Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (1/28)1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin. (+info)
Serotonin and NO complementarily regulate generation of oscillatory activity in the olfactory CNS of a terrestrial mollusk. (2/28)Synchronous oscillation of membrane potentials, generated by assemblies of neurons, is a prominent feature in the olfactory systems of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, its generation mechanism is still controversial. Biogenic amines play important roles for mammalian olfactory learning and are also implicated in molluscan olfactory learning. Here, we investigated the role of serotonin, a biogenic amine, in the oscillatory dynamics in the procerebrum (PC), the molluscan olfactory center. Serotonin receptor blockers inhibited the spontaneous synchronous oscillatory activity of low frequency (approximately 0.5 Hz) in the PC. This was due to diminishing the periodic slow oscillation of membrane potential in bursting (B) neurons, which are essential neuronal elements for the synchronous oscillation in the PC. On the other hand, serotonin enhanced the amplitude of the slow oscillation in B neurons and subsequently increased the number of spikes in each oscillatory cycle. These results show that the extracellular serotonin level regulates the oscillation amplitude in B neurons and thus serotonin may be called an oscillation generator in the PC. Although nitric oxide (NO) is known to also be a crucial factor for generating the PC oscillatory activity and setting the PC oscillation frequency, the present study showed that NO only regulates the oscillation frequency in B neurons but could not increase the spikes in each oscillatory cycle. These results suggest complementary regulation of the PC oscillatory activity: NO determines the probability of occurrence of slow potentials in B neurons, whereas serotonin regulates the amplitude in each cycle of the oscillatory activity in B neurons. (+info)
Quantification of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates using [(123)I]ADAM and SPECT. (3/28)We reported recently a highly selective radioligand, 2-([2-([dimethylamino]methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-[(123)I]iodophenylamine (ADAM), for SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters (SERT). In this article we describe the kinetic modeling of [(123)I]ADAM and its ability to quantitatively and reproducibly measure the concentrations of SERT in the nonhuman primate brain. We also investigate simplified models of tracer behavior that do not require invasive arterial blood sampling. METHODS: Three female baboons each underwent 3 [(123)I]ADAM SPECT studies. The studies consisted of a dynamic sequence of seventy-two 5-min scans after injection of 330 +/- 50 MBq (mean +/- SD) [(123)I]ADAM. Rapid arterial blood samples were obtained and corrected for the presence of labeled metabolites. Dynamic imaging and metabolite-corrected plasma data were analyzed using graphic analysis to give the distribution volumes (DVs) of different brain regions. DV ratios (DVRs) of target to cerebellum were derived and compared against a kinetic reference tissue model and simple target-to-background ratio. RESULTS: Averaged over all 9 scans, the mean DV in the midbrain was 4.86 +/- 1.06 mL/mL and the mean DV in the cerebellum was 2.25 +/- 0.48 mL/mL. The mean test-retest repeatability of the midbrain DV was 14.5%. The reference tissue model gave a mean midbrain DVR of 2.01 +/- 0.17 and correlated strongly with the DVR calculated from the full kinetic model (correlation coefficient [R(2)] = 0.94; P < 0.001), but with much improved repeatability (test-retest, 5.4%; intersubject variability, 5.2%). Similarly, the simple ratio method gave strong correlations with the full kinetic model (R(2) = 0.89; P < 0.001) and a test-retest of 7.6%. CONCLUSION: Accurate, repeatable quantification of SERT in the nonhuman primate brain is possible using kinetic modeling of dynamic [(123)I]ADAM SPECT scans. Simplified models, which do not require arterial blood sampling, gave accurate results that correlated strongly with the full kinetic model. The test-retest reliability of the simplified reference region models was excellent. Quantification of SERT is possible using full kinetic modeling and also with simpler reference region methods. (+info)
Specific binding sites for 5-hydroxytryptamine on rat blood platelets. (4/28)5-Hydroxytryptamine changes the shape of rat blood platelets by combination with a cinanserin-sensitive receptor which is not associated with the active uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Binding of 5-hydroxy[3H]tryptamine to platelets at 4 degrees C demonstrates the presence of three saturable sites, and the highest-affinity site is apparently this 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor. (+info)
Serotonergic control of cerebellar mossy fiber activity by modulation of signal transfer by rat pontine nuclei neurons. (5/28)Serotonergic modulation of precerebellar nuclei may be crucial for the function of the entire cerebellar system. To study the effects of serotonin (5-HT) on neurons located within the pontine nuclei (PN), the main source of cerebellar mossy fibers, we performed standard intracellular recordings from PN neurons in a slice preparation of the rat pontine brain stem. Application of 5 microM 5-HT significantly altered several intrinsic membrane properties of PN neurons. First, it depolarized the somatic membrane potential by 6.5 +/- 3.5 mV and increased the apparent input resistance from 49.5 +/- 14.6 to 62.7 +/- 21.1 MOmega. Second, 5-HT altered the I-V relationship of PN neurons: it decreased the inward rectification in hyperpolarizing direction, but increased it when depolarizing currents were applied. Third, it decreased the rheobase from 0.32 +/- 0.14 to 0.24 +/- 0.14 nA without affecting the firing threshold. Finally, the amplitude of medium-duration after hyperpolarizations was reduced from -14.9 +/- 2.0 to -12.3 +/- 2.4 mV. Together, these 5-HT effects on the intrinsic membrane properties result in an increase in excitability and instantaneous firing rate. In addition, application of 5 microM 5-HT also modulated postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by electric stimulations within the cerebral peduncle. The amplitude, maximal slope, and integral of these PSPs were reduced to 46.2 +/- 23.4%, 45.7 +/- 23.7%, and 61.4 +/- 28.4% of the control value, respectively. In contrast, we found no change in the decay and voltage dependence of PSPs. To test modulatory effects on short-term synaptic facilitation, we applied pairs of electrical stimuli at intervals between 10 and 1,000 ms. 5-HT selectively enhanced the paired-pulse facilitation for interstimulus-intervals >20 ms. The alteration of paired-pulse facilitation points to a presynaptic site of action for 5-HT effects on synaptic transmission. Pharmacological experiments suggested that pre- and postsynaptic effects of 5-HT were mediated by two different kinds of 5-HT receptors: changes in intrinsic membrane properties were blocked by the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist cinanserin while the reduction of PSPs was prevented by the 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist cyanopindolol. In conclusion, 5-HT increases the excitability of PN neurons but decreases the synaptic transmission on them. The selective enhancement of synaptic facilitation may, however, allow high-frequency inputs to effectively drive PN neurons, thus the PN may act as a high-pass filter during periods of 5-HT release. (+info)
Characterization of the binding sites for 123I-ADAM and the relationship to the serotonin transporter in rat and mouse brains using quantitative autoradiography. (6/28)Imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) in the central nervous system may provide an important tool to evaluate some psychiatric disorders. Recently, a novel (123)I-labeled radiotracer, 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine ((123)I-ADAM), has been developed that exhibited a high selectivity for SERT. The aim of this study was to characterize the biodistribution and specificity of (123)I-ADAM to SERT using quantitative autoradiography in both control and neurotoxin-treated animals. METHODS: (123)I-ADAM (74 MBq) was injected intravenously into the mice to access its biodistribution in the brain via quantitative autoradiography. Further, rats with serotonin depleted by intraperitoneal injection of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) were used to evaluate the specificity of (123)I-ADAM to SERT. The levels of biogenic amines were then measured and correlated with quantitative (123)I-ADAM labeling in control and PCA-treated rat brains. RESULTS: The autoradiographic results showed that (123)I-ADAM accumulated in SERT-rich brain areas after systemic injection, including the globus pallidus, thalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, interpeduncular nucleus, amygdala, and raphe nucleus. The dorsal raphe nucleus had the highest initial uptake with a peak specific binding ratio (i.e., [target - cerebellum]/cerebellum) at 120 min after injection. (123)I-ADAM uptake was dramatically decreased in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, geniculate nuclei, hypothalamus, raphe nucleus, and substantia nigra in PCA-lesioned rats. The decrement in radioactivity was more prominent at higher dosages of PCA and was in parallel with the changes in amounts of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that regional distribution of (123)I-ADAM radioactivity is similar to the SERT localization in both rat and mouse brains. We also validated that destruction on central serotonergic neurons after PCA treatment inhibits the uptake of (123)I-ADAM in serotonin-rich brain regions. High specific binding to SERT in vivo makes (123)I-ADAM an appropriate radiotracer for solitary studies of serotonin functions in living humans. (+info)
Biodistribution and imaging with (123)I-ADAM: a serotonin transporter imaging agent. (7/28)2-((2-((Dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-(123)I-iodophenylamine ((123)I-ADAM) is a new radiopharmaceutical that selectively binds the central nervous system serotonin transporters. The purpose of this study was to measure its whole-body biokinetics and estimate its radiation dosimetry in healthy human volunteers. The study was conducted within a regulatory framework that required its pharmacologic safety to be assessed simultaneously. METHODS: The sample included 7 subjects ranging in age from 22 to 54 y old. An average of 12.7 whole-body scans were acquired sequentially on a dual-head camera for up to 50 h after the intravenous administration of 185 MBq (5 mCi) (123)I-ADAM. The fraction of the administered dose in 13 regions of interest (ROIs) was quantified from the attenuation-corrected geometric mean counts in conjugate views. Multiexponential functions were iteratively fit to each time-activity curve using a nonlinear, least-squares regression algorithm. These curves were numerically integrated to yield source organ residence times. Gender-specific radiation doses were then estimated with the MIRD technique. SPECT brain scans obtained 3 h after injection were evaluated using an ROI analysis to determine the range of values for the region to cerebellum. RESULTS: There were no pharmacologic effects of the radiotracer on any of the subjects, including no change in heart rate, blood pressure, or laboratory results. Early planar images showed differentially increased activity in the lungs. SPECT images demonstrated that the radiopharmaceutical localized in the midbrain in a distribution that is consistent with selective transporter binding. The dose-limiting organ in both men and women was the distal colon, which received an average of 0.12 mGy/MBq (0.43 rad/mCi) (range, 0.098-0.15 mGy/MBq). The effective dose equivalent and effective dose for (123)I-ADAM were 0.037 +/- 0.003 mSv/MBq and 0.036 +/- 0.003 mSv/MBq, respectively. The mean adult male value of effective dose for (123)I-ADAM is similar in magnitude to that of (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (0.035 mGy/MBq), half that of (111)In-pentetreotide (0.81 mGy/MBq), and approximately twice that of (123)I-inosine 5'-monophosphate (0.018 mGy/MBq). The differences in results between this study and a previous publication are most likely due to several factors, the most prominent being this dataset used attenuation correction of the scintigraphic data. Region-to-cerebellum ratios for the brain SPECT scans were 1.95 +/- 0.13 for the midbrain, 1.27 +/- 0.10 for the medial temporal regions, and 1.11 +/- 0.07 for the striatum. CONCLUSION: (123)I-ADAM may be a safe and effective radiotracer for imaging serotonin transporters in the brain and the body. (+info)
Cinanserin is an inhibitor of the 3C-like proteinase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and strongly reduces virus replication in vitro. (8/28)The 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for anti-SARS-CoV drugs due to its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a database containing structural information of more than 8,000 existing drugs was virtually screened by a docking approach to identify potential binding molecules of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. As a target for screening, both a homology model and the crystallographic structure of the binding pocket of the enzyme were used. Cinanserin (SQ 10,643), a well-characterized serotonin antagonist that has undergone preliminary clinical testing in humans in the 1960s, showed a high score in the screening and was chosen for further experimental evaluation. Binding of both cinanserin and its hydrochloride to bacterially expressed 3CLpro of SARS-CoV and the related human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance technology. The catalytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5 microM, as tested with a fluorogenic substrate. The antiviral activity of cinanserin was further evaluated in tissue culture assays, namely, a replicon system based on HCoV-229E and quantitative test assays with infectious SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E. All assays revealed a strong inhibition of coronavirus replication at nontoxic drug concentrations. The level of virus RNA and infectious particles was reduced by up to 4 log units, with IC50 values ranging from 19 to 34 microM. These findings demonstrate that the old drug cinanserin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV replication, acting most likely via inhibition of the 3CL proteinase. (+info)
Cinanserin is a medication that was developed as an antipsychotic drug. It is a serotonin antagonist that primarily acts on the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the brain. Cinanserin was approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, but it was later withdrawn from the market due to concerns about its side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms and cardiac valvulopathy.
Quipazine is a medication that is used to treat nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antihistamine that works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical that is produced by the body in response to certain stimuli and that can cause inflammation and other symptoms. Quipazine is typically used to treat nausea and vomiting that is caused by conditions such as motion sickness, chemotherapy, and certain infections. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is usually taken on an as-needed basis. Quipazine may cause side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, and dry mouth. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking quipazine and to let them know if you experience any side effects.
Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used to treat migraines and cluster headaches, as well as to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or surgery. Methysergide works by constricting blood vessels in the brain and reducing inflammation, which can help to alleviate the symptoms of migraines and cluster headaches. It can also help to prevent nausea and vomiting by blocking the action of certain chemicals in the brain that trigger these symptoms. Methysergide is available in both oral and injectable forms, and is typically taken on an as-needed basis for the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches. However, it is important to note that methysergide can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and chest pain, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Receptors, Serotonin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and other bodily functions. There are several different types of serotonin receptors, each of which has a specific function and is activated by different types of serotonin molecules. Dysfunction of serotonin receptors has been implicated in a number of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Medications that target serotonin receptors, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.
Schizophrenia, disorganized is a type of schizophrenia characterized by disorganized speech, behavior, and thought processes. People with this type of schizophrenia may have difficulty organizing their thoughts and may speak in a disjointed or incoherent manner. They may also have difficulty following a conversation or expressing themselves clearly. In addition, they may exhibit disorganized behavior, such as dressing in an unusual or inappropriate manner, or engaging in repetitive or stereotyped movements. Other symptoms of schizophrenia, disorganized may include hallucinations, delusions, and social withdrawal. This type of schizophrenia is typically treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy.