Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A genus of mussels in the family Dreissenidae, class BIVALVIA. They are found in both fresh and brackish water and are not native to North America. Accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in 1986, they now proliferate widely throughout the United States.
The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.

Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (1/51)

Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.  (+info)

Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans. (2/51)

Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence.  (+info)

Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host. (3/51)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis exposed to naturally immunised carp established short-term infections, the majority of parasites actively emerging within 2 h of entering the epidermis. A small, but significant, number of these expelled parasites were shown to retain theront-like properties with the capacity to directly re-invade a further fish host. Infectivity fell rapidly with time in the host and was comparable to that of trophonts of a similar age artificially induced to emerge from non-immune hosts with the aid of MEM (minimal essential medium). Trophonts recovered with MEM from immune carp 2 to 8 h post infection rarely established infections upon exposure to susceptible new hosts and no infections resulted from older trophonts recovered after 8 to 24 h exposure; older trophonts, however, represented only a small percentage of the original parasite population. A low level of infectivity was recorded in trophonts collected with the aid of MEM from non-immune carp after up to 24 h of infection. The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response.  (+info)

Associations between epidermal thionin-positive cells and skin parasitic infections in brown trout Salmo trutta. (4/51)

The dynamics of the densities of epidermal thionin-positive cells (putative mast cells) in the skin of brown trout fry were investigated during experimental infections with the skin parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) and Gyrodactylus derjavini (Monogenea). It was shown that the metachromatic thionin-stained cells were extremely sensitive to parasite exposure, as the density of cells in the skin of trout decreased markedly after exposure to the pathogens. As early as 7 d post infection the cell counts were significantly reduced and almost totally depleted following 9 d infection, which suggests that degranulation of the cells occurs following parasite exposure. No recruitment of new cells was seen during the study period. Some reduction in uninfected control groups indicates that the putative mast cells are sensitive to stress as well. A notable variation in densities of thionin-stained cells between different fins was found and the corneal surface was devoid of these cells. The possible implications of these cells in host-parasite interactions are suggested and discussed.  (+info)

Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in denmark: host-parasite relations. (5/51)

Farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in Denmark were found infected by Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958. Associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. In one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). The infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and length. In the other system, stocked with relatively malnourished small eels (0.5 to 4 g), significantly more parasites (0.06 +/- 0.02 [SD]) were present on fish with a low condition factor than on fish with a higher condition factor (0.13 +/- 0.01 [SD]). In this eel stock the vast majority of the trichodines were found on the gills.  (+info)

A new strain of Cryptocaryon irritans from the cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. (6/51)

An obligate parasite, Cryptocaryon irritans, which is responsible for the white spot disease of marine fish is known to develop in the temperature regime over 19 degrees C. Recently, however, we found white spot disease of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus during winter at water temperatures ranging between 12 and 16 degrees C in Korea. In the present study we isolated a C. irritans-like ciliate from the affected fish and investigated its reproductive characters to compare the newly found ciliate with typical C. irritans. The newly found ciliate had an additional process in the reproductive stage, characterized by a budding before palintomic division, and it showed a higher ability to carry out tomitogenesis at a low temperature (16 degrees C) than at a high temperature (24 degrees C). Nevertheless, the present ciliates still had much in common with typical C. irritans with respect to clinical, histopathological, and morphological characters, suggesting that it is a new strain of C. irritans, adapted to lower water temperature.  (+info)

Occurrence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (7/51)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects the skin and gills of freshwater fish. This report describes the unusual finding of I. multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of experimentally infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Twenty catfish fingerlings were exposed to I. multifiliis theronts using a standardized protocol. Five infected fish and 2 control fish were killed at various time points after infection and their tissues examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections were processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemical detection of I. multifiliis immobilization antigen. Trophonts were observed in skin and gill sections of all exposed fish. Parasites were associated with epithelial hyperplasia, focal areas of cellular disruption and necrosis. In addition to these usual sites of infection, individual trophonts were unexpectedly found within the peritoneal cavities of 4 fish. Staining for parasite antigen facilitated their detection within abdominal adipose tissue or adjacent to intestines. This discovery is interesting as it suggests I. multifiliis may be found in tissues other than the skin and gills during the course of a normal infection.  (+info)

Effect of lectins on the invasion of Ichthyophthirius theront to channel catfish tissue. (8/51)

This study determined the effects of lectin binding to theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on theront immobilization, invasion, trophont development and survival in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus excised fins in vitro. Soybean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA), gorse agglutinin (UEA-I) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) were used to treat theronts. Percentages of theronts immobilized by 4 lectins ranged from 12.0 to 19.4% at a concentration of 1000 microg ml(-1). These lectins bound more than half of the theronts at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1). More theronts were labeled by SBA and WGA than by lectin LCA at concentrations of 50 and 100 microg ml(-1), respectively. The binding of these lectins to theronts indicated that monosaccharides (D-galactose, L-fucose, D-mannose and D-glucose) and amino sugar derivatives (N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine) were present on the surface of theronts. Invasion was reduced significantly for theronts treated with LCA, UEA-I and WGA. No difference in invasion was found between control and SBA bound theronts (p > 0.05). The binding of lectin LCA, UEA-I and WGA to theronts significantly reduced the development of trophonts (p < 0.05). The mean volumes of trophonts labeled with these 3 lectins were smaller than volumes in control trophonts from 8 to 48 h after exposure. Survival was lower in trophonts labeled with lectins than in control trophonts at 48 h after exposure.  (+info)

I cannot answer these questions for you, but it is my opinion that it is inappropriate to do nothing. I would hope for acquired or innate natural immunity to kick in when used with other less aggressive but pro-active treatments, such as using biological cleaners, medicated foods, UV, ozone, and garlic. Although I clearly dont believe this shotgun approach of unproven treatments is the most effective option available. For me, if you gamble with un-quarantined items and infect your tank, it is best to bite the bullet, remove all the fishes to a separate quarantine aquarium, fallow the tank, and use a proven treatment.. Treatment Option 6: Freshwater Dips. Freshwater dips are a highly effective form of treatment against a wide variety of parasites, although their use against Cryptocaryon irritans has been questioned (Colorni, 1985). I am including them here because I still choose to employ them, as I believe they have at least some effect against Ich and because they have been proven effective ...
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P01 - Antiprotozoals. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system from Drugs-about.com includes all drugs classified in groups at five different levels.
View list of generic drugs that are classified under Anti-infective And Antiprotozoals along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing information and price details for each drug listed under it.
Massive infection caused by Cryptocaryon irritans is detrimental to the development of marine aquaculture. Recently, our lab found that Nibea albiflora has low sensitivity and low mortality to C. irritans infection. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of the N. albiflora response to C. irritans infection by analyzing transcriptome changes in the skin. Skin samples of control and experimental groups with C. irritans infection were collected at 24 and 72 h (24 h control, 24 h post-infection, 72 h control, and 72 h post-infection). Three parallels were set for each group and sample time, and a total of 12 skin samples were collected for sequencing. Overall, 297,489,843 valid paired-end reads and 48,817 unigenes were obtained with an overall length of 59,010,494 nt. In pairwise comparisons, changes in expression occurred in 1621 (764 upregulated and 857 downregulated), 285 (180 upregulated and 105 downregulated), 993 (489 upregulated and 504 downregulated), and 37 (8 ...
Oleh : Asep Rachmat Pratama NIM. J1B006020 JURUSAN PERIKANAN DAN KELAUTAN FAKULTAS SAINS DAN TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN PURWOKERTO 2010 Hasil Parasit :Gyrodactylus sp. Cestoda dan Nematoda (Tabel 1. Dactylogyrus sp. dan Van As J. Lampiran). (2002) dalam Aksit et al. menyebabkan iritasi yang dibawa oleh makan pada permukaan sel epitel bagian depan operkulum insang dan sisik atau kulit ikan. (2001). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. kondisi ini merupakan tipe perairan yang disukai parasit.G.. ikan laut dan avertebrata. Tryponosoma sp. Pengamatan Parasit Internal (diletakkan pada gelas benda dan (mikroskop dan digambar). pencernaan memotong dari ujung lambung sampai anus) B.. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 1. Gyrodactylus sp. dan Ichtyophthirius multifilis.A. Monogenea. Lampiran). Trichodina sp. Menurut Kristmundsson dan Helgason (2007). Argulus sp. (2008) merupakan jenis parasit protozoa yang hidupnya berasosiasi pada ikan tawar. Menurut Smith and Schwarz (2009) Trichodina sp.. Pembahasan Ikan yang ...
Did you request this because of the B.Hominis? Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, also known as cotrimoxazole, Bactrim, Septra, or SMX-TMP, belongs to the class of medicines called antibacterials. It also belongs to the class of medicines called antiprotozoals. Antibacterials kill bacteria or stop bacteria from multiplying. Antiprotozoals help the body overcome infections caused by protozoa, which are microscopic organisms that can cause disease. When bacterial and protozoal infections occur in patients with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV, they tend to be more serious an ...
Antifungals are drugs that are used to treat fungal infections. Like antibiotics, antifungals stop the germ (in this case a fungus) from functioning normally. But there are not as many different groups of antifungals as there are antibiotics, and it is only fairly recently that effective antifungals have been developed. ...
I have some fish that have died in quarintine. Under microscopic study I have found both trematodes and Brooklynella or Uronema. Ive argued with my spouse that it is Brooklynella and he thinks it is
Characterization of the Myxosporean Parasite Isolated from Emaciated Olive Flounders Paralichthys olivaceus on Jeju Island;kpubs;kpubs.org
2017. De Felipe AP, Lamas J, Sueiro RA, Folgueira I, Leiro JM. New data on flatfish scuticociliatosis reveal that Miamiensis avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi are different species. Parasitology 144; 1394-1411. doi: doi.org/10.1017/S0031182017000749. Granja AG, Holland JW, Pignatelli J, Secombes CJ, Tafalla C (2017).Characterization of BAFF and APRIL subfamily receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Potential role of the BAFF / APRIL axis in the pathogenesis of proliferative kidney disease. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174249. Jørgensen, L.vG., Kania, P.W., Rasmussen, K.J., Mattsson, A. H., Schmidt, J., Al-Jubury, A., Sander, A., Salanti, A., Buchmann, K. (2017). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: doi:10.1111/jfd.12653. Jørgensen, L. v. G. (2017). The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis - Host immunology, ...
Systemic ciliatosis caused by histophagous ciliates constitutes a serious disease of cultured turbot. Six ciliate isolates were obtained from parasitized turbot during six epizootics at four different farms located in Spain, France and Portugal. Axenic cultures of the six isolates were obtained by periodical subculturing in ATCC 1651MA or supplemented L-15 media. In basal media or seawater, the parasites could survive starving for long periods with no apparent proliferation. In adequate media, growth kinetics was found to be very similar for isolates A and B, with a clear influence of temperature. Morphological studies demonstrated that all isolates share common features that allows their assignment to either Philasterides Kahl, 1931 or Miamiensis Thompson et Moewus, 1964. However, statistically significant differences were evident in pairwise comparisons of the isolates from the four farm sites in 16 taxonomically relevant morphometric features. This could allow the discrimination of different ...
Effect of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Compensatory Growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Reared in Suboptimal Temperature - Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus);Compensatory Growth;Dietary Protein;Dietary Lipid;Suboptimal Temperature;
The effects of 2 injected bacterins, Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida O-antigen bacterins, on the cell type composition of the peripheral blood and head kidney and on the phagocytic activity of the head kidney leucocytes were studied in turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Blood and head kidney samples were collected from treated and non-treated turbot at different times in the 168 h period after injection. The number of neutrophils increased markedly in the peripheral blood of P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot 24 h after injection, being significantly higher (p , 0.01) than the neutrophil number in V. damsela O-antigen injected turbot. Forty-eight hours after injection, the numbers of head kidney neutrophils and macrophages in V. damsela and in P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot increased significantly (p , 0.05) compared with those in saline-injected turbot while the neutrophils in the peripheral blood decreased in fish treated with each of the vaccines. Turbot neutrophils have ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs, which could bind to the 3′-untranslated regions of their target mRNAs to regulate gene expression in various biological processes, including immune-regulated signaling pathways. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), an important commercial fish species in China, has been suffering with Vibrio anguillarum infection resulted in dramatic economic loss. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of miRNAs, as well as the immune-related miRNA-mRNA pairs in turbot intestine at 1 h, 4 h, and 12 h following V. anguillarum infection. As a result, 266 predicted novel miRNAs and 283 conserved miRNAs belonging to 92 miRNA families were detected. A total of 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the intestine following V. anguillarum infection. Following prediction, the potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were grouped into a wide range of functional categories, including immune defense/evasion, inflammatory responses, ...
Journal of Food Science ; Volume 79. p. S1568-S1574. 2014. Roth, Bjørn; Kramer, Lene; Skuland, Aase Vorre; Løvdal, Trond; Øines, Sigurd; Foss, Atle; Imsland, Albert. A total of 18 farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were slaughtered over 4 successive weeks in November 2012 and stored in polystyrene boxes with ice until analyzed. The fish were stored between 1 and 22 d and presented to a taste panel and further analyzed for quality index method (QIM), microbiological analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), taste, pH, color by computer imaging, protein denaturation with differential scanner calorimeter (DSC), texture hardness, and shear force. Results show small, but significant changes in physical and visual attributes such as texture and color. No gaping was observed. Only small changes in texture were observed explained by lack of myosin denaturation. The fillets became more white and yellow during storage, whereas the major changes occurred during the 1st week. A panel evaluating ...
In the present work, the effect of nisin on the non-specific immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leukocytes has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. The head kidney macrophage chemiluminescent (CL) response was significantly increa
Leafy Sea Dragon facts, habitat, underwater photography tips, photos, dive sites, leafy sea dragon behavior, life cycle, eggs & mating. Phycodurus eques is the Leafy Sea Dragon.
To study the effect of morphometric attributes on body weight of the turbot Scophthalmus maximus,morphometric measurement was taken on 1120 3-month-old turbots sampled in a local company in Yantai,Shandong of China.The attributes used in this study include body length,total length,body depth,head length,length between snout tip and frontal of gill cleft,tail handle length,tail handle height,body width,and body weight.A correlation coefficient matrix was constructed,in which the body weight was used as the dependent variable and other attributes as independent variables for path analysis.The path coefficients(P_i),determination coefficients(d_i and d_ ij),and correlation index(R2) were calculated,and major morphometric attributes determined.The results showed that all the correlation coefficient between each independent variable and dependent variable(body weight) were significantly different(P0.01).The total length gave a predominant direct effect(0.720) and determinacy on the body weight,it is the key
Formalin & Malachite Green (such as Rid-Ich, Quick Cure) Effective in the control of many diseases of freshwater fish caused by external parasites such as white spot disease, Ichthyophthirius, Costia, Trichodina, Chilodonella and saltwater external parasites such as Cryptocaryon and Amyloodinium. The medication can also treat fungal infections in fishes. It can affect the filter bed and be easily removed with activated carbon. Tank lights should be turned off during treatment.
MetroPlex™ is an effective and safe treatment for several protozoan and anaerobic bacterial diseases of fish (Cryptocaryon, Hexamita, Ichthyophthirius). It does not adversely affect the filter bed and is easily removed with carbon. It can either be dosed into the water or combined with Focus™ in a medicated food mix. I
MetroPlex™ is an effective and safe treatment for several protozoan and anaerobic bacterial diseases of fish (Cryptocaryon, Hexamita, Ichthyophthirius). It does not adversely affect the filter bed a...
Rapid Relief of Ich and Parasitic Diseases MICROBE-LIFT/Ich-Out is the safest and most effective treatment for ich and many other protozoan-caused diseases in pond fish e g the diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius Cryptocaryon Costia Chilodonella Oodinium and Amyloodinium
For infections of: Ich, Flukes (Gyrodactylus), Anchor worms, Velvet/Protozoan diseases and other external parasites. Ichthyophthirius (Ich) White spot disease is caused by a parasite that attacks all freshwater and saltwater fish species. The fish appears to be covered by numerous white spots. The parasite is easily transmitted from one fish to another. Ich can only be controlled in the free-swimming stage of the parasite. Five to 30 days may be needed before the infestation is completely eradicated ...
This medication is best taken after meals with a full glass of water, fruit juice, or tea, unless your doctor instructs otherwise. Tablets may be crushed and mixed with chocolate syrup, honey, or jam for persons who cannot stand the bitter taste or have difficulty swallowing tablets. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your regular dosage schedule. Do not double the next dose. Take it as prescribed for the full treatment period, even if you feel better before the scheduled end of therapy ...
This medication is best taken after meals with a full glass of water, fruit juice, or tea, unless your doctor instructs otherwise. Tablets may be crushed and mixed with chocolate syrup, honey, or jam for persons who cannot stand the bitter taste or have difficulty swallowing tablets. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your regular dosage schedule. Do not double the next dose. Take it as prescribed for the full treatment period, even if you feel better before the scheduled end of therapy ...
This study evaluated the activity of leaf essential oil (EO) from Hyptis mutabilis as well as its major constituent, (-)-globulol, in infections by the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). Effects on hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, exposed to the same samples also were evaluated. In the first experiment, naturally infected fish were treated with EO (0, 10, and 20 mg · L−1) and ethanol, using several methods of exposure. Fish mortality and the number of trophonts per fish were assessed after 48 and 96 hr. Hour-long daily baths resulted in optimal survival, so this methodology was used for the second experiment, in which infected animals were exposed to (-)-globulol at 2.5 and 5 mg · L−1. The most effective concentrations in Experiments 1 and 2 were chosen for Experiment 3, in which healthy animals were subjected to hour-long daily baths with EO (20 mg · L−1) or (-)-globulol (2.5 mg · L−1). Additionally, an in vitro ...
Studies on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the immune system of Ictalurus punctatus with emphasis on early detection of disease, chemotherapeutic agents and production of biological ...
Stock Photo of Leafy Seadragon Phycodurus eques. High Quality Leafy Seadragon Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Actin depolymerizing factors regulate actin dynamics involved in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, motility, development and infection. Here, a novel actin depolymerizing factor gene (CiADF 2 ) was cloned from the cDNA library of Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate causing cryptocaryonosis. The full-length cDNA of CiADF 2 was 531 bp. Its open reading frame (ORF) was 417 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 138 aa with typical features of the ADF/cofilin family. Reverse transcription-PCR suggested that CiADF 2 is expressed in all stages of the life cycle. After site-directed mutagenesis of a non-universal genetic code, the ORF was subcloned in Escherichia coli. The bacteria were induced with the addition of isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside to express a fusion protein of recombinant CiADF2 (rCiADF2) with glutathione S transferase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot confirmed the predicted molecular mass of rCiADF2 of 16·2 kDa. A mouse antibody against ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Treatment of the skin parasite Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in eel in Danish aquaculture : Alternatives to formaldehyde. AU - Lyholt, H.C.K.. AU - Mellergaard, Stig. AU - Buchmann, K.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article in proceedings. BT - Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. Building Partnerships for the 21st Century, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. T2 - 3rd International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. Y2 - 30 August 1998 through 3 September 1998. ER - ...
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. In traditional and modern medicines, Nigella sativa extract, thymoquinone (TQ) has several benefits. Here, we examined the counter effects of TQ in ALI induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tissue sections and serum samples were collected from the following groups of rats: i) none treated control, ii) TQ only, iii) intratracheally (I.T) installed with LPS 200 µg/rat once, iv) TQ protected received intraperitoneally (I.P) 1 mg/rat for one week. Samples were subjected to histopathology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and electron microscopy. TQ-treated rats revealed reduction in peribronchial, perivascular and interstitial inflammatory edema, thickening of interalveolar septa, inflammatory exudates in the lumens of airways and alveoli, hypertrophied smooth muscles of pulmonary blood vessels and airways and hyperplasia of bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Electron microscopy revealed highly activated
Based on morphological characters, peritrich ciliates (Class Olygohymenophorea, Subclass Peritrichia) have been subdivided into the Orders Sessilida and Mobilida. Molecular phylogenetic studies on peritrichs have been restricted to members of the Order Sessilida. In order to shed more light into the evolutionary relationships within peritrichs, the complete small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) sequences of four mobilid species, Trichodina nobilis, Trichodina heterodentata, Trichodina reticulata, and Trichodinella myakkae were used to construct phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analyses. Whatever phylogenetic method used, the peritrichs did not constitute a monophyletic group: mobilid and sessilid species did not cluster together. Similarity in morphology but difference in molecular data led us to suggest that the oral structures of peritrichs are the result of evolutionary convergence. In addition, Trichodina reticulata, a Trichodina species with granules in the ...
Whitespot is one of the most common aquarium problems, so is there anything that can be produced in the way of a vaccine to prevent fish from getting it? Yes, new research about to be published has provided evidence to suggest that fish can be vaccinated to reduce the likelihood of infection by the whitespot parasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Whitespot is a tiny parasite called a protozoan and it damages fish by busting into their skin and gills. The fish reacts by attacking the parasite using its immune system and creates a little capsule around it - which is the white spot you see on affected fish. Its normally treated by adding chemicals to the water, but while these can work, some fish are sensitive to them, it can be expensive (if you have a lot of water to treat) and they could harm or stress the fish. One of the most popular treatments for whitespot, malachite green, has already been banned on fish farms as it causes cancer in humans, but its still legal for use with aquariums. The ...
Discussion B. coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite, infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to infect humans. Pigs may be the primary reservoir; consequently, balantidiasis is a greater risk among pig or pig manure handlers.1,8 The asexual life-cycle consists of cysts or trophozoites. Transmission is direct with no intermediate host involvement. Usually, humans ingest infective cysts in contaminated food or water that develop into trophozoites and migrate to the large intestine, which is the organ mostly affected. The organism produces no known toxins, but can penetrate the mucosa and cause ulcers, probably owing to the production of hyaluronidase.2 Tetracyclines and metronidazole are the treatments of choice.1,3 Human infection is usually associated with intestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and dysentery, but ranges from an asymptomatic carrier state through a chronic symptomatic infection presenting with non-bloody diarrhoea, to a dysentery-like picture. Extra-intestinal spread ...
The Ribbon seadragon, more accurately described as a pipehorse, is a close relative of the seahorses and pipefish. Depicted as the Rainbow serpent in the Aboriginal rock art of Arnhem Land, the Ribbon seadragon was believed to have special powers. In 2006, The DWA became the first aquarium in the world to successfully breed this relatively unknown species. Like other Syngnathids, the Ribbon seadragon feeds on very small shrimp known as mysid shrimp. Unlike their cousins the Leafy (Phycodurus eques) and Weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), the male Ribbon seadragon possesses a pouch and can give birth to more than 800 fully developed offspring at a time.. LEARN MORE ...
Red Band Syndrome in Marine Fishes: Potentially Caused by the Protozoan; Uronema sp. Jay Hemdal Introduction: This moderately common disease of certain...
MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment - 16 Oz. Use for diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius (Ich), Chilodonella, Costia, Oodinium, Trichodina and fungal infections Formulated with Malachite Green & Formalin MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment is the pre-eminent broad spectrum malachite green and fo
Medic is a highly effective water conditioner used to control external fish parasites present in both marine and freshwater environments. It contains a reef-safe oxidizing agent and is particularly effective against Marine Ich - Crytopocaryon Irritant as well as others. Size: 30mL What is Medic? Medic is a highly effective water conditioner used to control external fish parasites present in both marine and freshwater environments. It contains a reef-safe oxidizing agent and is particularly effective against: Marine Ich - Crytpocaryon irritans, Freshwater Ich - Ichthyophthirius, and Marine Velvet - Amyloodinium ocellatum. Features Completely reef-safe Buffered to maintain physiological pH Does not harm invertebrates Does not harm nitrifying bacteria How Medic Works: Completely reef-safe, Bufferded to maintain physiological pH. Does not harm invertebrates and does not harm nitrifying bacteria. Many external fish parasites have very similar life cycles. In particular, these parasites have an attached
This study aimed to find out the effect of five light spectra (white, LDW; blue, LDB; green, LDG; red, LDR and yellow, LDY) on the visual development and growth performan..
3Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, EGYPT DOI : 10.9775/kvfd.2018.21084 This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring the gene expression and enzyme activity of iNOS, and provide new insights into the ultrastructural changes in the kidneys, spleen, skin and gills infected with Ichthyophthirius on grass carp. Furthermore, electron microscopy (EM) findings illustrated the uneven distribution of the macrophages and lymphocytes, and the concentrated and fragmented and/or disappeared cell nuclei in the kidneys, spleen, gills and skin. The extreme ultrastructural changes resulted in the reduction in the number of immune cells and subsequent downregulation of iNOS enzyme activity, especially in the gills and skin of Ichthyophthirius-infected grass carp. Our results showed that enzyme activity and gene expression of iNOS were significantly down-regulated in the kidneys and spleen (P>0.05), gills and skin ( ...
Summarises the morphology, fauna and ecology of Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae Includes material on 68 species distributed in 21 genera and revised
Once a year on Dragon Day the fabled Dragon Gate is raised to allow a sea dragon pass from the Southern Wastes into the Sabian Sea. There, it will be hunted by
What are the threats to the barramundi industry How do we compete with these imports DIFFERENTIATION! High retail price Imports Alternative products
Klasifikasi protozoa dibagi menjadi lima subfilum diantaranya yaitu: Sarcomastigophora, Apicomplexa, Microspora, Myxospora, Ciliophora. Masing-masing memiliki struktur dan karakteristik yang berbeda-beda. Berikut ini akan dijelaskan masing-masing dari subfilum tersebut (Gambar 1).. 1. Subfilum Sarcomastigophora. Ciri-ciri dari subfilum Sarcomastigophora yaitu sebagai berikut:. ...
Bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses can all become concentrated in recirculating systems. Bacteria that seem to increase in number in recirculating systems include Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., and Flavobacterium columnare (Columnaris disease) (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheets FA-14 Aeromonas Infections, FA-31 Vibrio Infections of Fish and VM-96 Mycobacteriosis in Fish; UF/IFAS Circular 57 Streptococcal Infections of Fish; and SRAC Publication No. 479b Columnaris Disease, respectively). Parasites that tend to thrive and spread relatively easily in recirculating systems include Trichodina, Ichthyophthirius,Cryptocaryon, Amyloodinium, Costia and monogeneans (see UF/IFAS Circulars 716 Introduction to Freshwater Fish Parasites and 920 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish; UF/IFAS Fact sheet Amyloodinium Infections in Fish VM-90;and UF/IFAS Fact Sheet FA-28 Monogenean Parasites of Fish, respectively). Closed systems can also foster the spread ...
Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) is induced by various inflammatory agents, such as lipopolysaccharide and microbial pathogens, including virus and bacteria. In this study, we obtained a full-length cDNA of a STING homolog from olive flounder using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR technique. The full-length cDNA of Paralichthys olivaceus STING (PoSTING) was 1442 bp in length and contained a 1209-bp open reading frame that translated into 402 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of the predicted protein sequence was 45.09 kDa. In the PoSTING protein, three transmembrane domains and the STING superfamily domain were identified as characteristic features. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that PoSTING expressed in all the tissues analyzed, but showed the highest level in the spleen. Temporal expression analysis examined the significantly upregulated expression of PoSTING mRNA after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes in the PoSTING
A terrestrial biome. Skidmore, P. 1985. Larvae of H. irritans are approximately 7mm long. reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. 1991). Florida Entomologist, 79: 497-502. Abstract. Adult Haematobia irritans is an ectoparasite, found all over the skin of cattle. Haematobia irritans uses this opportunity to lay eggs while the dung is still at body temperature. living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans(Linnaeus), is one of the most economically important pests of cattle worldwide. BEHAVIOR, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Olfactory Response of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to Cattle-Derived Volatile Compounds ´ N,1,2 R. PALMA,2 E. ALBERTI,2 E. HORMAZABAL,2 F. PARDO,2 M. P. OYARZU M. A. BIRKETT,3 AND A. QUIROZ2,4 J. Med. (Roberts and Janovy, 2000; Skidmore, 1985), Gravid females lay approximately 18 eggs in groups of 4-6 on fresh cattle droppings. 2000. You are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for two distinct tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. AU - Park, Chan Il. AU - Kurobe, Tomofumi. AU - Hirono, Ikuo. AU - Aoki, Takashi. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily regulates diverse biologic functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in addition to providing costimulatory signals for programmed cell death or apoptosis. In this study, cDNA fragments for two distinct TNFR homologues were obtained from a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, cDNA library. Full-length cDNAs of TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 homologues were obtained by using these cDNA fragments as probes. The cDNA for the Japanese flounder TNFR-1 homologue predicts a peptide of 395 amino acids that is 35% identical to the extracellular region of mouse TNFR-1, whereas the cDNA of the Japanese flounder TNFR-2 homologue predicts a peptide of 483 ...
During surveys of the trichodinid parasites in freshwater and estuarine fishes in the state of West Bengal, India five species of the genus Trichodina from the gills of host fishes were investigated and morphologically studied. Of these, four are described as new: Trichodina ahmedi sp. n. from Chanda nama, Trichodina hafizuddini sp. n. from Amblypharyngodon mola, Trichodina mossambicusi sp. n. from Oreochromis mossambicus and Trichodina heterospina sp. n. from Sardinella fimbriata. During the study period Trichodina martinkae from Clarias batrachus was also recorded for the first time in India. Taxonomic and morphometric data for these trichodinids based on wet silver nitrate impregnated specimens are presented. For each of the new species, comparisons with closely related species are provided.
Balantidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite called Balantidium coli. The life cycle of the Balantidium coli begins with cysts in the host. The host consumes contaminated water or food, developing cysts which are considered as the parasite stage that transmits Balantidiasis. Excystation then takes place within the small intestine of the host. During this stage, trophozoites inhabit the large intestine. Within the lumen of the large intestine, the trophozoites replicate through binary fission and it is possible for conjugation to take place during this stage. Encystation of the trophozoites follows resulting in infectious cysts. A number of trophozoites will occupy the colon and multiply there while others go back to the lumen of the large intestine for disintegration. Finally, mature cysts are expelled from the body of the host with feces. Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. Pigs serve as its ideal animal reservoir, thus, Balantidiasis ...
Citation: Ott, B.D., Torrans, E.L. 2010. The See-Saw: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses (abstract). In: Proceedings, Aquaculture America Conference, March 1-5, 2010. p. 445 Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the developing embryos; sub-optimal levels of dissolved oxygen in the water results in premature hatching and increased deformities and mortality of developing catfish eggs. We designed and tested the ability of a new vertical-lift incubator (the See-Saw) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Angle-aluminum racks were placed inside paired adjacent hatchery troughs with three hinged-lid baskets positioned in each rack. The racks were ...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle [1]. This fly was originally introduced from Europe and currently represents a tremendous health problem for cattle in the Americas from Southern Canada to Argentina [2]. Although horn flies parasitize mainly cattle, occasionally they feed on horses, sheep and dogs [3].. The developmental cycle of H. irritans is very short, taking from 10 to 14 days to complete. Larvae and pupae develop on dung and once the flies emerge from pupae, immediately start and remain feeding on cattle during their whole life. Flies leave the host only to move to others or to lay eggs on fresh manure [1]. Both males and females feed 24 to 38 times per day ingesting an average of 14.3 mg blood per fly [4].. Horn flies infestations interfere with animal feeding, thus producing significant reductions in weight gain and milk production [5, 6]. The economic impact of H. irritans on livestock in ...
Have you seen any seafood with tell-tale unusual white spots? The government is seeking our help to check on Australias status on white spot disease. If its here, wed need to test and eradicate. If its not, then we continue to be one of the few countries free from this devastating disease. If you see…
This is the largest aquatic animal disease response in Queensland and to date 112 production ponds on five infected premises have been treated with more than 2.8 million litres of chlorine. More than 50,000 tests for white spot disease have been completed on crustacean samples collected from the region and this figure will continue to rise as surveillance is expanded.. Bird mitigation. Bird mitigation activities will decrease over the coming weeks as treatment work is completed and the risk of disease spread through bird movement decreases ...
Although zebra plecosare Hardy,they are not entirely immune to certain bacterial and fungal infections which may be triggered by poor water quality or unhealthy diet. It is on this premise that I shall now discuss some of the diseases they can be susceptible to.. 1. White spot disease:There have been cases whereby zebra plecosare downed by white spot disease - which is also known as Ich and is common to a host of freshwater fish.An infected fish will be seen to have small white spots on their fins as well as the other parts of the body. The fish could eventually become lethargic and will frequently rub its body against rocks and other hard surfaces that are available within the tank. White spot disease has often been treated using a combination of antimicrobial medication, along with raising the temperature of the water in the aquarium.. 2. Popeye disease: Popeye disease is a condition in which a fishs eye is swollen, and bugles as though popping out of its socket. It can occur as a result of ...
Biocide is regarded as a chemical substance or microorganism meant for destruction or exerting a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means. According to US EPA, a biocide is considered as a varied group of lethal substances including disinfectants, preservatives, insecticides, and pesticides that are used for the control of organisms posing a threat to human or animal health or bring about damage to natural or manufactured products. A biocide can be an antimicrobial which includes antibiotics, germicides, antivirals, antibacterials, antifungals, antiparasites and antiprotozoals and a pesticide which includes fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, algaecides, miticides, molluscicides, and rodenticides.. Why do we need a Biocide?. In manufacturing and industrial process applications, it is very important to control the microbiological activity. It is essential to maintain the correct water conditions at all times to help in ensuring that such systems are well ...
Mr Staarman said increasing consumer health consciousness has also driven more consumers towards fish, which is regarded as a healthier choice than red meat. One of the firms competitive advantages is that its fish are grown in the sea, and taste better than barramundi bred in freshwater, he said. The barramundi - known by different names across Asia - can live in saltwater and freshwater. When freshwater barramundi is cooked, it may retain a muddy smell from the pond, he said ...
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Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
Common Flea Marked Urinary And Female Symptomshead-very Impatient | Cross | And Irritable Frontal Headache | With Enlarged Feeling Of Eyes Face Wrinkled And Old-lookingmouth-metallic Taste Sensation Of A Thread In Throat Thirsty | Especially During Headac
Why not get a microscope to check if they have any parasites before bombarding them with treatments? I am a strong proponent of targeted treatment, as apposed to a blind shotgun approach with PP. Yes, PP would kill most parasites, but not all. I have successfully used PP for trichodina, but not flukes which are very common parasites infecting koi. The biggest danger that you will face when treating with PP is your water quality. It will kill some bacteria in your filter which will cause ammonia to spike. Since you are going to do this on a regular basis, I would recommend learning how to scrape and scope. A good microscope with monitor will save you a lot of time when doing the biopsy. Just my 2 cents ...
Ingredients: Barramundi, Olive Oil, Lemon, Broccoli, Chilli, Nuts. TOTAL / Protein: 41.26g; Energy: 1471.76kJ;Calories: 350.12; Fat total: 19.70g; Saturated fat:2.74g; Carbohydrate: 2.02g; Sugar: 1.72g; Sodium: 0.33mg
Crispy Barramundi with Saffron, Sprouts, Pancetta and a Prawn Head Broth Recipe by Matt Sinclair - Contestant Serves: 4 - Complete recipe and method.
According to Fengshen Yanyi, Nezha was born during the Shang dynasty in a military fortress at Chentang Pass. His father was a military commander named Li Jing, who later became the Pagoda-wielding Heavenly King. Nezhas mother, Lady Yin, gave birth to a ball of flesh after being pregnant with him for three years and six months. Li Jing thought that his wife had given birth to a demon and attacked the ball with his sword. The ball split open and Nezha jumped out as a boy instead of an infant. Nezha could speak and walk immediately after birth. He was later accepted by the immortal Taiyi Zhenren as a student. He had two older brothers, Jinzha, a disciple of Wenshu Guangfa Tianzun, and Muzha. One day, the people of Chentang Pass asked for rain, and sacrificed much food to the East Sea Dragon King Ao Guang. The King rejected the food, instead wanting girls and boys to eat. He sent Ye Sha to capture for him a girl and boy. Nezha and two other children were playing by the sea when Ye Sha appeared ...
27 January 2011 , Posted in: Bæredygtighed Electrolux søger: Ekspedionsdeltager og blogger på plastik-mission i Sydamerika! 5 Gyres er en kendt forskningsorganisation, der har som mission at forske og formidle konsekvenserne af plastikforurening i verdenshavene. Til marts drager 5 Gyres ud på ekspeditionen Sea Dragon for at forske yderligere i plastikforurening. Ekspeditionen vil sejle gennem Beagle-Kanalen til Valdivia, Chile. Electrolux støtter ekspeditionen […]. Tags: Bæredygtighed, Vac from the sea. ...
Race Date: 24-MAR-2001 Comments: NORTH 5-8 SPIN A WHITE Start Time 10:10:00 Distance 8.12 nm SPIN B BLUE Start Time 10:15:00 Distance 8.12 nm SPIN C GREEN Start Time 10:20:00 Distance 8.12 nm SPIN D LT BLUE Start Time 10:25:00 Distance 8.12 nm NONSPIN E PRPLE Start Time 10:30:00 Distance 1 nm NONSPIN F YELLW Start Time 10:35:00 Distance 1 nm NONSPIN G ORNGE Start Time 10:40:00 Distance 1 nm NONSPIN H BLACK Start Time 10:45:00 Distance 1 nm DIV SAIL FINISH CORR ELAP S/Mi RNK BOAT NAME NUMBER RATING TIME TIME BEHND SPIN A WHITE 1 JAVA 46 33 11:55:31 1:41:03 0 2 SEA DRAGON 6 60 12:01:14 1:43:07 15 3 TURKY WINGS 5 45 12:00:36 1:44:31 25 4 WAR CANOE 41052 78 12:07:24 1:46:51 42 5 BEAST 6 69 12:39:13 2:19:53 286 ...
Its our fifth day on the Sea Dragon, the sailboat thats taking a crew of 13 people on an expedition with the 5 Gyres project to find out if the South
Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) infection". Fish Shellfish Immunol. 26 (1): 29-32. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2008.10.001. PMID 18992348. ... Gao F, Katz LA, Song W (2012). "Insights into the phylogenetic and taxonomy of philasterid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, ...
In the final phase of infection, ciliates reach the brain and cause softening and liquefaction of the tissue. Diagnosis of P. ... Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella". International Journal of ... Although the route of entry to the host is unknown, the findings of experimental infection studies suggest that the ciliate ... In addition, the ciliate has also been reported to cause infections in other flatfishes, such as the olive flounder ( ...
It is unclear what triggers infection, although infection rates are known to be higher, in both experimental and aquaculture ... Paramá, A; Iglesias, R; Álvarez, M.F; Leiro, J; Aja, C; Sanmartı́n, M.L (March 2003). "Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, ... Infections by U. marinum show a less severe disease course, possibly restricted to the skin surface; it has been suggested that ... In one study, infection by Miamiensis avidus was reported to have a higher mortality rate than Pseudocohnilembus persalinus, ...
Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) causes systemic infection of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and is a senior synonym of ... Experimental infections under laboratory conditions have produced varying results on the mechanism of infection; results in ... Infections caused by M. avidus have been described in wild fish populations and in aquaculture, where it is an economically ... In one comparative study, M. avidus infections spread further within host fish and had a significantly higher mortality rate ...
Jung S J, Kitamura SI, Song JY, Oh MJ (2007). Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) causes systemic infection of ...
Balantidium Coli (Balantidiasis) is an example of a member of the phylum Ciliophora. Balantidiasis is the only ciliate known to ... Sometimes the infection can be observed; the most common symptoms include diarrhea, stomach pains, loss of appetite, nausea, ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Symptoms of this infection include diarrhea with blood and mucus, and can alternate between constipation and remission, ...
Wolbachia infection are the most common infection in arthropods today, and over 40% of arthropods have contracted it. Wolbachia ... aegypti with Lambornella stegomyiae (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae)". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 66 (3): 303-6. doi: ... Artificial infection of males is achieved by the removal of cytoplasm from infected oocytes, which is then transferred into ... Although the Wolbachia infection is prevalent in arthropod species, especially the Asian tiger mosquito, it is a useful ...
Ciliophora: Uronematidae). JG Parker, Marine biology, 1979 Data related to Uronematidae at Wikispecies Media related to ... with a description of the histopathology of the infection in marine fishes. PJ Cheung, RF Nigrelli, GD Ruggieri, Journal of ...
Barhey, K.; Gibson, I. (1984). "A study on the conditions for infection of Holospora caryophila, a macronuclear symbiont of ... Ciliophora, Protozoa)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 67 (1): 255-265. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.016. PMID 23396203 ... Ciliophora, Protozoa)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 18 (1): 39-50. doi:10.1007/s13127-017-0357-z. S2CID 3863879. ... Ciliophora, Protozoa)". Folia Biologica. 58 (3): 185-188. doi:10.3409/fb58_3-4.185-188. PMID 20968184.. ...
infection" (PDF). Coral Reefs. 28 (1): 67. doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0419-y. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-10. ... Lynn, D.H. (2001). "Ciliophora". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0004264. Ruppert, E ... Its authors therefore gave this new manifestation the name "Caribbean ciliate infection". Lynn, D. (2008). "Subphylum 1, ...
doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1975.tb05187.x. Karajan, B; Vishnyakov, A; Tavrovskaya, M; Vasyanin, S (2007). "Infection of algae-free ... Ciliophora) of Uncertain Affinities, Based on New Sequences of the Small Subunit rRNA Gene". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology ... Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora) Based on Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 54 (4 ...
Ramos MF, Costa AR, Barandela T, Saraiva A, Rodrigues PN (2007). "Scuticociliate infection and pathology in cultured turbot ... Subphylum Ciliophora)". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 86 (4): 345. doi:10.2307/3224258. Jung, Sung-Ju; ...
Heavy infections of Licnophora auerbachii have been known to damage the eyes of the scallop Chlamys opercularis, by abrading ... n. (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea) from South African Turban Shells (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)" (PDF). Acta Protozoologica. 39: ... Ciliophora) of Uncertain Affinities, Based on New Sequences of the Small Subunit rRNA Gene". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology ... phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata)". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 49 (6): 460- ...
Infection creates a culling effect, whereby infected migrating animals are less likely to complete the migration. This results ... or Ciliophora (cells equipped with large numbers of short hairlike organs of locomotion, e.g. Balantidium coli) With the ... Ciliophora) formed a natural group, or monophyletic clade (that is, a distinct lineage of organisms sharing common ancestry). ...
Ciliophora, or ciliates, are a group of protists that utilize cilia for locomotion. Examples include Paramecium, Stentors, and ... are responsible for candidiasis, causing infections of the mouth and/or throat (known as thrush) and vagina (commonly called ... "Ciliophora: ciliates, move with cilia". www.microscope-microscope.org. Retrieved 2015-11-23. "Introduction to the Ciliata". www ... Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol; Michod, Richard E. (January 2018). "Sex in microbial pathogens". Infection, Genetics and ...
Ciliophora, or ciliates, are a group of protists that utilize cilia for locomotion. Examples include Paramecium, Stentors, and ... are responsible for candidiasis, causing infections of the mouth and/or throat (known as thrush) and vagina (commonly called ... "Ciliophora: ciliates, move with cilia". www.microscope-microscope.org. Retrieved 2015-11-23.. ... Infection, Genetics and Evolution volume 57, pages 8-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.10.024 ...
... vivax to model the human malaria infection. The two exposed themselves to the infection, noting the causal itchy bite as a mere ... Ciliophora. Intramacronucleata. *Armophorea (Metopus). *Cariacotrichea (Cariacothrix caudata). *Colpodea (Colpoda). * ... P. knowlesi infection is normally considered a parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina ... P. knowlesi infection is diagnosed by examining thick and thin blood films in the same way as other malarias. The appearance of ...
... /bəbiːzɪˈoʊsɪs/, also known as babesiasis /bæbɪˈzaɪəsɪs/, is a malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection ... Only specialized laboratories can adequately diagnose Babesia infection in humans, so Babesia infections are considered highly ... Serologic testing for antibodies against Babesia (both IgG and IgM) can detect low-level infection in cases with a high ... 0920-0728.[25] In 2014, Rhode Island had an incidence of 16.3 reported infections per 100,000 people.[26] ...
Trematode infection). Blood fluke. *Schistosoma mansoni / S. japonicum / S. mekongi / S. haematobium / S. intercalatum * ... Tapeworm - Tapeworm infection Cestoda, Taenia multiceps intestine stool rare worldwide Diphyllobothriasis - tapeworm ... Dioctophyme renalis infection Dioctophyme renale kidneys (typically the right) urine rare ingestion of undercooked or raw ... sexually transmitted infection - only trophozoite form (no cysts) Sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei brain and blood ...
Epibiotic bacteria have been found to live on crustacean larvae and protect them from fungal infections. Other microbes in deep ... Organisms from seven phyla (ciliophora, porifera, platyhelminthes, nematoda, mollusca, annelida and arthropoda) are known to ... Microbes and Infection. 18 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2015.08.016. PMC 4715918. PMID 26384815. Nyholm SV, McFall-Ngai MJ ( ...
Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa. Researchers from the Agricultural ... Ciliophora, the (phagocytic) amoeba, and the (spore-forming) Sporozoa. Protophyta These "plant-like" (autotrophic) organisms ... Hyman P, Atterbury R, Barrow P (May 2013). "Fleas and smaller fleas: virotherapy for parasite infections". Trends in ...
Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa.[54][55] ... Ciliophora, (phagocytic) amoeba and spore-forming Sporozoans ... Virotherapy for parasite infections". Trends in Microbiology. ...
"Infection and Immunity. 80 (6): 1948-1957. doi:10.1128/IAI.06014-11. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 3370574. PMID 22409932.. ... Contractile vacuoles are found in certain protists, especially those in Phylum Ciliophora. These vacuoles take water from the ...
It does not continue the infection process, rather it remains dormant for a period and then germinates to form basidia (stage " ... Michod, R. E.; Bernstein, H.; Nedelcu, A. M. (May 2008). "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens". Infection, Genetics ... The basidiospores disperse and start the infection process on host 1 again. Autoecious rusts complete their life-cycles on one ... The ability to undergo meiosis may provide a survival benefit for these fungi by promoting successful infection. A ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Infections associated with diseases. References[edit]. *^ Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Baron S, et al., eds. Spectrum of Mycoses ... Acinetobacter infections Acinetobacter baumannii Actinomycosis Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and ... Haemophilus influenzae infection Haemophilus influenzae Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) Enteroviruses, mainly Coxsackie A ...
Examples of ascomycetes that can cause infections in humans include Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and several tens of ... Candida albicans, a yeast that attacks the mucous membranes, can cause an infection of the mouth or vagina called thrush or ... Fungi like Epidermophyton cause skin infections but are not very dangerous for people with healthy immune systems. However, if ... Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common cause of fungal infection in the lungs of immune compromised patients often resulting in ...
"Identification and quantification of archaea involved in primary endodontic infections". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (4): 1274-82. ...
The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by ...
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002. PMID 18295550. Archived (PDF) from the ... as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices, and ... "Infection and Immunity. 72 (10): 5676-86. doi:10.1128/IAI.72.10.5676-5686.2004. PMC 517526. PMID 15385466.. ... Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming ...
Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa.[65][66] ... Ciliophora, the (phagocytic) amoeba, and the (spore-forming) Sporozoa.. Protophyta. These "plant-like" (autotrophic) organisms ... Hyman P, Atterbury R, Barrow P (May 2013). "Fleas and smaller fleas: virotherapy for parasite infections". Trends in ...
What is Ciliophora infections? Meaning of Ciliophora infections medical term. What does Ciliophora infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Ciliophora infections in the Medical Dictionary? Ciliophora infections explanation free. ... redirected from Ciliophora infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.. Related to Ciliophora infections: Apostomatida, ... Ciliophora infections , definition of Ciliophora infections by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Antonyms for Ciliophora infections. 6 synonyms for ciliate: ciliated protozoan, ciliophoran, cilial, ciliary, ciliary, ciliated ... redirected from Ciliophora infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.. Related to Ciliophora infections: Apostomatida, ... Ciliophora infections synonyms, Ciliophora infections antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Ciliophora+ ... Ciliophora infections provided by ,a style=color:#000 href=https://www.freethesaurus.com/Ciliophora+infections, ...
Access scientific research and medical evidence related to Ciliophora Infections quickly, easily and effectively with ... Ciliophora Infections research, articles, guidelines & medical evidence database search.. Title. Abstract. Authors. ... Access the latest scientific research and medical evidence related to Ciliophora Infections treatment, diagnosis and symptoms, ... Access the latest scientific research and medical evidence related to Ciliophora Infections treatment, diagnosis and symptoms, ...
Ciliophora Infections / drug therapy * Ciliophora Infections / veterinary* * Cordia / chemistry* * Fish Diseases / drug therapy ...
Categories: Ciliophora Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) infection". Fish Shellfish Immunol. 26 (1): 29-32. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2008.10.001. PMID 18992348. ... Gao F, Katz LA, Song W (2012). "Insights into the phylogenetic and taxonomy of philasterid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, ...
Seasonal Dynamics of Conchophthirus acuminatus (Ciliophora, Conchophthiridae) Infection in Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis ... Ciliata: Ophryoglenidae) Infection in Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Journal of Invertebrate ... Field and Laboratory Studies of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Infection by the Ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus in the ... Patterns of Emergence and Survival of Conchophthirus acuminatus (Ciliophora: Conchophthiridae) from Dreissena polymorpha ( ...
Recent studies on parasitic infections of freshwater cultivated fish in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum ... First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in ... Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in Denmark: host-parasite relations. Disease of ... Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritricha) ectoparasites of cultured cichlids from Taiwan. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, ...
Parasitic infections in Pirarucu fry, Arapaima gigas Schinz, 1822 (Arapaimatidae) kept in a semi-intensive fish farm in Central ... Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritricha) ectoparasites of cultured cichlids from Taiwan. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, ... Trichodinids (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Philippines. Asian Fisheries ... Trichodinid protozoa (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) from freshwater fishes of Rybinsk Reservoir, USSR. Journal of Protozoology, 31 ...
Ciliophora). Journal of Fish Diseases, 27, 181-184. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2004.00525.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections ... were found at a relatively high prevalence of infection (4.6% and 5.2%, respectively). The infection by both parasites showed ... Infection of North Sea cod, Gadus morhua L., larvae with the parasitic nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum Rudolphi. Journal of ...
In fish, some infections that induce mortality are age and temperature dependent. Environmental change, especially habitat ... The infection and mortality declined with increasing water temperature and were rarely seen during summer at 8-14°C. Infection ... Ciliophora)," Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 181-184, 2004. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*R. A. Khan ... infections from ground-feeding mosquitoes by remaining high up in the forest canopy [5]. In contrast, an African trypanosome, ...
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.. Annotation:. protozoan infect; GEN or unspecified; most common infect is ... Infections à ciliophores Entry term(s):. Ciliophora Infection. Infection, Ciliophora. Infections, Ciliophora. ... Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA. Preferred term. Ciliophora Infections Entry term(s). Ciliophora Infection ... Ciliophora Infections - Preferred Concept UI. M0025560. Scope note. ...
Animals , Oligohymenophorea/pathogenicity , Ciliophora Infections/parasitology , Ciliophora Infections/veterinary , Fishes/ ... Ciliophora Infections/diagnosis , Ciliophora Infections/parasitology , Fresh Water , Fishes/classification , Oligohymenophorea/ ... Animals , Catfishes/parasitology , Ciliophora Infections/veterinary , Ciliophora/physiology , Diet , Fatty Acids/administration ... Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ciliophora Infections/veterinary , Fish Diseases/parasitology ...
Ciliophora Infections/diagnosis , Ciliophora Infections/etiology , Ciliophora Infections/veterinary , Fish Diseases/diagnosis ... Ciliophora Infections/diagnosis , Ciliophora Infections/parasitology , Fresh Water , Fishes/classification , Oligohymenophorea/ ... Animals , Protozoan Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections, Animal/etiology , Protozoan Infections, Animal/ ... Animals , Aquaculture , Ciliophora Infections/veterinary , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Oligohymenophorea ...
Desrina et al. (2014) failed to induce infection of the White Spot Shrimp virus that can cause large scale mortality in ... Ciliophora, Perkinsozoa, Haplosporidia, Cercozoa, Turbellaria, Digenea, Nematoda, Crustacea and Nemertea. Mortalities are ... Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Mueller 1776) as a Possible Model to Study White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Polychaetes. Asian ... Infected cockles placed on lower shore sites with longer emersion times regained condition despite the infection and were ...
This study surveyed freshwater fishes Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus from Chongqing, China, for infection with ... This study surveyed freshwater fishes Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus from Chongqing, China, for infection with ... Study of trichodinids (Protozoa, Ciliophora) parasitic on gills of freshwater fishes from Chongqing, China, and identification ...
Ciliophora - the ciliates, e.g., Balantidium. *Sporozoa - organisms whose adult stage is not motile e.g., Plasmodium, ... Protozoal Infections. Detailed technical articles about protozoal infections below.. Protozoa are microscopic, one-celled ... They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from ...
Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora): acquired protective immunity in the thick-lipped mullet, Chelon labrosus. Fish Shellfish ... The RNA-Seq data indicated that 24 h post-infection is the peak time-point for the host response to C. irritans infection. Thus ... Infection with C. irritans caused a large number of DEGs in the IR-tissues of S. marmoratus. However, with the passage of time ... Infection with C. irritans resulted in a large number of DEGs in the immune-related tissues of S. marmoratus. The rapid and ...
Animals, Cadmium, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, Ciliophora, drug effects, immunology, metabolism, Ciliophora Infections, ...
Seasonal dynamics of Conchophthirus acuminatus (Ciliophora, Conchophthiridae) infection in Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis ... Ciliata: Ophryoglenidae) infection in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) Journal of Invertebrate ... Patterns of emergence and survival of Conchophthirus acuminatus (Ciliophora: Conchophthiridae) from Dreissena polymorpha ( ...
The last section covers challenging cases and details non-parasitic infections in patients with symptoms closely resembling ... those of parasitic infections. Each case study opens with a patient history and description of symptoms, and most are ... The only pathogenic ciliate, in the phylum Ciliophora, is Balantidium coli, the largest protozoan parasite known to cause ... Acanthamoeba species cause amebic keratitis, skin infections, and a more chronic infection of the central nervous system, ...
Descibe the Apicomplexa life cycle, then identify an apicomplexan infection (disease) and describe the entire life cycle. (do ... Compare and contrast the Ciliophora & Euglenozoa. Give organism names and diseases caused.. 14. Discuss and compare ... Phatyhelminthe & Namatode parasitic infections. 15. Describe vectors and then discuss a disease caused by a vector.. 16. ...
Ciliophora Agriculture & Biology 100% * infection Agriculture & Biology 50% * corals Agriculture & Biology 42% ... This is the case of the Halofolliculina ciliate infections, recognized as the skeletal eroding band (SEB) and Caribbean ciliate ... This is the case of the Halofolliculina ciliate infections, recognized as the skeletal eroding band (SEB) and Caribbean ciliate ... This is the case of the Halofolliculina ciliate infections, recognized as the skeletal eroding band (SEB) and Caribbean ciliate ...
infection of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) and ae. aegypti with lambornella stegomyiae (ciliophora: tetrahymenidae).. ... influenced infection. the virus titer in females surviving infection at the third larval instar reached 10(8) tcid .... 1996. ... we compared infection rates of mosquitoes administered an enema of a blood suspension containing dengue-2 virus to infection ... heritability of infection-induced humoral antibacterial activity in the immune response of the mosquito aedes aegypti.. 1996. ...
Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) on Rocky-tidal Fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico A. G. Islas-Ortega, L ... TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS IN CATS FROM PARANÁ, BRAZIL: SEROPREVALENCE, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC ... TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS IN CATS FROM PARANÁ, BRAZIL: SEROPREVALENCE, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC ...
Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) on Rocky-tidal Fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico A. G. Islas-Ortega, L ... Prevalence of Infection and Co-Infection and Presence of Rickettsial Endosymbionts in Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in ... High prevalence of infection and co-infection with multiple pathogens in I. scapularis highlights the public health ... evaluate whether prevalence of co-infections occur at the same frequency that would be expected based on single infection, and ...
The infection forms and routes of anura amphibian balantidia are very interesting and will also the focus of our future works. ... n. (Ciliophora: Balantidiidae). Zool Sci 1986;3: 543-546.. 20. Mahoon MS, Khan MI. Entozoic protozoa of frog Rana cyanophlyctis ... Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from Honghu Lake, China. ... metacercarial infection in the pond smelt Hypomesus olidus. and the minnow Zacco platypus. collected from the Soyang and ...
Myth 10: Bacterial infections are common in aquarium corals.. I have discussed this extensively in other columns, and so I will ... I have found occasional references to the Family Philasteridae of the Ciliophora containing a species named Helicostoma notata ... I have found no reference to support that brown jelly infections are caused by protozoans or ciliates, except those based on a ... There are unquestionably bacteria that can cause disease in aquarium corals, and bacterial infections of aquarium corals may be ...
The experimental infection of rats with Entamoeba histolytica; Method for Evaluating with the anti-amoebic properties of new ... New species of Balantidium and Paracichlidotherus (Ciliophora) inhabiting the intestines of four surgeonfish species form the ... Prevalence and risk factors associated with Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cattle in the state of Paraíba, Brazil ... Ultrastructural and Cytochemical identification of peroxisomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliophora. Folia biologica (Kraków), 45, ...
  • Any of various protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora, characterized by numerous cilia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA. (bvsalud.org)
  • The only pathogenic ciliate, in the phylum Ciliophora , is Balantidium coli , the largest protozoan parasite known to cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. (asmscience.org)
  • Balantidium coli Het is een protozoan behorend tot de phylum Ciliophora, beschouwd als een van de grootste protozoën die er zijn. (tatiandtheband.de)
  • CLASSIFICATION Kingdom : Protista Sub-Kingdom : Protozoa Phylum : Ciliophora (presence of cilia) Class : Kinetofragminophorea Order : Trichostomatida Family : Balantidiidae Genus : Balantidium Species : coli Genus of Balantidium coli. (tatiandtheband.de)
  • In spite of their apparent similarities, the evidence points towards dicyemids and chromidinids having evolved from separate branches of the tree of life: phylum Dicyemida, Kingdom Animalia for dicyemids vs. phylum Ciliophora, Kingdom Chromalveolata (Protista) for Chromidina . (mapoflife.org)
  • Paramecium woodruffi'' ==Description and Significance== ''Paramecium'' are members of the phylum Ciliophora. (kenyon.edu)
  • Balantidium coli is a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Ciliophora, the members of which possess cilia in at least one stage of their life cycles. (microbesinfo.com)
  • St.Petersburg State University, Eukaryotic acquires heat-shock resistance in ciliary movement by infection with the herein has the greatest advantage, the differences between it and some other The plural of phylum (Paramecium putrinum) Chemical Toxicity Studies, [Processes Document Recovery Definition and Much More From Answers.com [57] The shape of this organism gives it reason to be associated with the Paramecium Genus. (customgaming.co.za)
  • study of trichodinids (protozoa, ciliophora) parasitic on gills of freshwater fishes from chongqing, china, and identification of a new species trichodina cyprinocola sp. (academicjournals.org)
  • Infections caused by protozoa are contagious. (med-health.net)
  • There are four main groups of protozoa that cause infection in humans. (med-health.net)
  • Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. (sickkids.ca)
  • Metrocream is used to treat a wide variety of infections caused by certain types of germ (anaerobic bacteria) and types of micro-organisms called protozoa. (storysteel.ml)
  • Ciliophora - the ciliates, e.g. (emedmd.com)
  • This is the case of the Halofolliculina ciliate infections, recognized as the skeletal eroding band (SEB) and Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI), two diseases caused by ciliates belonging to the genus Halofolliculina (Class Heterotrichea). (edu.sa)
  • They have been grouped according to how they move: the sarcodina (ameba), mastigophora (flagellates), ciliophora (ciliates) and the Sporozoa. (med-health.net)
  • Choose from 157 different sets of term:ciliophora = balantidium coli flashcards on Quizlet. (tatiandtheband.de)
  • This is the first record on Giardia and Balantidium infections in large baleen whales. (springer.com)
  • Infection with Balantidium coli is most often asymptomatic. (microbesinfo.com)
  • Either microscopic examination for ova and cyst of feces or histologic examination of intestinal biopsy specimens establishes the diagnosis of Balantidium coli infections. (microbesinfo.com)
  • False kelpfish ( Sebastiscus marmoratus ) is one of the target species in artificial breeding in China, and is susceptible to infection by Cryptocaryon irritans , which is an obligate parasitic ciliate that lives in the epithelium of the fish gills, skin and fins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • any member of the class Ciliata in older classifications (usually placed in the subphylum Ciliophora), members of which possess cilia (see CILIUM during some part of the life cycle for locomotion and/or food capture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. (bvsalud.org)
  • The subsequent profound immune compromise allows for infection with opportunistic pathogens, particularly pyogenic bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Helps effectively with: Bacterial infections caused by bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Columnaris and others. (jbl.de)
  • Helps effectively with: Carp louse (Argulus), anchor worm (Lernaea), gill magott (Ergasilus etc.) and further parasitic crustaceans (wood lice) in the garden pond's ornamental fish and/or bacterial infections caused by bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Columnaris and others. (jbl.de)
  • Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. (usda.gov)
  • Azenil operates by killing bacteria which spreads by infection. (pianolarge.ga)
  • The shallow ulcers and submucosal lesions that result from invasion are prone to secondary infection by bacteria and can be problematic for the patient. (microbesinfo.com)
  • Some of the signs of infection with Cryptocaryon irritans are rubbing or scratching against decorations or substrate (this behavior is also known as glancing or flashing), breathing problems, an increased mucous layer, loss of appetite, abnormal swimming behavior, frayed fins, cloudy eyes, and, of course, the telltale white spots. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Microsporidia cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. (asmscience.org)
  • These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts. (sickkids.ca)
  • A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. (springer.com)
  • Molecular phylogeny of the Heterotrichea (Ciliophora, Postciliodesmatophora) based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences. (storysteel.tk)
  • High prevalence of infection and co-infection with multiple pathogens in I. scapularis highlights the public health consequences in Connecticut, a state endemic for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. (allenpress.com)
  • The drug is prescribed for infections like pneumonia, whooping cough (pertussis), sexually transmitted diseases, Legionnaires' disease, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and acne. (storysteel.cf)
  • Entire, boys hold a higher jeopardy of developing allergies than girls, 51 although in behalf of some diseases, namely asthma in puerile adults, females are more liable to to be affected antibiotic resistance usa cheap bactrim 960 mg without a prescription antibiotics for sinus infection what kind. (freshtracks.com.au)
  • 12. Descibe the Apicomplexa life cycle, then identify an apicomplexan infection (disease) and describe the entire life cycle. (biology-online.org)
  • When any of these pathogens are diagnosed, the laboratory animal veterinarian and the scientific investigator should discuss the infection in light of the intended use of the animal(s). (asmscience.org)
  • In some cases of Simian retrovirus type D (SRV/D) infection, resulting immune suppression facilitates infection with a wide range of opportunistic pathogens. (asmscience.org)
  • Prevention of infection with other pathogens, particularly immune-suppressive viruses, will help ensure that SV40 does not adversely affect host physiology. (asmscience.org)
  • We used a case-control design to compare bacterial pathogens in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with foot infections precipitated by puncture injuries. (pianolarge.ga)
  • A variety of intravenous antimicrobial agents are used to treat infections with bloodborne pathogens. (pianolarge.ga)
  • This section describes the usefulness of patient symptoms and history, as well as laboratory findings, in the diagnosis of infection with an intestinal protozoan. (asmscience.org)
  • Entamoeba histolytica , which may cause amebic dysentery, is the most pathogenic of the intestinal amebae and may cause extraintestinal infections, especially liver abscesses, as well as gastrointestinal disease. (asmscience.org)
  • Giardia is an intestinal parasite that can cause chronic fatigue syndrome if the infection is not treated for an extended period of time. (paleoplan.com)
  • Dubey J P (1993) Intestinal protozoal infections.Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23 (1), … Infection occurs when a host ingests a cyst, which usually happens during the consumption of contaminated. (tatiandtheband.de)
  • The parasite is transmitted by environmentally hardy microbial cysts (oocysts) that, once ingested, exist in the small intestine and result in an infection of intestinal epithelial tissue . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Since changes of infection levels coincided with increasing North Sea water temperature in the studied period, it is hypothesized that temperature may affect parasite population levels. (springer.com)
  • Initially, the parasite attempts to establish itself in the host while the latter resists the infection via its defense mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Other associations can exist in a harmonious compromise whereas host avoidance of the parasite to prevent an infection or evasion by the parasite of the host's immune system can occur. (hindawi.com)
  • Pigs act as reservoirs of infection for this uncommon parasite. (asmscience.org)
  • These infections can present themselves with either rectal or vaginal itchiness, and this is especially true with pinworm parasite infections. (paleoplan.com)
  • If the parasite lives in your intestines, it's not uncommon for the infection to lead to abdominal pain. (paleoplan.com)
  • Infections are easily transmitted and persons carrying this parasite should avoid interactions with others, especially those with compromised and weakened immune systems. (med-health.net)
  • Using classical parasitological techniques, study revealed infections with five different gastrointestinal parasite genera. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. Piazzon C., Lamas J., Leiro J.M. (2011) "Role of scuticocilate proteinases in infection success in turbot, Psetta maxima (L.)". Parasite Immunology, doi: 10.1111/j. 1365-3024.2011.01310.x. (wur.nl)
  • Specialised infection of either benthic or pelagic hosts removes competition between the two parasite groups, and in a similar way, if multiple species are found inside a single host, they tend to show parallel anatomical adaptations of the anterior 'head' region, allowing each to exploit different resources or 'niches' within the renal appendages. (mapoflife.org)
  • This led Eyles and Coatney to begin working with Plasmodium cynomolgi , a parasite similar enough to P. vivax to model the human malaria infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] In observing the local population where the infection took place, Dr. G. Robert Coatney and other researchers found that they were regularly exposed to the parasite, and, further, were joint hosts of the parasite along with the local monkey populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemorrhage and secondary bacterial infections will develop next. (tatiandtheband.de)
  • These large leeches ( up to 5cm long) attach themselves to the fish skin, suck blood and afterwards cause bacterial and fungal infections. (jbl.de)
  • Afterwards you need to add JBL Ektol bac Pond Plus into the pond water to prevent likely secondary bacterial infections. (jbl.de)
  • A subsequent prophylaxis against bacterial infections is also advisable here. (jbl.de)
  • The infection with Lernaea crustaceans weakens the host fish and harbours the risk of a fungal or bacterial infection. (jbl.de)
  • Metrocream is commonly prescribed to treat an infection called bacterial vaginosis. (storysteel.ml)
  • Metrocream is also used, alongside other medicines, to get rid of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection often associated with stomach ulcers. (storysteel.ml)
  • Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. (usda.gov)
  • Astrim is used to treat certain bacterial infections, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), bronchitis (infection of the tubes leading to the lungs), and infections of the urinary tract, ears, and intestines. (faintpower.tk)
  • Detailed technical articles about protozoal infections below. (emedmd.com)
  • Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections" by people in this website by year, and whether "Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (sickkids.ca)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections" by people in Profiles. (sickkids.ca)
  • Natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites: isolation of a candidate for Bcg. (doctorasyou.com)
  • The infection by both parasites showed annual and spatial variability. (springer.com)
  • We may write parasites off as an issue associated with underdeveloped communities, but parasitic infections are much more common than you may think. (paleoplan.com)
  • Read on for a breakdown on parasites, and how you can protect yourself or heal from a parasitic infection. (paleoplan.com)
  • Access the latest scientific research and medical evidence related to Ciliophora Infections treatment, diagnosis and symptoms, quickly and easily with doctorAsyou. (doctorasyou.com)
  • 1982. The inheritance of the mate-killer trait in Euplotes crassus (Hypotrichida, Ciliophora). (springer.com)
  • Conjugation between unimicronuclear doublets and singlets, and several features of the clones originating from hemikarya of Euplotes woodruffi syngen 1 (ciliophora). (svenskepiller.com)
  • High-through identification of T cell-specific phage-exposed mimotopes using PBMCs from tegumentary leishmaniasis patients and their use as vaccine candidates against Leishmania amazonensis infection. (amedeo.com)
  • They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. (emedmd.com)
  • The last section covers challenging cases and details non-parasitic infections in patients with symptoms closely resembling those of parasitic infections. (asmscience.org)
  • Parasitic infections cause a host of symptoms, some of which are unexpected. (paleoplan.com)
  • However, if you have more than one of these symptoms and they're persistent, it may be time to speak with your doctor about a parasitic infection. (paleoplan.com)
  • One of the most common symptoms of a parasitic infection is frequent trips to the bathroom with watery diarrhea. (paleoplan.com)
  • Primary symptoms of C. parvum infection are acute, watery, and non-bloody diarrhea. (meddic.jp)
  • As a denouement, your bloodless blood cells happily smell and bear infections in your stiff at this one of these days, provoking the symptoms of the infection to show up, such as fever, congestion, chills, or sweating. (freshtracks.com.au)
  • The ciliophora also have two different types of nuclei, one macronucleus and one or more micronuclei. (microbesinfo.com)
  • Azenil and other antibiotics don't treat viral infections (flu, cold and other). (pianolarge.ga)
  • Antibiotics will not kill viruses that can cause colds, flu, or other viral infections. (faintpower.tk)
  • The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. (sickkids.ca)
  • In fish, some infections that induce mortality are age and temperature dependent. (hindawi.com)
  • Severe infections can result in considerable mortality (see Canning and Lorn 1986). (fao.org)
  • Neutropenia-associated infections can prolong hospitalization, increase re-admission, mortality and morbidity rates. (faintpower.tk)
  • The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found at a relatively high prevalence of infection (4.6% and 5.2%, respectively). (springer.com)
  • The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasmodium Infection Promotes Genomic Instability and AID-Dependent B Cell Lymphoma. (doctorasyou.com)
  • [9] A second report emerged in 1971 about the natural infection of a man in Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi followed by the description of a large focus of human infections in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammations and infections can occur from the bite. (jbl.de)
  • However, symptomatic infection can occur, resulting in bouts of dysentery similar to amebiasis. (microbesinfo.com)
  • Infection of new Paramecium hosts occurs after phagocytosis and escape of the IF from the phagosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study surveyed freshwater fishes Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus from Chongqing, China, for infection with ectoparasitic trichodinids. (academicjournals.org)
  • It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, frequently dispensed for ear infections. (pianolarge.ga)
  • In 1965, the first case of a naturally occurring infection of knowlesi malaria in humans was reported in a 37-year-old male who worked as a surveyor for the U.S. Army Map Service. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] This is an emerging infection that was reported for the first time in humans in 1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is more common in warmer climates and in areas where humans are in close contact with pigs. (microbesinfo.com)
  • Cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays) appear resistant, but everything else is susceptible to infection (Colorni & Burgess, 1997). (reefkeeping.com)
  • The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections should be considered in the understanding of the early life dynamics of the species. (springer.com)
  • The monogeneans community of C. monoculus was characterized by high species richness, with infection values varying from low to moderate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms of molecular immunity of S. marmoratus against C. irritans infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent work has indicated that the infection with sub-lethal doses of C. irritans , or the injection of inactivated C. irritans cells, could not only significantly improve the fish's mucus production and serum antibody titers but also increase the activities of mucus LZM and AKP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mycobacterium szulgai is a rare cause of human infections, and when present it is mostly known to cause lung infection. (svenskepiller.com)
  • It affects the intestines of mammals and is typically an acute short-term infection. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cryptosporidiosis is typically an acute short-term infection but can become severe and non-resolving in children and immunocompromised individuals. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Neutralising antibody in mice with primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus infection. (storysteel.tk)
  • These types of organisms often cause infections in areas of the body such as the gums, pelvic cavity and tummy (stomach or intestines) because they do not need oxygen to grow and multiply. (storysteel.ml)
  • It is also prescribed before gynaecological surgery and surgery on the intestines to prevent infection from developing. (storysteel.ml)