of hydrogen and absorption of oxygen.. Mild steel is a reactive metal to reduce the corrosion problem in these environment inhibitive effects of various naturally occurring substance like Datura stramonium1, Tannin beet root, Tamarind, Tealeaves, Pomegranate juice, Saponin2, Embellica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, a mixture of the later three Spindus trifolianus, Acacia concianna, Swerti aungustifolia and quinoline based cinchona alkaloids as well as very popular ayurvadic powder Mahasudarshana chuma, Prosopis ...
The cheap and simple Pr-i-bisoxazoline-Cu(OTf)(2) proves to be an efficient catalyst in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction of indole with arylidene malonates. In (BuOH)-Bu-i, the S-enantiomer was obtained in up to 97% ee, while the opposite enantiomer was obtained in up to 78% ee in CH2Cl2 or TTCE ...
Quinine inpsired the synthetics Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine and was used traditionally to treat malaria and influenza-type illnesses
These days everybody is making homemade tonic water. Unfortunately, this is quite a tricky job because making tonic water involves using cinchona bark. As you might know, cinchona bark consists of quinine, which is toxic. Bartenders and home bartenders these… ...
Youve probably heard of SERMS (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators) and SARMS (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators). These are synthetic hormones that
Quite. Homeopaths select these remedies according to a principle known as the Law of Similars, or Like cures like. In 1790, the German physician Samuel Hahnemann noticed that cinchona bark, which contains quinine and had long been used as a malaria remedy, actually produced some of the symptoms of malaria when taken by a healthy person (namely himself). Unfortunately for homeopaths, it may be that Hahnemanns reaction to the cinchona was in fact simply the result of an undiagnosed allergy. Nevertheless, it led him to wonder if a general principle of similarity could be used to discover new remedies, and to classify the chaotic muddle of herbal and mineral preparations that constituted the materia medica of the day. He therefore embarked on a series of experiments upon himself and others, to test for the pathological effects of various substances, including mercury, belladonna, tobacco and nux vomica. Family, friends, students and colleagues submitted themselves to these provings, and by ...
A medium size tree of which the bark has properties of curing Malaria. Quinine is the extracted from the bark of this tree. However, even the slightest excess of this medicine causes deafness. There are a number of other alkaloids that are extracted from this tree. They include cinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine. Introduced in India from its native place-Amazon rain forests ...
This book is a monograph on the treatment of malaria. It has nine chapters and ninety-one pages. Each chapter treats of a distinct phase of the subject and a perusal of the chapter titles given below will give a good idea of the scope of the work. The first impression gained in reading this book is that the author is giving the reader the results of his own personal experience and that although references are frequent the subject matter is true first hand knowledge. Chapter I: Cinchona Febrifuge. This is evidently a proprietary article, considerably used throughout the British dependencies and without legally defined composition. The author pleads for its standardization. Chapter II: The Relative Merits of the different Alkaloids of Cinchona in Malaria.
This plant originated in the high valleys of the Andes and there are several species found in Bolivia, Colombia and on the slopes of Chimborazo in northern
Ormus Minerals for Natural Nutritional Energy and how it can bless your life and health. What is Ormus? Well it is something that is all around us in the Air, Water, Land and the food we eat. Now with todays technology we have learned how to use it as a Energy Nutrition supplement to help our lives be fuller of Life.
1857 On this day in Fettercairn Scotland, the amateur botanist David Prain was born.. He would ultimately become the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Calcutta and Kew.. In 1887, David was sent to Calcutta to be the curator of the herbarium. While he was there, he researched Indian Hemp along with crops like Wheat, Mustard, Pulses, and Indigo. But, Davids most crucial work involved Cinchona plantations. The bark of Cinchona trees contains quinine, which is used to treat malaria. In Davids obituary, it said that he set up a system with the local post offices to send quinine to every Indian village and undoubtedly saved countless lives.. After David returned to England, he became the director at Kew. During his tenure, David implemented many notable changes. David oversaw the effort to have the medicinal garden installed at Cambridge Cottage, and he acquired the Japanese gateway for the 1910 Japan-British exhibition. In terms of promotional efforts, David also reinstated the Kew ...
Define china bark. china bark synonyms, china bark pronunciation, china bark translation, English dictionary definition of china bark. n another name for cinchona2 n., pl. -nas. 1. any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Cinchona, of the madder family, native to the Andes, esp.
Quinine was discovered as a cure for Malaria in 1638 when the wife of the Spanish Viceroy in Peru, the Countess of Cinchona, had fallen violently ill with the disease. Her husband begged the local Incas for an antidote. The Incas instructed her to drink a potion containing the ground bark of the native Quinquina tree, which grew on the slopes of the Andes. The potion worked and she quickly recovered. In her honour, the Spanish renamed the Peruvian tree the Cinchona tree ...
Quina is an extract produced from the bark of Cinchona calisaya, a tree from SouthAmerica that is found between 1,400 meters and 2,800 meters above sea level. Nutramedix utilizes a proprietary extraction and enhancement process that makes this product far more effective than any other cinchona calisaya product available.. Quina is known for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties and is an effective in providing overall immune system support for the body.. $40.00 .... Continue Reading → ...
Description from Flora of China. Kinkina Adanson; Quinquina Boehmer.. Shrubs or usually trees, unarmed; buds flattened with stipules erect and pressed together; bark usually notably bitter. Raphides absent. Leaves opposite, decussate, usually with well-developed domatia; stipules caducous, interpetiolar or shortly united around stem, ligulate to obovate, entire. Inflorescences terminal and often also in axils of uppermost leaves, cymose to paniculiform, many flowered, pedunculate, bracteate. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, fragrant, usually distylous. Calyx limb 5-lobed. Corolla yellow, pink, purple, red, or occasionally white, salverform or funnelform, inside glabrous or pubescent in throat, with tube often weakly 5-ridged outside; lobes 5, valvate in bud, with margins densely ciliate to villous. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla tube, included to partially exserted; filaments short to developed, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed. Ovary 2-celled, ovules many in each cell on axile placentas; stigma ...
Musset Rene. Larbre a quinquina : son ecologie ; etat de la culture. In: Annales de Geographie, t. 51, n°285, 1942. pp. 64-67 ...
Please note that this documentation is available for various countries all over the world and hence it may contain statements not applicable to your country.. ...
EYES AND VISION : Sand in eyes :- Am-br., Am-m., Ang., Ars., Apis, Apoc., Asc-t., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Berb., Bry., Cann-s., Carb-v., Caust., Chel., Chin., Chin-m., Chlol., Cob., Con., Cor-r., Dig., Elaps, Euph., Euphr., Fago., Ferr., Fl-ac., Form., Gast., Grat., H m., Hep., Hura, Ign., Jac., Kali-bi., Kali-m., Kali-p., Lach., Led., Lith., Luna, Lyc., Med., Merc., Myric., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nit-ac., Op., Ox-ac., P on., Peti., Petr., Phos-ac., Phos., Phyt., Pic-ac., Plat., Psor., Puls., Rad., Rhod., Rhus-t., Rhus-v., Sep., Sil., Sol-n., Spig., Stram., Sulph., Syph., Tarent., Thuj., Upas, Urt-u., Vib., Xanth., Zinc., Zing ...
Alfa Aesar™ 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-bromoindole, 97% 1g Alfa Aesar™ 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-bromoindole, 97% Aminod to Aminoe -Organics
Original - balanced, fragrant and flavorful- and ruby red.. Spiced- double the amount of spice of the Original recipe, this one is perfect with bourbon and makes an excellent champagne cocktail.. Citrus - organic lemon, lime, bitter and sweet orange zests and oils create a mellower tonic that is the most refreshing.. Extra Bitter - double the amount of cinchona bark, with only half the agave for a bolder flavor that is both classic and inspiring!. ...
The mosquito-borne disease was a prevalent problem among the growing British population of India, the country then known as the crown jewel of the British Empire. During the 1800s, South America was exporting massive amounts of cinchona bark to Europe for malarial treatment, and it was invaluable to English colonial efforts. Like a lot of medicine, quinine didnt taste great. British soldiers made it more palatable by mixing it with sugar and water. Tonic water (or Indian tonic water as it was called) was still a little unpleasant by itself, until an enterprising Brit mixed it with the standard gin ration soldiers received. Interestingly, all of the basic ingredients of the G+T had some root in medicine. Jenever was originally brewed for treatment of various ailments, while limes were used by the British to treat scurvy. Today there are far more effective malaria treatments than quinine, and scurvy isnt much of a concern anymore, so telling your boss youre day drinking at work for health ...
Symmetry Tonics are made from whole botanicals, with quinine extracted from cinchona bark. They are bottled in true concentrated form, contain minimal sugar and
The editor of N + 1, writing these lines, there is a school friend who is married to a native from West Africa. A few years ago, a caring mother-in-law sent a young family in a packet of Cinchona bark: useful in case of malaria. The reason to use the bark, of course, didnt say, but in the spring of 2020 the couple realized that nothing used to make fun of the seemingly meaningless gift. This spring, finding themselves unarmed before the new virus, ...
POLYMER FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES AND SEMI-FLUORINATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM POLYMER COLLOIDS AND COATINGS By ABHIJIT PAUL Bachelor of Science in Chemistry Assam University Silchar, Assam 2001 Master of Science in Polymer Science Tezpur University Tezpur, Assam 2003 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY July, 2012ii POLYMER FUNCTIONALIZED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES AND SEMI-FLUORINATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM POLYMER COLLOIDS AND COATINGS Dissertation Approved: Dr. Warren T. Ford Dissertation Adviser Dr. Kenneth D. Berlin Dr. Jeffery L. White Dr. Kevin D. Ausman Dr. James P. Wicksted Dr. Sheryl A. Tucker Dean of the Graduate Collegeiii PREFACE In my Ph.D. research I have studied single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) polymer composites that potentially have unique combination of excellent mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, ...
VISIT any health shop and you are likely to see them: packages of homeopathic remedies claiming to cure whatever ails you, from coughs and fever to insomnia and asthma. Flip the package of medicine, however, and you may be confused by the listed ingredients. Some claim to contain crushed bees, stinging nettles and even arsenic, as well as sugars such as lactose and sucrose. Americans alone spend some $3 billion a year on homeopathic medicines. What are they thinking?. The history of homeopathy - literally, similar suffering - dates back to the late 18th century. Samuel Hahnemann, a German doctor, was unimpressed by contemporary medicine, with good reason. Doctors used leeches to let blood and hot plasters to bring on blisters, which were then drained. In 1790, Hahnemann developed a fever that transformed his career. After swallowing powder from the bark of a cinchona tree, he saw his body temperature rise. Cinchona bark contains quinine, which was already known to treat malaria. Hahnemann ...
Cyclamen which is similar in many respects, differs from Pulsatilla in dreading the fresh air. Cinchona is the great remedy for anaemia resulting from loss of fluids, as in lactation or haemorrhage, or from all exhausting discharges, such as menstrual flows, long-lasting diarrhoea, and sexual excesses ; but of the latter only those resulting in the loss of semen. The quality of the blood is actually poorer in cases calling for Cinchona. Special symptoms are heaviness of the head, loss of sight, fainting and ringing in the ears, sour belching, poor digestion and bloated abdomen. The patient is sensitive to draughts of air and yet wants to be fanned. Natrum muriaticum is also a remedy for ansemic and debilitated conditions due to loss of fluids, especially in women who suffer from menstrual disorders and in chronic cases with a dead, dirty-looking skin. Chininum arsenicosum is sometimes prescribed for anemia, not, however, on the totality of the symptoms, but because it is said to be good for it ...
Good Afternoon -. I am not a doctor so please consider that. I will tell you what was recommended to us in the UN as a malarial prevention plan, and what was considered safe out of medical expert advice.. Please remember there are many types of chloroquine - that is quinine-based medicines - and there is also cinchona bark -one original source of quinine used for centuries by peoples living in malarial zones.. I speak here of HCQ hydroxychloroquine sulphate. This was developed to be softer on the liver mainly for people to use for Lupus and for Arthritis . Prior to that chloroquine phosphate was popular.. To prevent malaria and what I am now on as a prevention for COVID is 400 mg of HCQ per WEEK - so only once per week. I would consider myself of low exposure so this dose is maybe not right for a doctor or other front liner…I am 61 - ex light smoker.. If we got malaria and there was no clinic where we were, then we were to take one 400 mg per day for five days.. We would go on the preventive ...
The original recipe for this libation was created by Gaetan Picon around 1837. Picon was born in Genoa, Italy and moved to France as a young man. He apprenticed in a number of distilleries in southern France. His interest in chemistry and the botanical properties of plants came in handy while serving in the French foreign legion in Algiers, Algeria, when he and a number of other soldiers were stricken with malaria. He concocted what he called tisane or tea. The recipe was a mixture he remembered his grandmother preparing for him when he suffered from malaria as a young man. It was, in fact, a neutral alcohol infused with dried orange peel and steeped, to this he added dried gentian root, cinchona bark (quinine), sugar syrup, spices, herbs and caramel. Apparently, it was a successful remedy, so successful that his superiors ordered him to produce it for all the troops. Amer was born! Originally referred to as Amer Africain, the concoction was around 80 proof (perhaps another reason it found ...
Smith says more bartenders are satisfying this desire by dipping into the little-known well of French aperitif wines known as quinquinas and their Italian counterparts, chinati. While vermouths subtle bitterness traditionally comes from wormwood, quinquinas and chinati acquire their bite from quinine, a substance found in cinchona bark that is also used to flavor tonic water. Along with the distinctive flavor, these wines share with tonic water a history as a pharmaceutical. In 1846, while vying for a government reward for creating a palatable quinine-delivery vehicle, Parisian chemist Joseph Dubonnet introduced the first successful quinquina, flavored with chamomile, green coffee beans, cinnamon and more. When combined with other ingredients in a base of mistelle - partially fermented grape juice mixed with higher-proof alcohol - its character is simultaneously juicy and bone dry. While Bonal is a new entry to the U.S. market, Cocchi Americano has been sporadically available in the Bay Area for
The highly enantioselective sulfa-Michael addition of alkyl thiols to unactivated β-substituted-α,β-unsaturated esters catalyzed by a bifunctional iminophosphorane (BIMP) organocatalyst is described. The low acidity of the alkyl thiol pro-nucleophiles is overcome by the high Brønsted basicity of the catalyst ISACS19: Challenges in Organic Chemistry
Quinine [1] is an alkaloid which can reduce fever, work against malaria, pain and swelling. The bark of the Cinchona family of trees contains quinine. Quinine can be made artificially, but this is more expensive than extracting it from the bark of the tree. This tree is found in the Andes, South America, Indonesia, and Congo. Quinine was the first treatment for malaria, known from 1631 in Europe,[2][3] and probably much earlier to the native peoples of South America. Even today, quinine is used to treat certain forms of malaria, when other drugs fail or are unavailable. In that way, quinine is currently one of the best treatments for malaria tropica, which is caused by plasmodium falciparum. For the other forms of malaria, quinine is no longer used, as other drugs have replaced it. ...
In case you or your loved one is afflicted with malaria or certain other diseases or afflictions then you might have to start using quinine tablets for treatment of malaria or for those specific medical conditions. Quinine is in the forefront for fighting malaria in several countries although it has lost favor with the FDA in America.. Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree and has been used since well over three centuries to fight malaria. Quinine is known to kill the P.Falciparum parasite that is responsible for spreading malaria into the body and causing death in case of inadequate treatment. There are different methods of administering quinine to patients such as by intravenous drips or injections or in the form of tablets. While quinine is extremely bitter and can easily induce vomiting if administered in its natural form, quinine tablets that contain quinine sulfate with other ingredients to make it palatable can be given to both adults and children. These tablets are ...
In case you or your loved one is afflicted with malaria or certain other diseases or afflictions then you might have to start using quinine tablets for treatment of malaria or for those specific medical conditions. Quinine is in the forefront for fighting malaria in several countries although it has lost favor with the FDA in America.. Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree and has been used since well over three centuries to fight malaria. Quinine is known to kill the P.Falciparum parasite that is responsible for spreading malaria into the body and causing death in case of inadequate treatment. There are different methods of administering quinine to patients such as by intravenous drips or injections or in the form of tablets. While quinine is extremely bitter and can easily induce vomiting if administered in its natural form, quinine tablets that contain quinine sulfate with other ingredients to make it palatable can be given to both adults and children. These tablets are ...
If you need to go in for medical treatment that involves the use of quinine or wish to consume products that contain quinine then you should know all about what is quinine. It is certainly important to understand more about this potent drug as well as its side-effects.. Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree. The malaria-fighting abilities of this bitter-tasting drug were discovered by the Quechua Indians several centuries ago and its popularity soon reached the shores of Europe, USA, and the rest of the world where malaria was rampant. While quinine was primarily used to treat malaria during the seventeenth century, it was also used to treat arthritis, lupus, as well as leg cramps since it also acted as a muscle relaxant while possessing anti-inflammatory properties too. Quinine was administered orally in the form of quinine sulfate tablets and also delivered in intravenous form to patients including children that had contacted malaria. Adults usually had to consume around 600 ...
Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of cinchona in the Andean forests, was the first effective treatment for malaria (32). Studies have reported that the TAS2R agonist can inhibit IgE secretion in a mouse model of asthma, thus relieving the clinical symptoms (12,13). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of quinine on AD-like mice. The results demonstrated that quinine treatment effectively attenuated AD-like symptoms in mice, reducing the dermatitis severity score, serum IgE levels and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, as well as alleviating the pathological damage, inhibiting the expression of genes related to the NF-κB signaling pathway, reducing the inflammatory response and promoting the expression of the skin-protective protein FLG. It was also found that quinine reduced cytokine levels in the AD-like mice. These results suggested that the topical application of quinine may provide a novel therapeutic regimen for the treatment AD, as well as ...
Your desire to enjoy a cool and fizzy drink with a completely unique flavor can be realized when you tease your taste buds with bubbly tonic water quinine. Tonic water infused with very small quantity of naturally derived quinine offers a bitter-sweet flavor that your taste buds will surely remember for a very long time.. Quinine was actually used for a completely different reason three centuries ago when people all around the world were searching for ways to beat back malaria. This wonder drug was derived from the bark of the cinchona tree and over the years given orally and intravenously to treat malaria as well as lupus, arthritis, and leg cramps. However, in recent times, quinine seems to have fallen out with the modern world as news of several unwanted side effects such as irregular heart beats, blurred vision, skin rashes, diarrhea, vomiting, and a few more started to surface within patients. As a result, the FDA banned use of quinine for medical treatment although it was allowed for ...
Your desire to enjoy a cool and fizzy drink with a completely unique flavor can be realized when you tease your taste buds with bubbly tonic water quinine. Tonic water infused with very small quantity of naturally derived quinine offers a bitter-sweet flavor that your taste buds will surely remember for a very long time.. Quinine was actually used for a completely different reason three centuries ago when people all around the world were searching for ways to beat back malaria. This wonder drug was derived from the bark of the cinchona tree and over the years given orally and intravenously to treat malaria as well as lupus, arthritis, and leg cramps. However, in recent times, quinine seems to have fallen out with the modern world as news of several unwanted side effects such as irregular heart beats, blurred vision, skin rashes, diarrhea, vomiting, and a few more started to surface within patients. As a result, the FDA banned use of quinine for medical treatment although it was allowed for ...
Quinidine is an alkaloid obtained from various species of Cinchona or its hybrids, from Remijia pedunculata, or from quinine. Quinidine is the dextror
Antimalarial drugs were first discovered in the seventeenth century [1], two and one-half centuries before the causative agent of malaria was identified. As no other drug before it, quinine, the first antimalarial agent derived from the cinchona tree, helped to shape todays world by enabling explorers and colonists from Europe to survive in tropical countries and to build their colonial empires despite lethal tropical malaria. When physicians were asked to choose the ten most important drugs being used in medicine in 1945, quinine and quinacrine were preceded only by penicillin, sulfonamides and blood derivatives [2]. The antimalarial activity of quinoline antimalarial drugs can be attributed to the interfering with hemoglobin digestion in the blood stages of the malaria parasites life cycle. The parasite degrades the host hemoglobin, in an acidic food vacuole, to generate amino acids for its own protein synthesis, and producing free heme and reactive oxygen species as toxic by-products. The ...
In the past the Alstonia tree, also known as Milkwood because of its milky sap, provided a popular fever tonic which was thought to rival quinine.. The bitter taste contributed to its nickname of Bitter Bark and which led to its reputation as a quinine alternative since that plant was equally bitter. It could not fully rival that of the cinchona (quinine) species, but it did eventually prove to be a useful medicine for other reasons, especially in lowering blood pressure.. The Aborigines collected the sap on a twig and put it on small sores. It was handled with great care, as eye contact could cause blindness. ...
Early treatment reduces the severity and length of the illness. Quinine harvested from the bark of the cinchona tree in present-day Peru and Ecuador was traditionally the main form of treatment. While quinine interrupts the parasites breeding cycle, it is short acting and can have serious side effects.. In the 1940s a synthetic medicine, chloroquine, was introduced. It was inexpensive, safe and provided long-lasting protection against all forms of malaria. However, poor usage led to the development of resistance.. Since the 1980s a new drug based on a traditional Chinese herb, qinghaosu, has been used. The active ingredient is artemisinin, and it has significantly contributed to the decline of malaria. Artemisinin is used in combination with other drugs to reduce the development of resistance. ...
Cattle will develop a taste for locoweed that can prove fatal; bighorn sheep will grind their teeth to useless nubs scraping a hallucinogenic lichen off ledge rock. Siegel suggests that some of these adventurous animals serves as our Virgils in the garden of psychoactive plants. Goats, who will try a little bit of anything, probably deserve credit for the discovery of coffee: Abyssinian herders in the tenth century observed that their animals would become particularly frisky after nibbling the shrubs bright red berries. Pigeons spacing out on cannabis seeds (a favorite food of many birds) may have tipped off the ancient Chinese (or Aryans or Scythians) to that plants special properties. Peruvian legend has it that the puma discovered quinine: Indians observed that sick cats were often restored to health after eating the bark of the cinchona tree. Tukano Indians in the Amazon noticed that jaguars, not ordinarily herbivorous, would eat the bark of the yaje vine and hallucinate; the Indians who ...
Llwyn blodeuol syn hannu or is-drofannau yw Briwydd y gors syn enw benywaidd. Maen perthyn ir teulu Rubiaceae. Yr enw gwyddonol (Lladin) yw Galium palustre ar enw Saesneg yw Common marsh bedstraw.[1] Ceir enwau Cymraeg eraill ar y planhigyn hwn gan gynnwys Briwydden y Gors, Briwydd, Gwendon, Gwendon y Gors, Gwenwlydd y Gors. Gelwir y teulu Rubiaceae yn deulur coffi ar lafar. Ar wahân i goffi ceir aelodau eraill or teulu syn syn cyfrannun helaeth i economi gwledydd e.e. Or planhigyn Cinchona, y daw quinine. Mae gan y planhigyn hwn ddail syml, cyflawn, cyferbyn âi gilydd, coronigau tiwbaidd ac ofari isradd. ...
Llwyn blodeuol syn hannu or is-drofannau yw Briwydd felen syn enw benywaidd. Maen perthyn ir teulu Rubiaceae. Yr enw gwyddonol (Lladin) yw Galium verum ar enw Saesneg yw Lady`s bedstraw.[1] Ceir enwau Cymraeg eraill ar y planhigyn hwn gan gynnwys Briwydden Felen, Brigaur Twynau, Briger y Twynau, Ceilion, Ceulion, Ceulon, Cywer y Llaeth, Llys y Cywer. Gelwir y teulu Rubiaceae yn deulur coffi ar lafar. Ar wahân i goffi ceir aelodau eraill or teulu syn syn cyfrannun helaeth i economi gwledydd e.e. Or planhigyn Cinchona, y daw quinine. Mae gan y planhigyn hwn ddail syml, cyflawn, cyferbyn âi gilydd, coronigau tiwbaidd ac ofari isradd. ...
Servings Per Container: 0 Pack contains 1 Herbatint Haircolour Gel 60ml, 1 Glycol Developer 60ml, 1 sample of either Royal Cream Conditioner or Shampoo 10ml, 1 pair gloves, 1 leaflet giving directions for use. Other Ingredients: Haircolor Gel: laureth-5, propylene glycol, water, peg-2 oleamine, ethanolamine, walnut extract, rhubarb extract, cinchona extract, aloe extract, meadowfoam extract, birch extract, cetrimonium chloride, echinacea augustifolia extract, hamamelis virginiana extract, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, tetrasodium edta, resorcinol, m-o-p aminophenol, 2 amino 3 hydroxypiridine, m-p phenylenediamine. Glycol Developer: water, hydrogen peroxide, etidronic acid, wild marjoram extract, thyme extract, cinnamon extract, rosemary extract, lavender extract, golden seal root extract, peg-40 hydrogenated castor oil, propylene glycol, simethicone. Royal Cream conditioner: water, mallow extracts, rosemary extract, behentrimonium chloride, wheat bran lipids, fragrance. Warnings This product ...
Arnica 30 helps to slow or stop bleeding after surgery. Phosphorus 30 is the primary remedy for helping to stop bleeding when Arnica does not work adequately. Ipecacuanha 30 is indicated when there is much bleeding of bright red blood, often accompanied by nausea. Secale 30 is effective in treating uterine bleeding that is aggravated by heat and relieved by cold. Cinchona 30 is helpful for people whose bleeding and general loss of fluids lead them to feel weak and faint and have ringing in the ears. This remedy is sometimes indicated several weeks, months, or years after much fluid has been lost, after either an illness or an operation. Arsenicum 30 is useful when profuse bleeding leads to great weakness, burning pains, restlessness, anxiety, and fear, along with a characteristically large thirst for only sips at a time ...
Certified B Corporation: Certified B Corporations are leaders of the global movement of people using business as a force for good.. 40 Years of Expertise Dedicated to Beauty and Health of Colored Hair.. Herbatint Permanent Haircolor Gel covers your grey effectively while taking care of your hair thanks to:. A Gentle and Unique Formula. A carefully balanced formulation, result of rigorous testing, achieving for each shade the perfect color result in the most gentle manner possible.. Natural Ingredients. The 8 organic herbal extracts, specifically selected to nourish and protect your hair and scalp, enhance your hairs color intensity and leave you with a natural, long lasting result.. Aloe Vera: Protects and nourishes hair during coloring. Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam): Moisturizes and adds shine to the hair. Betula Alba (White Birch): Toning and soothing properties. Cinchona Calisaya: Strengthens and protects the scalp. Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel): Rich in flavonoids and essential oils, ...
Acid Phosphoricum Dilutum.). Common name.- Diluted Phosphoric Acid.. General Analysis.-. The chief sphere of action of Phosphoric Acid is upon the nervous system, in which, from waste of nerve tissue or from depression, it produces debility, without erethism (with erethism, Cinchona), giving rise to conditions simulating those which result from continued grief, over-exertion of mind or body, sexual excess, etc.. Through this influence its chief local effects are upon the kidneys and male sexual organs, and next upon the bones and skin, as indicated by its pathogenesis.. Characteristic symptoms.. Mind.- (Phosphoricum acidum). Weakness of memory. (Anac., Agn., Ambr., Kreos., Lach., Merc., Natr. mur., Nux m.). Quiet ; perfectly indifferent (Berb., Selen., Sep.) ; difficult comprehension ; imbecility.. Incapacity for thought. (Aeth., Cimic., Gels., Nux v.). Disinclination to talk ; answers questions reluctantly. (Agar., Phos.). Homesickness (Caps., Hell.), with inclination to weep.. Quiet delirium, ...
China (Cinchona officinalis - Yellow Quina)Pathogenesis OR MENTAL SYMPTOMS OF CHINA1 - () This tired and bored of life is very unfortunate and thinks that nothing is worth, has a wish to die, there is strong suicidal tendency (to jump out a window), but lacks the courage to carry it out , because at the same time is afraid to die.2 - () is apatheti
Get this from a library! Planar-Chiral Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalysts : Synthesis, Application and Structural Analysis.. [Jakob Schneider]
A regioselective synthesis of N-carbomethoxy-2,3,5-tribromoindole (6) via a sequential one-pot bromination?aromatization?bromination of N-carbomethoxyindoline (2) is described. The process for the transformation of 2 into 6 permitted the isolation of stable reaction intermediates N-carbomethoxy-5-bromoindoline (3), N-carbomethoxy-5-bromoindole (4), and N-carbomethoxy-3,5-dibromoindole (5). Compound 6 was used to complete the total synthesis of the natural products 1b and 1c. In addition, bromination of N-carbomethoxyindole (11) afforded N-carbomethoxy-2,3,6-tribromoindole (13), from which the natural product 1a was synthesized. ...
Abstract. An asymmetric 1,2-addition of alkyl groups to conjugated cyclic enones gave allylic alcohols with chiral quaternary centers. The resultant allylic alcohols are converted into epoxy alcohols with excellent diastereoselectivities. A semipinacol rearrangement provided α,α-dialkyl-β-hydroxy ketones with all-carbon chiral quaternary centers.. ...
This thesis is built on the concepts of constitutional dynamic chemistry and dynamic kinetic resolution, where reversible covalent reactions are used to generate dynamics and kinetically controlled reactions are employed for resolution. The thesis is divided into two parts:. The first section focuses on the study of dynamic systemic resolution, a concept derived from constitutional dynamic chemistry. Three projects are addressed in this section: 1) lipase-catalyzed resolution of a double parallel dynamic system involving both hemiacetal formation and nitroaldol reaction; 2) resolution of a dynamic α-iminonitrile system through a silver-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition process; 3) resolution of a dynamic imine system via organogelation. Both external and internal selection pressures are applied for the resolution of complex dynamic systems.. The second section explores the asymmetric synthesis of two types of heterocycles through dynamic kinetic resolution. In the first example, a series of ...
Combinations of two enantiomerically pure organic tectons 1 and 3 with either Zn(ii) or Cu(ii) cations lead to the formation of four homochiral 3D networks among which two, 1-Cu and 3-Cu, are robust porous crystals displaying homochiral cavities and permanent microporosity. 3-Cu porous crystals capture 66% a
The first direct asymmetric synthetic preparation of trifluoro-1-(indol-3-yl)ethanols (TFIEs) is described by an enantioselective organocatalytic method from indoles and inexpensive trifluoroacetaldehyde methyl hemiacetal. The reaction is catalyzed by hydroquinine to produce TFIEs in an almost quantitative yield and with enantioselectivities up to 75% at room temperature. The enantioselectivity is strongly dependent on the concentration of substrates and catalyst due to the competitive noncatalyzed reaction. Chirality, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate is a reagent used in the preparation of acyl hydrazinedicarboxylates. It is also used in the electrophilic amination of beta-keto esters catalyzed by an axially chiral guanidine. It serves as a precursor in an enantioselective synthesis of 3,6-dihyropyridazines employing organocatalysts such as L-proline or (S)-2-pyrrolidinyl tetrazole. It is also utilized in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts amination through a chiral organocatalyst. Further, it acts as a reactant for preparation of hexapeptide key fragments through stereo selective selenocyclization/oxidative deselenylation reactions. In addition to this, it is employed as a starting material in the synthesis of pyrroloisoquinoline template through stereoselective N-acyliminium-mediated cyclization and enolate amination for preparation of peptidomimetic compounds and Barbier-type propargylation reactions ...
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Hayes, Steven C. and Roche, Bryan (2001) The (not so) strange death of stimulus equivalence. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 2 (1). pp. 35-41. ISSN 1502-1149 Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne and Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Roche, Bryan and Smeets, Paul M. (2001) Exemplar Training and a Derived Transformation of Function in Accordance with Symmetry. The Psychological record, 51 (2). pp. 287-308. ISSN 0033-2933 Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne and Barnes-Holmes, Dermot and Roche, Bryan and Smeets, Paul M. (2001) Exemplar Training and a Derived Transformation of Function in Accordance with Symmetry: II. The Psychological record, 51. pp. 589-603. ISSN 0033-2933 Bartley, Brendan and Waddington, Shelagh B. (2001) The emergence and evolution of urban planning in Ireland. Geographical Viewpoint, 29. pp. 7-14. ISSN 0332-4877 Beaumont, Andrew J. and Kiely, Christopher and Rooney, A. Denise (2001) Synthesis of novel chiral quaternary phosphonium fluorides: reagents for simple asymmetric ...
Beckman, E.J., In press, The Use of Carbon Dioxide as both Reactant and Solvent: Sequestration ofCO2 via the Production of Chemical Products, Recent Res. Adv. Biotech. Bioeng... Munshi, P., and Beckman, E.J., 2011, Ambient carboxylation on a supported reversible CO2 carrier: ketone to beta-keto ester, Green Chem., no.2, pp. 376-383.. Buckley, M.J., and Beckman, E.J., 2010, Adhesive use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, Oral and Maxill. Clin. N. Amer., no.1, pp. 195-199.. Munshi, P., Beckman, E.J., and Padmanabhan, S., 2010, Combined influence of fluorinated solventand base in Friedel-Crafts reaction of toluene and CO2, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., no.14, pp. 6678-6682.. Munshi, P., Ghosh, A., Beckman, E.J., Patel, Y., George, J., Sullivan, S.Z., Pulla, S., Ramidi, P., and Malpani, V., 2010, Tuning catalyst solubility in CO2 by changing molar volume, Green Chem. Lett. Rev., no.4, pp. 319-328.. Sivak, W.N., Zhang, J., Petoud, S., and Beckman, E.J., 2010, Degradative release as a function ...
A hydrolytically stable triarylphosphine oxide containing dicarboxylic acid monomer bis(4-carboxyphenyl) phenyl phosphine oxide P(O)(Ph)(C6H4COOH)2 was synthesized via Friedel-Crafts reactions and chemically incorporated into the
Masami Kuriyama; Takahiro Soeta; Xinyu Hao; Qian Chen; Kiyoshi Tomioka. N-Boc-L-Valine-Connected Amidomonophosphane Rhodium(I) Catalyst for Asymmetric Arylation of N-Tosylarylimines with Arylboroxines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, (26),8128-8129. Takahiro Soeta; Masami Kuriyama; Kiyoshi Tomioka. Catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of dialkylzinc reagents to β-aryl-α,β-unsaturated N-2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonylaldimines with use of N-Boc-l-Val-connected amidophosphane-copper(I) catalyst. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, (1),297-300. ...
SPECIFIC POLYMERS addresses and proposes to its community a wide range of functional monomers and polymers. Among them, more and more research have been achieved in the past five years on nitrogen based functionalities This newsletter takes you along our portfolio of N-functional R&D products. We are able to provide N-functional monomers, to work on their polymerization in order to provide custom designed neutral polymers or achieve their quaternization to obtain corresponding polymeric salts ...
Scientists, both in academia and industry, as well as regulatory authorities become more and more aware of the importance of enantioselectivity in drug innovation. About 25% of the medicines used...
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The cinchona alkaloids, certain oligopeptides. Synthetic catalysts derived from biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding catalysts, ...
... is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis. It is used in asymmetric synthesis in organic chemistry. It is a ...
Other members are Salen, cinchona alkaloids and phosphoramidites. Many of these ligands possess C2 symmetry which limits the ...
Chiral Auxiliary: This is usually some kind of cinchona alkaloid. Stoichiometric Oxidant: Peroxides were among the first ... cycloaddition pathways for the bis-cinchona alkaloid-OsO4 catalyzed dihydroxylation of olefins by means of kinetic isotope ... that an enzyme-like binding pocket is crucial to the enantioselective dihydroxylation of olefins by OsO4-bis-cinchona alkaloid ... Additional Evidence That an Enzyme-like Binding Pocket Is Crucial for High Enantioselectivity in the Bis-Cinchona Alkaloid ...
... is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis and Gongronema latifolium. It is used in asymmetric synthesis in ...
2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc 1960;49:497-502. Hayden AL. ... 2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American ... 1. Application of the potassium bromide disk technique to some steroids, alkaloids, barbiturates, and other drugs. J Am Pharm ... 1. Application of the potassium bromide disk technique to some steroids, alkaloids, barbiturates, and other drugs". Journal of ...
He found an ideal topic in the elucidation of the structure of solanin; he continued his work on Cinchona alkaloids and started ... He performed research in his spare time, investigating alkaloids in cacao bark.[citation needed] Prelog wanted to work in an ... Later he worked on elucidating the structures of aromatic Erythrina alkaloids with Derek Barton, Oskar Jeger and Robert Burns ... Prelog's main interest was focused on alkaloids. ...
Protoporphyrin IX Complexes of the Antimalarial Cinchona Alkaloids Quinine and Quinidine". ACS Chemical Biology. 7 (4): 666-71 ... hydrogen bond between a propionate side chain of the porphyrin and the protonated quinuclidine nitrogen atom of either alkaloid ...
Phase-transfer catalysis of nucleophilic epoxidation is also possible using cinchona-based alkaloid catalysts. Phase-transfer ...
... (also called hydroquinidine) is an organic compound, a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. The ...
... in tandem asymmetric reactions generating nonadjacent stereocenters with bifunctional catalysis by Cinchona alkaloids". J. Am. ... In the Jacobsen synthesis of (+)-yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, an early enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reaction using a ...
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier isolate the alkaloids cinchonine and quinine from Cinchona bark. Charles ...
β-ICD, a cinchona alkaloid derivative, is famous among the quinidine framework-based catalysts in this sense. Initial reports ...
N-fluoroammonium salts of cinchona alkaloids represent the state of the art for reactions of this type. In addition, these ... reagents are easily synthesized from Selectfluor and the parent alkaloids. Electrophilic N-F fluorinating reagents incorporate ...
In 1921, John[who?] used quinine hydrochloride, an alkaloid of cinchona in the treatment of amoebic liver abscess. Later when ... The introduction of cinchona into therapeutics was due to the discovery of its efficacy in malaria. ... The medical virtues of ipecac are almost entirely due to the action of its alkaloids-emetine and cephaline. Till today, emetine ...
... , also known as hydroquinine, is an organic compound and as a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. The ...
Dihydroxylation of Secondary Allylic 4-Methoxybenzoate Esters Using a Mechanistically Designed Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyst". J. ...
The first treatment identified is thought to be Quinine, one of four alkaloids from the bark of the Cinchona tree. Originally ... By the mid-1880s the Dutch had grown vast plantations of cinchona trees and monopolised the world market. Quinine remained the ...
... such as asymmetric quaternary ammonium salts derived from the Cinchona alkaloids; or organocatalysis, which uses enamine or ...
Due to the loss of Indonesia in World War II, the source for cinchona alkaloids, a precursor of quinidine, was reduced. This ...
Cinchona alkaloids (BQ and BQd) are readily available and relatively inexpensive natural products that have features making ... Chiral ketene enolate formation via nucleophilic activation by the cinchona alkaloid facilitates enantioselective and ...
... which are catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids. Ionic transfer J. O. Metzger (1998). " ...
"Alkaloid profile of endophytic Diaporthe spp. from Cinchona calisaya." Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina 18.1 (2016). Fan, Xin-Lei ...
... such that less than one molecule of cinchona alkaloid is needed for every reactive site on the metal and, in fact, the presence ... The greatest successes in chiral modification of metal surfaces have come from the use of cinchona alkaloids, though numerous ... These alkaloids have been shown to enhance the rate of substrate hydrogenation by 10-100 times, ... organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of quinolines and their application in the synthesis of alkaloids". Angewandte Chemie ...
... reported in a leading Viennese medical journal that quinidine was the most effective of the four principal cinchona alkaloids ... The effects of cinchona bark (the botanical source from which quinidine is extracted) had been commented on long before the ... It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action ...
... can be carried out as an asymmetric reaction with a suitable chiral amine such as sparteine or a cinchona alkaloid: The first ...
McCooey, Séamus H.; Stephen J. Connon (2005). "Urea- and Thiourea-Substituted Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives as Highly Efficient ... "Highly Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Nitromethane to Chalcones Using Bifunctional Cinchona Organocatalysts". Organic ...
... modification is the enantioselective interrupted Feist-Benary reaction with a chiral auxiliary based on the cinchona alkaloid ... This type of alkaloids is also used in asymmetric synthesis in the AD-mix. The alkaloid is protonated throughout the reaction ...
3-substituted THF while the complimentary anti-product is easily accessible via a Cinchona alkaloid catalyst such as 7. ... of IMDA reactions in complex molecule synthesis is the IMDA approach to the tricyclic core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids, a ...
Wine was used because some alkaloids of the cinchona bark are not soluble in water, but are soluble in the ethanol in wine. In ... Cinchona calisaya Wedd. (1848) Cinchona officinalis L. (1753) - quinine bark Cinchona pubescens Vahl (1790) - quinine tree ... Alongside the alkaloids, many cinchona barks contain cinchotannic acid, a particular tannin, which by oxidation rapidly yields ... Cinchona alkaloids include: cinchonine and cinchonidine (stereoisomers with R1 = vinyl, R2 = hydrogen) quinine and quinidine ( ...
The Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by ... O'Connor SE, Maresh JJ (August 2006). "Chemistry and biology of monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis". Natural Product ... The US had obtained four million cinchona seeds from the Philippines and began operating cinchona plantations in Costa Rica. ... To maintain their monopoly on cinchona bark, Peru and surrounding countries began outlawing the export of cinchona seeds and ...
Datura stramonium has been used in Ayurveda for various treatments, but contains alkaloids, such as atropine and scopolamine, ... An example of a herbal medicine resource: the bark of the cinchona tree contains quinine, which today is a widely prescribed ... Sick animals tend to forage plants rich in secondary metabolites, such as tannins and alkaloids.[90] Because these ... Müller, JL (1998). "Love potions and the ointment of witches: historical aspects of the nightshade alkaloids". J Toxicol Clin ...
In 1921, John[who?] used quinine hydrochloride, an alkaloid of cinchona in the treatment of amoebic liver abscess. Later when ... The medical virtues of ipecac are almost entirely due to the action of its alkaloids-emetine and cephaline. Till today, emetine ... The introduction of cinchona into therapeutics was due to the discovery of its efficacy in malaria. ...
... cinchona).[173] Furthermore, different tissues of the same plants may contain different alkaloids.[174] ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Chemical Encyclopedia: isoquinoline alkaloids. xumuk.ru ... Iboga-type alkaloids[125] Ibogamine, ibogaine, voacangine[125] Aspidosperma-type alkaloids[125] Vincamine, vinca alkaloids,[26] ... a b c d Chemical Encyclopedia: alkaloids. xumuk.ru *^ Roberts, M. F. (Margaret F.) (1998). Alkaloids : Biochemistry, Ecology, ...
The bark of the cinchona tree contains the alkaloid quinine, traditionally given for malaria. ... Alkaloids[edit]. Further information: Alkaloids. Alkaloids are bitter-tasting chemicals, very widespread in nature, and often ... Chemical and biological aspects of "Narcissus" alkaloids. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. 63. pp. 87-179. doi:10.1016/ ... contain nine groups of alkaloids including galantamine, licensed for use against Alzheimer's disease. The alkaloids are bitter- ...
Druilhe, P.; ও অন্যান্য। "Activity of a combination of three Cinchona bark alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro"। ... "Genus Cinchona"। Taxonomy। UniProt। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০১০-০২-১৩।. *↑ Motley, Cheryl। "Cinchona and its product--Quinine"। ... Peru offers a branch of cinchona to Science (from a 17th-century engraving): Cinchona, the source of Peruvian bark, is an early ... Henry G. Greenish (১৯২০)। "Cinchona Bark (Cortex Cinchonae). Part 3"। A Text Book Of Materia Medica, Being An Account Of The ...
Quinine [1] is an alkaloid which can reduce fever, work against malaria, pain and swelling. The bark of the Cinchona family of ...
Kafeina[3][4], atau lebih populernya kafein, ialah senyawa alkaloid xantina berbentuk kristal dan berasa pahit yang bekerja ... by several doctors to be a medicine that reduces fevers and because coffee belongs to the same family as the cinchona [quinine ... dijumpai pada berbagai sumber kafeina alami disebabkan oleh sumber-sumber kafeina tersebut juga mengandung campuran alkaloid ...
AlkaloidsEdit. Further information: Alkaloids. Alkaloids are bitter-tasting chemicals, very widespread in nature, and often ... Cinchona), vincamine (Vinca minor), and vincristine (Catharanthus roseus).[5][11] ... The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the alkaloids morphine and codeine.[5] ... The alkaloid nicotine from tobacco binds directly to the body's Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, accounting for its ...
Quinine is the active anti-malarial ingredient in the bark of cinchona tree. Neither of the partners chose to patent their ... In 1823 they discovered nitrogen in alkaloid compounds. Other compounds they discovered include colchicine and veratrine. The ... making a study of alkaloids from vegetables. Among their successes were the isolation of the following compounds: Quinine ...
Graham JR (June 1954). "Rectal use of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine alkaloid for the relief of migraine". The New England ... by several doctors to be a medicine that reduces fevers and because coffee belongs to the same family as the cinchona [quinine ... Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine ... Frischknecht PM, Ulmer-Dufek J, Baumann TW (1986). "Purine alkaloid formation in buds and developing leaflets of Coffea arabica ...
"Ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana to produce Cinchona alkaloids". Journal of Natural ... Cinchona ledgeriana is a plant indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Andes, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 metres (4,900- ... ecoplanet.in: Cinchona ledgeriana - Retrieved 09 Sep 2009 Maehara, Shoji; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Maetani, Yoshihide (April ...
Quinine is an alkaloid that acts as a blood schizonticidal and weak gametocide against Cancer vivax and Plasmodium malariae. As ... Quinine has a long history stretching from Peru, and the discovery of the cinchona tree, and the potential uses of its bark, to ... Quinimax and quinidine are the two most commonly used alkaloids related to quinine in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... Quinimax is a combination of four alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchoine and cinchonidine). This combination has been shown ...
Other alkaloids that are extracted from this tree include cinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine. Standley, Paul C. (1936). " ... Cinchona officinalis is a medicinal plant, one of several Cinchona species used for the production of quinine, which is an anti ... English: quinine, red cinchona, cinchona bark, Jesuit's bark, loxa bark, Jesuit's powder, countess powder, Peruvian bark. ... Media related to Cinchona officinalis at Wikimedia Commons Tropical Plants Database: Cinchona officinalis Data related to ...
In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be ... Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), ... Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. Several generations of O- ...
Cinchona Alkaloids. By: William Sommer and Daniel Weibel, Aldrich ChemFiles 2008, 8.2, 74. ... Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ... Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins.4 The ... Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high ...
For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ...
Exploring the enantiorecognition mechanism of Cinchona alkaloid‐based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases and the basic trans ...
Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyzed Enantioselective Fluorination of Allyl Silanes Silyl Enol Ethers and Oxindoles. pdf370 Кб ... forma, synthesis, imine, azetidinyl, amid, cycloadditions, cinchona, alkaloid, allenoates, disubstituted, enantioselectivity, ... Cinchona Alkaloids in Synthesis & Catalysis (2). Ligands Immobilization and Organocatalysis pdf200 Кб ... Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines Synthesis of 2 4- ...
Find out information about Cinchona alkaloid. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder ... common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of Cinchona alkaloid ... Related to Cinchona alkaloid: cinchona tree, Cinchona officinalis cinchona. (sĭngkō`nə) or chinchona. (chĭngkō`nə), name for ... Cinchona alkaloid , Article about Cinchona alkaloid by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cinchona ...
Chapter II: The Relative Merits of the different Alkaloids of Cinchona in Malaria. ... Chapter I: Cinchona Febrifuge. This is evidently a proprietary article, considerably used throughout the British dependencies ... Chapter II: The Relative Merits of the different Alkaloids of Cinchona in Malaria. "In doses of ten grains twice a day, the ... Notes on the Treatment of Malaria with the Alkaloids of Cinchona By William Fletcher, M. D. Camb., Bacteriologist, Institute ...
Quinine is a plant alkaloid obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree. It has numerous medicinal properties, including an ... Quinine is a plant alkaloid obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree. It has numerous medicinal properties, including an ... plant alkaloid, sense, soda, soft drink, taste, tonic water, ultraviolet, uv ...
Quinine is found along with several other alkaloids in high concentrations in some species of Cinchona, particularly the bark; ... these alkaloids give the plants their bitter taste. Cinchona is native to South America, where its species are not all well ... Cinchona Linn. 金鸡纳属 Description from Flora of China. Kinkina Adanson; Quinquina Boehmer.. Shrubs or usually trees, unarmed; ... Cinchona officinalis (Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 172. 1753; 歫鸨纱栔 zheng ji na shu) is native to South America (Ecuador) and perhaps ...
... cinchona alkaloids as well as very popular ayurvadic powder Mahasudarshana chuma, Prosopis juliflora3, Caparis decidua4, ...
Alkaloid production by a Cinchona officinalis Ledgeriana hairy root culture containing constitutive expression constructs of ... Abstract Cinchona officinalis Ledgeriana, former called Cinchona ledgeriana, hairy roots were initiated containing ... Pharmacognostic and Physico chemical standardization of Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. *Firdoous Ahmad Mir, Zakir Hussain Khanday ... Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. is commonly known as Crown bark in English belongs to family Rubiaceae. Stem bark of C. ...
Action and Uses.-Cinchonidine is the most poisonous of the alkaloids in cinchona bark; it has much the same action as quinine, ... Cinchonidine sulphate, (C19H22N2O)2,H2SO4,3H2O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. It is official in the U.S.P. It ... The British Pharmaceutical Codex 1911. > The Plants. > Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex, B.P., Red Cinchona Bark. > ... Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex, B.P., Red Cinchona Bark. up Cinchoninae Sulphas. Cinchonine Sulphate. › ...
... cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91% ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the ... cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91{\%} ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the ... cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91% ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the ... cinchona alkaloids, Takemoto catalyst) in up to 91% ee and quantitative yield. The substrate range and the mechanism of the ...
of the alkaloids of Cinchona." U. S.. Cinchonae Flavae Cortex; Yellow Cinchona Bark, Cinchona Flava, U. S. 1880, Yellow ... Cinchona. U. S. Cinchona, Cinch. [Peruvian Bark, Yellow Peruvian Bark]. Cinchona Rubra, Red Cinchona.. ... of the alkaloids of Red Cinchona." U. S. "Red Cinchona Bark is the dried bark of the stem and branches of cultivated plants of ... Cinchona Rubra. U. S. (Br.). Red Cinchona, Cinch. Rub.. "The dried bark of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Fam. Rubiaceae), or of ...
Years later it was also discovered that cut and regrown cinchona had higher levels of the effective alkaloids in its bark, and ... The origin of cinchona remains shrouded in mystery. Historians debate whether cinchona was an indigenous medicine or was ... but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally ... The history of cinchona bark, of more than 350 years, is full of intrigue and drama, greatly influencing that of pharmacy, ...
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Get Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances ... Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives. Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Top Sellers in Cinchona Alkaloid ...
... of the alkaloid molecule but also on the β-substituent of the unsaturated systems. The C(3)-control was observed when the ... of dodecanethiol with β-substituted phenyl vinyl ketones were studied using polymeric and monomeric cinchona alkaloids as ... On the C(3)-Control of Stereochemistry in Asymmetric Reactions Catalyzed by Polymeric Cinchona Alkaloids. *Norio Kobayashi1. & ... On the C(3)-Control of Stereochemistry in Asymmetric Reactions Catalyzed by Polymeric Cinchona Alkaloids. Polym J 13, 263-271 ( ...
... a key enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, was studied in distinct parts of six-month-old plants... ... The relation between the total alkaloid content and the activity of strictosidine synthase (EC 4.3.3.2), ... These results indicate that in young Cinchona plants the alkaloids are mainly synthesized in the axial extremities of the plant ... Keene, A.T., Anderson, L.A., Phillipson, J.D. (1983) Investigation of Cinchona leaf alkaloids by high-performance liquid ...
Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona ... MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. ... The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The ... Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. ...
The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension. A Contrast to Their ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ... The Lack of Effect of Oral Doses of Cinchona Alkaloids on the Circulation of Dogs with Renal Hypertension ...
N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts W. Li, Y. Wang and D. ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts ... N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ...
... poisoning caused by any of the cinchona alkaloids in English->English dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases ... illness from cinchona drugs, poisoning caused by any of the cinchona alkaloids poslovica alors que serial transmission asperges ... illness from cinchona drugs, poisoning caused by any of the cinchona alkaloids. cinchonism. ... Results for: illness from cinchona drugs, poisoning caused by any of the cinchona alkaloids. English. English. ...
Quigley, C, Rodriguez-Docampo, Z, Connon, SJ, Highly tunable arylated cinchona alkaloids as bifunctional catalysts, CHEMICAL ...
Cormac Quigley, The design of biofunctional cinchona alkaloid derived catalysts : a new departure, [thesis], Trinity College ...
The cinchona alkaloids, certain oligopeptides. Synthetic catalysts derived from biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding catalysts, ...
Examples include cinchona alkaloids and certain phosphoramidites. P-Chiral monophosphines have also been investigated. Chiral ...
based on automated processing from source available at: www.dtic.mil/dtic/stresources/techreports/dticSearchTools/thesaurus_desc.html
The Separation of the Cinchona Alkaloids. By Y. Shimoyama. Adulteration of Sweetmeats. ...
Ar Reaction of β-Dicarbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by Quaternary Ammonium Salts Derived from Cinchona Alkaloids ...
Subject: N-diphenylphospinoylimine, cinchona alkaloids, diethylzinc, enantioselective addition Citation: Beresford, K.J.M. ( ... Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.. ... Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands.. De ... 2002) Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands. ...
4.7.2 Cinchona Alkaloids.. 4.7.3 Camptothecin.. 4.7.4 Other Fluorinated Alkaloids. ...
In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid ... cinchona alkaloids azides; organocatalysis; hypervalent iodine reagents; ammonium iodides; cinchona alkaloids ... In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid ...
Cinchona alkaloids EU333972 [59]. Quinine. Phenanthrenes and derivatives Halofantrine, lumefantrine. Quinolines and derivatives ...
For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated ... Phylogeny predicts the quantity of antimalarial alkaloids within the iconic yellow Cinchona bark (Rubiaceae: Cinchona calisaya) ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using ...
A mechanistic rationale for the 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids catalyzed asymmetric reactions via iminium ion ... The 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids have expanded the synthetic potential of asymmetric aminocatalysis, enabling the ... epi cinchona alkaloids catalyzed asymmetric reactions via iminium ion activation of enones. Journal of the American Chemical ... An essential role for the achiral acid cocatalyst is uncovered: upon condensation of the cinchona catalyst with the enone, the ...
Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ... Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of limonene-based carbocyclic β-amino acids on zwitterionic Cinchona alkaloid-based ...
"Conformational Study of Cinchona Alkaloids. A Combined NMR, Molecular Mechanics and X-Ray Approach.", G. D. H. Dijkstra, R. M. ... "On the Structure of Osmium Tetraoxide-Cinchona Alkaloid Complexes.", J. S. Svendsen, I. E. Markó, E. N. Jacobsen, Ch. Pulla Rao ... "Recent Advances in the Total Synthesis of Vinblastine-Type Alkaloids.", I. E. Markó and M. E. Kuehne. The Alkaloids, 1990, 37, ... "Kinetic Role of the Alkaloid Ligands in Asymmetric Catalytic Dihydroxylation.", E. N. Jacobsen, I. E. Markó, M. B. France, J. S ...
  • Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high enantiopurity from a very broad range of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cinchonidine sulphate, (C 19 H 22 N 2 O) 2 ,H 2 SO 4 ,3H 2 O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have proven to catalyze an astonishing array of enantioselective transformations, providing access to chiral products of high enantiopurity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In connection with our ongoing project that deals with the catalytic potential of the cinchona-alkaloid-derived amides,[17-19] we became interested in examining the reaction of allenoates with imines in the presence of a chiral tertiary amine catalyst. (docme.ru)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the present time (1917) thirty or forty more or less clearly defined species of Cinchona are recognized. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cinchona is classified in the division Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta , division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite a ban on export, Europeans sent cinchona seeds and seedlings to Java and India, where plantations were established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of all of these probably but four with their cultivated hybrids yield the Cinchona Bark of commerce. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The literature of the cinchona hybrids is hopelessly confused by the same name being frequently used by different authorities for the different hybrids and the one hybrid having various names. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • A clade of high alkaloid producing trees was identified that spanned a narrow range of altitudes, from 1,100 to 1,350 m. (frontiersin.org)
  • So successful were the Dutch and English in transplanting cinchona to Java and India that until World War II these countries, especially Java, grew practically the entire commercial supply. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Four years later, Linne proposed a new name, Cinchona , in honor of the Countess of Chinchon, who first made the bark known in Europe. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • As a result of selection, the alkaloid content in the bark was raised from 2-2.5 percent to 16 percent. (thefreedictionary.com)