Oligohymenophorea: A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Dreissena: A genus of mussels in the family Dreissenidae, class BIVALVIA. They are found in both fresh and brackish water and are not native to North America. Accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in 1986, they now proliferate widely throughout the United States.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Republic of BelarusFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Cooking and Eating UtensilsFeeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Pacific OceanCiliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Hymenostomatida: An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.

Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (1/51)

Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.  (+info)

Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans. (2/51)

Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence.  (+info)

Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host. (3/51)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis exposed to naturally immunised carp established short-term infections, the majority of parasites actively emerging within 2 h of entering the epidermis. A small, but significant, number of these expelled parasites were shown to retain theront-like properties with the capacity to directly re-invade a further fish host. Infectivity fell rapidly with time in the host and was comparable to that of trophonts of a similar age artificially induced to emerge from non-immune hosts with the aid of MEM (minimal essential medium). Trophonts recovered with MEM from immune carp 2 to 8 h post infection rarely established infections upon exposure to susceptible new hosts and no infections resulted from older trophonts recovered after 8 to 24 h exposure; older trophonts, however, represented only a small percentage of the original parasite population. A low level of infectivity was recorded in trophonts collected with the aid of MEM from non-immune carp after up to 24 h of infection. The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response.  (+info)

Associations between epidermal thionin-positive cells and skin parasitic infections in brown trout Salmo trutta. (4/51)

The dynamics of the densities of epidermal thionin-positive cells (putative mast cells) in the skin of brown trout fry were investigated during experimental infections with the skin parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) and Gyrodactylus derjavini (Monogenea). It was shown that the metachromatic thionin-stained cells were extremely sensitive to parasite exposure, as the density of cells in the skin of trout decreased markedly after exposure to the pathogens. As early as 7 d post infection the cell counts were significantly reduced and almost totally depleted following 9 d infection, which suggests that degranulation of the cells occurs following parasite exposure. No recruitment of new cells was seen during the study period. Some reduction in uninfected control groups indicates that the putative mast cells are sensitive to stress as well. A notable variation in densities of thionin-stained cells between different fins was found and the corneal surface was devoid of these cells. The possible implications of these cells in host-parasite interactions are suggested and discussed.  (+info)

Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in denmark: host-parasite relations. (5/51)

Farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in Denmark were found infected by Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958. Associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. In one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). The infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and length. In the other system, stocked with relatively malnourished small eels (0.5 to 4 g), significantly more parasites (0.06 +/- 0.02 [SD]) were present on fish with a low condition factor than on fish with a higher condition factor (0.13 +/- 0.01 [SD]). In this eel stock the vast majority of the trichodines were found on the gills.  (+info)

A new strain of Cryptocaryon irritans from the cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. (6/51)

An obligate parasite, Cryptocaryon irritans, which is responsible for the white spot disease of marine fish is known to develop in the temperature regime over 19 degrees C. Recently, however, we found white spot disease of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus during winter at water temperatures ranging between 12 and 16 degrees C in Korea. In the present study we isolated a C. irritans-like ciliate from the affected fish and investigated its reproductive characters to compare the newly found ciliate with typical C. irritans. The newly found ciliate had an additional process in the reproductive stage, characterized by a budding before palintomic division, and it showed a higher ability to carry out tomitogenesis at a low temperature (16 degrees C) than at a high temperature (24 degrees C). Nevertheless, the present ciliates still had much in common with typical C. irritans with respect to clinical, histopathological, and morphological characters, suggesting that it is a new strain of C. irritans, adapted to lower water temperature.  (+info)

Occurrence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (7/51)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects the skin and gills of freshwater fish. This report describes the unusual finding of I. multifiliis within the peritoneal cavities of experimentally infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Twenty catfish fingerlings were exposed to I. multifiliis theronts using a standardized protocol. Five infected fish and 2 control fish were killed at various time points after infection and their tissues examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections were processed for light microscopy and immunohistochemical detection of I. multifiliis immobilization antigen. Trophonts were observed in skin and gill sections of all exposed fish. Parasites were associated with epithelial hyperplasia, focal areas of cellular disruption and necrosis. In addition to these usual sites of infection, individual trophonts were unexpectedly found within the peritoneal cavities of 4 fish. Staining for parasite antigen facilitated their detection within abdominal adipose tissue or adjacent to intestines. This discovery is interesting as it suggests I. multifiliis may be found in tissues other than the skin and gills during the course of a normal infection.  (+info)

Effect of lectins on the invasion of Ichthyophthirius theront to channel catfish tissue. (8/51)

This study determined the effects of lectin binding to theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on theront immobilization, invasion, trophont development and survival in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus excised fins in vitro. Soybean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA), gorse agglutinin (UEA-I) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) were used to treat theronts. Percentages of theronts immobilized by 4 lectins ranged from 12.0 to 19.4% at a concentration of 1000 microg ml(-1). These lectins bound more than half of the theronts at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1). More theronts were labeled by SBA and WGA than by lectin LCA at concentrations of 50 and 100 microg ml(-1), respectively. The binding of these lectins to theronts indicated that monosaccharides (D-galactose, L-fucose, D-mannose and D-glucose) and amino sugar derivatives (N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine) were present on the surface of theronts. Invasion was reduced significantly for theronts treated with LCA, UEA-I and WGA. No difference in invasion was found between control and SBA bound theronts (p > 0.05). The binding of lectin LCA, UEA-I and WGA to theronts significantly reduced the development of trophonts (p < 0.05). The mean volumes of trophonts labeled with these 3 lectins were smaller than volumes in control trophonts from 8 to 48 h after exposure. Survival was lower in trophonts labeled with lectins than in control trophonts at 48 h after exposure.  (+info)

  • Any of various protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora, characterized by numerous cilia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The only pathogenic ciliate, in the phylum Ciliophora , is Balantidium coli , the largest protozoan parasite known to cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. (asmscience.org)
  • In spite of their apparent similarities, the evidence points towards dicyemids and chromidinids having evolved from separate branches of the tree of life: phylum Dicyemida, Kingdom Animalia for dicyemids vs. phylum Ciliophora, Kingdom Chromalveolata (Protista) for Chromidina . (mapoflife.org)
  • Paramecium woodruffi'' ==Description and Significance== ''Paramecium'' are members of the phylum Ciliophora. (kenyon.edu)
  • St.Petersburg State University, Eukaryotic acquires heat-shock resistance in ciliary movement by infection with the herein has the greatest advantage, the differences between it and some other The plural of phylum (Paramecium putrinum) Chemical Toxicity Studies, [Processes Document Recovery Definition and Much More From Answers.com The shape of this organism gives it reason to be associated with the Paramecium Genus. (customgaming.co.za)
  • Some of the signs of infection with Cryptocaryon irritans are rubbing or scratching against decorations or substrate (this behavior is also known as glancing or flashing), breathing problems, an increased mucous layer, loss of appetite, abnormal swimming behavior, frayed fins, cloudy eyes, and, of course, the telltale white spots. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Helps effectively with: Bacterial infections caused by bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Columnaris and others. (jbl.de)
  • Helps effectively with: Carp louse (Argulus), anchor worm (Lernaea), gill magott (Ergasilus etc.) and further parasitic crustaceans (wood lice) in the garden pond's ornamental fish and/or bacterial infections caused by bacteria of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Columnaris and others. (jbl.de)
  • Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. (usda.gov)
  • Azenil operates by killing bacteria which spreads by infection. (pianolarge.ga)
  • High prevalence of infection and co-infection with multiple pathogens in I. scapularis highlights the public health consequences in Connecticut, a state endemic for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. (allenpress.com)
  • With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used a case-control design to compare bacterial pathogens in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with foot infections precipitated by puncture injuries. (pianolarge.ga)
  • A variety of intravenous antimicrobial agents are used to treat infections with bloodborne pathogens. (pianolarge.ga)
  • 1. Piazzon C., Lamas J., Leiro J.M. (2011) "Role of scuticocilate proteinases in infection success in turbot, Psetta maxima (L.)". Parasite Immunology, doi: 10.1111/j. 1365-3024.2011.01310.x. (wur.nl)
  • Giardia is an intestinal parasite that can cause chronic fatigue syndrome if the infection is not treated for an extended period of time. (paleoplan.com)
  • Entamoeba histolytica , which may cause amebic dysentery, is the most pathogenic of the intestinal amebae and may cause extraintestinal infections, especially liver abscesses, as well as gastrointestinal disease. (asmscience.org)
  • High-through identification of T cell-specific phage-exposed mimotopes using PBMCs from tegumentary leishmaniasis patients and their use as vaccine candidates against Leishmania amazonensis infection. (amedeo.com)
  • Since changes of infection levels coincided with increasing North Sea water temperature in the studied period, it is hypothesized that temperature may affect parasite population levels. (springer.com)
  • Initially, the parasite attempts to establish itself in the host while the latter resists the infection via its defense mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Other associations can exist in a harmonious compromise whereas host avoidance of the parasite to prevent an infection or evasion by the parasite of the host's immune system can occur. (hindawi.com)
  • Pigs act as reservoirs of infection for this uncommon parasite. (asmscience.org)
  • These infections can present themselves with either rectal or vaginal itchiness, and this is especially true with pinworm parasite infections. (paleoplan.com)
  • If the parasite lives in your intestines, it's not uncommon for the infection to lead to abdominal pain. (paleoplan.com)
  • Infections are easily transmitted and persons carrying this parasite should avoid interactions with others, especially those with compromised and weakened immune systems. (med-health.net)
  • Specialised infection of either benthic or pelagic hosts removes competition between the two parasite groups, and in a similar way, if multiple species are found inside a single host, they tend to show parallel anatomical adaptations of the anterior 'head' region, allowing each to exploit different resources or 'niches' within the renal appendages. (mapoflife.org)
  • The parasite is transmitted by environmentally hardy microbial cysts (oocysts) that, once ingested, exist in the small intestine and result in an infection of intestinal epithelial tissue . (thefullwiki.org)
  • This led Eyles and Coatney to begin working with Plasmodium cynomolgi , a parasite similar enough to P. vivax to model the human malaria infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In observing the local population where the infection took place, Dr. G. Robert Coatney and other researchers found that they were regularly exposed to the parasite, and, further, were joint hosts of the parasite along with the local monkey populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • I determine relationships between the site of infection, parasite pathogenicity, host specificity and mode of transmission. (edu.au)
  • This section describes the usefulness of patient symptoms and history, as well as laboratory findings, in the diagnosis of infection with an intestinal protozoan. (asmscience.org)
  • any member of the class Ciliata in older classifications (usually placed in the subphylum Ciliophora), members of which possess cilia (see CILIUM during some part of the life cycle for locomotion and/or food capture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A second report emerged in 1971 about the natural infection of a man in Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi followed by the description of a large focus of human infections in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. (emedmd.com)
  • In 1965, the first case of a naturally occurring infection of knowlesi malaria in humans was reported in a 37-year-old male who worked as a surveyor for the U.S. Army Map Service. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work has indicated that the infection with sub-lethal doses of C. irritans , or the injection of inactivated C. irritans cells, could not only significantly improve the fish's mucus production and serum antibody titers but also increase the activities of mucus LZM and AKP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The infection with Lernaea crustaceans weakens the host fish and harbours the risk of a fungal or bacterial infection. (jbl.de)
  • Metrocream is also used, alongside other medicines, to get rid of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection often associated with stomach ulcers. (storysteel.ml)
  • Most of the hobbyists who consider letting their fish fight off the infection on their own are hopeful that it will work because they find the challenge of removing all the fish and allowing the aquarium to go fallow (without any fish hosts), very daunting. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Scuticociliatosis consists of overwhelming infection of an animal's body by any one of around 20 species of scuticociliate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections should be considered in the understanding of the early life dynamics of the species. (springer.com)
  • In the disease-causing species, these cysts are often the mode of infection, frequently acquired by fecal-oral contamination. (study.com)