Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
ACETIC ACID or acetic acid esters substituted with one or more CHLORINE atoms.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.
A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.
A plant species of the family EUPHORBIACEAE.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The reproductive organs of plants.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.

Transformation of Cinchona alkaloids into 1-N-oxide derivatives by endophytic Xylaria sp isolated from Cinchona pubescens. (1/15)

The microbial transformation of four Cinchona alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine) by endophytic fungi isolated from Cinchona pubescens was investigated. The endophytic filamentous fungus Xylaria sp. was found to transform the Cinchona alkaloids into their 1-N-oxide derivatives.  (+info)

Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: a possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. (2/15)

BACKGROUND: The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolitic, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. METHODS: Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 microg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 microg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 microg/ml) were used as positive controls. RESULTS: The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8 g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 microg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 microg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 microg/ml). CONCLUSION: This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus beta hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.  (+info)

Polymer-supported Cinchona alkaloid-derived ammonium salts as recoverable phase-transfer catalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of alpha-amino acids. (3/15)

Alkaloids such as cinchonidine, quinine and N-methylephedrine have been N-alkylated using polymeric benzyl halides or co-polymerized and then N-alkylated, thus affording a series of polymer-supported chiral ammonium salts which have been employed as phase-transfer catalysts in the asymmetric benzylation of an N-(diphenylmethylene)glycine ester. These new polymeric catalysts can be easily recovered by simple filtration after the reaction and reused. The best ee's were achieved when Merrifield resin-anchored cinchonidinium ammonium salts were employed.  (+info)

Cinchona alkaloids are also produced by an endophytic filamentous fungus living in cinchona plant. (4/15)

We report that the endophytic filamentous fungus Diaporthe sp., isolated from Cinchona ledgeriana and cultivated in a synthetic liquid medium, produces Cinchona alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine). This shows that Cinchona alkaloids are produced not only in Cinchona plant cells, but also in endophytic microbe cells.  (+info)

Malaria drug resistance: new observations and developments. (5/15)

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Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner. (6/15)

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Integration efficiency in DNA-induced transformation of Pneumococcus. I. A method of transformation in solid medium and its use for isolation of transformation-deficient and recombination-modified mutants. (7/15)

A method of transformation on solid medium especially adapted for pneumococcus has been developed. Under specific conditions, all colonies that are allowed to grow in the presence of transforming DNA for six hours give rise to transformed bacteria. Combined with replica plating this technique has been used to isolate mutants modified with regard to recombination. Most of the mutants found are transformation-defective and show a large diversity in their response to ultraviolet light. Some of these mutants have lost their ability to take up transforming DNA. One shows a reduced yield of transformants for a given quantity of DNA taken up. Mutants that manifest altered behavior with regard to marker efficiencies have also been isolated. One of these exhibits a decrease in the transformation efficiency of only the high efficiency markers and two mutants show a decrease in the transformation efficiency of the low efficiency markers.  (+info)

Integration efficiency in DNA-induced transformation of Pneumococcus. II. Genetic studies of mutant integrating all the markers with a high efficiency. (8/15)

Transformation of the pneumococcus mutant 401 by DNA's bearing the standard reference marker and several other markers belonging to two unlinked loci has shown that differences in the integration efficiencies of these markers were considerably reduced in this strain compared to the wild-type strain Cl(3). The sensitivities of mutant 401 to ultraviolet light and to X-ray irradiation are the same as those of Cl(3). However, in 401 all the markers tested are more resistant to inactivation as shown by transformation of 401 and Cl(3) by ultraviolet-irradiated DNA. The increase in resistance is greater for low efficiency (LE) markers than for high efficiency (HE) markers.-The decreased discrimination between LE and HE markers in strain 401 is not due to a mechanism related to modification of markers in the transforming DNA by the recipient cells, nor are the proteins inducing competence of the cells responsible for the differences in the integration efficiencies of various markers.-Genetic studies of the fate of recombinants as well as the measure of the amount of DNA taken up have shown that all the markers are integrated in strain 401 by the same recombination process, that specific to high efficiency markers.  (+info)

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The front cover picture, provided by Shū Kobayashi and co-workers, illustrates a polymer immobilized chiral 2-oxopyrimidinium salt for asymmetric Michael addition of glycine-derived imines to α,β-unsaturated ketones. The reaction proceeded smoothly with 5 mol % of the heterogeneous catalyst and the products were obtained with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Interestingly, the addition of polydimethylsilane to the chiral heterogeneous catalyst greatly improved the ease of handling of the
Catalyzes the 1,3-allylic rearrangement of the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl (IPP) to its highly electrophilic allylic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP).
Catalyzes the 1,3-allylic rearrangement of the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl (IPP) to its highly electrophilic allylic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP).
O-Alkylation of phenol compounds was performed in a continuous flow apparatus under biphasic liquid/liquid conditions and promoted by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase-transfer catalyst. The segmented flow that is generated within the flow system is able to afford the desired ethers in high yield and in very short times.. ...
We have established a robust and versatile analytical platform for probing membrane protein function in a defined lipid environment on solid supports. This approach is based on vesicle capturing onto an ultrathin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer brush functionalized with fatty acid moieties and subsequent vesicle fusion into a contiguous membrane. In order to ensure efficient formation of these tethered polymer-supported membranes (PSM), very small unilamellar vesicles (VSUV) containing fluorescent lipids or model transmembrane proteins were generated by detergent depletion with cyclodextrin. Thus, very rapid reconstitution of membrane proteins into PSM was possible in a format compatible with microfluidics. Moreover, surfaces could be regenerated with detergent solution and reused multiple times. Lipid and protein diffusion in these membranes was investigated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, single molecule tracking, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Full mobility of ...
Short, Thomas, New Observations, Natural, Moral, Civil, Political and Medical on City, Town, and Country Bills of Mortality, 1750 ...
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Vampirism is defined as the act of drawing blood from an object, (usually a love object) and receiving resultant sexual excitement and pleasure. The blood may b
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Welcome to the AAVSOs Research Portal. From this page, you can find information about obtaining AAVSO data, requesting new observations, or learning more about the AAVSO, its data, and its services for the research community. Its purpose is to facilitate your use of the AAVSOs resources in your research efforts.. See the blue boxes on the right hand side of this page to access the AAVSO data archives or to find out how to work with the AAVSO to obtain new scientific data.. ...
Many ideas embedded in PCS have been widely used across various areas of data science. Predictability plays a central role in science through Popperian falsifiability (4). If a model does not accurately predict new observations, it can be rejected or updated. Predictability has been adopted by the machine-learning community as a goal of its own right and more generally to evaluate the quality of a model or data result (5). While statistics have always considered prediction, machine learning emphasized its importance for empirical rigor. This was in large part powered by computational advances that made it possible to compare models through cross-validation (CV), developed by statisticians Stone (6) and Allen (7).. The role of computation extends beyond prediction, setting limitations on how data can be collected, stored, and analyzed. Computability has played an integral role in computer science tracing back to Alan Turings seminal work on the computability of sequences (8). Analyses of ...
Welcome to the AAVSOs Research Portal. From this page, you can find information about obtaining AAVSO data, requesting new observations, or learning more about the AAVSO, its data, and its services for the research community. Its purpose is to facilitate your use of the AAVSOs resources in your research efforts.. See the blue boxes on the right hand side of this page to access the AAVSO data archives or to find out how to work with the AAVSO to obtain new scientific data.. ...
However, there are not just genes in these yarns. So called regulatory genomic elements, that can control the activity of neighboring genes like switches are also found clustered together with the genes in these chromosomal yarns. A group of genes belonging to the same yarn will therefore be likely to contact a similar set of regulatory elements, and this can result in the coordinated activity of these genes during development.. These new observations shed some light on several long-standing mysteries of genetics, such as the reason why some DNA mutations can end up affecting genes that are located thousands or even a million base pairs away. The cell nucleus is packed with genes, and the cell is faced with the challenge to turn on or off each one of them correctly, said Dekker. By organizing groups of genes in isolated domains, or yarns that do not mingle or mix with other genes, the cell has solved the problem of how to regulate groups of genes coordinately and without interference from ...
Looking for Cinchona alkaloid? Find out information about Cinchona alkaloid. or , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and... Explanation of Cinchona alkaloid
In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), enantioselectivity for the above mentioned glycine imine alkylation was optimized to 97-99% ee.1. Nucleophilic catalysts have had a wide-ranging role in the development of new synthetic methods. In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ...
Though the Peruvian bark was introduced into Europe so early as 1640, it was not until the year 1737 that the plant producing it was known to naturalists. In that year La Condamine, on a journey from Quito to Lima, through the province of Loxa, had an opportunity of examining the tree, of which, upon his return, he published a very complete description, with plate, under the name Quinquina, stating that three species were recognized. (Mem. Ac., Paris, 1738, p. 226.) Four years later, Linne proposed a new name, Cinchona, in honor of the Countess of Chinchon, who first made the bark known in Europe. Linne recognized but one species, which he called C. officinalis, and this continued for a long time to be recognized by the Pharmacopoeias as the only source of the Peruvian bark of commerce. But a vast number of plants belonging to the Linnaean genus Cinchona were in the course of time discovered; and the list became at length so unwieldy and heterogeneous that botanists were compelled to distribute ...
Cinchona tree which was used to make medicine for Malaria disappears from Kerala, Herbal Garden | Agriculture | Mathrubhumi English
Considerable inter- and intraspecific variation with respect to the quantity and composition of plant natural products exists. The processes that drive this variation remain largely unknown. Understanding which factors determine chemical diversity has the potential to shed light on plant defenses against herbivores and diseases and accelerate drug discovery. For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two Cinchona calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of La Paz (Bolivia). Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the
Cinchona (China) Officinalis materia medica indications. Buy Cinchona (China) Officinalis the homeopathic remedy in 2C-200C, 2X-200X, 1M-50M, CM
Cinchona (China) Officinalis materia medica indications. Buy Cinchona (China) Officinalis the homeopathic remedy in 2C-200C, 2X-200X, 1M-50M, CM
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Gentianales • Familia: Rubiaceae • Subfamilia: Cinchonoideae • Tribus: Cinchoneae • Genus: Cinchona • Species: Cinchona officinalis L. (1742) ...
The nucleophilic quinuclidine nitrogen can also be used directly as a reactive center for enantioselective catalysis. Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. This interaction leads to a chiral environment around the anion and permits enantioselective reactions with electrophiles.. Important in many of these processes is the ability to control the formation of quaternary asymmetric centers with high enantiomeric excesses. Using the (DHQD)2AQN (456713) catalyst it is possible to affect the α-functionalization of ketones by the addition of TMSCN to the corresponding cyanohydrin in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess (Scheme 4).6. ...
Communications DOI: 10.1002/anie.201100706 Organocatalysis Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2] Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines: Synthesis of 2,4-Disubstituted Azetidines** Jean-Baptiste Denis, Graldine Masson,* Pascal Retailleau, and Jieping Zhu* Chiral azetidines[1] represent an important class of fourmembered nitrogen heterocycles that have a wide range of synthetic applications,[1-3] remarkable biological activities,[1, 4] and are prevalent in natural products.[1, 5] However, in contrast to the homologous small-ring saturated nitrogen heterocycles such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines, the synthetic approaches to enantiomerically enriched azetidines are few in number and are generally multistep processes.[1, 6, 7] Among the different synthetic routes, the formal [2+2] cycloaddition[8] is certainly one of the most powerful methods for the construction of the strained four-membered ring. However, only a few catalytic enantioselective methods have ...
Quinine was also the first drug used for treatment of malaria.[40] Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures.[41] The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the barks bitter taste, thus producing tonic water.[citation needed] The Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea.[42] Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of ...
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Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Cinchona in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 1 ...
More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills. He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
More than 30 alkaloids are known from the bark of this genus. Formerly, the bark in different forms was used as a drug, but later natural harvesting formed the base of the production of cinchona alkaloids. This industry was carried on principally in Germany, and the Dutch and English cinchona plantations in Java, Ceylon and India were the chief sources whence the raw material was supplied. Its main active principle, quinine is now chemically synthesized. In 1823, Dr. John Sappington of Philadelphia acquired several pounds of quinine and issued Dr. Sappingtons Fever Pills. He persuaded ministers in the Mississippi River Valley to ring the church bells every evening to alert people to take the pills, and through that enterprise, Sappington became a very wealthy man.. By the mid-19th century the Dutch and English began claiming that the South American supply of cinchona was threatened by the non-sustainable cutting practices of the indigenous harvesters. In 1839, William Dawson Hooker, son of ...
Abstract The enantiomers of trans paroxetine the selectand were separated on four chiral stationary phases incorporating either quinine ZWIX, ZWIXA or quinidine ZWIX, ZWIXA and R , R aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA or S , S aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in ZWIX, and ZWIXA chiral selectors. The zwitterion nature of the phases is...
Define china bark. china bark synonyms, china bark pronunciation, china bark translation, English dictionary definition of china bark. n another name for cinchona2 n., pl. -nas. 1. any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Cinchona, of the madder family, native to the Andes, esp.
Quinine inpsired the synthetics Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine and was used traditionally to treat malaria and influenza-type illnesses
This plant originated in the high valleys of the Andes and there are several species found in Bolivia, Colombia and on the slopes of Chimborazo in northern
Ormus Minerals for Natural Nutritional Energy and how it can bless your life and health. What is Ormus? Well it is something that is all around us in the Air, Water, Land and the food we eat. Now with todays technology we have learned how to use it as a Energy Nutrition supplement to help our lives be fuller of Life.
1857 On this day in Fettercairn Scotland, the amateur botanist David Prain was born.. He would ultimately become the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Calcutta and Kew.. In 1887, David was sent to Calcutta to be the curator of the herbarium. While he was there, he researched Indian Hemp along with crops like Wheat, Mustard, Pulses, and Indigo. But, Davids most crucial work involved Cinchona plantations. The bark of Cinchona trees contains quinine, which is used to treat malaria. In Davids obituary, it said that he set up a system with the local post offices to send quinine to every Indian village and undoubtedly saved countless lives.. After David returned to England, he became the director at Kew. During his tenure, David implemented many notable changes. David oversaw the effort to have the medicinal garden installed at Cambridge Cottage, and he acquired the Japanese gateway for the 1910 Japan-British exhibition. In terms of promotional efforts, David also reinstated the Kew ...
These days everybody is making homemade tonic water. Unfortunately, this is quite a tricky job because making tonic water involves using cinchona bark. As you might know, cinchona bark consists of quinine, which is toxic. Bartenders and home bartenders these… ...
Quinine was discovered as a cure for Malaria in 1638 when the wife of the Spanish Viceroy in Peru, the Countess of Cinchona, had fallen violently ill with the disease. Her husband begged the local Incas for an antidote. The Incas instructed her to drink a potion containing the ground bark of the native Quinquina tree, which grew on the slopes of the Andes. The potion worked and she quickly recovered. In her honour, the Spanish renamed the Peruvian tree the Cinchona tree ...
Quina is an extract produced from the bark of Cinchona calisaya, a tree from SouthAmerica that is found between 1,400 meters and 2,800 meters above sea level. Nutramedix utilizes a proprietary extraction and enhancement process that makes this product far more effective than any other cinchona calisaya product available.. Quina is known for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties and is an effective in providing overall immune system support for the body.. $40.00 .... Continue Reading → ...
Description from Flora of China. Kinkina Adanson; Quinquina Boehmer.. Shrubs or usually trees, unarmed; buds flattened with stipules erect and pressed together; bark usually notably bitter. Raphides absent. Leaves opposite, decussate, usually with well-developed domatia; stipules caducous, interpetiolar or shortly united around stem, ligulate to obovate, entire. Inflorescences terminal and often also in axils of uppermost leaves, cymose to paniculiform, many flowered, pedunculate, bracteate. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, fragrant, usually distylous. Calyx limb 5-lobed. Corolla yellow, pink, purple, red, or occasionally white, salverform or funnelform, inside glabrous or pubescent in throat, with tube often weakly 5-ridged outside; lobes 5, valvate in bud, with margins densely ciliate to villous. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla tube, included to partially exserted; filaments short to developed, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed. Ovary 2-celled, ovules many in each cell on axile placentas; stigma ...
Musset Rene. Larbre a quinquina : son ecologie ; etat de la culture. In: Annales de Geographie, t. 51, n°285, 1942. pp. 64-67 ...
EYES AND VISION : Sand in eyes :- Am-br., Am-m., Ang., Ars., Apis, Apoc., Asc-t., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Berb., Bry., Cann-s., Carb-v., Caust., Chel., Chin., Chin-m., Chlol., Cob., Con., Cor-r., Dig., Elaps, Euph., Euphr., Fago., Ferr., Fl-ac., Form., Gast., Grat., H m., Hep., Hura, Ign., Jac., Kali-bi., Kali-m., Kali-p., Lach., Led., Lith., Luna, Lyc., Med., Merc., Myric., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nit-ac., Op., Ox-ac., P on., Peti., Petr., Phos-ac., Phos., Phyt., Pic-ac., Plat., Psor., Puls., Rad., Rhod., Rhus-t., Rhus-v., Sep., Sil., Sol-n., Spig., Stram., Sulph., Syph., Tarent., Thuj., Upas, Urt-u., Vib., Xanth., Zinc., Zing ...
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Studies in Malaria, with special reference to treatment. Part XI: The Cinchona alkaloids in the treatment of benign tertian malaria. Indian Journal of Medical Research 16: 725-746. ...
Zheng SQ, Schienebeck CM, Zhang W, Wang HY, Tang WP. Cinchona Alkaloids as Organocatalysts in Enantioselective Halofunctionalization of Alkenes and Alkynes. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2014 ;3:366-376. ...
Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
Tonic water bottle in UV light. Tonic water contains quinine which fluoresces in ultraviolet (UV) light. Quinine is a plant alkaloid obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree. It has numerous medicinal properties, including an effective treatment against malaria. Quinine is added to soft drinks for its bitter flavour. - Stock Image C004/1306
The mosquito-borne disease was a prevalent problem among the growing British population of India, the country then known as the crown jewel of the British Empire. During the 1800s, South America was exporting massive amounts of cinchona bark to Europe for malarial treatment, and it was invaluable to English colonial efforts. Like a lot of medicine, quinine didnt taste great. British soldiers made it more palatable by mixing it with sugar and water. Tonic water (or Indian tonic water as it was called) was still a little unpleasant by itself, until an enterprising Brit mixed it with the standard gin ration soldiers received. Interestingly, all of the basic ingredients of the G+T had some root in medicine. Jenever was originally brewed for treatment of various ailments, while limes were used by the British to treat scurvy. Today there are far more effective malaria treatments than quinine, and scurvy isnt much of a concern anymore, so telling your boss youre day drinking at work for health ...
Original - balanced, fragrant and flavorful- and ruby red.. Spiced- double the amount of spice of the Original recipe, this one is perfect with bourbon and makes an excellent champagne cocktail.. Citrus - organic lemon, lime, bitter and sweet orange zests and oils create a mellower tonic that is the most refreshing.. Extra Bitter - double the amount of cinchona bark, with only half the agave for a bolder flavor that is both classic and inspiring!. ...
Symmetry Tonics are made from whole botanicals, with quinine extracted from cinchona bark. They are bottled in true concentrated form, contain minimal sugar and
Peruvian bark tree or quinine tree, Cinchona officinalis. Handcoloured lithograph by Henry Sowerby from Edward Hamiltons Flora Homeopathica, Bailliere, London,... ...
The editor of N + 1, writing these lines, there is a school friend who is married to a native from West Africa. A few years ago, a caring mother-in-law sent a young family in a packet of Cinchona bark: useful in case of malaria. The reason to use the bark, of course, didnt say, but in the spring of 2020 the couple realized that nothing used to make fun of the seemingly meaningless gift. This spring, finding themselves unarmed before the new virus, ...
The editor of N + 1, writing these lines, there is a school friend who is married to a native from West Africa. A few years ago, a caring mother-in-law sent a young family in a packet of Cinchona bark: useful in case of malaria. The reason to use the bark, of course, didnt say, but in the spring of 2020 the couple realized that nothing used to make fun of the seemingly meaningless gift. This spring, finding themselves unarmed before the new virus, ...
WALL, JOHN (1708-1776), physician, born at Powick, Worcestershire, in 1708, was the son of John Wall, a tradesman of Worcester city. He was educated at Worcester grammar school, matriculated from Worcester College, Oxford, on 23 June 1726, graduated B.A. in 1730, and migrated to Merton College, where he was elected fellow in 1735, and whence he took the degrees of M.A. and M.B. in 1736, and of M.D. in 1759. After taking his M.B. degree he began practice as a physician in Worcester, and there continued till his death. In 1744 he wrote an essay (Philosophical Transactions, No. 474, p. 213) on the use of musk in the treatment of the hiccough, of fevers, and in some other cases of spasm. In 1747 he sent a paper to the Royal Society on the Use of Bark in Smallpox (ib. No. 484, p. 583). When cinchona bark was first used its obvious and immediate effect in malarial fever led to the opinion that it had great and unknown powers, and must be used with extreme caution, and this essay is one of a long ...
Nizagara - Translated, with some additional by since tlie cinchona harks came into general use as febrifuges, such anotlier signal victory over disease has been recorded in the annals of medicine.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C6A3U0 (IDI2_THESM), Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase. Thermococcus sibiricus (strain DSM 12597 / MM 739)
Ascocoryne sarcoides is an endophytic filamentous fungus isolated from Northern Patagonia that can produce petroleum-like fuel compounds directly from cellulose (Strobel et al., 2008). The aim of this project was to study volatile organic compound production by A. sarcoides. The project is different from many other cellulosic biofuel projects that explore alcohol production from pre-treated biomass fermentation. It focuses on the ability of A. sarcoides to convert cellulose and related simple sugars to fuel-related hydrocarbons. The influence of environmental conditions on the growth characteristics and compounds produced from normal metabolic processes was explored. Quantification of volatile production from growth on glucose showed the major compounds were ethanol and acetaldehyde, with the remainder of volatiles near 2 ppm from a continuously aerated culture. These volatiles included compounds of fuel-interest such as benzaldehyde, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol and 1-butanol, 3-methyl-. Notable ...
Download the product note.. Biotage®PS-HOBt(HL) is a sulfonamide-linked, polymer supported equivalent of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt). PS-HOBt(HL) is used to generate bound HOBt active esters, which can either be made and used in situ, or isolated and stored as stable intermediates. Treatment of bound HOBt esters with an amine leads to amide formation in generally high purity without the need for further purification.. To date, the recommended procedure for loading PS-HOBt has required PyBroP as the coupling agent. We have developed an improved loading procedure based on the use of diisopropylcarbodiimide and DMAP. The new procedure has proven to be much more reliable, efficient, and cost effective. It requires fewer equivalents of carboxylic acid and does not require a double coupling as is the case when PyBroP is used.. Polymer-supported active esters offer some unique advantages for parallel amide synthesis. The polymer-supported active esters of PS-HOBt(HL) can be prepared using the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide. AU - Hulce, Martin. AU - Marks, David W.. PY - 2001/1. Y1 - 2001/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0002919755&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0002919755&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1021/ed078p66. DO - 10.1021/ed078p66. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0002919755. VL - 78. SP - 66. EP - 67. JO - Journal of Chemical Education. JF - Journal of Chemical Education. SN - 0021-9584. IS - 1. ER - ...
Phase-Transfer Catalysis: Fundamentals, Applications, and Industrial Perspectives by Starks, Charles and Starks, C. M. and Halper, M. available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and revProvides an introduction to the fundamentals of PTC as a synthetic organic chemistry technique,...
A polymer-supported ligand capable of simultaneous anion and cation binding is reported along with X-ray crystallographic data showing potential binding modes.
Northwestern Medicine collaborated with international colleagues in a study that identified two dozen new genes linked to lupus after analyzing genetic samples from over 27,000 individuals across the globe.. The study, published in Nature Communications, was co-authored by Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, MD, DrPH, the Solovy/Arthritis Research Society Research Professor of Medicine in the Division of Rheumatology, part of a group of authors from more than 70 universities.. These new observations will help direct future research to better diagnose and treat the disease while also providing insights into why lupus disproportionately affects certain ethnicities at higher rates and more severely, said Ramsey-Goldman, also a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Center Cancer and Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute.. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women during their childbearing years, and is more common in ...
Updating probabilistic belief matrices as new observations arrive, in the presence of noise, is a critical part of many algorithms for target tracking in s
Cinchona bark, a source of quinine, was the first known treatment for malaria and other tropical diseases. These plans were ... "Cinchona". Agridept.gov.lk. Government of Sri Lanka. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009. A. ... "Cinchona". Agridept.gov.lk. Government of Sri Lanka. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009. ... The idea of introducing cinchona to India was first made in 1813, by W. Ainslie, and, years later, in 1839, John Forbes Royle ...
1918). "Cinchona". The Dispensatory of the United States of America. "Bitter orange". National Center for Complementary and ... quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove. Chemical compounds in plants ...
Government Cinchona nursery. "Obituary". Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Chemistry. Proceedings; Royal ... Hooper, David (1889). "Cinchona cultivation in India". Pharmaceutical Record. IX: 296-299. Retrieved July 17, 2015. "KITLV ... Actual manufacturing operations did not therefore begin until 1875." Wood was succeeded at the Rungbee cinchona plantations in ... King, George (1880). A Manual of Cinchona Cultivation in India. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. ...
Arrangement of cracks and wrinkles in case of stem bark of varieties of Cinchona bark, or the color of ALOE can separate in ... They are used as medicine for human being and animal, internally and externally for curing disease, e.g., Senna and Cinchona. A ...
from Cinchona calisaya." Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina 18.1 (2016). Fan, Xin-Lei, et al. "Diaporthe rostrata, a novel ...
Cinchona Macrocneumum Vand. = Remijia Quinquina Boehm. = Cinchona "World Checklist of Rubiaceae". Retrieved 19 October 2016. ... Currently accepted names Ciliosemina Antonelli (2 sp) Cinchona L. (24 sp) Cinchonopsis L.Andersson (1 sp) Joosia H.Karst. (12 ...
... , also known as cinchona bark, Peruvian bark or China bark, is a former remedy for malaria, as the bark contains ... Under the pseudonym of Antimus Conygius, Fabri wrote in 1655 the first paper on cinchona published in Italy, as well as the ... The bark of several species of the genus Cinchona, family Rubiaceae indigenous to the western Andes of South America, was ... The celebrated Jesuit theologian John de Lugo, who became a cardinal in 1643, learned about the cinchona from Tafur, and ...
... cinchono-fulvic acid or cinchona red. Cinchona Bark (Cortex Cinchonae). Part 3 Cinchonaceae on chestofbooks.com Quinine on www. ... Cinchotannic acid is a tannin contained in many cinchona barks, which by oxidation rapidly yields a dark-coloured phlobaphene ...
Cinchona L. Klossia Ridl. Knoxia L. Kochummenia K.M.Wong Koehneago Kuntze = Hoffmannia Sw. Kohautia Cham. & Schltdl. Kotchubaea ... Ciliosemina Antonelli Cinchona L. Cinchonopsis L.Andersson Cladoceras Bremek. Clarkella Hook.f. Clavenna Neck. ex Standl. = ... Cinchona L. Rachicallis DC. Ramosmania Tirveng. & Verdc. Ramspekia Scop. = Posoqueria Aubl. Randia L. Raritebe Wernham Ravnia ...
U. S. Cinchona, Cinch. [Peruvian Bark, Yellow Peruvian Bark]. Cinchona Rubra, Red Cinchona. , Henriette's Herbal Homepage ... 1658 at the Plantin Press Political writings upholding the rights of the House of Austria and Burgundy against France Cinchona ...
Campbell also attempted to grow the first few samples of Cinchona brought to India from Kew in 1834 by Robert Fortune. These ... "Introduction of Cinchona to India". Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). 1931 (3): 113-117. 1931 ... introduction of tea cultivation in Darjeeling and for playing a role in the early experiments on the cultivation of Cinchona. ...
McIvor received cinchona plants in 1861 that had been brought from South America by Clements Markham. The first set of plants ... King, George (1880). A manual of Cinchona cultivation in India (2 ed.). Calcutta: Government Press. pp. 16-27. Van Gorkom, ... McIvor, William Graham (1863). Notes on the propagation and cultivation of the medicinal Cinchonas or Peruvian Bark Trees. ... William Graham McIvor (1824 - 8 June 1876) was a Scottish gardener and superintendent of the Neilgherry Cinchona plantations in ...
Cinchona is the national tree of Ecuador and Peru. The International Coffee Day is held each year on September 29. Alberta ... The bark of trees in the genus Cinchona is the source of a variety of alkaloids, the most familiar of which is quinine, one of ... Economically important species include Coffea, the source of coffee, Cinchona, the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine ... Cinchona, Nauclea), lianas (e.g. Psychotria samoritourei), or herbs (e.g. Galium, Spermacoce). Some epiphytes are also present ...
Was partially destroyed by the 2009 Cinchona earthquake, reconstruction took five years and was concluded on 2014. Among the ... "Una ruta vital para Cinchona". 23 November 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2019. Fernández, Tatiana (22 March 2014). "Carretera ... revive desarrollo económico en Cinchona". Retrieved 16 September 2019. Recio, Patricia (17 January 2014). "Finaliza ...
The cinchona alkaloids, certain oligopeptides. Synthetic catalysts derived from biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding catalysts, ...
Henry Wheatley, Director, Cinchona Department, Madras. Alfred Arthur Williams, Indian Civil Service, Deputy Commissioner, ...
A Cinchona C. acuminata (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. ex Lam. S [ = Hillia parasitica Jacq. ] A C. acutifolia Ruiz & Pav. S [ = ...
The larvae feed on Cinchona pubescens. Ghana "Antarches tessmanni". Afro Moths. Retrieved 1 January 2017. CS1 maint: ...
Mungpoo Government Cinchona Plantation Hospital is located below Nali Dara (which is the central meeting place of the whole ... The Directorate of Cinchona and Other Medicinal Plants started functioning in Darjeeling in 1862, initially for growing ... "Mungpoo Cinchona Plantation - a brief history". Mungpoo News, 14 August 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged ... According to the 2011 Census of India, Mangpu Cinchona Plantation had a total population of 25,000 1,109 (49%) were males and ( ...
... the indigenous people extracted the bark of the Cinchona tree (Cinchona officinalis) and used the extract to fight chills and ... Fern K (2010-2020). "Cinchona officinalis - L." Plans for a Future. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 2 ...
He did much to improve the garden, and introduced valuable medicinal plants, especially cinchona and ipecacuanha: to him is due ... He was married to Elizabeth Cleghorn (1830-1914). Anderson, F.T. (1916). "The Introduction of Cinchona Trees into India". The ...
China - made with bark of Cinchona calisaya. The oldest and most popular brand is China Martini, based in Turin. Rabarbaro - ... Herbs used for flavouring may include any of the following: gentian, angelica, cardoon, cinchona (china), lemon balm (melissa ...
Examples include cinchona alkaloids and certain phosphoramidites. P-Chiral monophosphines have also been investigated. Chiral ...
Holdridge participated in the Cinchona Missions, a United States effort to search for natural sources of quinine during World ... Steere, W. (1945). The Cinchona-Bark Industry of South America. The Scientific Monthly, 61(2), 114-126. Retrieved from http:// ...
Retrieved 15 August 2012.[permanent dead link] "A short history of Cinchona". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the ...
Sappington began importing cinchona bark from Peru in 1820. In 1832, using quinine derived from the cinchona bark, Sappington ... The Spanish had observed the Quechua's use of cinchona and were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s ... The US had obtained four million cinchona seeds from the Philippines and began operating cinchona plantations in Costa Rica. ... Additionally, they began harvesting wild cinchona bark during the Cinchona Missions. Such supplies came too late. Tens of ...
1949 - A Critical Review of the Basic Facts in the History of Cinchona, published on dec. 23, 2008 in Botanical Journal of The ... Jaramillo Arango, Jaime (December 11, 1947). Basic Facts in the History of Cinchona (PDF). p. 272. "Diario oficial, decreto N° ...
Traditionally quinquinas contain cinchona bark, which provides quinine. Quinine was used in treating malaria. Americano is ...
... Cinchona Plantation Hospital functions with 16 beds. "District Census Handbook, Darjeeling, Series 20, Part XII A, 2011 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bista push on Cinchona wing". Kalimpong News, 13 September 2019. Retrieved 5 April ... According to some political leaders, Cinchona plantations are no longer profitable because of competition from abroad. ...
Espejo divided his cinchona study into four parts. In the first, he argued that the monopoly would leave workers without jobs ... In the fourth part he made recommendations, such as the need to repress indigenous hostility in the cinchona tree region. His ... and that the Crown should designate officials to regulate the proper cultivation of the cinchona tree, including reforestation ... and that it would mean the loss of capital invested in cinchona trees. In the second part, he made a number of suggestions, ...
Cinchona,, genus of about 40 species of plants, mostly trees, in the madder family (Rubiaceae), native to the Andes of South ... Cinchona nitida. W.H. Hodge. Four species of Cinchona were cultivated for many years, primarily in Java and also in India and ... More About Cinchona. 5 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *economy of Java* In Java: Economy ... Cinchona, genus of about 40 species of plants, mostly trees, in the madder family (Rubiaceae), native to the Andes of South ...
Cinchona mutisii Lamb. Cinchona nitida Ruiz & Pav. Cinchona officinalis L. Cinchona parabolica Pav. in J.E.Howard Cinchona ... Cinchona barbacoensis H.Karst. Cinchona calisaya Wedd. Cinchona capuli L.Andersson Cinchona fruticosa L.Andersson Cinchona ... Cinchona pubescens Vahl Cinchona pyrifolia L.Andersson Cinchona rugosa Pav. in J.E.Howard Cinchona scrobiculata Humb. & Bonpl. ... Cinchona krauseana L.Andersson Cinchona lancifolia Mutis Cinchona lucumifolia Pav. ex Lindl. Cinchona macrocalyx Pav. ex DC. ...
In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. Cinchona alkaloids can be ... Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. Several generations of O- ... In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer ... With such a dimeric cinchona alkaloid (06542), enantioselectivity for the above mentioned glycine imine alkylation was ...
Genus: Cinchona Species: C. anderssonii - C. antioquiae - C. asperifolia - C. barbacoensis - C. calisaya - C. capuli - C. ... Type species: Cinchona officinalis L., Sp. Pl. !: 172. (1753). Synonyms[edit]. *Heterotypic *Quinquina Boehm. in C.G.Ludwig, ... Cinchona in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on ... Cinchona . Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 1. ...
Cinchona pubescens, also known as red cinchona and quina (Quechua) ((in Spanish) Cascarilla, cinchona; (in Portuguese) quina-do ... "Cinchona pubescens Vahl". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 11 ... Botánica de las Cinchonas. Pages 29-55 in M. Acosta Solis, editor. Flora. Instituto Ecuadoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito. ... It is known as a medicinal plant for its barks high quinine content- and has similar uses to Cinchona officinalis in the ...
Cinchona species Cinchona officinalis Name. Synonyms. Cascarilla officinalis (L.) Ruiz. Cinchona academica Guibourt. Cinchona ... Cinchona chahuarguera Pav.. Cinchona chahuraguera Pav.. Cinchona chahuraguera Pav. ex DC.. Cinchona coccinea Pav. ex DC.. ... Cinchona crispa Tafalla. Cinchona crispa Tafalla ex Howard. Cinchona cucumifolia Pav.. Cinchona cucumifolia Pav. ex Lamb.. ... Cinchona colorata Lambert. Cinchona condaminea Humb. & Bonpl.. Cinchona condaminea var. chahuarguera Pav.. Cinchona condaminea ...
cinchona tree synonyms, cinchona tree pronunciation, cinchona tree translation, English dictionary definition of cinchona tree ... Noun 1. cinchona tree - small tree of Ecuador and Peru having very large glossy leaves and large panicles of fragrant pink ... Cinchona pubescens. genus Chinchona, genus Cinchona - large genus of trees of Andean region of South America having medicinal ... Cinchona tree - definition of cinchona tree by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/cinchona+tree ...
Cinchona Alkaloids. By: William Sommer and Daniel Weibel, Aldrich ChemFiles 2008, 8.2, 74. ... Cinchona alkaloids therefore can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ... Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins.4 The ... Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high ...
The Cinchona Tree. The cinchona tree has smooth evergreen leaves and clusters of deliciously scented lilac-like, cream colored ... Circles of Other Cinchona Stories. The very seeds that Charles Ledger and his servant smuggled out of Peru to Java, ended up ... As for the name of Cinchona?-- it came along almost a hundred years later, when Linnaeus, gave the genus of quinine-producing ... Many years later, it was the seeds that had been spirited away to Java that would provide the new seeds to restore Cinchona ...
Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis - Generalities symptoms China, Peruvian Bark, Chinchona, China Officinalis, Cinchona Officinalis ... HPUS indication of Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis: Debility. Common symptoms: Debility, Diarrhea, Chills, Exhaustion, Fever, ... Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis. General Modalities Etc Relationships Mind Head Vertigo, Dizziness Eyes Ears Nose Face Mouth ...
Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2011. Flora of China (Curcurbitaceae through Valerianaceae with Annonaceae and Berberidaceae). 19: 1-884. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis ...
Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis - Head symptoms China, Peruvian Bark, Chinchona, China Officinalis, Cinchona Officinalis Chin.. ... HPUS indication of Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis: Debility. Common symptoms: Debility, Diarrhea, Chills, Exhaustion, Fever, ...
Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis uses as a homeopathic remedy. China - FEVER AND CHILL indications (symptoms) from 12 materia ... Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis - Fever And Chill symptoms China, Peruvian Bark, Chinchona, China Officinalis, Cinchona ... HPUS indication of Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis: Debility. Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on the basis that in a tiny ... dilution like cures like, so while very dilute Cinchona ( China ) Officinalis may help, unprocessed China may be best avoided. ...
Get Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Cinchona Linn. 金鸡纳属 Description from Flora of China. Kinkina Adanson; Quinquina Boehmer.. Shrubs or usually trees, unarmed; ... Cinchona officinalis (Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 172. 1753; 歫鸨纱栔 zheng ji na shu) is native to South America (Ecuador) and perhaps ... Cinchona is native to South America, where its species are not all well differentiated, are morphologically variable, and ... Cinchona was recently monographed by Andersson (Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 80: 1-75. 1998), followed here, who clarified the ...
Cinchona Succirubra indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names ... Cinchona Succirubra China Succirubra - Holis Laboratoires. Venustas Antiforfora - BPR International Cinchona Succirubra. ... Cinchona Succirubra. Arsenicum Album. Podophyllum Peltatum Diaralia - Boiron Cinchona Succirubra. Arsenicum Iodatum. Calcarea ... "Cinchona Succirubra". Indications and usages ATC and ICD codes:. ATC codes: N / A. ICD-10 codes: N / A. Alphabetical lists of ...
Phylogeny predicts the quantity of antimalarial alkaloids within the iconic yellow Cinchona bark (Rubiaceae: Cinchona calisaya) ... We will argue that during the interwar period, the Cinchona Bureau became the decision-making center of this Dutch cinchona- ... I follow the historical trajectory of the production and distribution of the anti-febrifuge cinchona bark tree (Cinchona ... Highlights: • Cinchona alkaloid-terpyridine derivatives and metal complexes were prepared. • Cinchona alkaloid-terpyridine ...
The Peruvian bark tree, also known as the Jesuit Tree or the fever tree, is a cinchona1 of the family Rubiaceae, native to the ... Many of the coveted cinchona seeds cling to twigs to the right of the flowers. A small branch in the upper right corner ... After the Jesuits learned about cinchona and brought it to Europe, its bark was widely used there to treat fevers starting in ... Breedlove, B., & Arguin, P. M. (2015). Portrait of the Coveted Cinchona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1280-1281. https ...
... reactions of dodecanethiol with β-substituted phenyl vinyl ketones were studied using polymeric and monomeric cinchona ... On the C(3)-Control of Stereochemistry in Asymmetric Reactions Catalyzed by Polymeric Cinchona Alkaloids. *Norio Kobayashi1. & ... On the C(3)-Control of Stereochemistry in Asymmetric Reactions Catalyzed by Polymeric Cinchona Alkaloids. Polym J 13, 263-271 ( ... On the C(3)-Control of Stereochemistry in Asymmetric Reactions Catalyzed by Polymeric Cinchona Alkaloids ...
Abstract Cinchona officinalis Ledgeriana, former called Cinchona ledgeriana, hairy roots were initiated containing ... Pharmacognostic and Physico chemical standardization of Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. *Firdoous Ahmad Mir, Zakir Hussain Khanday ... Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. is commonly known as Crown bark in English belongs to family Rubiaceae. Stem bark of C. ... Cinchona officinalis (Rubiaceae) is an endemic species of the Loja Valley in southern Ecuador with medicinal uses. Because of… ...
More Photographs - Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. End of More Photographs - Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. ... Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. by TerraVita. 1 oz. More Photographs below.. *Reduces digestion, nervousness, affliction, ... Quinine Bark - Red Cinchona (powder) Exactly what I wanted. -- Scott -- December 29, 2008 ... All cinchonas are indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Amazonian area of the Andes, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 meters ...
More Photographs - Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. End of More Photographs - Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. ... Ive bought powdered cinchona from different places. This product is top quality cinchona. I have been successful using it for ... Quinine Bark (Red Cinchona) Powder. by TerraVita. 4 oz. More Photographs below.. *Relieves anxiousness, anxiety, fever, ... Cinchona Bark I am pleased with the large quantity of quality product I received. I was able to make a terrific do-it-yourself ...
H.J.v.d. Meulen, Multiplant Holding B.V. (Maarssen), for kindly providing us with Cinchona ledgeriana Moens seeds. Financial ... These results indicate that in young Cinchona plants the alkaloids are mainly synthesized in the axial extremities of the plant ... Keene, A.T., Anderson, L.A., Phillipson, J.D. (1983) Investigation of Cinchona leaf alkaloids by high-performance liquid ... Klein Horsman-Relijk, J. (1960) Onderzoek naar de biosynthese van enkele alkaloïden in Cinchona succirubra P. Thesis, ...
MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. ... is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps ... Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and ... Keywords: Cinchona alkaloids; Soxhlet; microwave; extraction; HPLC Cinchona alkaloids; Soxhlet; microwave; extraction; HPLC ...
N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts W. Li, Y. Wang and D. ... Asymmetric synthesis of β-amino ketones by using cinchona alkaloid-based chiral phase transfer catalysts ... N-quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with ...
... and the Cinchona officinalis of Linnæus by J. M. Walker; 1 edition; First published in 1803; Subjects: Cinchona, Dogwood ... An experimental enquiry into the similarity in virtue between the Comus florida and Sericea, and the Cinchona officinalis of ... An experimental enquiry into the similarity in virtue between the Comus florida and Sericea, and the Cinchona officinalis of ... and the Cinchona officinalis of Linnæus ,publication-date = 1803 }}. ...
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ALSO KNOWN AS: Cinchona Bark, Fever Tree, Jesuits Bark, Peruvian Bark, Quina-Quina, Red Cinchona. ... Cinchona is used worldwide to ease gas, bloating and other digestive discomforts. The South American bark strengthens stomach ... In Peru, Brazil and other South American cultures, Cinchona is a well-respected herb for promoting intestinal cleansing, ... Cinchona Bark (red). Cinchona succirubra. HB100605. Cinchona Bark (red). Cinchona succirubra. HB060105. Cinchona Bark (red). ...
For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated ... Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16 and ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ... A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and ...
  • Cinchona , genus of about 40 species of plants, mostly trees, in the madder family (Rubiaceae), native to the Andes of South America. (britannica.com)
  • Cinchona (pronounced /sɪŋˈkoʊnə/ or /sɪnˈtʃoʊnə/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cinchona plants belong to the family Rubiaceae and are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5 to 15 m (16 to 49 ft) in height. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Peruvian bark tree, also known as the Jesuit Tree or the fever tree, is a cinchona 1 of the family Rubiaceae, native to the western forests of the South American Andes. (cdc.gov)
  • Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. is commonly known as Crown bark in English belongs to family Rubiaceae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro germination and shoot proliferation of the threatened species Cinchona officinalis L (Rubiaceae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cinchona officinalis (Rubiaceae) is an endemic species of the Loja Valley in southern Ecuador with medicinal uses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Quinas" were composed by different plant species belonging to Cinchona or Remijia genius (Rubiaceae). (mdpi.com)
  • chĭngkō`nə) , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona is a genus of tropical evergreen trees and shrubs, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. (niir.org)
  • Plants belonging to the genus Cinchona L. ( Rubiaceae ), whose active ingredient is quinine , was used for centuries to treat malaria . (bvsalud.org)
  • Las plantas pertenecientes al género Cinchona L. ( familia Rubiaceae ), cuyo principio activo es la quinina , fueron utilizadas durante siglos para tratar la malaria . (bvsalud.org)
  • One of the most invasive species in Galapagos Islands is the red quinine tree, Cinchona pubescens Vahl (Rubiaceae). (springer.com)
  • Andersson L (1998) A revision of the Genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae), Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, vol 80. (springer.com)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aimed to the identification, quantification of quinine and other metabolites present in extracts of different polarity of the stems of Cinchona pubescens Vahl. (bvsalud.org)
  • El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la identificación y, cuantificación de la quinina y de otros metabolitos presentes en los extractos de diferente polaridad, de los tallos de Cinchona pubescens Vahl. (bvsalud.org)
  • Buddenhagen C, Yánez P (2005) The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • Jäger H, Kowarik I (2010) Resilience of native plant community following manual control of invasive Cinchona pubescens in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • Jäger H, Tye A, Kowarik I (2007) Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: impacts of quinine ( Cinchona pubescens ) trees on native vegetation in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • the national tree of Peru is in the genus Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carl Linnaeus described the genus based on the species Cinchona officinalis, which is found only in a small region of Ecuador and is of little medicinal significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The febrifugal properties of bark from trees now known to be in the genus Cinchona were used by many South American cultures prior to European contact, but malaria is an Old World disease that was introduced into the Americas by Europeans only after 1492. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Cinchona contains about forty species of trees. (zooscape.com)
  • Many species of cinchona (genus Cinchona) have been described. (accessscience.com)
  • 1. any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Cinchona, of the madder family, native to the Andes, esp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An explosion in demand for quinine among Europeans living in the tropics led naturalists to smuggle Cinchona seeds from South America to plantations in Asia in the 1850s and '60s and to conduct intensive research leading to new high-yield strains and improved processing methods. (britannica.com)
  • Traditional medicine uses from South America known as Jesuit's bark and Jesuit's powder have been traced to Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • In South America, natural populations of Cinchona species have geographically distinct distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cinchona is native to South America, where its species are not all well differentiated, are morphologically variable, and hybridize freely especially in cultivation, where numerous artificial hybrids have been created. (efloras.org)
  • The antipyretic properties of cinchona barks were known since ancient times in South America, particularly in Peru. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Quinine is the chief alkaloid of cinchona bark (known as 'Fever Bark'), a tree found in South America. (niir.org)
  • The native people of South America knew the medicinal applications of Cinchona before the colonials arrived. (doctorschar.com)
  • Of 38 species of cinchona, four species have economic value for the production of quinine: C. calisaya, C. legeriana, C. officianalis and C. succirubra. (niir.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra and Cinchona ledgeriana. (rupertmallin.info)
  • The list of cosmetic products below is a selection of the most requested cosmetics that contain the ingredient Cinchona Succirubra Extract. (cosmeticanalysis.com)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • U. S. "Red Cinchona Bark is the dried bark of the stem and branches of cultivated plants of Cinchona succirubra, Pav. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona nitida, Cinchona succirubra, Cinchona micrantha, Cinchona peruviana and Cinchona calisaya were major species cultivated in Travancore. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • The name has long been incorrectly used in cultivation for plants treated here as Cinchona calisaya (Andersson, loc. (efloras.org)
  • Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16, and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two C. calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of Bolivia. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Bolivian Cinchona calisaya Wedd. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens, Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, and of hybrids of these with other species of Cinchona (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Anti-diabetic Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Vitex doniana Leaves and Cinchona calisaya Bark in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. (who.int)
  • Ezekwesili C N, Ogbunugafor H A, Ezekwesili-Ofili J O. Anti-diabetic Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Vitex doniana Leaves and Cinchona calisaya Bark in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. (who.int)
  • Vitex doniana Sweet and Cinchona calisaya WEED are tropical medicinal plants endued with important pharmacological properties. (who.int)
  • Cinchona has been historically sought after for its medicinal value, as the bark of several species yields quinine and other alkaloids that were the only effective treatments against malaria during the height of European colonialism, which made them of great economic and political importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The artificial synthesis of quinine in 1944, an increase in resistant forms of malaria, and the emergence of alternate therapies eventually ended large-scale economic interest in cinchona cultivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids show promise in treating falciparum malaria, which has evolved resistance to synthetic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional story connecting cinchona with malaria treatment was first recorded by the Italian physician Sebastiano Bado in 1663. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known as a medicinal plant for its bark's high quinine content- and has similar uses to Cinchona officinalis in the production of quinine, most famously used for treatment of malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocrates found that leaves from the willow plant could reduce headache and muscle pain, which led to the discovery of aspirin, quinine to treat malaria came from the bark of the cinchona tree , and a tea brewed from the fox glove plant relieved dropsy because it contained digitalis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a section on disease, Taylor reveals the truly global links between the forests of Peru-- where the bark of the cinchona tree provided scientists with quinine and protection against malaria--and the story of two Netherlands Indies scientists smuggling the protected cinchona seeds out of Peru. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, she died on board ship (cause unknown, although it could have been malaria) in Cartagena, Columbia en route back to Spain. (hubpages.com)
  • Several species of Cinchona are the natural source of quinine, which has long been used worldwide as a treatment for malaria. (efloras.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids have a long history as being a powerful medicine against malaria. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Identified from barks of Cinchona , quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. (mdpi.com)
  • For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1638, the wife of the Viceroy of Peru, the fourth Count of Chinchon, was afflicted with Malaria and was cured by cinchona. (doctorschar.com)
  • In 1940, Travancore Sree Chithira State Council encouraged cinchona farming in order to resist the Malaria outbreak in the state. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree are thought to have been discovered by the Quechua, indigenous people from Peru and Bolivia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The use of these barks in medicines against "fevers" in Europe in the 17th century made the exploitation of cinchonas of Peru a highly productive process, and those cinchona trees became menaced. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Not long after French scientists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou isolated quinine from cinchona bark in 1820, the governments of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru unsuccessfully attempted to embargo the exportation of cinchona seeds, seedlings, or trees. (cdc.gov)
  • In Peru, Brazil and other South American cultures, Cinchona is a well-respected herb for promoting intestinal cleansing, soothing leg & muscle cramps, supporting heart health, and more! (pennherb.com)
  • Peru is home to 19 of the 24 varieties of cinchona in the world but only one variety is protected by law and cannot be felled. (laprensalatina.com)
  • January 25th, 2014: Cinchona is the national tree of Peru and Ecuador. (mtpr.org)
  • Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high enantiopurity from a very broad range of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Asymmetric reactions of dodecanethiol with β-substituted phenyl vinyl ketones were studied using polymeric and monomeric cinchona alkaloids as chiral catalysts. (nature.com)
  • A highly enantioselective nucleophilic addition of ketones to imines catalyzed by chiral phase-transfer catalysts ( N -quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with tertiary stereocenters in good to high yields (up to 95%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). (rsc.org)
  • Cormac Quigley, 'The design of biofunctional cinchona alkaloid derived catalysts : a new departure', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (rian.ie)
  • In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid catalysts, albeit with relatively low yields. (mdpi.com)
  • Do not take cinchona if you are taking quinidine. (rupertmallin.info)
  • The possible side effects and complications from even moderate use of the two most potent alkaloids of cinchona , quinine and quinidine are as follows: blood disorders such as hypoglycaemia and blood thinning, hepatitis, vertigo, hearing loss, and heart trouble. (healthybenefits.info)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Forestry engineer and cinchona specialist Alejandro Gómez tells Efe that during the pandemic machetes have been used to illegally extract quinine, which causes huge damage to the trees. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Cinchona extract is also applied to the skin for haemorrhoids, stimulating hair growth, and managing varicose veins. (healthybenefits.info)
  • As the technology to extract medicine from the bark of cinchona was developed, the tree was farmed widely all over the world. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • There were factories to extract quinine from cinchona in Travancore. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • Our offered Cinchona Bark is also known as Jesuit's bark or Peruvian bark. (tradeindia.com)
  • Peruvian bark , the bitter bark of trees of various species of Cinchona. (everything2.com)
  • Cinchona, or quinine bark, is one of the rainforest's most famous plants and most important discoveries. (zooscape.com)
  • The resulting hollow particles exhibit fascinating optical activity and enantioselective adsorption capacity towards cinchona alkaloids, in which (+)-cinchonine/(−)-cinchonidine were used as chiral drug models. (rsc.org)
  • The bark and other parts of the cinchona tree contain quinine, cinchonine, and other alkaloids that have antimalarial, tonic, and antiseptic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1820, Pelletier and Caventou isolated quinine and cinchonine from cinchona. (niir.org)
  • Linnaeus used the Italian spelling Cinchona, but the name Chinchón (pronounced [tʃinˈtʃon] in Spanish) led to Clements Markham and others proposing a correction of the spelling to Chinchona, and some prefer the pronunciation /tʃɪnˈtʃoʊnə/ for the common name of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Talbor made a fortune by selling a secret remedy for fevers that consisted of cinchona bark powder mixed in claret wine. (hubpages.com)
  • After that high profile cure, the bark became known as "The Countess Powder" or Cinchona. (doctorschar.com)
  • In foods, cinchona is used as a bitter flavoring in tonic water and alcoholic beverages. (rupertmallin.info)
  • Cinchona is bitter and works well for reducing fevers and also for back pain. (healthybenefits.info)
  • When the bark of the Cinchona tree is peeled back or chipped off, a bitter red liquid seeps out. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • I've chewed a piece of Gentian root before, said to be as bitter as Cinchona bark. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An ion-pair catalyst generated by assembly of a chiral flavinium and a cinchona alkaloid dimer for use in asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation is presented. (elsevier.com)
  • Poudel, PP, Arimitsu, K & Yamamoto, K 2016, ' Self-assembled ion-pair organocatalysis - Asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation mediated by flavinium-cinchona alkaloid dimer ', Chemical Communications , vol. 52, no. 22, pp. 4163-4166. (elsevier.com)
  • A mechanistic rationale for the 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids catalyzed asymmetric reactions via iminium ion activation of enones. (shu.ac.uk)
  • The 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi cinchona alkaloids have expanded the synthetic potential of asymmetric aminocatalysis, enabling the highly stereoselective functionalization of a variety of sterically hindered carbonyl compounds. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have proven to catalyze an astonishing array of enantioselective transformations, providing access to chiral products of high enantiopurity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Experimental procedures for the preparation of two classes of derivatives of the cinchona alkaloids dihydroquinine and dihydroquinidine are described. (elsevier.com)
  • The relation between the total alkaloid content and the activity of strictosidine synthase (EC 4.3.3.2), a key enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, was studied in distinct parts of six-month-old plants of Cinchona ledgeriana Moens. (springer.com)
  • Meulen, Multiplant Holding B.V. (Maarssen), for kindly providing us with Cinchona ledgeriana Moens seeds. (springer.com)
  • However Andersson studied these species in detail cicnhona found that the name Cinchona officinalis actually applies to a species that naturally grows only in a particular region of the Andes of southern Ecuador, and contains at most trace amounts of quinine, or sometimes no quinine at all. (rupertmallin.info)
  • Despite a ban on export, Europeans sent cinchona seeds and seedlings to Java and India, where plantations were established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1862, the then Resident of Travancore F N Maltby started cinchona cultivation in Peerumedu. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • Also the government gave more importance to teak cultivation which in turn reduced cinchona farming and the trees gradually disappeared from here. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • QUININE Indigenous Peruvians used the bark of the cinchona tree to cure fevers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After the Jesuits learned about cinchona and brought it to Europe, its bark was widely used there to treat fevers starting in the 17th century. (cdc.gov)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. (niir.org)
  • In the cinchona bark plantations the trees that are stripped regrow some of their bark and are harvested again before they are felled. (healthybenefits.info)
  • Cinchona trees were found in Nilgiri also. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for cinchona. (rupertmallin.info)
  • High doses of cinchona bark can occupy certain liver enzymes and interact with medicines. (meridianbotanicals.com)
  • A Jesuit priest name Barnabe de Cobo (1582-1657) is generally credited with taking the cinchona bark (aka Jesuits' bark and quinaquina bark ) back to Spain (in 1632) and had it examined and tested in Rome and elsewhere. (hubpages.com)
  • Cinchona is sometimes called Jesuits' bark because of the part the group played in its dispersal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. (worldwidescience.org)
  • All cinchonas are indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Amazonian area of the Andes, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 meters in elevation on either side of the equator (from Colombia to Bolivia). (zooscape.com)
  • The cinchona tree grows to the east of the Andes in the high jungles of the Amazon Basin. (natureandculture.org)
  • Many of the coveted cinchona seeds cling to twigs to the right of the flowers. (cdc.gov)
  • The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Of all of these probably but four with their cultivated hybrids yield the Cinchona Bark of commerce. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The literature of the cinchona hybrids is hopelessly confused by the same name being frequently used by different authorities for the different hybrids and the one hybrid having various names. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • One of the sanctuaries for the cinchona, called cascarilla in Spanish, is La Cascarilla farmhouse, in the Cajamarca region. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Cinchona bark is a very useful herb when dealing with parasites, inflammation, fever, & spasms, especially of the legs. (meridianbotanicals.com)
  • The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). (worldwidescience.org)
  • Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines Synthesis of 2 4-Disubstituted Azetidines. (docme.ru)
  • https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T49839551A176094290.en. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anti-malarial quinine comes from the bark of the Cinchona tree and salicylic acid, the basis of aspirin, is found in willow bark. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • According to sources McLaren, Peru's Environment Minister Antonio Brack has announced he will honour the 'Hey Jude' hitmaker's green campaigning by awarding him the highly respected Order of the Cinchona Tree ahead of the gig. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Legend has it that the name cinchona came from the countess of Chinchon, the wife of a Peruvian viceroy, who experienced support for a malarial type of fever by using the bark of the cinchona tree in 1638. (zooscape.com)
  • The cinchona tree helped to save millions of lives when its bark was used to produce the anti-malarial medication quinine. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Though it has been synthesized in the lab, the bark of the cinchona tree is the only known natural source of quinine. (niir.org)
  • Cinchona officinalis is an evergreen Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. (rupertmallin.info)
  • Quinine was first isolated in 1820 from the bark of a cinchona tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ingredients of this medicine was extracted from cinchona tree, a plant that was commonly found in Kerala. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • Quinine medicine was made from the bark of cinchona tree in the 1820's. (mathrubhumi.com)
  • abstract = "Cinchona alkaloids have been satisfactorily bound via their vinyl groups to crosslinked polymers containing thiol residues. (edu.sa)
  • The Portuguese government aware of the problem searched an alternative in cinchona varieties existing in Brazil. (worldwidescience.org)
  • These results indicate that in young Cinchona plants the alkaloids are mainly synthesized in the axial extremities of the plant and that they are stored at the site of their synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Cinchona is classified in the division Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta , division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In connection with our ongoing project that deals with the catalytic potential of the cinchona-alkaloid-derived amides,[17-19] we became interested in examining the reaction of allenoates with imines in the presence of a chiral tertiary amine catalyst. (docme.ru)
  • An essential role for the achiral acid cocatalyst is uncovered: upon condensation of the cinchona catalyst with the enone, the resulting covalent imine intermediate and the acid interact to build-up a well-structured ion-pair supramolecular catalytic assembly, which is stabilized by multiple attractive noncovalent interactions. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Contains Cinchona Off 3X HPUS, the natural form of Quinine. (wonderlabs.com)
  • Estos resultados motivan los estudios fitoquímicos en la búsqueda de principios activos y análogos estructurales en diferentes especies de Cinchonas como una fuente de nuevos agentes antimaláricos . (bvsalud.org)
  • Four years later, Linne proposed a new name, Cinchona , in honor of the Countess of Chinchon, who first made the bark known in Europe. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. (sigmaaldrich.com)