Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Tropheryma: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Cellulomonadaceae.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
... the axoneme of cilia and flagella. the mitotic spindle. synthesis of the cell wall in plants. In addition to the roles ... There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile cilia. Cilia are short and more numerous than flagella. The motile cilia ... The motion of the cilia and flagella is created by the microtubules sliding past one another, which requires ATP. They play key ... As both flagella and cilia are structural components of the cell, and are maintained by microtubules, they can be considered ...
This type of cilia is found in insects. Tertiary cytosolic cilia are axonemes that form directly in the cytoplasm. This type of ... One end of the axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm as the other end of the axoneme is formed as compartmentalized cilia. ... Primary cytosolic cilia are formed by exposing the axoneme of compartmentalized cilium (formed initially by compartmentalized ... This type of cilia is found in the sperm of human and other mammals. Secondary cytosolic cilia are formed in parallels to the ...
... and nodal cilia (cilia of the primitive node). DNAi1 specifically encodes for an intermediate chain of the outer dynein arm. ... Each dynein arm of the ciliary axoneme has an inner and outer dynein arm. A mutation in DNAi1 can lead to defective ciliary ... The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins ... This gene affects these three very different aspects of development because all three are dependent on proper cilia function. ...
Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ... Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect anoxemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ...
In contrast, tracheal epithelial cilia showed no structural abnormalities, but there was a reduced number of ciliated cells. In ... The majority of epididymal axonemes showed structural defects, most commonly loss of a single microtubule doublet at a ... In testicular sperm, the defect was only rarely observed, suggesting that instability of a normally formed axoneme occurred ...
The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Although experiments ... Radial spokes also influence the cilium "waveform"; that is, the exact bending pattern the cilium repeats. How the radial spoke ... Radial spokes are T-shaped structures present inside the axoneme. Each spoke consists of a "head" and a "stalk," while each of ... For example, mutant organisms lacking properly functioning radial spokes have flagella and cilia that are immotile. ...
... interacting protein is stably associated with the photoreceptor ciliary axoneme and anchors RPGR to the connecting cilium". The ...
Primary cilia are immotile, and are not undulipodia; they have a structurally different 9+0 axoneme rather than the 9+2 axoneme ... Eukaryotic flagella or cilia, probably an ancestral characteristic, are widespread in almost all groups of eukaryotes, as a ... The loss of cilia occurred in red algae, some green algae (Zygnematophyceae), the gymnosperms except cycads and Ginkgo, ... Besides the axoneme and basal body, relatively constant in morphology, other internal structures of the flagellar apparatus are ...
Cilia and basal bodies form during quiescence or the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Before the cell enters G1 phase, i.e. before ... The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ... In cells that are destined to have only one primary cilium, the mother centriole differentiates into the basal body upon entry ... On cell cycle entry, cilia resorb and the basal body migrates to the nucleus where it functions to organize centrosomes. ...
When the INPP5E gene is mutated, the protein is damaged and is unable to spread out along the cilia axoneme and is unable to ... This results is MORM syndrome individuals being unable to stabilize their cilia axoneme. It is still not well understood the ... In unaffected individuals the protein is evenly disbursed throughout the ciliia axoneme which allows for the cilia to be stable ... Cilia are antenna like structures which protrude from the extracellular surface of the cell. The cilia allows for extracellular ...
Plasmodium falciparum cilia and the sperm flagella of Drosophila are examples of cilia that assemble in the cytoplasm and do ... Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme with defective IFT machinery will slowly ... and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. It is thought to be required to build all cilia that assemble within a ... IFT has been shown to be necessary for the movement of other signaling proteins within the cilia, and therefore may play a role ...
2 microtubule structure in the axoneme of cilia. Porter also contributed to the development of other experimental methods for ...
Axonemes are the elongated structures that make up cilia and flagella. Additionally, there may be chemical defects that ... Normally, cilia beat 7 to 22 times per second, and any impairment can result in poor mucociliary clearance, with subsequent ... Cilia also are involved in other biological processes (such as nitric oxide production), which are currently the subject of ... The phrase "immotile ciliary syndrome" is no longer favored as the cilia do have movement, but are merely inefficient or ...
Cilium - motile structure of eukaryotes having a cytoskeleton, the axoneme. Cytoplasm - contents of the main fluid-filled space ... Cell movement - Cell migration, Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella. Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by ...
This process is required for cilium assembly/maintenance and cilium-based signalling which play key roles in various cell and ... the intra-flagellar transport of tubulins and other axonemal building blocks from the base of the ciliary/flagellar axoneme to ... For example, in vertebrate embryos, kinesin-2 function is required for cilia-dependent nodal flow and the development of left- ... "Randomization of left-right asymmetry due to loss of nodal cilia generating leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in mice ...
The sperm tail is a specialized type of cilium (aka flagella). In many animals the sperm tail is formed in a unique way, which ... is named Cytosolic ciliogenesis, since all or part of axoneme of the sperm tail is formed in the cytoplasm or get exposed to ...
... is the most common type of ciliogenesis where the cilium axoneme is formed separated from the ...
... termed the axoneme and similar to the equivalent structure found in cilia a thin cell membrane covering the axoneme ... tail results from a rhythmical longitudinal sliding motion between the anterior and posterior tubules that make up the axoneme ... mitochondria arranged spirally around it the axoneme, Back and forth movement of the ...
... the cilium axoneme is formed in the cytoplasm or get exposed to the cytoplasm. Ciliary defects can lead to a broad range of ... Once the cilium is completely formed, it continues to incorporate new tubulin at the tip of the cilia. However, the cilium does ... motile cilium). It includes the assembly and disassembly of the cilia during the cell cycle. Cilia are important organelles of ... Cilia usually form during the G1 of the cell cycle and disassemble during mitosis. It is not known why the cilia assemble and ...
Radial spokes, which are regularly spaced along cilia, sperm, and flagella axonemes, consist of a thin 'stalk' and a bulbous ' ...
... along axonemes during cilium biogenesis. Molecular genetic and genomic approaches have led to the recognition that the kinesins ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Axoplasmic transport Dynein Intraflagellar transport along cilia Kinesin 8 Kinesin 13 KRP ...
Moreover, ATAT1 is thought to be associated not only with the connecting cilia and the axonemes of the outer segment (OS), but ... ATAT 1 plays an important role in the formation of cilia. It is actually being studied that ciliogenesis can have an effect in ... Moreover, Alpha-tubulin N-acetyltransferase is also essential to make sure that the primary cilium assembly can function in a ...
The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... Cilium can measure up to 20 µm and have a diameter around 0.25 µm. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and nonmotile, or ... In animals, primary cilia are found on nearly every cell. In comparison to motile cilia, non-motile (or primary) cilia usually ... A cilium (Latin for eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances ...
The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... The axoneme structure in non-motile ("primary") cilia shows some variation from the canonical "9x2 + 2" anatomy. No dynein arms ... Though distinctions of function and/or length may be made between cilia and flagella, the internal structure of the axoneme is ... Primary cilia appear to serve sensory functions. Mutations or defects in primary cilia have been found to play a role in human ...
Silflow, CD; Lefebvre, PA (2001). "Assembly and motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Lessons from Chlamydomonas ... Paolillo, Jr., DJ (1967). "axoneme in flagella of Polytrichum juniperinum". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society ...
A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta oxidation. In animal cells, the long fatty acids are converted to medium chain fatty acids, which are subsequently shuttled to mitochondria where they are eventually broken down to carbon dioxide and water. In yeast and plant cells, this process is carried out exclusively in peroxisomes.[8] The first reactions in the formation of plasmalogen in animal cells also occur in peroxisomes. Plasmalogen is the most abundant phospholipid in myelin. Deficiency of plasmalogens causes profound abnormalities in the myelination of nerve cells, which is one reason why many peroxisomal disorders affect the nervous system.[8] Peroxisomes also play a role in the production of bile acids important for the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A and K. Skin disorders are features of genetic disorders affecting peroxisome function as a result. Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino ...
keywords = "Axoneme, Cilia, Cryo-electron tomography, Flagella, N-DRC",. author = "Long Gui and Kangkang Song and Douglas ... N2 - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ... AB - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ... The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ...
Certain specific defects in the ciliary axoneme are regarded to be pathognomonic of the syndrome, principally a lack of dynein ... Many genes participate in the construction of a cilium, and an error in any one of them will prevent the cilia from working ... Motility can be evaluated by light-microscopic examination of living cilia or spermatozoa and the functional capacity of cilia ... "Immotile Cilia Syndrome (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia), Including Kartagener Syndrome." The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases ...
... of the axoneme and the presence of electron-dense vesicular-like material along the ciliary shaft and at the tips of cilia. ... Abnormalities in cilia structure and function have the potential to influence ciliary intraflagellar transport (IFT), cilia ... Animal models have implicated dysfunctional cilia of the ependyma and choroid plexus in the development of the disorder. In ... In contrast, structural defects were observed in a subpopulation of cilia lining the choroid plexus, SFO, and ventricular ...
cilium. GO:0005929 9.83. ARMC4 CCDC103 CCDC114 CCDC151 CCDC40 DNAAF1 3. dynein complex. GO:0030286 9.77. DNAH1 DNAH5 DNAI1 ... axoneme. GO:0005930 9.4. ARMC4 CCDC103 CCDC114 CCDC151 CCDC40 DNAAF1 9. cytoplasm. GO:0005737 10.33. ARMC4 CCDC103 CCDC151 ... axoneme assembly. GO:0035082 9.7. CCDC40 RSPH4A RSPH9 10. outer dynein arm assembly. GO:0036158 9.7. ARMC4 CCDC103 CCDC114 ... regulation of cilium beat frequency. GO:0003356 9.65. ARMC4 CCDC40 DNAAF1 14. ventricular system development. GO:0021591 9.58. ...
The similar phenotypes exhibited by mutations in BBS gene family members are likely due to the proteins shared roles in cilia ... Many BBS proteins localize to the basal bodies, ciliary axonemes, and pericentriolar regions of cells. BBS proteins may also be ...
An isolated and longitudinally fractured cilium exposing the middle of the cilium. The spokes extend from the doublets toward ... cilium radial spoke axonemal microtubule cilium axoneme Biological Context Biological Process. cilium axoneme assembly cilium ... An isolated and longitudinally fractured cilium exposing the middle of the cilium. The spokes extend from the doublets toward ... The cilium may also be slightly twisted along its length. TEM taken on 2/15/88 by C. Schroeder with Zeiss 10A operating at 80kV ...
The axoneme of cilia contains 200 different proteins, and defects in genes coding for any one of these products could ... Cilia of the respiratory tract and sperms are dysmotile or nonfunctional. It has also been postulated that normal visceral ... Overly long, overly short, and normally appearing but randomly oriented cilia have been associated with PCD and Kartagener ... Afzelius Syndrome; Dextrocardia-Bronchiectasis-Sinusitis; Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener type; Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia ...
1 A) and appeared to have no ultrastructural defects in the axoneme or basal body (Fig. 1 D). However, after incubation for a ... Hao L.,Efimenko E.,Swoboda P.,Scholey J.M.. Year: 2011aThe retrograde IFT machinery of C. elegans cilia: two IFT dynein ... Cilia and flagella are dynamic structures whose assembly and maintenance require an active transport process known as ... Pazour G.J.,Agrin N.,Leszyk J.,Witman G.B.. Year: 2005Proteomic analysis of a eukaryotic cilium. J. Cell Biol.170:103- ...
... from the base of the connecting cilium along the connecting cilium axoneme to the outer segment. Still, it remains to be ... We find KIF3A at two distinct sites within photoreceptors: at the basal body of the connecting cilium axoneme and at the ... Brackets show the two sites of KIF3A localization: the basal body (BB) of the connecting cilium axoneme, and the synaptic ... One pathway delivers material toward the outer segment along the connecting cilium (CC) axoneme, the other carries Golgi- ...
... the axoneme of cilia and flagella. the mitotic spindle. synthesis of the cell wall in plants. In addition to the roles ... There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile cilia. Cilia are short and more numerous than flagella. The motile cilia ... The motion of the cilia and flagella is created by the microtubules sliding past one another, which requires ATP. They play key ... As both flagella and cilia are structural components of the cell, and are maintained by microtubules, they can be considered ...
Primary cilia are sensory organelles that have been shown to be vitally involved in the mechanosensation of urine in the renal ... The prevalence of primary cilia among mammalian cell types is matched by the tremendously varied disease states caused by both ... In this review, we will discuss the approaches used in associating calcium levels to cilia function. ... structural and functional defects in cilia. In the process of delineating the mechanisms behind these disease states, calcium ...
The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... Cilium can measure up to 20 µm and have a diameter around 0.25 µm. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and nonmotile, or ... In animals, primary cilia are found on nearly every cell. In comparison to motile cilia, non-motile (or primary) cilia usually ... A cilium (Latin for eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances ...
axoneme assembly Source: UniProtKB. *cilium assembly Source: UniProtKB. *protein polyglycylation Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred ... Cell projection, Cilium, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and ...
Cell projection , cilium , flagellum. Cytoplasm , cytoskeleton , cilium axoneme. Cytoplasm , cytoskeleton , flagellum axoneme. ... Plays a key role in the assembly or attachment of the inner dynein arm to microtubules in sperm flagella and tracheal cilia. ...
Cytoplasm , cytoskeleton , cilium axoneme. Cytoplasm. Localizes to the apical cytoplasm.. * Target information above from: ...
Jiang Li will be delivering a seminar, Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Essential For Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium/Axoneme ... Seminar: Jiang Li, Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Essential For Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium/Axoneme Formation and ... "connecting cilium" (CC), a structure equivalent to the transition zone of primary cilia. Anterograde intraflagellar transport ( ... A light-sensitive photoreceptor outer segment (OS) is a modified primary cilium and communicates with the inner segment (IS) ...
Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, cilium axoneme. Golgi apparatus, Golgi stack membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. ... A homozygous PDE6D mutation in Joubert syndrome impairs targeting of farnesylated INPP5E protein to the primary cilium. (PMID: ... INPP5E mutations cause primary cilium signaling defects, ciliary instability and ciliopathies in human and mouse. (PMID: ... Interacts (when prenylated) with PDE6D; this is important for normal location in cilia. ...
Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, cilium axoneme.. *Q8TE73-DYH5_HUMAN. Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS Extracellular space ... Required for structural and functional integrity of the cilia of ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles. *DYH5_HUMAN, ... Force generating protein of respiratory cilia. Produces force towards the minus ends of microtubules. Dynein has ATPase ... Force generating protein of respiratory cilia. Produces force towards the minus ends of microtubules. Dynein has ATPase ...
ARL2-Q70L expression results in shortened inner and outer segments, shortened and mislocalized axonemes and cytoplasmic ... In conclusion, we show that ARL2-Q70L is crucial for photoreceptor neuron sensory cilium development. Future research will ... ARL2-Q70L mutant interferes with microtubule maintenance and tubulin regulation resulting in impaired growth of the axoneme and ... Photoreceptor cells are specialized neurons with a sensory cilium carrying an elaborate membrane structure, the outer segment ( ...
Involved in cilium assembly and protein polyglycylation. Localizes to axoneme and microtubule cytoskeleton. Is expressed in ...
IFT88 colocalizes in the ciliary axoneme with acetylated tubulin (arrows). Image is at ×400 magnification. B and C: ASMCs were ... 41 cilia) and 15% stretch (n = 47 cilia) to static controls (n = 82 cilia). C: percentage of ciliated nuclei was determined, ... Primary cilia are expressed in human airway smooth muscle cells. Primary cilia (PC) were assessed in ASMCs in culture and in ... 139 cilia measured) with IFT88 KD (n = 103 cilia measured). Data are presented as box-and-whiskers plots, whereby boxes ...
CC] cilium *[CC] cilium axoneme *[CC] cytoplasm *[CC] microtubule basal body *[CC] tight junction *[MF] protein binding *[MF] ... BP] cilium assembly *[BP] corpus callosum development *[BP] determination of left/right symmetry *[BP] embryonic forelimb ...
GO:0005929 [cilium]. GO:0005930 [axoneme]. GO:0006461 [protein complex assembly]. GO:0006890 [retrograde vesicle-mediated ... GO:0032391 [photoreceptor connecting cilium]. GO:0035735 [intraciliary transport involved in cilium assembly]. GO:0036064 [ ... GO:0005929 [cilium]. GO:0006461 [protein complex assembly]. GO:0006890 [retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER]. GO ... GO:0005929 [cilium]. GO:0006461 [protein complex assembly]. GO:0006890 [retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER]. GO ...
GO:0005929 [cilium]. GO:0005930 [axoneme]. GO:0006351 [transcription, DNA-templated]. GO:0006355 [regulation of transcription, ... GO:0031514 [motile cilium]. GO:0032331 [negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation]. GO:0033089 [positive regulation of ...
CC] cilium *[CC] cilium axoneme *[CC] cytoplasm *[CC] cytoskeleton *[CC] dynein complex *[CC] microtubule *[MF] microtubule ... BP] cilium assembly *[BP] metabolic process *[CC] axonemal dynein complex *[CC] cell projection *[ ...
  • The similar phenotypes exhibited by mutations in BBS gene family members are likely due to the protein's shared roles in cilia formation and function. (antibodypedia.com)
  • Further, primary cilia on the apical surface of the choroid plexus epithelium contribute to CSF homeostasis by acting as pressure sensors or as chemosensors that regulate CSF production, osmolarity, or CSF transcytosis from the choroid plexus epithelium into the ventricles via a cilia-based receptor and autonomic system of regulation [ 6 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of the role of primary cilia in the vertebrate Shh pathway has shed light on this process ( 2 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ability to generate mice conditionally deficient for this key component of the IFT complex will provide an important tool to examine the role of primary cilia during lens development. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mutations in genes such as Thm1 , Dync2h1 , Arl13b , and bromi allow cilia to form, yet perturb ciliary structure and have varied effects on the pathway ( 3 , 29 - 31 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mutations that impair cilia formation or its signaling activity have recently been shown to have severe consequences for development and for postnatal tissue physiology ( 2 , 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Mutations in the genes associated with the establishment and function of nodal cilia are one of the genetic causes of human LR asymmetry disorders ( 4 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Such mutations cause the cilia to be either deprived of motion or significantly hypomotile. (news-medical.net)
  • A few mutations have not been found to result in a specifiable anatomical defect in the cilia and are diagnosed by genetic sequence testing, such as DNAH11 mutations which localize to the outer dynein arm. (news-medical.net)
  • In mammals, motile cilia are normally found in large groups on the apical surface of epithelial cells, such as those that line the trachea or that are on ependymal cells of the brain ventricles ( Figure 1A ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The primary cilium is an antenna-like organelle protruding from the apical surface of almost every cell in a wide variety of organisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • White arrows indicate apical abscission, white arrowheads indicate the retained Arl13b + particle, and yellow arrowheads indicate the abscised primary cilium. (sciencemag.org)
  • B ) Time-lapse sequence of a cell undergoing primary cilium reassembly during apical process retraction (movie S2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyan dashed lines demarcate the tip of apical process, red dashed lines demarcate the centrosome, and white dashed lines demarcate the remodeled cilium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are specifically expressed along the entire length of cilia apparently serve as sensors that regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the cilia of epithelial cells in the respiratory tract moves fluids and mucus to remove the the fluids and mucus from the passageways. (openwetware.org)
  • Neuronal primary cilia are not generally recognized, but they are considered to extend from most, if not all, neurons in the neocortex. (nih.gov)
  • However, when and how cilia develop in neurons are not known. (nih.gov)
  • This study used immunohistochemistry for adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), a marker of primary cilia, and electron microscopic analysis to describe the development and maturation of cilia in mouse neocortical neurons. (nih.gov)
  • We show that, in addition to pyramidal neurons, inhibitory interneurons also grow cilia of comparable length, suggesting that cilia are indeed present in all neocortical neuron subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • Nonmotile cilia are found in certain sensory receptors, including phototransducing rods and cones and olfactory neurons. (genetics.org)
  • The cilia are situated in dendritic endings of sensory neurons. (genetics.org)
  • The second line of evidence is based on the behavioral consequences of killing cilia-containing neurons with a laser microbeam. (genetics.org)
  • In modified form, cilia trigger the discharge of stinging devices in jellyfish and give rise to the light-sensitive rods of the mammalian retina and the odour-detecting units of olfactory neurons. (britannica.com)
  • Furthermore, the study of mice with defective ciliogenesis suggested that failed elongation of cilia is not essential for proper neuronal migration and laminar organization or establishment of neuronal polarity. (nih.gov)
  • R iddle and A lbert 1997 ) is another chemosensory behavior that is defective in mutants with aberrant cilia. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, cilia-defective mutants are mechanosensory defective: they show a reduced ability to respond to taps on their noses ( K aplan and H orvitz 1993 ). (genetics.org)
  • Although it is possible that the cilia-defective mutants are also defective in a nonciliary neuron function, the simplest view is that cilia are directly involved in transducing chemosensory and mechanosensory signals. (genetics.org)
  • Cilia-defective mutants provide a powerful approach to the interesting question of how cilia are assembled. (genetics.org)
  • Human LR asymmetry disorders are characterized by abnormal LR asymmetric arrangement of the internal organs resulting from defective embryonic nodal cilia and nodal signaling pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Defective cilia lead to the features of primary ciliary dyskinesia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, all microtubule-mediated events subsequent to ß2 tubulin expression are defective: meiosis, nuclear shaping and assembly of the axoneme all fail to occur. (sdbonline.org)
  • Understanding the multiple functions of cilia will provide important insights into a number of disease states and developmental defects that are associated with abnormal regulation of these pathways. (asnjournals.org)
  • Primary cilia serve as sensors of the extracellular environment, they receive and transduce signals from light, chemical, or mechanical stimuli, [ 5 ] in addition they play a role in several signalling pathways important for development and tissue homeostasis, their alteration results in abnormalities and multiorgan disfunctions. (springer.com)
  • Defects in primary cilium structure and function cause a set of human conditions, called ciliopathies, that share a set of phenotypes that reflect the importance of the cilium in signaling pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many cells have long, thin structures called cilia on their surface, some types of which can beat back and forth. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recent findings regarding its physiological roles in chemical sensation, signal transduction, and control of cell growth, have led scientists to acknowledge its importance in cell function, with the discovery of its role in diseases not previously recognized to involve the dysgenesis and dysfunction of cilia, such as polycystic kidney disease, congenital heart disease, and an emerging group of genetic ciliopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could ultimately help us to treat genetic disorders known as ciliopathies, which arise when cilia do not develop normally. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is part of a class of disorders known as ciliopathies, meaning that it results from defects in the structure or function of cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • The axoneme: the propulsive engine of spermatozoa and cilia and associated ciliopathies leading to infertility. (springermedizin.de)
  • Electron tomogram and 3D model of cilium in L1-stage larva. (rupress.org)
  • In the past 50 y, axonemes have been studied in great detail using EM, including several recent cryo-electron tomography (ET) studies ( 8 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Electron micrographs of cilia axonemes in a wild-type (c) and smh (d) pronephric duct. (natureasia.com)
  • Electron microscopy led to the discovery of the 9-plus-2 arrangement of internal fibrils in the cilia and the subsidiary components of the axoneme , which lent support to the "sliding fibril" hypothesis of ciliary bending. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using electron microscopy (EM), immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopies, we show that primary cilia are present in three undifferentiated hESC lines. (rupress.org)
  • A ) Electron micrograph of the primary cilium of a canary brain radial glia ( 69 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a cross section through cilia (circles), from the lining (epithelium) of the human trachea, or windpipe. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Molecules can move to the tip of the cilia with the aid of anterograde IFT particles and the kinesin-2 motor. (rug.nl)
  • It is noteworthy that such defects are less commonly associated with situs inversus because of the absence of the central pair in the nodal cilia as well. (news-medical.net)