Ribosome Subunits, Small
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S
Parasitic Diseases, Animal
Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (1/51)Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic. (+info)
Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans. (2/51)Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence. (+info)
Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host. (3/51)Ichthyophthirius multifiliis exposed to naturally immunised carp established short-term infections, the majority of parasites actively emerging within 2 h of entering the epidermis. A small, but significant, number of these expelled parasites were shown to retain theront-like properties with the capacity to directly re-invade a further fish host. Infectivity fell rapidly with time in the host and was comparable to that of trophonts of a similar age artificially induced to emerge from non-immune hosts with the aid of MEM (minimal essential medium). Trophonts recovered with MEM from immune carp 2 to 8 h post infection rarely established infections upon exposure to susceptible new hosts and no infections resulted from older trophonts recovered after 8 to 24 h exposure; older trophonts, however, represented only a small percentage of the original parasite population. A low level of infectivity was recorded in trophonts collected with the aid of MEM from non-immune carp after up to 24 h of infection. The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response. (+info)
Associations between epidermal thionin-positive cells and skin parasitic infections in brown trout Salmo trutta. (4/51)The dynamics of the densities of epidermal thionin-positive cells (putative mast cells) in the skin of brown trout fry were investigated during experimental infections with the skin parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) and Gyrodactylus derjavini (Monogenea). It was shown that the metachromatic thionin-stained cells were extremely sensitive to parasite exposure, as the density of cells in the skin of trout decreased markedly after exposure to the pathogens. As early as 7 d post infection the cell counts were significantly reduced and almost totally depleted following 9 d infection, which suggests that degranulation of the cells occurs following parasite exposure. No recruitment of new cells was seen during the study period. Some reduction in uninfected control groups indicates that the putative mast cells are sensitive to stress as well. A notable variation in densities of thionin-stained cells between different fins was found and the corneal surface was devoid of these cells. The possible implications of these cells in host-parasite interactions are suggested and discussed. (+info)
Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in denmark: host-parasite relations. (5/51)Farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in Denmark were found infected by Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958. Associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. In one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). The infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and length. In the other system, stocked with relatively malnourished small eels (0.5 to 4 g), significantly more parasites (0.06 +/- 0.02 [SD]) were present on fish with a low condition factor than on fish with a higher condition factor (0.13 +/- 0.01 [SD]). In this eel stock the vast majority of the trichodines were found on the gills. (+info)
A new strain of Cryptocaryon irritans from the cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. (6/51)An obligate parasite, Cryptocaryon irritans, which is responsible for the white spot disease of marine fish is known to develop in the temperature regime over 19 degrees C. Recently, however, we found white spot disease of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus during winter at water temperatures ranging between 12 and 16 degrees C in Korea. In the present study we isolated a C. irritans-like ciliate from the affected fish and investigated its reproductive characters to compare the newly found ciliate with typical C. irritans. The newly found ciliate had an additional process in the reproductive stage, characterized by a budding before palintomic division, and it showed a higher ability to carry out tomitogenesis at a low temperature (16 degrees C) than at a high temperature (24 degrees C). Nevertheless, the present ciliates still had much in common with typical C. irritans with respect to clinical, histopathological, and morphological characters, suggesting that it is a new strain of C. irritans, adapted to lower water temperature. (+info)
Occurrence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (7/51)Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects the skin and gills of freshwater fish. This report describes the unusual finding of I. multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of experimentally infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Twenty catfish fingerlings were exposed to I. multifiliis theronts using a standardized protocol. Five infected fish and 2 control fish were killed at various time points after infection and their tissues examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections were processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemical detection of I. multifiliis immobilization antigen. Trophonts were observed in skin and gill sections of all exposed fish. Parasites were associated with epithelial hyperplasia, focal areas of cellular disruption and necrosis. In addition to these usual sites of infection, individual trophonts were unexpectedly found within the peritoneal cavities of 4 fish. Staining for parasite antigen facilitated their detection within abdominal adipose tissue or adjacent to intestines. This discovery is interesting as it suggests I. multifiliis may be found in tissues other than the skin and gills during the course of a normal infection. (+info)
Effect of lectins on the invasion of Ichthyophthirius theront to channel catfish tissue. (8/51)This study determined the effects of lectin binding to theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on theront immobilization, invasion, trophont development and survival in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus excised fins in vitro. Soybean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA), gorse agglutinin (UEA-I) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) were used to treat theronts. Percentages of theronts immobilized by 4 lectins ranged from 12.0 to 19.4% at a concentration of 1000 microg ml(-1). These lectins bound more than half of the theronts at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1). More theronts were labeled by SBA and WGA than by lectin LCA at concentrations of 50 and 100 microg ml(-1), respectively. The binding of these lectins to theronts indicated that monosaccharides (D-galactose, L-fucose, D-mannose and D-glucose) and amino sugar derivatives (N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine) were present on the surface of theronts. Invasion was reduced significantly for theronts treated with LCA, UEA-I and WGA. No difference in invasion was found between control and SBA bound theronts (p > 0.05). The binding of lectin LCA, UEA-I and WGA to theronts significantly reduced the development of trophonts (p < 0.05). The mean volumes of trophonts labeled with these 3 lectins were smaller than volumes in control trophonts from 8 to 48 h after exposure. Survival was lower in trophonts labeled with lectins than in control trophonts at 48 h after exposure. (+info)
Note: Ciliophora infections are relatively rare in developed countries but are a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in developing nations.
Some common types of fish diseases include:
1. Bacterial infections: These are caused by bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium. Symptoms can include fin and tail rot, body slime, and ulcers.
2. Viral infections: These are caused by viruses such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and rapid death.
3. Protozoan infections: These are caused by protozoa such as Cryptocaryon and Ichthyophonus. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
4. Fungal infections: These are caused by fungi such as Saprolegnia and Achlya. Symptoms can include fuzzy growths on the body and fins, and sluggish behavior.
5. Parasitic infections: These are caused by parasites such as Ichthyophonus and Cryptocaryon. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
Diagnosis of fish diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the fish's behavior and environment. Treatment options vary depending on the type of disease and the severity of symptoms, and can include antibiotics, antifungals, and medicated baths. Prevention is key in managing fish diseases, and this includes maintaining good water quality, providing a balanced diet, and keeping the fish in a healthy environment.
Note: The information provided is a general overview of common fish diseases and their symptoms, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. If you suspect your fish has a disease, it is recommended that you consult with a veterinarian or a qualified aquarium expert for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:
1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
1. Heartworms: A parasite that infects the heart and lungs of dogs and cats, causing respiratory problems and potentially leading to heart failure.
2. Tapeworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
3. Mites: Small, eight-legged parasites that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in animals.
4. Lice: Small, wingless parasites that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
5. Hookworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, anemia, and other symptoms.
6. Roundworms: A common type of parasite that can infect animals, causing a range of symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
7. Ticks: Blood-sucking parasites that can transmit diseases to animals, such as Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.
8. Fleas: Small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
9. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing skin lesions and other symptoms.
10. Babesiosis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing fever, anemia, and other symptoms.
Parasitic diseases in animals are often diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the infection, but may include antiparasitic medications, antibiotics, and supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Prevention is key in avoiding parasitic diseases in animals, and this can be achieved through regular deworming and vaccination programs, as well as taking measures to reduce exposure to parasites such as fleas and ticks.
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- Protozoan infection found in animals and man. (nih.gov)
- They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. (cdc.gov)
- Balantidiasis (also known as balantidiosis) is defined as large-intestinal infection with Balantidium coli, which is a ciliated protozoan (and the largest protozoan that infects humans). (medscape.com)